Still indeed the New-Testament idea of a purely spiritual kingdom of God, in this world but not of it, is beyond the prophet's horizon, and he can think of no other vindication of the divine purpose than that the true Israel shall be gathered again from its dispersion.
while holding the chair of Greek, was appointed extraordinary professor of theology, and gave exegetical lectures on the New Testament.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
Greek ' Bvri, tribes, races, the word used for the "Gentiles" in the New Testament.
Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
This is not expressly stated in the New Testament but is regarded as a necessary inference.
There seems to be evidence of this in the later writings of the New Testament.
They did not get their ideas of church polity from one another, but drew it directly from the New Testament.
Organs used to be regarded as contrary to New Testament example, but their use is now all but universal.
In later usage it describes those of the New Testament books which have obtained a doubtful place in the Canon.
The New Testament reflects a controversy.
On the other hand, Christians and Jews are pretty well agreed on natural theology; so the New Testament tends to take its theism for granted.
(b) New Testament criticism raises even more delicate issues.
C. Baur and his school - important as the first scientific attempt to conceive New Testament conditions and literature as a whole - has been abandoned.
(c) New Testament history.
(iii.) We have New Testament reports of appearances of the risen Jesus; subjective?
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
The ideas are also found both in the New Testament and in early Christian literature: "Let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His name" (Heb.
He studied theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig.
In a series of masterly papers in the Contemporary Review, between December 1874 and May 1877, Lightfoot successfully undertook the defence of the New Testament canon.
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Dictionary of the Bible, and he also joined the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament.
These commentaries may be described as to a certain extent a new departure in New Testament exegesis.
He had left Paris during the whole of 1520, and, removing to Meaux, was appointed (May r, 1523) vicar-general to Bishop Brigonnet, and published his French version of the New Testament (1523).
His complete version of the Bible (1530), on the basis of Jerome, took the same place as his version of the New Testament.
(From this practice the sect received the less commonly used nickname "Dompelaers," meaning "tumblers.") They accept implicitly and literally the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters, holding it to be the inspired word of God, revealed through Jesus Christ and, by inspiration, through the Apostles.
Olshausen's department was New Testament exegesis; his Commentary (completed and revised by Ebrard and Wiesinger) began to appear at Konigsberg in 1830, and was translated into English in 4 vols.
This Salome is the only one of the three who is mentioned in the New Testament (Matt.
From 1872 until his death he was Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation in the Harvard Divinity School.
Hackett) of the enlarged American edition of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the American revision committee employed in connexion with the Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.
His works are also of great value for the history of the New Testament writings.
But the persecution of the clergy led him to seek an antidote for what he regarded as the corruption of the Church, and he resolved to translate the New Testament into the vernacular.
The name of Catholic Epistles is given to those letters (two of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude) incorporated in the New Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul, addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and more indefinite circle of readers.
" The Jesus Christ presented to us in the New Testament would become a very different person if the miracles were removed " (Temple's Relations between Religion and Science).
The Apostolic miracles, to which the New Testament bears evidence, were wrought in the power of Christ, and were evidences to His church and to the world of His continued presence.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
It has been followed by some very interesting and important New Testament studies (Beitreige zur Einleitung in das neue Testament, 1906 sqq.; Engl.
This was followed in 1777 by A Letter to Dr Hurd, Bishop of Worcester, wherein the Importance of the Prophecies of the New Testament and the Nature of the Grand Apostasy predicted in them are particularly and impartially considered.
Evanson rejected most of the books of the New Testament as forgeries, and of the four gospels he accepted only that of St Luke.
In Josephus and the New Testament the name Peraea or ripav Tou 'Iopbavou is most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves during the reign of the Seleucidae.
In the public and private use of Christians some parts of Ephesians have been among the most favourite of all New Testament passages.
Questions of genuineness, purpose, &c., are discussed in the New Testament Introductions of H.
Charteris, Canonicity (1880) and the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford, 1905).
1877); and in the works on New Testament theology by B.
µapTvp or wiprvs), a word meaning literally "witness" and often used in that sense in the New Testament e.g.
The first Greek translation was used by our Lord, by St Paul, and other New Testament writers.
His teaching may be described as Evangelical Arminianism and its standards are his own four volumes of sermons and his Notes on the New Testament.
These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
It was used, however, by New Testament writers (vii.
Among its curiosities still extant are two New Testament Codices of the 10th century and two of the 11th; various works by Alphonso the Wise (1252-1284), a Virgil of the 14th century, a Koran of the 15th, &c. Of the Arabic manuscripts which it contained in the 17th century a catalogue was given in J.
It is to be remarked that the "laying on of hands," which in the Old and the New Testament alike is the usual "form" of blessing, is not used in liturgical benedictions, the priest being directed merely to extend his right hand towards the person to be blessed.
Some authorities think that the " God-fearers " of some of the Psalms and of the New Testament were these limited proselytes.
The different application of these words in the New Testament to "faith" Earlier, however, than Ps.
Italy: "Lettres Romaines" in Annales de philosophie chretienne (Paris, January-March 1904), an Italian theologian's fearless defence of Loisy's main New Testament positions; Rev. P. Louis Billot S.J., De sacra traditione (Freiburg i.
Besides those already mentioned it is sufficient to refer to his New Testament Introduction (the first edition, 1750, preceded the full development of his powers, and is a very different book from the later editions), his reprint of Robert Lowth's Praelectiones with important additions (1758-1762), his German translation of the Bible with notes (1773-1792), his Orientalische and exegetische Bibliothek (1775-1785) and Neue 0.
use was made by the writers of the New Testament.
It is in a like laudatory meaning that Gregory reckons the New Testament apocalypse as iv anron: pi flocs (Oratio in swam ordinationem, iii.
As they stood in the Septuagint or Greek canon, along 2 The New Testament shows undoubtedly an acquaintance with several of the apocryphal books.
OLD Testament Apocryphal Books We shall now proceed to enumerate the apocryphal books: first the Apocrypha Proper, and next the rest of the Old and New Testament apocryphal literature.
It should further be observed that the Vulgate adds the Prayer of Manasses and 3 and 4 Ezra after the New Testament as apocryphal.
Indeed, phrases more or less equivalent occur in the sub-apostolic literature, and even in the New Testament itself, such as those who are " over you in the Lord " (r Thess.
This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
He also did useful and interesting work as a New Testament commentator.
2 The title iliaNuoc or MVOs 11 a)pLiv is used in the New Testament (Luke xx.
Robertson Smith's article the following may be specially noticed: Cheyne, The Book of Psalms (1888), The 1 It contains, however, elements which are as early as the time of the New Testament.
The Peshitta New Testament - according to the convincing theory which at present holds the field s - is not the oldest form of the Syriac version, at least as regards the Gospels.
in the New Testament and in the most ancient monuments of Christian thought, to all believers.
The "Gospel and Apostle" was a comprehensive term for the whole of the New Testament (except perhaps Revelation), as read in church.
Yet this did not probably go beyond the dualism of the New Testament itself.
BERNHARD WEISS (1827-), German Protestant New Testament scholar, was born at Konigsberg on the 10th of June 1827.
He was also the reviser of commentaries on the New Testament in the series of H.
Of the well-known Notes on the New Testament it is said that more than a million volumes had been issued by 1870.
The writer is more versed than any other New Testament writer except the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and very much more than most of them, in the literary Greek of the period of the rise of Christianity; and he has, also, like other writers, his favourite words, turns of expression and thoughts.
EPISTLE TO PHILEMON, a scripture of the New Testament.
xvi.), this is the only letter in the New Testament addressed, even in part, to a woman, unless the second epistle of John be taken as meant for an individual.
Philemon, ein Vorbild fiir die 1 History of the New Testament Times (1895), iv.
This led to an examination of the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 1725, in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of national covenants.
From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching drew the conclusions: (1) that there is no warrant in the New Testament for a national church; (2) that the magistrate as such has no function in the church; (3) that national covenants are without scriptural grounds; (4) that the true Reformation cannot be carried out by political and secular weapons but by the word and spirit of Christ only.
We shall now consider (I.) Apocalyptic, its origin and general characteristics; (II.) Old Testament Apocalyptic; (III.) New Testament Apocalyptic.
Apocalyptic thus forms the indispensable preparation for the religion of the New Testament.
The ethical character of the book is of the highest type, and its profound influence on the writers of the New Testament is yet to be appreciated.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
- In the latter half of the 2nd century this book enjoyed a respect bordering on that paid to the writings of the New Testament.
seigneur; thus in the Old Testament it represents Yahweh, Jehovah, and in the New Testament «upcos, as a title of Jesus Christ.
is the only Jewish scribe whose name is mentioned in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian legend, and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstratensian) relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's commentary on the Old Testament, thereby most probably meaning the Talmud.
Yet we must beware of regarding Barnabas as merely a fine character; he plays too prominent a part in the New Testament for any such limitation.
THE Epistle Of Barnabas is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament.
Here it is followed by the Shepherd of Hernias, while in an 11th-century MS., which contains also the Didache, it is followed by two writings which themselves form an appendix to the New Testament in the Codex Alexandrinus.
But with respect to the New Testament his position was conservative.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
Wellhausen, who made extensive alterations and additions; (2) his Introduction to the New Testament (3rd ed., W.
And there has lately come to light a MS. of the 9th or 10th century in Sogdianese, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the north-east of Asia,which shows that theNestorians had translated the New Testament into that tongue and had taught the natives the alphabet and the doctrine.
Rendel Harris, Sidelights on New Testament Research, Lect.
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS, a book of the New Testament.
the evidence tabulated in The New Testament in the Apostolic 6 To the details furnished in the present writer's Historical New Testament (2nd ed., 1901, pp. 6 346 35) may be added references to Volter's Paulus u.
The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford, 1905, 105 seq.).
In the Christian Church the tradition of faith healing dates from the earliest days of Christianity; upon the miracles of the New Testament follow cases of healing, first by the Apostles, then by their successors; but faith healing proper is gradually, from the 3rd century onwards, transformed into trust in relics, though faith cures still occur sporadically in later times.
Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament.
The workmanship of the book is unequal: historical and literary criticism had never been Martineau's strongest point, although he had almost continuously maintained an amount of New Testament study, as his note-books show.
It was an attempt to provide a more accurate rendering of the Greek Bible than had hitherto existed in Syriac, and obtained recognition among the Monophysites until superseded by the still more literal renderings of the Old Testament by Paul of Tella and of the New Testament by Thomas of Harkel (both in 616-617), of which the latter at least was based on the work of Philoxenus.
Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
If any person who has been educated in or has professed the Christian religion shall, by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, assert or maintain that there are more Gods than one, or shall deny any of the persons of the Holy Trinity to be God, or shall deny the Christian religion to be true or the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of divine authority, he shall for the first offence be declared incapable of holding any ecclesiastical, civil, or military office or employment, and for the second incapable of bringing any action, or of being guardian, executor, legatee, or grantee, and shall suffer three years' imprisonment without bail.
A more discriminating light is thrown upon him by the New Testament narratives of the trial of Jesus.
By this time the canon of New Testament Scripture was fairly settled, and with Origen (d.
It allowed that the bishops were the successors of the apostles, that the Catholic rule of faith was a complete and authoritative exposition of Christianity, and that the New Testament was the supreme rule of the Christian life.
In his time there was no fixed, divinely instituted congregational organization, no canon of New Testament Scriptures, no anti-Gnostic theology, and no Catholic Church.
Eustace Conway, or the Brother and Sister, a novel (1834); The Kingdom of Christ (1842); Christmas Day and Other Sermons (1843); TheUnity of the New Testament (1844); The Epistle to the Hebrews (1846);.
The majority of critics agree that the only trace of a formal creed in the New Testament is the simple confession of Jesus as the Lord, or the Son of God (Rom.
From this point of view it is easy to explain the occurrence of creed-like phrases in the New Testament as fragments of early hymns (r Tim.
471-728) of the meaning of the theological teaching both of the New Testament and of the earliest creeds.
In his revised New Testament Marcion speaks of " the covenant which is the mother of us all, which begets us in the holy Church, to which we have vowed allegiance."
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF JUDE, a book of the New Testament.
In 1533 a decree of the Scottish clergy, prohibiting the reading of the New Testament by the laity, drew from Alesius a defence of the right of the people, in the form of a letter to James V.
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
BOOK OF REVELATION, in the Bible, the last book of the New Testament.
The title is different from what the New Testament use of the term would have led us to expect, i.e.
The fact that Eusebius does not mention Revelation among the New Testament books known to Papias (H.E.
It formed no part of the Peshitta New Testament.
If, therefore, the possibilities of exegesis were exhausted in the list of methods already enumerated, science would have to put the New Testament Apocalypse aside as a hopeless enigma.
For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
The author or the final redactor has impressed a certain linguistic character on the book, which differentiates it not only from all secular writings of the time, but also from all the New Testament books, including the Johannine.
As a result of these considerations we may arrive at the date of the work with almost greater certainty than that of any other New Testament book.
But this universal characteristic of apocalyptic is almost wholly lacking in the New Testament Apocalypse.
Hence he began to study the New Testament.
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination of the canon of the New Testament.
the Language of the New Testament and apply'd to the Christian State and Worship. By I.
The word used in the New Testament to describe an excommunicated person, a iOeµa (1 Cor.
The practice of the Jewish courts in New Testament times may be inferred from certain passages in the Gospels.
The general principles which govern the exclusion of members from a religious community may be gathered from the New Testament writings.
It is clear from these illustrations that within the New Testament there is development from spontaneous towards strictly regulated methods; also that the use of excommunication is chiefly for disciplinary and protective rather than punitive purposes.
Even at this time he had religious doubts; it is interesting in view of his later work that one cause of his perplexities was the difficulty of ascertaining the true reading of certain passages in the Greek New Testament.
Bengel's hope that the Gnomon would help to rekindle a fresh interest in the study of the New Testament was fully realized.
It has passed through many editions, has been translated into German and into English, and is still one of the books most valued by expositors of the New Testament.
John Wesley made great use of it in compiling his Expository Notes upon the New Testament (1755) Besides the two works already described, Bengel was the editor or author of many others, classical, patristic, ecclesiastical and expository.
4) places it 50 stadia from Jordan and io from Jericho (the New Testament site).
The only New Testament reference is in Acts viii.
Scholars, like Colet, read the New Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than that which he observed around him.
Later he revised an existing French translation of both the New Testament (which appeared in 1523, almost contemporaneously with Luther's German version) and, two years later, the Old Testament.
This is the golden freedom of preaching which the holy words of the New Testament so strictly enjoin upon us....
Sufficient reasons could be assigned for accepting the New Testament as God's word and Christ as the Christian's guide.
The object of this work was to recast the language and ideas of the New Testament and give them the form of 18th-century illuminism.
In the New Testament Balaam is cited as a type of avarice;6 in Rev. ii.
Many of his theological writings were collected in one volume (Paris, 1622), and at the time of his death in 1623 he was engaged on a translation of the New Testament which is still in manuscript.
The ministry of enthusiasm which they represent is about to give way to the ministry of office, a transition which is reflected in the New Testament in the 3rd Epistle of John.
While the New Testament knows only the political usage of 56yµa, the Greek Fathers follow one which is more in keeping, with philosophical tradition.
Luther never quite shook off scholasticism, whereas Zwingli had early learnt from Dr Thomas Wyttenbach that the time was at hand when scholastic theology must give place to the purer and more rational theology of the early Fathers and to a fearless study of the New Testament.
There he studied the New Testament in the editions of Erasmus and began to found his preaching on "the Gospel," which he declared to be simple and easy to understand.
For Waldo had a translation of the New Testament made into Provençal, and his preachers not only stirred up men to more holy lives but explained the Scriptures at their will.
28), the New Testament knows none in the local church superior to elders, the ruling order in Judaism also.
Then only did some of their members resume secret assembly, with a more definite view to conformity in all things to the New Testament type and that alone.
A moderately liberal theologian, he became best known as a New Testament critic and exegete, being the author of the Commentary on the Synoptics (1889; 3rd ed., 1901), the Johannine books (1890; 2nd ed., 1893), and the Acts of the Apostles (1901), in the series Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament.
The parish church, rebuilt in 1808, contains a tablet to Charles James Fox, who resided at St Anne's Hill in the vicinity, and another to Lawrence Tomson, a translator of the New Testament in the 17th century.
6 The New Testament often speaks of " spirits," 7rv€UµaTa.
In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation"; and Our Lord speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions', implying in one saying that they neither marry nor are given in marriage.
The New Testament takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine.
His advocacy of a revised translation of the New Testament (1858) aided to promote another great national undertaking.
In the following year he was called to the Freiburg chair of Oriental languages and Old Testament exegesis; to the duties of this post were added in 1793 those of the professorship of New Testament exegesis.
The author's intelligence and acuteness are more completely hampered by doctrinal presuppositions when he comes to treat questions relating to the history of the individual books of the New Testament canon.
As regards the New Testament his position is closely in agreement with that reflected in the contemporary Acts of the Martyrs of Scili.
A good deal of the neo-Platonic polemic naturally went back to Celsus, and both the ideas and phrases of the True Word are found in Porphyry and Julian, though the closing of the New Testament canon in the meantime somewhat changed the method of attack for these writers.
Thus also the " woman " at the wedding and beneath the cross stands primarily for the faithful Old Testament community, corresponding to the beloved disciple, the typical New Testament follower of her Son, the Messiah: in each case the devotional accommodation to His earthly mother is equally ancient and legitimate.
(On the evidence that the last 12 verses are not by the same hand as the rest of the Gospels see Westcott and Hort's New Testament in Greek, append., p. 29 seq.
(c) Final Amen, with no change of speaker, as in the subscription to the first three divisions of the Psalter and in the frequent doxologies of the New Testament Epistles.
Most of his numerous publications had reference to his great critical edition of the New Testament (1857-1872; see Bible; New Testament, Textual Criticism).
They include an Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament (1854), a new edition of T.
Horne's Introduction (1860), and Canon Muratorianus: Earliest Catalogue of Books of the New Testament (1868).
transition from the type of teaching in the New Testament to that which meets us in the early Catholic Fathers, from the last quarter of the 2nd century onwards.
Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 1-60, for this distinction between the genuine "letter" and the literary "epistle," as applied to the New Testament in particular.
Hence there appear constant traces of study of the Apostolic writings, so far as these were accessible in the locality of each writer at his date of writing (for the details of this subject, and its bearing on the history of the Canonical Scriptures of the New Testament, see The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford, 1 9 05).
Thus one New Testament type is echoed in one and another in another; or it may be several in turn.
But the idea which is now usually expressed by " atonement " is rather represented in the New Testament by iAaQµos and its cognates, e.g.
In later times the title of tetrarch is familiar from the New Testament as borne by certain princes of the petty dynasties which the Romans allowed to exercise a dependent sovereignty within the province of Syria.
at London University in 1849, and was Hebrew and New Testament prizeman in 1850 and gold medallist in philosophy in 1854.
to England in the spring, the New Testament was set up. Around him was a circle of students, some young, some already distinguished - the three sons of Froben's partner, Johannes Amerbach, who was now dead, Beatus Rhenanus, Wilhelm Nesen, Ludwig Ber, Heinrich Glareanus, Nikolaus Gerbell, Johannes Oecolampadius - who looked to him as their head and were proud to do him service.
On the completion of the New Testament in 1516 he returned to his friends in England; but his appointment, then recent, as councillor to the young king Charles, brought him back to Brussels in the autumn.
and recently confirmed by Leo X., and in May 1518 he journeyed to Basel for three months to set the second edition of the New Testament in progress.
The former found expression in most of our New Testament writings, in all of the apostolic fathers except Ignatius, and in the Apologists of the 2nd century.
Their ideal was a return to that simplicity of primitive Christendom which they believed they found revealed in the New Testament and in the writings of the early Fathers.
pretre), the contracted form of presbyter " (7rpE6j3brEpos, " elder "; see Presbyter), a name of office in the early Christian Church, already mentioned in the New Testament.
But in the English Bible the presbyters of the New Testament are called " elders," not " priests "; the latter name is reserved for ministers of pre-Christian religions, the Semitic a '?"
Among his principal works are: - Sacred Hermeneutics Developed and Applied (1843), rewritten and republished as A 'Treatise on Biblical Criticism (1852), Lectures on Ecclesiastical Polity (1848), An Introduction to the New Testament (1848-1851), The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament Revised (1855), Introduction to the Old Testament (1862), On a Fresh Revision of the Old Testament (1873), The Canon of the Bible (1877), TheDoctrine of Last Things in the New Testament (1883), besides translations of the New Testament from Von Tischendorf's text, Gieseler's Ecclesiastical History (1846) and Fiirst's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon.
He executed the first translation of the New Testament in 1551.
In 1637, when the doubts of Scaliger and Heinsius as to the purity of the Greek of the New Testament prompted the rector of Hamburg to introduce the study of classical authors, any reflection on the style of the Greek Testament was bitterly resented.
6 It is interesting to note in this connexion that renderings which agree in the most remarkable manner with Theodotion's version of Daniel are found not only in writers of the 2nd century but also in the New Testament.
early as the Greek version (3rd century B.C. and later); allegorical interpretation is conspicuous in the Alexandrian Jewish scholar Philo; it may be seen in many New Testament.
Capellus drew conclusions from such important facts as the occurrence of variations in the two Hebrew texts of passages found twice in the Old Testament itself, and the variations brought to light by a comparison of the Jewish and Samaritan texts of the Pentateuch, the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, the Hebrew text and New Testament quotations from the Old Testament.
D.) (B) NEW Testament I.
The New Testament is the collection of the Sacred Books of Christians.
The result was attained when there was a definite volume called the New Testament by the side of the earlier volume called the Old Testament, complete like it, and like it endowed with the attributes of a Sacred Book.
And because the process before us is the gradual assimilation of New Testament and Old Testament, we shall have to include at each step all that bears upon this.
For instance, at starting, it will not be enough for us simply to tell the story how the Books of the New Testament came to be written, but we shall have to point out what there was about them which fitted them to be what they afterwards became, what inherent qualities they possessed which suggested the estimate ultimately put upon them; in others words, how they came to be not only a collection of Christian books, but a collection of Christian sacred books, or part of a Bible.
And there is another important passage which shows why, in spite of its natural and occasional character, the epistle exhibits the germs of that essential quality which caused all the books of the New Testament to be so highly estimated.
The points in regard to them that would unite the greatest number of suffrages would seem to be these: - (i.) That, except 2 Peter, they are probably the latest of the New Testament writings, and that they form a group closely connected among themselves, though it is not clear how many hands have been at work in them.
Other Literature not included in the New Testament.
- It must not be thought that the primitive Christian literature came abruptly to an end with the writings that are included in our present New Testament.
Most nearly on the lines of the New Testament are the so-called Apostolic (really Sub-Apostolic) Fathers (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Didache, Barnabas, the letters of Ignatius and the single letter of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, the homily commonly known as the Second Epistle of Clement).
The literature that we now call the New Testament held its place because it was regarded as a product of the palmy days of that great movement.
- The whole process of the formation of the New Testament was steady and gradual.
It should be understood that the goal towards which events were moving all the time was the equalizing of the New Testament with the Old Testament.
But the Creed was but the condensed essence of the New Testament scriptures, and behind it there lay an appeal to these scriptures, which was especially necessary where (as in the case of the Valentinian Gnostics) the dissident bodies professed to accept the common belief of Christians.
(y) Provisional Canon of New Testament (end of 2nd century).
It is therefore not surprising, though a piece of great good fortune, that there should be still extant a list of the New Testament books that may be roughly dated from the end of the century.
(v.) The sense is not yet lost that the appeal of the Old Testament is as coming from men of prophetic gifts, and that of the New Testament as coming from apostles.
(vi.) It is in accordance with this that a time limit is placed upon the books included in the New Testament.
This state of things the great Athanasius set himself to correct, and he did so by laying down a list identical with our New Testament as we have it now.
- The separate articles on the various books of the New Testament may be consulted for detailed bibliographies.
The object of the above sketch has been to embrace in constructive outline the ground usually covered analytically and on a far larger scale by Introductions to the New Testament, and by Histories of the New Testament Canon.
In English there is a standard work of the latter class in Westcott's General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (first published in 1855, important revision and additions in 4th ed.
England has made many weighty contributions both to Introduction and Canon, especially Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion (collected in 1889); editions of Books of the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers; Westcott, editions; Hort, especially Romans and Ephesians (posthumous, 1895); Swete, editions; Knowling and others.
The Oxford Society of Historical Theology put out a useful New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers in 1905, and Prof. Stanton of Cambridge, The Gospels as Historical Documents (part i.
The apparatus criticus of the New Testament consists, from one point of view, entirely of MSS.; but these MSS.
of other writings whether in Greek or other languages which contain quotations from the New Testament.
- Tyndale's Quarto Edition of New Testament.
of the New Testament (Kenyon, Textual Criticism of the New Testament, p. 45), but it is not easy to be quite accurate on the point.
Miller's edition of Scrivener's Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (George Bell, 1894); C. R.
Kenyon's Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901), especially valuable for a clear account of the Papyri fragments.] It is neither possible nor desirable to give any description of most of these MSS., but the following are, critically, the most important.
It originally Codex contained the whole Bible, but in the New Testament Vaticanus.
It was written by three scribes of whom the writer of the New Testament was identified by Tischendorf as the scribe D of x (cod.
It contained originally the whole Bible, and the New Testament is still complete.
In the New Testament it has in the gospels a late text of Westcott and Hort's " Syrian " type, but in the epistles there is a strongly marked " Alexandrian " element.
Originally, it contained the whole Bible, but only sixty-four leaves of the Old Testament remain, and 145 (giving about two-thirds of the whole) of the New Testament.
To remedy the confusion produced by the variations of the Latin text Pope Damasus asked Jerome to undertake a revision, and the latter published a new text of the New Testament in A.D.
In the Old Testament Jerome made a new translation directly from the Hebrew, as the Old Latin was based on the LXX., but in the New Testament he revised the existing version.
The section in Kenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.
of the type of NBL, but the date to which this points depends largely on the general view taken of the history of the text of the New Testament.
Horner's The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect (Oxford); Scrivener's Introduction (ed.
4; the Society of Historical Theology's New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers; an article by Kostschau, " Bibelcitate bei Origenes," in the Zeitschrift f.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
John Mill, of Queen's College, Oxford, influenced by the advice, and supported by the purse of John Fell until the latter's death, published in 1707 a critical edition of the New Testament which has still a considerable value for the scholar.
A little later Richard Bentley conceived the idea that it would be possible to reconstruct the original text of the New Testament by a comparison of the earliest Greek and Latin sources; he began to collect material for this purpose, and issued a scheme entitled " Proposals for Printing " in 1720, but though he amassed many notes nothing was ever printed.
- Fairness forbids us to omit the name of William (or Daniel?) Mace, a Presbyterian minister who published The New Testament in Greek and English, in 2 vols.
Bengel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era.
and the collation of many more, published between 1841 and 1869-1872 eight editions of the New Testament with full critical notes.
Hort (commonly quoted as WH), the Cambridge scholars, supplied the deficiencies of Lachmann, and without giving up the advantages of his system, and its development by Tischendorf, brought back the study of the text of the New Testament to the methods of Griesbach.
Their great work was published in 1881 under the title of The New Testament in the Original Greek.
We have no evidence earlier than Clement, and the text of the New Testament which he quotes has more in common with the Old Latin or " geographically Western " text than with the Neutral, though it definitely agrees with no known type preserved in MSS.
The literature of textual criticism of the New Testament is so great that only a few of the more important modern books can be mentioned here: H.
Kenyon, Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901); C. R.
of their New Testament in Greek, Cambridge, 1882).
Scrivener, Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1894).
Salmon, Some Thoughts on Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1897); Schmidtke, Die Evangelien eines alten Unzialcodex (Leipzig, 1903).
The New Testament is a series of early Christian writings which the Church came to regard as canonical, i.e.
Just as the ancient Scriptures were considered to be the Word of God, so that what they contained was necessarily the true and inspired doctrine, so also the New Testament was available for proving the Church's dogma.
The assured canonicity of the whole New Testament resulted in its use by the medieval theologians, the Schoolmen, as a storehouse of proof-texts.
Thus the New Testament seemed to exist in order to prove the Church's conclusions, not to tell its own tale.
The picture of Apostolical Christianity found in the New Testament offered indeed a glaring g g contrast to the papal system of the later middle ages.
At the beginning of the movement the New Testament itself had been freely criticized.
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