Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.
Of Neuroptera there are but few injurious species, and many, such as the lace wing flies (Hemerobiidae), are beneficial.
The great advance in modern zoology as regards the classification of the Hexapoda lies in the treatment of a heterogeneous assembly which formed Linnaeus's order Neuroptera.
Includes the single family of the Perlidae (Stone-flies), formerly grouped with the Neuroptera.
Includes two sub-orders, formerly regarded as Neuroptera: 1.
See also Neuroptera, in which this order was formerly comprised.] Order: Odonata.
Formerly comprised among the Neuroptera.
Includes the single family of Panorpidae (scorpion-flies), often comprised among the Neuroptera.
See Neuroptera, among which these insects were formerly comprised.
To the Lias also can be traced back the Neuroptera, the Trichoptera, the orthorrhaphous Diptera and, according to the determination of certain obscure fossils, also the Hymenoptera (ants).
The Neuroptera, with their similar foreand hind-wings and their campodeiform larvae, seem to stand nearest to the presumed isopteroid ancestry, but the imago and larva are often specialized.
The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.
Hagen on the North American Neuroptera, of D.
Orders: Aptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera.
Orders: Myriapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, Suctoria, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhipiptera, Diptera.
Orders: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Rhipiptera, Anopleura, Thysanura.
Orders: Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Mecaptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Hymenoptera.
lus), a term applied to small wingless insects, parasitic upon birds and mammals, and belonging strictly speaking to the order Anoplura, often included among the Hemiptera, though the term is frequently extended to the bird-lice constituting the suborder Mallophaga, formerly included among the Neuroptera.
It has been said with truth that an industrious collector of beetles, butterflies, neuroptera, &c., finds a greater number of species in a circuit of some miles near Tokyo than are exhibited by the whole British Isles.
CADDIS-FLY and Caddis-Worm, the name given to insects with a superficial resemblance to moths, sometimes referred to the Neuroptera, sometimes to a special order, the Trichoptera, in allusion to the hairy clothing of the body and wings.
Apart from this feature the Trichoptera also differ from the typical Neuroptera in the relatively simple, mostly longitudinal neuration of the wings, the absence or obsolescence of the mandibles and the semi-haustellate nature of the rest of the mouth-parts.
All such families - falling into the group Exopterygota as defined in the classification of the Hexapodawere separated from the Neuroptera by W.
The other groups of the old Linnean order (such as lacewing-flies and caddis-flies)--which are hatched as larvae markedly unlike the parent, develop wing-rudiments hidden under the larval cuticle, and only show the wings externally in a resting pupal stage, passing thus through a " complete " metamorphosis and falling into the sub-class Endopterygotawere retained in the order Neuroptera, which thus became much restricted in its extent.
More recently the subdivision of the Linnean Neuroptera has been carried still further by the separation of the caddis-flies and scorpion-flies as distinct orders (Trichoptera and Mecaptera respectively), and by the withdrawal of the " Pseudo-neuroptera " from the Orthoptera - with whose typical families they have little in common - and their division into a number of small orders.
The multiplication of orders is attended with practical difficulties, and the distinctions between the various groups of the Linnean Neuroptera are without doubt less obvious than those between the Coleoptera (beetles) and the Diptera (two-winged flies) for example.
In the present article, for the sake of convenience, all the insects which have been regarded by Linnaeus and others as "Neuroptera " are included, but they are distributed into the orders agreed upon by the majority of modern observers, and short characters of these orders and their principal families are given.
The distinctness of the dragon-flies from other insects included in Linnaeus's Neuroptera was long ago recognized by J.
Sub-class Endopterygota Order Neuroptera.
The insects retained in the order Neuroptera as restricted by modern systematists are distinguished from the preceding orders by the presence of a resting pupal stage in the life-history, so that a " complete metamorphosis " is undergone.
Structurally the Neuroptera are distinguished by elongate feelers, a large, free prothorax, a labium with the inner lobes of the second maxillae fused together to form a median ligula, membranous, net-veined wings without hairy covering, those of the two pairs being usually alike, the absence of abdominal cerci, and the presence of six or eight Malpighian tubes.
Fossil Neuroptera occur in the Lias and even in the Trias if the relationships of certain larvae have been correctly surmised.
They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.
They are abundantly distinct from the Neuroptera and Mecaptera, through the absence of mandibles in the imago, the maxillae - both pairs of which possess the typical inner and outer lobes and jointed palps - forming a suctorial apparatus.
At the base of each wing projects a dorsal lobe - the jugumand the neuration is predominantly longitudinal, resembling so closely that of the lower Lepidoptera (q.v.) that a nearer relationship of the Trichoptera to that order than to any group of the old Linnean Neuroptera is certain.
McLachlan, " British Neuroptera Planipennia" in Trans.
Erichson and other writers added to the Orthoptera a number of families which Linne had included in his order Neuroptera.
These families are described and their affinities discussed in the articles Neuroptera and Hexapoda (qq.v.).
Comparatively few cases of mimicry in the Neuroptera have been observed.
Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particu.
For a general account of the structure, development and relationships of insects, see Arthropoda and Hexapoda, while details of the form, habits and classification of insects will be found in articles on the various orders or groups of orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, Dipteria,Hemiptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera,Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera), and in special articles on the more familiar divisions (ANT, BEE, Dragon-Fly, Earwig, &c.).
He therefore regards it as the inner lobe (lacinia) of that maxilla, comparing it with the remarkable " pick " of the maxilla of a book-louse (see Copeognatha in article Neuroptera), The paired piercers, connected by muscles with the base of the maxillae, but attached directly to the head skeleton, into which they can be withdrawn, are regarded by Borner as true mandibles.
Linnaeus's Neuroptera exhibit great diversity in these respects, and the insects included in it are now therefore distributed into a number of distinct orders.
Includes two families, formerly reckoned among the Neuroptera - the Embiidae and the Termitidae or " White Ants " (see Termite).
The Mayflies belong to the Ephemeridae, a remarkable family of winged insects, included by Linnaeus in his order Neuroptera, which derive their scientific name from E4n cpos, in allusion to their very short lives.
(See Hexapoda, Neuroptera.) Bibliography.
The Sialidae or alder-flies (q.v.) differ from other Neuroptera in the jaws of the larva - which is aquatic, breathing by paired, jointed abdominal gills - resembling those of the imago, and being adapted for the mastication of solid food.
The Mantispidae are remarkable among the Neuroptera for their elongate prothorax, raptorial fore-legs and hypermetamorphic life-history, the young campodeiform larva becoming transformed into a fat cruciform grub parasitic on young spiders or wasp-larvae (see Mantis-Fly).
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