Netherlands sentence example
In 1815 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable augmentation of territory.
On his return to Germany he made peace with France at Frankfort in July 1489, and in October several of the states of the Netherlands recognized him as their ruler and as guardian of his son.
From the geographical position of the Netherlands, Presbyterianism there took its tone from France.
On the 18th of August 1477, by his marriage at Ghent to Mary, who had just inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands from her father Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, he effected a union of great importance in the history of the house of Habsburg.
He claimed to be recognized as guardian of his young son Philip and as regent of the Netherlands, but some of the states refused to agree to his demands and disorder was general.Advertisement
But Maximilian was regarded with suspicion by the states of Netherlands, and after suppressing a rising in Gelderland his position was further weakened by the death of his wife on the 27th of March 1482.
Again in the Netherlands, he made a treaty with Francis II., duke of Brittany, whose independence was threatened by the French regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the struggle with France was soon renewed.
On his release he had promised he would maintain the treaty of Arras and withdraw from the Netherlands; but he delayed his departure for nearly a year and took part in a punitive campaign against his captors and their allies.
Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France; but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance.
In 1494 he was again in the Netherlands, where he led an expedition against the rebels of Gelderland, assisted Perkin Warbeck to make a descent upon England, and formally handed over the government of the Low Countries to Philip. His attention was next turned to Italy, and, alarmed at the progress of Charles VIII.Advertisement
The only other occasions on which he was out of the Netherlands were in 1630, when he made a flying visit to England to observe for himself some alleged magnetic phenomena, and in 16 3 4, when he took an excursion to Denmark.
His residence in the Netherlands fell in the most prosperous and brilliant days of the Dutch state, under the stadtholdership of Frederick Henry (1625-1647).
His second great work, Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 1 Ouvres, vi.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
The term tertia minore, or inferiore, is used by Praetorius to describe a low pitch, often preferred in England and the Netherlands, in Italy and in some parts of Germany.Advertisement
While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni travelled in Germany, in the Netherlands and in France.
In 1814 he was appointed administrator of the Orange principalities; and, when the prince of Orange became king of the Netherlands, Baron Gagern became his prime minister.
Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
Accordingly, in May 1617, Descartes set out for the Netherlands and took service in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange.Advertisement
Netherlands was distracted by the quarrels of Gomarists and Arminians.
The time thus spent seems to have been on the whole happy, even allowing for warm discussions with the mathematicians and metaphysicians of France, and for harassing controversies in the Netherlands.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
The duties of this minister were of special importance, for it was to the Netherlands that Charles looked for much of the resources wherewith to carry on his many wars.Advertisement
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.
The Netherlands first became known to the Romans through the campaigns of Julius Caesar.
In the days of their great king Hlodwig or Clovis (481-511) they were in possession of the whole of the southern and central Netherlands.
In the south (of the Netherlands) Christianity was spread by the labours of devoted missionaries, foremost amongst whom were St Amandus, St Bavon and St Eligius, and bishoprics were set up at Cambrai, Tournai, Arras, Therouanne and Liege.
This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
During the 9th and 10th centuries the Netherlands suffered cruelly from the attacks of the Northmen, who ravaged the The in- shores and at times penetrated far inland.
Nowhere was the call responded to with greater zeal than in the Netherlands, and nowhere had the spirit of adventure and the stimulus to enterprise, which was one of the chief fruits of the crusades, more permanent effects for good.
To the Netherlands, as to the rest of western Europe, the result of the crusades was in the main advantageous.
Flourishing communities were likewise to be found in Hainault, Namur, Cambrai and the other southern districts of the Netherlands, but nowhere else the vigorous independence of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, nor the splendour of their civic life.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
It was precisely at this time that Flanders, and gradually the other feudal states of the Netherlands, by marriage, purchase, treachery or force, fell under the dominion of the house of Burgundy.
By his ruthless suppression of revolts at Dinant and Liege he made his authority undisputed throughout the Netherlands.
Philip's reign in the Netherlands was chiefly noteworthy for his efforts for the revival of trade with England.
During this time Charles consolidated his dominion over the Netherlands.
The policy of Charles towards the Netherlands was for many years one of studied moderation.
In 1548 Charles laid before the states a scheme for making the Netherlands an integral part of the empire under the name of the Circle of Burgundy; but the refusal of the German Electors to make his only son Philip king of the Romans led him to abandon the project, which was never renewed.
He himself never felt at home at Brussels, and in August 1559 he set sail for Spain, never again to revisit the Netherlands.
This extremely able man, a Burgundian by birth, was the son of one of Charles V.'s most trusted councillors, and it was largely to him that the government of the Netherlands was confided.
Two burning questions at the outset confronted Margaret and Granvelle - the question of the new bishoprics and the question of the presence in the Netherlands of a number of Spanish troops.
In 1555 there were but three dioceses in the Netherlands - those of Tournay, Arras and Utrecht, - all of unwieldy size and under the jurisdiction of foreign metropolitans.
All these with the exception of Cambray and St Omer were within the boundaries of the Netherlands.
The activity of the Inquisition was redoubled, and persecution raged throughout the Netherlands.
Meanwhile in the Netherlands the sectaries had been making rapid headway in spite of the persecution.
The regent was alienated from the popular leaders, and was no longer disposed to help William of Orange, Egmont, and Hoorn to secure a mitigation of religious persecution; and the heart of Philip was hardened in its resolve to exterminate heresy in the Netherlands.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
At this crisis the hands of Orange and the patriotic party were greatly strengthened by a new compact entitled " The Union of Brussels," which was extensively signed es eciall in the southern Netherlands.
On the 6th of October, at the secret invitation of the Catholic nobles headed by the duke of Aerschot, the archduke Matthias, brother of the emperor, arrived in Brussels to assume the sovereignty of the Netherlands.
The " malcontent " Catholics now turned for help from Matthias to the duke of Anjou, who had invaded the Netherlands with a French army and seized Mons.
The die was cast, which decreed that from 1579 onwards the northern and southern Netherlands were to pursue separate destinies.
On the arrival of Alva at Brussels, Count Louis, with his brother William, withdrew from the Netherlands and raised a body of troops in defence of the patriot cause.
Louis, who was sick with fever, withdrew to his ancestral home, Dillenburg, to recruit his health, and then once more to devote his energies to the raising of money and troops for another invasion of the Netherlands.
When Bedmar took up this appointment, Venice had just concluded an alliance with France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, to counterbalance the power of Spain, and the ambassador was instructed to destroy this league.
In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against Spanish tyranny.
After 1714 it formed part of the Austrian Netherlands, and in 1794 became the capital of the French department of the Scheldt.
In 1814 it was incorporated in the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and it was here that Louis XVIII.
He first engaged himself to a country wine merchant, for whom he travelled in Germany, Russia and the Netherlands.
Later Nicolas held an influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany.
In April 1 559 Granvella was one of the Spanish commissioners who arranged the peace of Cateau Cambresis, and on Philip's withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret of Parma.
Driven by contrary winds to take shelter in the Seine, the refugees passed the winter in the Netherlands, and in April 1608 proceeded to Rome, where they were welcomed and hospitably entertained by Pope Paul V., and where Tyrconnel died the same year.
Maranos, fleeing to the Netherlands, were welcomed; the immigrants were wealthy, enterprising and cultured.
Thus arose the society of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde) in the south and west of Germany, spreading as far as Switzerland on the one side and the Netherlands on the other.
Jan van Ruysbroeck (1294-1381), the father of mysticism in the Netherlands, stood in connexion with the Friends of God, and Tauler is said to have visited him in his seclusion at Groenendal (Vauvert, Griinthal) near Brussels.Ruy sbroeck.
England's commercial relations with Charles V.'s subjects in the Netherlands put war with the emperor almost out of the question; and cool observers thought that England's obvious policy was to stand by while the two rivals enfeebled each other, and then make her own profit out of their weakness.
Greifswald was founded about 1240 by traders from the Netherlands.
She was equally concerned by Napoleon's behaviour in the Dutch Netherlands, where her influence used to be supreme.
Early in January 1813 the senate promised that 350,000 conscripts should be enrolled; but 150,000 of them were under twenty years of age, and mobile columns had to be used to sweep in the recruits, especially in Brittany, the Netherlands and the newly annexed lands of North Germany.
Before these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time in the Netherlands.
The trade is said to have been increased by the arrival of certain merchants driven from the Netherlands by the persecution of the duke of Alva.
After Henry VIII.'s change of attitude towards Rome, Stephen Vaughan, the English envoy to the Netherlands, suggested Tyndale's return, but the reformer feared ecclesiastical hostility and declined.
From this time forward, Oldenbarneveldt at the head of the civil government and Maurice in command of the armed forces of the republic worked together in the task of rescuing the United Netherlands from Spanish domination (for details see Holland).
Gallatin worked at his new task with his usual industry, tact and patience, but the results were meagre, although an open breach on the delicate question of the north-east boundary of the United States was avoided by referring it to the arbitration of the king of the Netherlands.
Taken by the Spaniards in 1587 Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the United Netherlands.
A map, of the Netherlands from actual survey was produced by Jacob of Deventer (1536-1539).
Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's Carte de la France (1777).
The new survey of the Netherlands, based upon General Krayenhoff's primary triangulation (1802-1811) was completed in 1855.
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
They were to be supported by Schwarzenberg with men, who was to advance by Basel and Neu Breisach to the south, and Bernadotte with the Northern army, about 120,000, was to move in support on the right flank through the Netherlands and Laon; this force was not yet ready and did not, in fact, reach the latter place till March.
Meantime he was gaining a great reputation as a scholar, not only in the Netherlands, but also in France and England.
He afterwards made Berlin his residence, and took an active part in the unfortunate campaign under the duke of York for the reconquest of the Netherlands.
When Holland rose in revolt against French domination in 1813, after eighteen years of exile he landed at Scheveningen (on the 19th of November) and was on the 3rd of December, amid universal rejoicing, proclaimed prince sovereign of the Netherlands.
His assumption in the following year of the title of king of the Netherlands was recognized by the powers, and by the treaty of Paris his sovereignty was extended over the southern as well as the northern Netherlands, Belgium being added to Holland "as an increase of territory."
Had the king consented at once to the administrative autonomy of Belgium, and appointed the prince of Orange governor of the southern Netherlands, it is probable that the revolt might have been appeased.
He appealed to the powers, who had, in 1815, created and guaranteed the independence of the kingdom of the Netherlands.
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
An instance under the last head occurred in 1831, when it was referred to the king of the Netherlands as sole arbitrator to fix the north-eastern boundary of the state of Maine.
France, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands are the European states next in order.
The Natal Boers believed the Netherlands to be one of the great powers of Europe, and were firmly persuaded that its government would aid them in resisting England.
The next summer she fled across the frontiers into the Netherlands, and Richelieu was made a duke.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
In 1884 a concession to a number of Hollander and German capitalists of all rights to make railways led to the formation of the Netherlands Railway Company.
Kruger's design at this time was to bring the whole of the external trade of the state, which was growing yearly as the gold industry developed, through Delagoa Bay and over the Netherlands railway.
The Delagoa Bay railway being at length completed to Pretoria and Johannesburg, Kruger determined to take steps to bring the Rand traffic over The Netherlands railway Drifts began by putting a prohibitive tariff on goods from the Vaal river.
The title is now sometimes used by the royal family of the Netherlands when travelling incognito.
In 1644, with the transfer of New Netherlands to English control, the name "Beverwyck" was changed to "Albany" - one of the titles of the duke of York (afterward James II.).
Guicciardini in his description of the Netherlands, in 1563, mentions glass as among the chief articles of export to England.
The conference met, and on the 30th of August 1888 a convention was signed by all the powers represented except France - namely, by Austria, Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia and Spain.
Of all the countries represented - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia and Sweden - only one, namely France, was opposed to the complete suppression of all export bounties, direct or indirect; and Russia declined to discuss the question of her internal legislation, contending that her system did not amount to a bounty on exportation.
The gilds of Norway, Denmark and Sweden are first mentioned in the 11th, 12th and 14th centuries respectively; those of France and the Netherlands in the 11th.
In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.
Even if there had been motives for uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened.
A similar tendency is visible in the Netherlands and in some other parts of the continent already in the 14th century.
In the Netherlands the Hanseatics clung to their position in Bruges until 1540, while trade was migrating to the ports of Antwerp and Amsterdam.
Complaint was made of South German competition in the Netherlands.
The Synod of Dort (1619) not only condemned Arminianism, but its defenders were expelled from the Netherlands; only in 1625 did they venture to return, and not till 1630 were they allowed to erect schools and churches.
There seems little doubt, however, that it was really the work of the prince himself, with the help either of Languet (Groen van Prinsterer, Archives) or of Pierre de Villiers (Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic; and Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands).
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
When the northern Netherlands revolted from Philip II.
Six of the seven states forming the confederation of the United Netherlands took as their stadtholder William of Orange-Nassau, called "the Silent," and his descendants during three generations.
The younger line became stadtholders of the other states after the extinction of the elder, and were the ancestors of the present royal family of the Netherlands.
At the same time the men of Zealand repulsed a French raid from Ath on Ardenburg, and this infraction of the neutrality of the Spanish Netherlands served but to raise up another enemy for Louis.
Turenne was therefore despatched to Westphalia and Conde to Alsace, while a corps of observation was formed on the Meuse to watch the Spanish Netherlands.
The chief event of the campaign of 1677 in the Netherlands was the siege of Valenciennes, which fortress was invested by Louis in the first weeks of the campaigning season.
The peace of Nijmwegen gave Louis many of the Netherlands frontier fortresses, and little else.
Unhappily for Spain, Charles, after some hesitation, decided to transmit the Netherlands to his son, and not to allow them to go with the empire.
In 1554, when Charles was meditating his abdication, and wished to secure the position of his son, he summoned Philip to Flanders again, and arranged the marriage with Mary, queen of England, who was the daughter of his sister Catherine, in order to form a union of Spain, the Netherlands and England, before which France would be powerless.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
Thus external and internal influences alike drove him into conflict with the Netherlands, France and England; with the first because political and religious discontent combined to bring about revolt, which he felt bound in duty to crush; with the second and third because they helped the Flemings and the Hollanders.
The War of Devolution (or the Queen's War) in 1667-68 to enforce the queen's claim to certain districts in the Spanish Netherlands, led to the Dutch War (1672-78), and in both these wars the supremacy of the French armies was clearly apparent.
By 1904 more than 6800 of these meteorological logs with 7,000,000 observations had been accumulated by the Meteorological Office in London; 20,000 with io,600,000 observations by the German Marine Observatory at Hamburg; 4700 with 3,300,000 observations by the Central Institute of the Netherlands at de Bilt near Utrecht.
The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.
He then travelled through Germany, the Netherlands, England, France and Italy, and was received with marked respect at the different universities he visited.
Cape Town was founded in 1652 by settlers sent from Holland by the Netherlands East India Co., under Jan van Riebeek.
According to both the German and Scandinavian authorities he was the son of a certain Sigmundr (Siegmund), a king in the Netherlands, or the "land of the Franks."
Dutch New Guinea, however, has better natural advantages than either the British or German possessions in the island, and should eventually prove of real value to the Netherlands.
Talleyrand, however, was convinced that Great Britain would not intervene against France unless the latter attacked the Dutch Netherlands.
Within a generation after this event the states of north Germany and Scandinavia, England, Scotland, the Dutch Netherlands and portions of Switzerland, had each in its particular manner permanently seceded from the papal monarchy.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
Open both to German and French influences, the Netherlands had been the scene of the first executions of Lutherans; they had been a centre of Anabaptist agitation; but Calth y P ?
The archiepiscopal museum (1872) contains examples of all branches of sacred art in the Netherlands.
The bishop's seat had to be fortified against the incursions of the heathen Frisians and Northmen, and the security thus afforded attracted population till, after the destruction of its rival Dorestad by the Normans in the 9th century, Utrecht became the chief commercial centre of the northern Netherlands.
The victory of the democratic principle was entirely new in the Netherlands, though it had been anticipated in Florence, and was perhaps inspired by Italian example.
In all other cities of the Netherlands the craft gilds remained in humble subjection to a council co-opted from a limited number of wealthy patrician families.
Utrecht, thus brought into immediate relations with the Spanish Habsburgs, proved no more tolerant of their rule than of that of its bishops, and took a leading part in the revolt of the Netherlands.
The union of the seven northern provinces, proclaimed at Utrecht in 1579, laid the foundation of Dutch independence (see Netherlands).
After the advent of the earl of Leicester as governor-general of the Netherlands in 1585, a change took place.
The Utrechters, under the leadership of Gerard Prouninek, otherwise Deventer, vehemently took the side of Leicester in his quarrel with the estates of Holland, and the English governor-general made the town his headquarters during residence in the Netherlands, and took it under English protection.
The withdrawal of Leicester from the Netherlands was followed by the defeat of Deventer and the return of the aristocratic party to power.
Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (Castrum Duacense) as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477 with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain.
The Netherlands legalized the use of denatured alcohol in 1865; in 1872 France permitted its use under a special tax, and in Germany its employment was authorized in 1879, the other European countries following, Austria in 1888, Italy in 1889, Sweden in 1890, Norway in 1891, Switzerland in 1893, and Belgium in 1896.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
Lindsay (History of the Reformation), clearer insight than the Lutherans, and Zwingli rather than Luther was in this matter Calvin's guide, and the guide of the reformed churches of Switzerland, France, England and the Netherlands.
One of the printing establishments has the reputation of being the oldest in the Netherlands, and publishes the oldest Dutch paper, De Opragte Haarlemmer Courant.
In 1572 Haarlem joined the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain, but on the 13th of July 1573, after a seven months' siege, was forced to surrender to Alva's son Frederick, who exacted terrible vengeance.
In 1577 it was again captured by William of Orange and permanently incorporated in the United Netherlands.
On the 19th of June 1850 he married Louisa, daughter of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands.
Almost from the date of their taking possession of the Cape of Good Hope and its vicinity, the Netherlands East Indian Company instituted annual returns of population, livestock and agricultural produce.
He conceived that a vast trade with the Iroquois for furs might be established; his report aroused great interest in Holland; and the United Netherlands, whose independence had been acknowledged in the spring, claimed the newly discovered country.
The charter did not give the encouragement to agriculture that was expected of it because the status created for colonists of a patroon was no attraction to a successful farmer in the Netherlands.
Two years later, by a revision of the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, the prohibition on manufactures was abolished, the privileges of the original charter with respect to patroons were extended to " all good inhabitants of the Netherlands," and the estate of a patroon was limited to 4 m.
The president's uncle, Robert Barnwell Roosevelt (1829-1906), was a New York lawyer, New York state fish commissioner in 1866-68, a member of the Committee of Seventy which exposed the corruption of Tammany in New York City, a Democratic member of the national House of Representatives in 1871-73, U.S. minister to the Netherlands in 1888, and author of works on American game birds and fish.
From Germany he proceeded to the Netherlands, staying at Leiden, Utrecht and Amsterdam, and passing in 1657 to Queen's College, Oxford, where he lived three years.
In Hoboken are the piers of the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg American, the Netherlands American, the Scandinavian and the Phoenix steamship lines.
He was anxious that Mary should marry the Dauphin Charles and thus secure the inheritance of the Netherlands for his descendants.
On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a charter of rights, known as "the Great Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state.
Affairs now went more smoothly in the Netherlands, the French aggression was checked, and internal peace was in a.large measure restored, when the duchess met her death by a fall from her horse on the 27th of March 1482.
Politically they are divided into lands under the direct government of the Netherlands vassal lands and confederated lands.
The governor-general not only has supreme executive authority, but can of his own accord pass laws and regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of right to the home government, and as he is bound by the constitutional principles on which, according to the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India, passed by the king and StatesGeneral in 1854, the Dutch East Indies must be governed.
The first class includes half-castes (who are numerous, for the Dutch are in closer relationship with the natives than is the case with most colonizing peoples), and also Armenians, Japanese, &c. The total number of this class in 1900 was 75, 8 33; 72,019 of these were called Dutch, but 61,022 of them were born in Netherlands India; there were also 1382 Germans, 441 British and 350 Belgians.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
No portion of the regular army of the Netherlands is allowed to be sent on colonial service, but individual soldiers are at liberty to enlist, by permission of their commanding officers, in the army of Netherlands India, and they form its nucleus.
Unlike the army, which is purely colonial, the navy in Netherlands India is partly colonial, partly belonging to the royal navy of the Netherlands, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother country and partly by the colony.
There are upwards of 3000 miles of railways and steam tramways in Netherlands India, but these are almost entirely in Java; elsewhere only Sumatra has a few short lines.
A general survey of the people, administration and resources of the Dutch colony is provided in Twentieth Century Impressions of ' Netherlands India, ed.
As middlemen they already possessed a large interest in the spice trade, for the Portuguese, having no direct access to the principal European markets, had made a practice of sending cargo to the Netherlands for distribution by way of the Scheldt and Rhine.
On the 29th of November 1609 Pieter Both was chosen by the states-general, on the nomination of the Dutch East India Company, as first governor-general of Netherlands India.
Under this system, which was intended to provide Netherlands India with a fixed population of European descent, Dutch girls were sent to the archipelago to be married to white settlers, and subsequently marriages between Dutchmen and captive native women were encouraged.
He was succeeded by John Fendall, who in 1816 carried out the retrocession of Netherlands India to the Dutch, in accordance with the Treaty of Vienna (1814).
Various disputes between Great Britain and the Netherlands, arising chiefly out of the transfer of power in Java and the British occupation of Singapore (1819), were settled by treaty between the two powers in 1824.
In 1825-30 a serious rebellion in Java involved the despatch of a large military force from the Netherlands, and was with difficulty suppressed.
In 1848 the Grondwet, or fundamental law of the Netherlands, recognized for the first time the responsibility of the Dutch nation for its colonial dependencies.
The Grondwet involved certain important changes, which were embodied in an act passed in 1854 and commonly known as the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
In 1876 the practice of paying a yearly surplus (batig slot) from the revenues of Netherlands India to the treasury at the Hague was discontinued.
The enterprise of Sir James Brooke led, after 1838, to the establishment of British sovereignty in North Borneo; in 1895 New Guinea was divided between Great Britain, Germany and the Netherlands; and the Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in the cession of the Philippines, Sulu Island and the largest of the Mariana Islands to the United States, and the sale of the Caroline group to Germany.
In 1910 the nations most directly interested in the future of the archipelago were the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Japan, China and Portugal.
In 1731 the famous palace of the Netherlands was destroyed by fire, and the only remains of this edifice are some ruined arches and walls in a remote corner of the grounds of the king's palace.
With regard to the fine boulevards of the Upper Town, it may be mentioned that about 1765 they were planted with the double row of lime trees which still constitute their chief ornament by Prince Charles of Lorraine while governing the Netherlands for his sister-in-law, the empress Maria Theresa.
These three deeds or enactments constituted the early constitution of the South Netherlands, which, with one important modification in the time of Charles V., remained intact till the Brabant revolution in the reign of Joseph II.
The Dutch had the right to make this levy under treaties going back to the treaty of Munster in 1648, and they clung to it still more tenaciously after Belgium separated herself in 1830-1831 from the united kingdom of the Netherlands - the London conference in 1839 fixing the toll payable to Holland at I.
Though from this time forward Basel became the centre of occupation and interest for Erasmus, yet for the next few years he was mainly in the Netherlands.
As a young man he saw service in the Netherlands under the command of his brother, and in the "Bishops' War" he commanded a troop of horse in King Charles I.'s army.
During that time he attended the infrequent imperial diets, and took an interest in the struggle in the Netherlands and the defence of the empire against the Turks.
The religious disturbances in the Netherlands attracted him to Antwerp, where as the agent of William of Orange he allowed the insurgents to place him at their head, and was able to save much property from destruction.
Before touching on the salient points in the subsequent centuries, in connexion with the leading nations of Europe, we may briefly note the cosmopolitan position of Erasmus (1466-1536), who, although he was a native of the Netherlands, was far more closely connected with France, England, Italy, Germany and Switzerland, than with the land of his birth.
Of these, Casaubon ended his days in England (1614); Scaliger, by leaving France for the Netherlands in 1593, for a time at least transferred the supremacy in scholarship from the land of his birth to that of his adoption.
During the, 8th century the classical scholarship of the Netherlands was under the healthy and stimulating influence of Bentley (1662-1742), who marks the beginning of the English and Dutch period, mainly represented English in Holland by Bentley's younger contemporary and correspondent, Tiberius Hemsterhuys (1685-1766), and the latter scholar's great pupil David Ruhnken (1723-1798).
In all these points the lead was first taken by south Germany, and by the towns along the Rhine down to the Netherlands.
Bernadotte, considerably piqued, thereupon returned to Paris, where the council of ministers entrusted him with the defence of the Netherlands against the English.
By this treaty Spain recognized the independence of the United Netherlands and made large concessions to the Dutch.
William, however, speedily opened secret negotiations with France in the hope of securing the armed assistance of that power for the carrying out of his ambitious projects of a war of aggrandisement against the Spanish Netherlands and of a restoration of his brother-in-law, Charles II., to the throne of England.
Only when he had reached the conclusion that his power would never be secure in the Netherlands or the New World until England was conquered, did he despatch the Spanish Armada.
During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.
War, declared before England had gained the naval experience and wealth of the next fifteen years, and before Spain had been weakened by the struggle in the Netherlands and the depredations of the sea-rovers, would have been a desperate expedient; and the ideas that any action on Elizabeth's part could have made France Huguenot, or prevented the disruption of the Netherlands, may be dismissed as the idle dreams of Protestant enthusiasts.
But secretly Elizabeth countermined his plans; unlike Walsing ham, she would sooner have seen Philip remain master of the Netherlands than see them fall into the hands of France.
He studied theology under Calvin and Beza at Geneva and, returning to the Netherlands in 1560, threw himself energetically into the cause of the Reformation, taking an active part in the compromise of the nobles in 1565 and the assembly of St Trond.
The Westphalian circle which was formed at the same time comprised nearly all the rest of the modern province (including Mark) and the lands north of it between the Weser and the frontier of the Netherlands, also Verden, Schaumburg, Nassau, Wied, Lippe, Berg, Cleves, Julich, Liege, Bouillon and Cambrai.
After completing his studies at Abo, he entered the army and served for several years in the Netherlands, in Hungary under Prince Eugene, and in Flanders under Waldeck (1690-1695).
During the founder's lifetime the order spread rapidly, and eventually there were about 150 monasteries in Italy, and others in France, Bohemia and the Netherlands.
He had inherited his desire for the humiliation of the house of Austria in both its branches, his desire to push the French frontier to the Rhine and maintain a counterpoise of German states against Austria, his alliances with the Netherlands and with Sweden, and his four theatres of war - on the Rhine, in Flanders, in Italy and in Catalonia.
He made one fatal mistake - he dreamt of the French frontier being the Rhine and the Scheldt, and that a Spanish princess might bring the Spanish Netherlands as dowry to Louis XIV.
Wellington, with the English troops and their Dutch, German and Belgian allies, took his post in the Netherlands, guarding the country west of the Charleroi road.
When William in 1695 went to take command of the army in the Netherlands, Tenison was appointed one of the seven lords justices to whom his authority was delegated.
In 1560 he signed the treaty of Edinburgh on behalf of Elizabeth, and he had again visited the Netherlands before his death in London on the 26th of January 1567.
Torn from Austria by the clerical revolution of 1790, after many vicissitudes it was united in 1815 with Holland and placed under the rule of the Protestant William I., king of the United Netherlands.
Having succeeded his father as "bishop" of Halberstadt in 1616, he obtained some experience of warfare under Maurice, prince of Orange, in the Netherlands.
In 1623 he gathered an army and broke into lower Saxony, but was beaten by Tilly at Stadtlohn and driven back to the Netherlands.
By the marriage of Mary, only daughter of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to Maximilian, archduke of Austria, 1477, the grand mastership of the order came to the house of Habsburg and, with the Netherlands provinces, to Spain in 1504 on the accession of Philip, Maximilian's son, to Castile.
The Order of the Netherlands Lion, for civil merit, was founded in 1818; there are four classes.
The Teutonic Order (q.v.), surviving in the Ballarde (Bailiwick) of Utrecht, was officially established in the Netherlands by the States General in 1580.
The principal organizations in Holland are the Netherlands Missionary Society and the Utrecht Missionary Society, working mainly in the Dutch colonies.
In some few cases (notably India and Japan) a regular territorial hierarchy has been established, just as in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa district of Celebes (r50,000 members) and among the Bataks of Sumatra (Rhenish Mission).
Shipbuilding yards extend above and below the city, one of the earliest being that of the Netherlands Steamboat Company (1825).
The larger passenger steamers of the Rotterdamsche Lloyd to Netherlands India and of the Holland-American Steamship Company (the two principal passenger and cargo steamship companies at Rotterdam) have their berths on the south side of the river.
The increase in the importance of Rotterdam as a port, apart from the development of the trade of the Netherlands generally, is shown by the fact that whereas in 1846 only 31% of the total trade of the country passed through the port, in 1883 the proportion was 50%; in the same year 43-75% of the total number of vessels engaged in Dutch trade used the port of Rotterdam, whereas in 1850 the proportion was only 35.77%.
He felt himself a foreigner among foreigners, and his favourite scheme, the subject of endless intrigues with the Austrian cabinet and the immediate cause of Frederick II.'s League of Princes (Fiirstenbund) of 1785, was to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands and the title of king of Burgundy.
It joined the Hanseatic league in 1270, and about the same time began to engage in the linen manufacture, which was greatly extended during the 16th and 17th centuries by a number of refugees from the Netherlands.
In no country in Europe has the character of the territory exercised so great an influence on the inhabitants as in the Netherlands; and, on the other hand, no people has so extensively modified the condition of its territory as the Dutch.
They were laid down in a broad bay which covered the east of England and nearly the whole of the Netherlands, and was open to the North Sea.
In the densely populated Netherlands, with no extensive forests, the fauna does not present any unusual varieties.
The northern and southern provinces are further connected by the lines Amsterdam - Zaandam (1878) - Enkhuizen (1885), whence there is a steam ferry across the Zuider Zee to Stavoren, from where the railway is continued to Leeuwarden (1883-1885); the Netherlands Central railway, Utrecht - AmersfoortZwoole - Kampen (1863); and the line Utrecht - 's Hertogenbosch (1868-1869) which is continued southward into Belgium by the lines bought in 1898 from the Grand Central Belge railway, namely, via Tilburg to Turnhout (1867), and via Eindhoven (1866) to Hasselt.
The fishing industry of the Netherlands may be said to have been in existence already in the 13th century, and in the following century received a considerable impetus from the discovery how to cure herring by William Beukelszoon, a Zeeland fisherman.
Private charities have always occupied a distinguished position in the Netherlands, and the principle of the law of 1854 concerning the relief of the poor is, that the state shall only interfere when private charity fails.
Of the numerous institutions for the encouragement of the sciences and the fine arts, the following are strictly national - the Royal Academy of Sciences (1855), the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1854), the National Academy of the Plastic Arts, the Royal School of Music, the National Archives, besides various other national collections and museums. Provincial scientific societies exist at Middelburg, Utrecht, 's Hertogenbosch and Leeuwarden, and there are private and municipal associations, institutions and collections in a large number of the smaller towns.
In 1870 they were reorganized under the central authority of the Netherlands Israelite Church, and divided into head and " ring " synagogues and associated churches.
Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
Statistics are furnished b y the annual publication of the Society for Statistics in the Netherlands, Amsterdam.
The foundation was laid on which the Republic of the 3 For the history of the Netherlands previous to the confederacy of the northern provinces in 1579 see Netherlands.
The "French Fury " as it was called, rendered the position of Anjou in the Netherlands impossible, and made William himself unpopular in Brabant.
Utterly discredited, Leicester -(6th of August 1587) abandoned the task, United Netherlands was to be raised.
He saw that unaided the patriotic party could not hope to resist the power of Philip II., and he had therefore resolved to gain the support of France by the offer of the sovereignty of the Netherlands to the duke of Anjou.
Had Parma had a free hand, in all probability he would have crushed out the revolt and reconquered the northern Netherlands.
The soil of the northern Netherlands was at last practically free from the presence of Spanish garrisons.
The relations of the Netherlands to Spain were in 1598 completely changed..
In case the mar riage should have no issue, the sovereignty of the Netherlands was to revert to the king of Spain.
One hundred members, many of them foreign divines, composed this great assembly, who after 154 sittings gave their seal to the doctrines of the Netherlands Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism.
It lay with the Netherlands to create a diversion in the favour of their co-religionists by keeping the forces of the Spanish Habsburgs fully occupied.
A large French force was sent into the Netherlands and placed under the command of the prince of Orange.
The Cardinal Infant Ferdinand had been appointed governor of the Netherlands, and he proved himself an excellent general, and there were dissensions in the councils of the allies.
About this time various causes brought about a change in the feelings which had hitherto prevented any possibility of peace between Spain and the United Netherlands.
At this moment the republic of the United Netherlands touched, perhaps, the topmost point of its prosperity and greatness.
The death of the Infanta Isabel in November 1633, and the reversion of the Netherlands to the sovereignty of the king of Spain, rendered all efforts to end the war, for the time being, fruitless.
From that date until 1672 it was his brain and his will that guided the affairs of the United Netherlands.
At the peace of Utrecht, concluded in 1713, the interests of the Netherlands were but half-heartedly supported by the English plenipotentiaries, and the French were able to obtain far more favourable terms than they had the power to exact.
But they were compelled to abandon all claim to the Spanish Netherlands, which were formally handed over to the United Provinces, as trustees, to be by them, after the conclusion of a satisfactory barrier treaty, given up to the emperor, of European politics.
The league was formed by the emperor, Spain, Sweden, and be known henceforth as the Austrian Netherlands.
With 1713 the influence of the United Netherlands upon European politics comes almost to an end.
The Dutch took an active part in the campaign of 1745 and suffered heavily at Fontenoy, after which battle Marshal Saxe overran the Austrian Netherlands.
It was not till Dumouriez had overrun all the Austrian Netherlands - in 1792,and had thrown open the passage of the Scheldt, lands.
The stadholderate, the offices of captain and admiral-general, and all the ancient organization of the United Netherlands were abolished, and were transformed into the Batavian Republic, in close alliance with France.
In 1810 the Northern Netherlands by decree of Napoleon were incorporated in the French empire, and had to bear the burdens of conscription and of a crushing weight of taxation.
The defeat of Leipzig in 1813 was the signal for a general revolt in the Netherlands; the prince of Orange (son of William V.) was recalled, and amidst general Creation provinces to form the kingdom of the Netherlands, of the p g Kingdom which was also to include the bishopric of Liege and of the the duchy of Bouillon, and the prince of Orange was Nether- placed upon the throne on the 15th of March 1815 as lands.
His accession marked the beginning of constitutional government in the Netherlands.
There is also in the Netherlands a small, but very strenuous socialist party, which was founded by the active propaganda of an ex-pastor Domela-Nieuwenhuis.
One effect of the accession of Queen Wilhelmina was the severance of the bond between the Netherlands and Luxemburg.
The outbreak of the Boer War in 1899 led to a strong outburst of sympathy among the Dutch on behalf of their kinsmen in South Africa, and there were times during the war, especially after President Kruger had fled from the Transvaal in a Dutch war vessel and had settled in Holland, when it was a task of some difficulty for the Dutch government to prevent the relations between Great Britain and the Netherlands from becoming strained.
After Lambert's death (c. 1187?) the movement rapidly spread, first in the Netherlands and afterwards in France - where it was encouraged by the saintly Louis IX.
The male communities did not survive the 14th century, even in the Netherlands, where they had maintained their original character least impaired.
It was formerly part of the Low Countries or Netherlands.
The Belgian national assembly assumed that its constitution would extend over the whole of the Belgic or south Netherlands, but the powers decreed otherwise.
By the signing of the league of Arras (5th of January) the Walloon " Malcontents " declared their adherence to the cause of Catholicism and their loyalty to the Spanish king, and broke away definitely from the northern provinces, who bound 1 See for earlier history Netherlands, Flanders, Brabant, Liege, &C.
The French prince was actually inaugurated duke of Brabant at Antwerp (February 1582) and count of Flanders at Bruges (July), but his misconduct speedily led to his withdrawal from the Netherlands, and even before the assassination of Orange (July 1584) the authority of Philip had been practically restored throughout the two provinces.
Philip had in the southern o f Netherlands attained his object, and Belgium was henceforth Catholic and Spanish, but at the expense of its progress and prosperity.
Philip was now nearing his end, and in 1598 he gave his eldest daughter Isabel Albert in marriage to her cousin the archduke Albert, and erected the Netherlands into a sovereign state under their joint rule.
Unfortunately they were childless, and the instrument of cession of 1598 provided that in case they should die without issue, the Netherlands - should revert to the crown of p S ain.
The Belgic provinces therefore passed under the rule of Philip IV., and were henceforth known as the Spanish Netherlands.
This connexion with the declining fortunes of Spain was disastrous to the well-being of the Belgian people, for during many years a close alliance bound together France and the United Provinces, and the Southern Netherlands were exposed to attack from both sides, and constantly suffered from the ravages of hostile armies.
One of the first steps of Louis was to take possession of the Netherlands.
The Belgic provinces now came for a full century to be known as the Austrian Netherlands.
The marquis de Prie, who (as deputy for Prince Eugene) was the imperial governor from 1719 to 1726, encountered on the part of local authorities and town gilds vigorous resistance to his attempt to rule the Netherlands as an Austrian dependency, and he was driven to take strong measures to assert his authority.
After the fall of Napoleon and the conclusion of the first peace of Paris (30th of May 1814) Belgium was indeed for some months placed under the administration of an Austrian governor-general, but it u f was shortly afterwards united with Holland to form the kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Dutch and Belgian provinces of the Netherlands had for one hundred and thirty years passed through totally different experiences, and had drifted farther and farther apart from one another in character, in habits, in ideas and above all in religion.
The idea that Holland was the predominant partner in the kingdom of the Netherlands was firmly rooted in the north and naturally provoked in the south the feeling that Belgium was being exploited for the benefit of the Dutch.
The battle of Jemappes (7th of November) made the French masters of the southern portion of the Austrian Netherlands; the battle of Fleurus (26th of June 1794) by put an end to the rule of the Habsburgs over the Belgic Belgian subjects, and in his choice of measures and men his aim was to secure the prosperity of his new kingdom by a policy of unification.
The heir apparent, the prince of Orange (see William of the Netherlands), was sent on a peaceful mission to Brussels, but furnished with such limited powers, as under the circumstances were utterly inadequate.
A convention of the representatives of the five great powers met in London in the beginning of November, at the request of the king of the Netherlands, and both sides were brought to consent to a cessation of hostilities.
On the 10th of December the conference of London proclaimed the dissolution of the kingdom of the Netherlands, but claimed the right of regulating the conditions under which it should take place.
The earlier Flemish authors are treated under DUTCH Literature; the revival of Flemish Literature since the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1830, and Walloon Literature, are each separately noticed.
C. de Gerlache (1785-1871) wrote the history of the Netherlands from the ultramontane standpoint.
In the history of literature an important work is compiled by Ferdinand van der Haeghen and others in the Bibliotheca Belgica (1880, &c.), comprising a description of all the books printed in the Netherlands in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The first move in this direction was made in the Netherlands and north Germany under the influence of Gerhard Groot, and issued in the formation of the Windesheim congregation of Augustinian canons and the secular congregation of Brothers of Common Life (q.v.) founded c. 1384, both of which became centres of religious revival.
In 1839 on the final dissolution of the kingdom of the Netherlands, Holland gave definite form to this right by fixing the toll, and by obtaining the assent of the powers to the arrangement which fettered the trade of Antwerp. In 1863 after long negotiations Belgium bought up this right - each of the powers interested in the trade contributing its quota - and the navigation of the Scheldt was then declared free.
In general it follows the same lines as that of other cities of Lower Germany and the Netherlands.
It was among the cessions in India made by the king of the Netherlands in 1825 in exchange for the British possessions in Sumatra.
The Roman prince Nero Claudius Drusus (q.v.) The gamin the year 12 B.C. annexed what is now the kingdom paigns oi of the Netherlands, and constructed a canal (Fossa other Drusiana) between the Rhine and the lake Flevo Ro1fl811 (Lacus Flevus), which partly corresponded to the ea CIS.
By the beginning of this century the The Saxons seem to have penetrated almost, if not quite, Franks to the Rhine in the Netherlands.
Their lands were given by the Frankish king Sigeberht to the north Suebi and other tribes who had come either from the Elbe basin or possibly from the Netherlands.
Mary he administered the Netherlands.
Having in 1490 driven the Hungarians from Vienna ane recovered his hereditary lands, and having ordered the affair of the Netherlands, Maximilian turned his attention to Italy whither he was drawn owing to the invasion of that country by Charles VIII.
He was king of Spain, of Sicily, of Naples and of Sardinia; he was lord of the Netherlands, of the free county of Burgundy and of the Austrian archduchies; he had at his command the immense resources of the New World; and he had been chosen king of Germany, thus gaining a title to the imperial crown.
Charles was aided by soldiers hurried from Italy and the Netherlands, but he did not gain any substantial successes until after October 1546, when his ally Maurice invaded electoral Saxony and forced John Frederick to march northwards to its defence.
His proposals to strengthen and reform the administration of Germany were, however, not acceptable to the princes, and the main one was not pressed; but the Netherlands were brought under the protection of the Empire and some minor reforms were carried through.
He entrusted Spain and the Netherlands to Philip, while Ferdinand took over the conduct of affairs in.
After this Frederick and the Calvinists looked for sympathy more and more to the Protestants in France and the Netherlands, whom they assisted with troops, while the Lutherans, whose chief prince was Augustus, elector of Saxony, adopted a more cautious policy and were anxious not to offend the emperor.
Just before this time much unrest in the north-west of Germany had been caused by the settlement there of a number of refugees from the Netherlands.
While Prussia was thus established on the Rhine, Austria, by exchanging the Netherlands for LombardoVenetia and abandoning her claims to the former Habsburg possessions in Swabia, definitively resigned to Prussia the task of defending the western frontier of Germany, while she strengthened her power in the south-east by recovering from Bavaria, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Tirol.
Of the German states represented in it even Prussia, by the acquisition of Posen, had become a non-German power; the Habsburg monarchy was predominantly non-German; Hanover was attached to the crown of Great Britain, Holstein to that of Denmark, Luxemburg to that of the Netherlands.
On her father's death at the Loo, on the 23rd of November 1890, she succeeded as queen of the Netherlands under the regency of her mother.
William was grand duke of Luxemburg by a personal title, and his death severed the dynastic relation between the kingdom of the Netherlands and the grand duchy.
By the treaty of Utrecht, accordingly, Spain was left to the House of Bourbon, while that of Austria received the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia and Naples.
These reforms were practically confined to the central provinces of the monarchy; for in Hungary, as well as in the outlying territories of Lombardy and the Netherlands, it was recognized that the conservative temper of the peoples made any revolutionary change in the traditional system inadvisable.
In 1784 he had resumed his plan of acquiring Bavaria for Austria by negotiating with the elector Charles Theodore its exchange for the Netherlands, which were to be erected for his benefit into a " Kingdom of Burgundy."
In 1689 he accompanied his intimate friend Marshal Luxembourg to the Netherlands, and shared in the French victories at Fleurus, Steinkirk and Neerwinden.
In 1745 he was sent to check the Imperialists in Germany, and in 1746 was transferred to the Netherlands, where some jealousy between Marshal Saxe and himself led to his retirement in 1747.
The duke of Alva authorized him to exclude certain classes of books from the Netherlands and, in 1570, while engaged in this work, he was decoyed on to a ship at Antwerp and conveyed to Yarmouth.
Owing to its geographical isolation, the development of Drente has remained behind that of every other province in the Netherlands, and there are few centres of any importance, either agricultural or industrial.
Drente took part in the revolt of the Netherlands, and being a district covered by waste heath and moor was, on account of its poverty and sparse population, not admitted into the union as a separate province, and it had no voice in the assembly of the states-general.
Between 1806 and 1813 Drente, with the rest of the Netherlands, was incorporated in the French empire, and, with part of Groningen, formed the department of Ems Occidental.
There can, indeed, be no doubt that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the i 6th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and the Netherlands.
Resolved to conquer the Netherlands, the French king proceeded, first of all, to isolate her by dissolving the Triple Alliance.
In June 1672 a French army invaded the Netherlands; whereupon the elector of Brandenburg contracted an alliance with the emperor Leopold, to which Denmark was invited to accede; almost simultaneously the States-General began to negotiate for a renewal of the recently expired Dano-Dutch alliance.
An alliance with France would subordinate her to Denmark in the Sweden; an alliance with the Netherlands would expose Great her to an attack from Sweden.
In May 1673 a treaty of alliance was signed by the ambassador of the States-General at Copenhagen, whereby the Netherlands pledged themselves to pay Denmark large subsidies in return for the services of Io,000 men and twenty warships, which were to be held in readiness in case the United Provinces were attacked by another enemy besides France.
The plan of campaign seems to have been designed by King John, who was the soul of the alliance; his general idea was to draw the French king to the southward against himself, while the emperor Otto IV., the princes of the Netherlands and the main army of the allies should at the right moment march upon Paris from the north.
No doubt there must have been some kind of foundation for Pirkheimer's charges; and it is to be noted that neither in Darer's early correspondence with this intimate friend, nor anywhere in his journals, does he use any expressions of tenderness or affection for his wife, only speaking of her as his housemate and of her helping in the sale of his prints,&c. That he took her with him on his journey to the Netherlands shows at any rate that there can have been no acute estrangement.
The thirteen or fourteen years of DUrer's life between his return from Venice and his journey to the Netherlands (spring 1507 - midsummer 1520) can best be divided according to the classes of work with which, during successive divisions of the period, he was principally occupied.
Together with his wife and her maid he set out in July for the Netherlands in order to be present at the coronation of the young emperor Charles V., and if possible to conciliate the good graces of the all-powerful regent Margaret.
One of the first towns in the Netherlands to embrace the reformed religion and to throw off the yoke of Spain, it was in 1572 the meeting-place of the deputies who asserted the independence of the United Provinces.
Through the cession of Westphalia by the king of the Netherlands, on the 31st of May 1815, it became a Prussian town.
Here and there throughout Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands there were zealous propagandists, through whose teaching many were prepared to follow as soon as another leader should arise.
Many of the followers of Munzer and Bockholdt seem to have fled from persecution in Germany and the Netherlands to be subjected to a persecution scarcely less severe in England.
Similar institutions existed also in Amsterdam, Utrecht, Antwerp and elsewhere in the Netherlands.
In 1451 he was sent to Germany and the Netherlands to check ecclesiastical abuses and bring back the monastic life to the original rule of poverty, chastity and obedience - a mission which he discharged with welltempered firmness.
Reinald II., the Black (1326-1343), was one of the foremost princes in the Netherlands of his day.