Her nerve began to frazzle.
Do you know, she had the nerve to call me!
If only she'd worked up the nerve to tell A'Ran about her suspicions about Ne'Rin!
Sofia began to scream as her nerve endings sizzled from the inside out.
She wondered if he felt hurt at his best friend's betrayal but didn't have the nerve to ask.
(After Haeckel.) Nerve ring.
Both are supplied by the abducens nerve, together with the rectus externus muscle.
Haven't worked up the nerve to post.
Fitzgerald has some nerve suggesting otherwise.
It is here, at the Heribert present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the and the pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; Lombard and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest burghs.
He said no more, and she lost the nerve to pursue.
It was nerve wracking not to know what was happening.
The moment their lips met, lightning flew through her, setting every nerve afire with awareness unlike anything she'd felt before.
A group of four coeds sat three rows in front of him whispering about the hot guy, until one got up the nerve to talk to him.
You have some nerve to do all that and make fun of me for trying to fit in or ignore me when you do return!
Did you ever get up the nerve to ask that secretary out to supper?
"I can't believe Fitzgerald had the nerve to even fingerprint the old guy," Weller said, shaking his head.
In more primitive ritual, however, set forms of prayer are the rule, and their function is mainly to accompany and support a ceremony the nerve of which consists in action rather than speech.
He'd not just claimed her in deed but had the nerve to brand her like chattel as well!
The obturatorius nerve invariably comes from the two main stems of the crural.
The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.
These - as indicated by their supply from a branch of the hypoglossal nerve, which descends on either side of the trachea - are, so to speak, a detached, now mostly independent colony of glosso-pharyngeal muscles.
The iris contains a sphincter and a dilator muscle; the former, supplied by branches from the oculomotorius nerve, is under control of the will, whilst the dilator fibres belong to the sympathetic system.
n', Nerve uniting cerebral ganglia with small ganglia on head.
Cynthia didn't answer and the silence became nerve racking.
At the fundus are placed the concrement-cells with their conspicuous otoliths (con) and the inconspicuous auditory cells, which are connected with the subumbral nerve - ring.
It was Thursday before I got up the nerve to call my friends.
From near the entrance of the optic nerve, through the original choroidal fissure, arises the much-folded pecten, deeply pigmented and very vascular, far into the vitreous humour.
The quadrate muscle adjusts the motion, and prevents pressure upon the optic nerve; during the state of relaxation of both muscles the nictitans withdraws through its own elasticity.
The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.
One, the quadratus or bursalis muscle, arises from the hinder surface of the eyeball, and forms with its narrow margin, which is directed towards the optic nerve, a pulley for the long tendon of the pyramidalis muscle.
Lastly it was the fiery counsels of the dying prophet, accompanied by the acted magic of the arrow shot through the open window, and also of the thrice smitten floor, that gave nerve and courage to Joash, king of Israel, when the armies of Syria pressed heavily on the northern kingdom (2 Kings xiii.
Oh, I've got the nerve.
You've got some nerve!
You have a lot of nerve.
solid larval tentacles, re Radial nerve.
8, Exit of vagus nerve.
9, Exit of hypoglossal nerve.
9, Exit of hypo glossal nerve.
The shaft of the pubis runs parallel with that of the ischium, with which it is connected by a short ligamentous or bony bridge; this cuts off from the long incisura pubo-ischiadica a proximal portion, the foramen obturatum, for the passage of the obturator nerve.
N, Sciatic nerve.
Another cartilage or ossification, the posterior sclerotic ring, occurs within the walls of the posterior portion of the cup, and surrounds, especially in the Pici and in the Passeres, the entrance of the optic nerve.
nr, Olfactory nerve.
In the latter, the segmentally arranged ganglia are more sharply marked off from the connectives than in other Chaetopods, where nerve cells exist along the whole ventral chain, though more numerous in segmentally disposed swellings.
Nerve cord lies in coelom; brain in first segment or prostomium in many forms. Clitellum generally only two or three segments and more anterior in position than in Terricolae.
The most reliable test appears to be the nerve ganglia, which are more distinct from the intervening connectives than in other Annelids.
g, Nerve cord.
2; in addition, cn, nerve cord; in, intestine; nf, parts of nephridium; on, external opening of nephridium; ov, ova; 1, testis.
In this Annelid later the sac in question joins its fellow, passing beneath the nerve cord exactly as in the leech, and also grows out to reach the exterior.
ceral nerve loop) to W.
In some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the opposite side, which is called zygoneury.
demonstrated by Lankester in 1867, at a pie, Pedal nerve.
Subsequent connected by nerve investigations carried on under the directo the streptoneur tion of the same naturalist have shown ous visceral loop. that the larger as well as the smaller renal sac is in communication with the pericardium.
ab, Abdominal ganglion or site pe, The right pedal nerve.
ceiving nerve from vis ce.pe, The cerebro-pedal connecceral loop.
(From Gegenbaur, pi, Pallial nerve.
p, Pedal nerve.
The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell.
The nerve to this organ is given off from the superior (original right, see fig.
Beneath the ciliated groove is placed an elongated ganglion (olfactory ganglion) connected by a nerve to the supraintestinal (therefore the primitively dextral) ganglion of the long h, k, m, Stomach.
43) shows the nerve connecting this abdomino-visceral ganglion with the olfactory ganglion of Spengel.
Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its nervesupply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed somewhat anteriorly - on the dorsal surface - being given off from the hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion - the fellow to that marked A in fig.
sp, Abdominal ganglion which represents also the supra-intestinal ganglion of Streptoneura and gives off the nerve to the osphradium (olfactory organ) o, and another to an unlettered socalled " genital " ganglion.
a, Nerve to superior cephalic tentacle.
c, Nerve to generative organs.
d, Pedal nerve.
They are all pelagic, the foot being entirely transformed into a pair of anterior fins; eyes are absent, and the nerve centres are concentrated on the ven tral side of the oesophagus.
On account of the shortness of the visceral loop and the proximity of the right visceral ganglion to the oesophageal nerve-ring, the nerve to the osphradium and olfactory ganglion is very long.
instead of being destral, 'the osphradium is on the left side, and receives its nerve from the left visceral ganglion, the whole series of unilateral organs being reversed.
Krohn posite to it is the visceral ganglion of in Marsenia =Echino- the right side, which gives off the long spira) there may be a nerve to the olfactory ganglion and break at a later stage, osphradium o.
the nautiloid shell In Planorbis and in Auricula (Pulmonata, formed on the larva allied to Limnaeus) the olfactory organ is being cast, and a new on the left side and receives its nerve from shell of a different form the left visceral:ganglion.
These dorsal eyes are very perfect in elaboration, possessing lens, retinal nerve-end cells, retinal pigment and optic nerve.
Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected with the re surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of with the opposite end.
Hickson and others, that in the bivalves Pecten and Spondylus, which also have eyes upon the mantle quite distinct from typical cephalic eyes, there is the same relationship as in Oncidiidae of the optic nerve to the retinal cells.
He himself lost his nerve, stammered, nearly fainted, and was dragged out by the soldiers in a state of mental and physical collapse.
- Ventral Muscles and Nerve Cord Cockroach.
oe, Gullet; op, optic nerve; sb, sub-oesophageal ganglion; mn, mx, mx', nerves to jaws; t, tentorium.
In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.
ln, Longitudinal nerve stems.
ening of these cords, and at the same time as the spot where the two halves of the central nerve system intercommunicate.
It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.
nerves for the proboscis, those for the sense organs in the head and the strong nerve pair (n.
In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.
To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.
The haemoglobin would, by its pre-eminent properties of fixing oxygen, serve to furnish the nerve system, which more than any other requires a constant supply, with the necessary oxygen.
Anteriorly it finally communicates with the lacunae just mentioned, which surround the oesophagus, bathe the posterior lobes of the brain, pass through the nerve ring together with the proboscidian sheath, and are generally continued in front of the brain as a lacunar space in the muscular tissue, one on each side.
The line of the genital openings is usually dorsal to the lateral nerve.
lateral nerve; 21, oesophageal nerve; 22, mouth; 23, ventral ganglion of brain; 24, dorsal ganglion of brain; 25, rhynchodaeum.
The origin of the lateral organs has already been noticed; that of the nerve system is essentially epiblastic.
e, Retinaculum enclosing a k, Line of division between the nerve.
the nerve cells and the bell.
This move on the 14th brought him into touch with Bernadotte, and now a single march forward of all three armies would have absolutely isolated Napoleon from France; but Bernadotte's nerve failed him, for on hearing of Napoleon's threat against Wittenberg he decided to retreat northward, and not all the persuasions of Blucher and Gneisenau could move him.
dn, dorsal nerve.
glossus, but is solid in Am- vn, ventral nerve.
22) is hollow, and it contains a diverticulum "' s from the coelom, a branch of the vascular system, a nerve and some muscle fibres.
Sub-oesophageal nerve ganglion.
There is a special marginal nerve running round the edge of the mantle, but the connexion of this with the rest of the nervous system is not clear; probably it is merely another concentration of the diffused sub-ectodermal nervous fibrils.
In Discinisca and Lingula, however, the sub-oesophageal ganglion is not drawn out, but lies medianly; it gives off two posteriorly directed nerves to the stalk, which in Lingula unite and form a substantial nerve.
Dorsal lateral nerve.
Median pallial nerve of dorsal each side, just below the lobe of mantle.
22 and 28); it gives off a branch to each tentacle, and these all anastomose at the base of the tentacles with the second nerve of the arm, the so-called secondary arm-nerve.
The lophophore is supplied by yet a third nerve, the under arm-nerve, which is less clearly defined than the others, and resembles a moderate aggregation of the nerve fibrils, which seem everywhere to underlie the ectoderm, and which in a few cases are gathered up into nerves.
In the middle line the sub-oesophageal nerve mass is small; the ganglion is in fact drawn out into two halves placed on either side of the body.
Nerve mass (?).
This has not been demonstrated by an actual following out of the development, but the position of these pieces and the fact that they are (in Limulus) supplied by an independent segmental nerve, favours the view that they may comprise the sternal area of the vanished praegenital somite.
The lateral eyes are in Limulus " compound eyes," that is to say, consist of many lenses placed close together; beneath each lens is a complex of protoplasmic cells, in which the optic nerve terminates.
But they also receive the nerve fibres of the optic nerve.
ij „l small intermediate ce l ls between the larger nerve - end cells.
It " floats " between the prosomatic nerve centres and the alimentary canal.
In each somite of the mesosoma is a small, free entosternite having a similar position, but below or ventral to the nerve cords, and having a smaller number of muscles attached to it.
It became isolated and detached, why or with what advantage to the organism it is difficult to say, and at that period of Arachnidan development the great ventral nerve cords occupied a more lateral position than they do at present.
We know that such a lateral position of the nerve cords preceded the median position in both Arthropoda and Chaetopoda.
Subsequently to the floating off of the entosternite the approximation of the nerve cords took place in the prosoma, and thus they were able to take up a position below the entosternite.
These are a ventral arch forming a neural canal through which the great nerve cords pass (figs.
The supra-pectinal entosternite lies ventral to the nerve cords.
nerv.f, Nerve fibres of the optic nerve.
A very remarkable feature in Limulus, first described by Owen, is the close accompaniment of the prosomatic nerve centres and nerves by arteries, so close indeed that the great ganglion mass and its out-running nerves are actually sunk in or invested by ch.
- Section through a portion of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing three ommatidia - A, B and C. hyp, The epidermic cell-layer (so-called hypodermis), the cells of which increase in volume below each lens, 1, and become nerve-end cells or retinula-cells, rt; in A, the letters rh point to a rhabdomere secreted by the cell rt; c, the peculiar central spherical cell; n, nerve fibres; mes, mesoblastic skeletal tissue; ch, chitinous cuticle.
A novel substrate of receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPRO is required for nerve growth factor-induced process outgrowth.
phrenic nerve which originates in the neck.
phrenic nerve palsy demonstrated by magnetic stimulation of the nerve.
Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus stimulate the posterior pituitary to produce ADH when the osmotic pressure of the blood rises.
plexus block, we just do not know the incidence of long term nerve problems.
Their eyes met for a moment... piercing blue eyes meeting startled green eyes in a battle of nerve.
It seems that there is a primitive tendency in the Arthropoda for the arteries to accompany the nerve cords, and a " supra-spinal " artery - that is to say, an artery in close relation to the ventral nerve cords--has been described in several cases.
Scorpio certainly comes nearer to Limulus in the high development of its arterial system, and the intimate relation of the anterior aorta and its branches to the nerve centres and great nerves, than does any other Arthropod.
n, Nerve fibres.
nf, Nerve fibres.
When the trigeminus nerve is divided (Majendie), or when its root is compressed injuriously, say Iby a tubercular tumour, the cornea begins to show points of ulceration, which, increasing in area, may bring about total disintegration of the eyeball.
There seems to be little doubt, notwithstanding, that one of the chief functions of the nerve cell is that of the propagation of a trophicj influence along its axon.
It is much more likely, as Verworn alleges, that the nerves which influence the characteristic function of any tissue regulate thereby the metabolism of the cells in question - in other words, that every nerve serves as a trophic nerve for the tissues it supplies.
The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
A tendency to pigmentation also develops in certain tissues of the body, such as the nerve and muscle cells.
are usually found in the skin, hair, eye, supra-renal glands, and in certain nerve cells.
The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.
Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
He seems to have been well acquainted with the projection of images of objects through small apertures, and to have been the first to show that the arrival of the image of an object at the concave surface of the common nerve - or the retina - corresponds with the passage of light from an object through an aperture in a darkened place, from which it falls upon a surface facing the aperture.
A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.
The cerebral cortex, and, more definitely, the cortical elements (nerve cells), formed the seat of the activity of the soul, and were ordered into departments according to various functions.
The nervous system consists of a ganglion or brain, which lies dorsally about the level of the junction of the pharynx and the stomach, a nerve ring and a segmented neutral cord.
The prey is sometimes stung in the neighbourhood of the nerve ganglia, so that it is paralysed but not killed, the grub of the fossorial wasp devouring its victim alive; but this instinct varies in perfection, and in many cases the larva flourishes equally whether its prey be killed or not.
The progress of thought may show it to be, in truth, relative, as when the nerve of Hume's scepticism is shown to be his thoroughgoing empiricism, or when the scepticism of the Critique of Pure Reason is traced to the unwarrantable assumption of things-in-themselves.
- There is a large ganglion lying in close contact with the pharynx, proximal to the crop and on its antero-dorsal side; in Bdelloidaceae at least it is united by short connectives with a smaller postero-ventral ganglion to form a nerve collar.
From this simple nerve fibres are given off to the body-wall, especially 4uk t A, x °C FIG.
The eyes are refractive globules set in a cup of red pigment traversed by a nerve fibre, and lie on the proximal side of the body, directly on the postero-dorsal surface of the brain, or at a little distance from it, on the neck, often within the circle on the corona, and usually well within the transparent body.
It bears a group of long setose hairs the bases of which are connected with the nerve fibre.
The nerve ganglion is formed by an ingrowth of epiblast, and so are the pedal glands.
The extraing to foot of rotifers; at, median blastoporic opening of antenna, united by a nerve to br, brain the cloaca leads us to a (letter omitted in B); bl, bladder, re ver y different view, which ceiving ramified kidney in B, C, D; finds negative support f, foot, and f.g, its cement-gland;.
We may note that it was long since shown that the apical organ (at first assumed to be the brain) of these larvae was innervated from an anterior thickening of the circular nerve ring, corresponding with the brain of Rotifers; the nerve cells immediately below the pit are the ordinary bipolar From H.
He was able to maintain his strenuous habits of study till he reached the advanced age of seventy-two, when he was, forced, by paralysis of the optic nerve, to give up work almost.
The friend, however, lost his nerve and did not throw the dirk.
f, Retinal nerve.
veupov, a nerve, and 7rmEp6v, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for an order of the class Hexapoda.
- Spinal ganglion -Spinal nerve Aorta- From A.
Near the base of the ctenidium is a patch of sensory epithelium innervated from the branchial nerve, forming a sense-organ called the osphradium, whose function is to test the water entering the branchial cavity.
Pedal and pleural on each side are connected by a pleuro-pedal connective Each pleural ganglion gives off a long nerve which supplies the viscera, and the two unite posteriorly below the intestine.
pa.n, Pallial nerve.
t, temporal muscle; m, masseter; m', portion of masseter transmitted through the infra-orbital foramen, the superior maxillary nerve passing outwards between it and the maxilla.
Some years ago, when for instance the Ohio and Indiana elections were held a few weeks before the general election, each party strained every nerve to carry them, for the sake of prestige and the influence on other states.
The terminals of the vagus nerve are also stimulated, causing the heart to beat more slowly.
He agrees with Fechner that physical process of nerve and psychical process of mind are really the same psychophysical process as appearing on the one hand to an observer and on the other hand to one's own consciousness; and that physical phenomena only produce physical phenomena, so that those materialists and realists are wrong who say that physical stimuli produce sensations.
The cerebral ganglion also gives off a nerve on each side to a pair of small ganglia, united by a median commissure, which have sunk into and control the muscles of the head.
It is thought to depend upon some connexion, not yet anatomically demonstrated, between the third cranial nerve and its nucleus in the floor of the iter and the substantia nigra.
There are two closely connected cerebral ganglia, from which arise the usual two pairs of nerve cords.
The leaves are vertical, and arranged in two rows as in the garden flag; they are very thick, stiff and leathery, dark green above, paler below, with the margin and nerve reddishorange.
He strained every nerve to induce his clergy to accept his ruling on the questions of the reservation of the Sacrament and of the ceremonial use of incense in accordance with the archbishop's judgment in the Lincoln case; but when, during his last illness, a prosecutor brought proceedings against the clergy of five recalcitrant churches, the bishop, on the advice of his archdeacons, interposed his veto.
v.n, Ventral nerve cord.
The body is composed of a large number of segments; the prostomium bears a pair of tentacles; the nervous system consists of a brain and longitudinal ventral nerve cords closely connected with the epidermis (without distinct ganglia), widely separated in Saccocirrus, closely approximated in Protodrilus, fused together in Polygordius; the coelom is well developed, the septa are distinct, and the dorsal and ventral longitudinal mesenteries are complete; the nephridia are simple, and open into the coelom.
It resembles Dinophilus in the possession of a ventral pharyngeal pouch (which bears teeth in Histriodrilus only), the small number of segments, and absence of distinct septa, the absence of a vascular system, the presence of distinct ganglia on the ventral nerve cords, and of small nephridia which do not appear to open internally.
and break up into a very fine nerve plexus.
'MUSCLE AND NERVE (Physiology).
Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.
In several of these it appears not unlikely that the recurrent explosive liberations of energy in the muscle tissue are not secondary to recurrent explosions in nerve cells, but are attributable to decompositions arising sua sponte in the chemical substances of the muscle cells themselves in the course of their living.
In these the rhythmic activity is, however, clearly secondary to rhythmic discharges of the nerve cells constituting the respiratory centre in the bulb.
Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.
They are, however, less excitable than are the nerve cells which innervate them.
Just as in a nerve fibre, when excited by a localized stimulus, the excited state spreads from the excited point to the adjacent unexcited ones, so in muscle the "contraction," when excited at a point, spreads to the adjacent uncontracted parts.
Both in muscle and in nerve this spread is termed conduction.
Non-myelinate nerve fibres are as resistant to fatigue as are the myelinate.
The work of Camillo Golgi (Pavia, 1885 and onwards) on the minute structure of the nervous system has led to great alteration of doctrine in neural physi nerve cells, that is to say, the fine nerve fibres - since all nerve fibres are nerve cell branches, and all nerve cell branches are nerve fibres - which form a close felt-work in the nervous centres, there combined into a network actually continuous throughout.
Each neuron or nerve cell is a morphologically distinct and discrete unit connected functionally but not structurally with its neighbours, and leading its own life independently of the destiny of its neighbours.
But when neurons are linked together it is found that nerve impulses will only pass from neuron A to neuron B, and not from neuron B to neuron A; that is, the transmission of the excited state or nervous impulse, although possible in each neuron both up and down its own cell branches, is possible from one nerve cell to another in one direction only.
That direction is the direction in which the nerve impulses flow under the conditions of natural life.
The synapse, therefore, as the place of meeting of one neuron with the next is called, is said to valve the nerve circuits.
The axons of the motor neurons are, inasmuch as they are nerve fibres in nerve trunks, easily accessible to artificial stimuli.
of the response of the nerve, it is found that unmistakable signs of fatigue appear even very soon after commencement of the excitation of the nerve, and the muscle ceases to give any contraction in response to stimuli applied indirectly to it through its nerve.
by direct application of electric currents, contract vigorously after all response on its part to the stimuli (nerve impulses) applied to it indirectly through its nerve has failed.
The inference is that the "fatigue substances" generated in the muscle fibres in the course of their prolonged contraction injure and paralyse the motor end plates, which are places of synapsis between nerve cell and muscle cell, even earlier than they harm the contractility of the muscle fibres themselves.
The alkaloid curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre.
On the other hand, in some neurons, after severance of the axon from the rest of the cell (spinal motor cell), the whole nerve cell as well as the severed axon degenerates, and may eventually die and be removed.
In the severed axon the degeneration is first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve filaments of the motor end plate.
This death of the sheath as well as of the axis cylinder shows that it, like the axis cylinder, is a part of the nerve cell itself.
When, for instance, the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina are severed by section of the optic nerve, and thus their influence upon the nerve cells of the visual cerebral centres is set aside, the nerve cells of those centres undergo secondary atrophy (Gadden's atrophy).
Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the muscle cells undergo "degeneration" - dwindle, become fatty, and alter almost beyond recognition.
This trophic influence which one neuron exerts upon others, or upon the cells of an extrinsic tissue, such as muscle, is exerted in that direction which is the one normally taken by the natural nerve impulses.
It seems, especially in the case of the nexus between certain neurons, that the influence, loss of which endangers nutrition, is associated with the occurrence of something more than merely the nervous impulses awakened from time to time in the leading nerve cell.
A continuous lesser "change" or stream of changes sets through the neuron, and is distributed by it to other neurons in the same direction and by the same synapses as are its nerve impulses.
In tracing the tonus of neurons to a source, one is always led link by link against the current of nerve force - so to say, "up stream" - to the first beginnings of the chain of neurons in the sensifacient surfaces of the body.
These muscles exhibit a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which disappears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle.
Stretching of the muscles antagonistic to the extensors - namely, of the flexor muscles - reduces the jerk by inhibiting the extensor spinal nerve cells through the nervous impulses generated by the tense flexor muscles.
Exner first showed, many years ago, that the nerve impulse travels through the spinal ganglion at the same speed as along the other parts of the nerve trunk - that is, that it suffers no delay in transit through the perikarya of the afferent rootneurons.
In the myelinated cell branches of the neuron, that is, in the ordinary nerve fibres, no visible change has ever been demonstrated as the result of any normal activity, however great - a striking contrast to the observations obtained on the perikarya.
The chemical changes that accompany activity in the nerve fibre must be very small, for the production of CO 2 is barely measurable, and no production of heat is observable as the result of the most forced tetanic activity.
The nerve cells of the higher vertebrata, unlike their blood cells, their connective tissue cells, and even their muscle cells, early, and indeed in embryonic life, lose power of Nervous multiplication.
This is the explanation of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres.
As a rule, a longer time is required to restore the motor than the sensory functions of a nerve trunk.
At the beginning of its history each is unprovided with myelinate nerve fibres.
Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it.
It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.
The nerve cell just prior to sleep is still well capable of response to stimuli, although perhaps the threshold-value of the stimulus has become rather high, whereas after entrance upon sleep and continuance of sleep for several hours, and more, when all spur to the dissimilation process has been long withheld, the threshold-value of the sensory stimulus becomes enormously higher than before.
The long-continued incitement to catabolism of the waking day thus of itself predisposes the nerve cells towards rebound into the opposite phase; the increased catabolism due to the day's stimuli induces increase of anabolism, and though recuperation goes on to a large extent during the day itself, the recuperative process is slower than, and lags behind, the disintegrative.
nerve cells, to lessen the cell's entire metabolism, to reduce the speed of its whole chemical movement and life.
The physical "touch" that initiates the psychical "touch" initiates, through the very same nerve channels, a reflex movement responsive to the physical "touch," just as the psychical "touch" may be considered also a response to the same physical event.
This latter result is due to paralysis of the chorda tympani nerve, which is mainly responsible for the salivary secretion.
Certain nerve fibres from the sympathetic nervous system, which can also cause the secretion of a (specially viscous) saliva, are entirely unaffected by atropine.
Whether effected entirely by action on the nerve terminals, or by an additional influence upon the vaso-motor centre in the medulla oblongata, atropine certainly causes extreme dilatation of the blood-vessels, so much so that the skin becomes flushed and there may appear, after large doses, an erythematous rash, which must be carefully distinguished, in cases of supposed belladonna poisoning, from that of scarlet fever: more especially as the temperature may be elevated and the pulse is very rapid in both conditions.
This can be experimentally shown - by the method of exclusion - to be caused by a paralysis of the terminals of the third cranial nerve in the sphincter pupillae of the iris.
Professor Schafer recommended the use of atropine prior to the administration of a general anaesthetic, in cases where the action of the vagus nerve upon the heart is to be dreaded; and there is little doubt of the value of this precaution, which has no attendant disadvantages, in all such cases.
Fusel oil and its chief constituent, amyl alcohol, are direct nerve poisons.
A difference in calibre, elasticity or branching of a blood vessel, the smallest variation in a nerve or group of vessel-cells, any anatomical or physiological divergence, is reflected throughout the organism.
tongue, or in a foreign language, and may be used (as in the examination for entrance to the Osborne Naval College) to test the important qualities (hardly tested in any other examinations at present), readiness of wit, common-sense and nerve.
Again, so long as we keep to the syllogism as complete in itself and without reference to its place in the great structure of knowledge, the nerve of proof cannot be conceived in other than a formal manner.
The nerve of proof in the processes by which he establishes causal conjunctions of unlimited application is naturally thought to lie in the special canons of the several processes and the axioms of universal and uniform causation which form their background.
The exponent of logic as metaphysic, for whom the rational is the real is necessarily in revolt against all that is characteristically Kantian in the theory of knowledge, against the transcendental method itself and against the doctrine of limits which constitutes the nerve of " criticism."
Augustus, however, was now seventytwo, the Dalmatian outbreak had severely tried his nerve, and now for the second time in three years the fates seemed to pronounce clearly against a further prosecution of his long-cherished scheme of a Roman Germany reaching to the Elbe.
(4) Section taken transversely through praeoral region near termination of nerve tube.
The oral hood with its cirri has a special nerve supply and musculature by which the cirri can be either spread out, or bent inwards so that those of one side may interdigitate with those of the other, thus completely closing the entrance to the mouth.
This cord is neither elastic nor solid, but consists of nerve tissue, fibres and ganglion cells, surrounding a small central canal.
The first dorsal spinal nerve coincides in position with the myocomma which separates the first myotome from the second on each side, and thereafter the successive dorsal roots pass through the substance of the myocommata on their way to the skin; they are therefore septal or intersegmental in position.
- a, Atrium; al, alimentary canal; y blood-vessel; cv, cerebral vesicle; df, dorsal section of myocoel (= fin spaces); e, " eyespot"; end, endostyle; gl, club-shaped gland; lm, edge of left metapleur; m, lower edge of mouth; n, notochord; nt, pigmented nerve tube; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 9, and 14; rc, renal cells on atrial floor; rm, edge of right metapleur; so, sense organ opening into praeoral pit; ss, thickenings, the rudiments of the row of secondary gill-slits.
In 1843, after his removal to Gottingen, he began his great Handworterbuch der Physiologie, mit Riicksicht auf physiologische Pathologie, and brought out the fifth (supplementary) volume in 1852; the only contributions of his own in it were on the sympathetic nerve, nerve-ganglia and nerve-endings, and he modestly disclaimed all merit except as being the organizer.
By first connecting himself with John through his marriage with the English king's daughter Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England.
The pain is due to stretching of the nerve fibrils or compression of them by the turgid vessels in the swollen tissues.
These probably lessen fever by their action upon the nerve centres which regulate the temperature of the body, and partly by their peripheral action in causing the secretion of sweat.
The nature of this is not very easy to analyse, but as mental depression is closely associated with irritation of the vagus nerve and weakening of the circulation, it seems not at all unlikely that mountain air acts by accelerating the pulse and quickening the circulation, and thus creating a sense of well-being.
vfUpov, nerve, and iiXryos, pain), a term denoting strictly the existence of pain in some portion or throughout the whole of the distribution of a nerve without any distinctly recognizable structural change in the nerve or nerve centres.
This strict definition, if adhered to, however, would not be applicable to a large number of cases of neuralgia; for in not a few instances the pain is connected with some source of irritation, by pressure or otherwise, in the course of the affected nerve; and hence the word is generally used to indicate pain affecting a particular nerve or its branches from any cause.
Any strain upon the nervous system, such as mental overwork or anxiety, is a potent cause; or exposure to cold and damp, which seems to excite irritation in a nerve already predisposed to suffer.
But irritation may be produced by numerous other causes besides this - such as a decayed tooth, diseased bone, local inflammations in which nerves are implicated, by some source of pressure upon a nerve trunk, or by swelling of its sheath in its passage through a bony canal or at its exit upon the surface.
Various forms of perverted nerve function may be found co-existing with or following neuralgia.
Facial neuralgia, or tic douloureux, affects the great nerve of sensation of the face (fifth nerve), and may occur in one or more of the three divisions in which the nerve is distributed.
When the first or upper division of the nerve is involved the pain is mostly felt in the forehead and side of the head.
When the second division of the nerve is affected the pain is chiefly in the cheek and upper jaw, the painful points being immediately below the lower eyelid, over the cheek bone, and about the upper lip. When the third division of the nerve suffers the pain affects the lower jaw, and the chief painful points are in front of the ear and about the chin.
The specially painful points are chiefly at the commencement of the nerve as it issues from the spinal canal, and at the extremities towards the front of the body, where it breaks up into filaments which ramify in the skin.
It affects the great sciatic nerve which emerges from the pelvis and runs down the leg to the foot.
It is in most instances traceable to exposure to cold or damp, to overuse of the limbs in walking, &c. Any source of pressure upon the nerve within the pelvis, such as may be produced by a tumour or even by constipation of the bowels, may excite an attack of sciatica.
In general the nerve of one side only is affected.
The pain which is felt at first a little behind the hip-joint steadily increases in severity and extends along the course of the nerve and its branches in many instances as far as the toes.
The plan at one time resorted to of dividing or excising a portion of the affected nerve is now seldom employed, but the operation of nerve-stretching in some forms of neuralgia, notably sciatica, is sometimes successful.
It consists in cutting down upon and exposing the nerve, and in seizing hold and drawing upon it so as to stretch it.
Thus in diphtheria changes in both nerve cells and nerve fibres have been found, and in tetanus minute alterations in the nucleus and protoplasm of nerve cells.
There is therefore strong evidence that antitoxin molecules do exist as part of the living substance of nerve cells.
The separate nervecentres are, as a rule, placed in communication only by the general nerve-plexus, but in Charybdaea there is a zigzag marginal nerve connecting them up.
- Scattered Nerve Ganglion Cells.
f, nerve the gastrula stage.
Close to each cerebral ganglion is a pleural ganglion, and each is connected by a long nerve with the pedal ganglion of the same side, the two connectives of either side being united in the distal part of their course.
Yet there were elements of weakness in his character which his short life only half revealed: an impetuosity which made him twice threaten to take his own life; a superstitious vein which impelled him to consult oracles and shrink from bad omens; an amiable dilettantism which led him to travel in Egypt while his enemy was plotting his ruin; a want of nerve and resolution which prevented him from coming to an open rupture with Piso till it was too late.
The nervous system consists of a circumoesophageal nerve, with scarcely differ entiated brain, joining below a large ganglionic mass no doubt representing many fused ganglia (B).
It is of thin membranous consistence, usually obtuse, often bifid, and possesses no central rib or nerve, but has two lateral ones, one on either side; the margins are frequently folded in at the ribs, which thus become placed at the sharp angles.
Its most effective use, however, is as a nerve tonic in paralysis agitans, locomotor ataxia, impotence and nervous exhaustion.
He discovered that in the nervous trunks there are special sensory filaments, the office of which is to transmit impressions from the periphery of the body to the sensorium, and special motor filaments which convey motor impressions from the brain or other nerve centre to the muscles.
He also demonstrated that no motor nerve ever passes through a ganglion.
Beneath each food-groove was a radial water-vessel and probably a nerve and blood-vessel, all which structures passed either between certain regularly arranged thecal plates, or along a furrow floored by those plates, which were then in two alternating series.
ciliated podium outer nerve tract covers g plate flooring plate deeper nerve water vessel coelomm A.
deeper nerve water vessel (retain B.
eater nerve tract' podium ciliated outer nerve tract svver/ng plate podium .deePe crater vessel (Joao/neespace podia anibu/acres/ plate older nerve lobes of fle.rible inteq.
But Richardwho showed astounding nerve and presence of mind for a lad of fourteencantered up to them shouting that he would be their chief and captain.
In other instances, notably in the lemurs, but also in certain carnivora, rodents and marsupials, they occupy a position on the fore-arm near the wrist, in connexion with glands, and receive sensory powers from the radial nerve.
McClellan, charging him with incompetency and lack of "nerve."
(k) The nerve-cells of the ventral nerve cords are segregated as paired ganglia in each somite, often united by meristic dislocation into composite ganglia.
In the heating operation the surface is charred, and thereby the pores are closed up, and what is termed "nerve" is given to the material.
Here he stated the principle, not before recognized, that the kind of sensation following stimulation of a sensory nerve does not depend on the mode of stimulation but upon the nature of the sense-organ.
Thus light, pressure, or mechanical stimulation acting on the retina and optic nerve invariably produces luminous impressions.
The similarity of the symptoms to those of cholera is very marked, but if the suspicion arises it can soon be cleared up by examining any of the secretions for arsenic. More rarely the poison seems to centre itself on the nerve centres, and gastro-intestinal symptoms may be almost or quite absent.
This case arises when the visual angle, under which the object appears, is approximately a minute of arc; it is due to the physiological construction of the retina, for the ends of nerve fibres, which receive the impression of light, have themselves a definite size.
VII.p, Posterior division of the seventh nerve.
The explanation generally given is that the nerve and other cells become accustomed to the drug, so that they cease to react, or that an antitoxin is formed which antagonizes the poison, or that the poison is rapidly destroyed in the body.
All of them injected into the blood in large doses act as muscle and nerve poisons, and during their excretion by the kidney usually irritate it severely, but only a few are absorbed in sufficient amount to produce similar effects when given by the mouth.
- This embraces a very large number of important pharmacological substances, which differ a good deal in the details of their action, but they all act upon muscle and nerve tissue.
In large doses they are powerful nerve poisons, but as usually taken they exercise a gently stimulant effect upon the nervous system.
Aconitine, delphinine and many of their derivatives have a very widespread depressing action on muscle and nerve.
- In large doses the action of picrotoxin is exerted chiefly on the medullary nerve centres, whereby irregular tonic-clonic convulsions are produced; in minute doses it stops the secretion of sweat.
Hydrocyanic acid is a general protoplasmic poison, all the lower organisms being very susceptible to its action, while in the higher animals it speedily depresses or paralyses all forms of nerve tissue.
ScactiopEiv, to carry through) increase the amount of sweat, either by acting directly on the sweat centres or on the nerve terminals.
Where did he get the nerve to call Giddon a jerk, after hiding behind her?
Although, lately she had been hitting that nerve with little or no effort.
Someone had the utter nerve to maim me who didn't even have a gun!
The demon lord bristled visibly for a split second, long enough to tell her she hit a nerve.
He didn't know what nerve he hit, but he'd hit something.
The bastard had the nerve to ask me to climb with him.
And he has the nerve to call this shit exciting and romantic!
Someone grabbed the dough and Dean didn't believe Baratto or the twins had either the brains or nerve to pull off a heist like that, much less stay mum about it for months.
Alex knew how to make every nerve in her body ache for him.
He has bilateral optic nerve atrophy, which affects the visual information passing from the eye to the brain.
acetyl L-Carnitine have been shown to help nerve and muscle tissue re-grow.
The junction shown in figure 1 is of a nerve that releases acetylcholine.
acetylcholine release at the nerve terminal.
Terminal nerve fibers release acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction, which then binds to acetylcholine receptors on muscle cells.
Sarin is the nerve agent that was later used in the terrorist attack on the Tokyo underground in 1995.
agonizee with nerve damage often endure years of agonizing pain, with little respite from traditional pain-killers.
Nerve agents are powerful; they require powerful antidotes to keep the victim alive.
In America, animal tests conducted with a mixture of a nerve gas antidote and insect repellent indicated nerve damage.
Primary reflex Aquarius: Nerve system, proprioceptive system, spinal cord.
armpit area that damaged the nerve.
This case had fore and hind limb ataxia but normal cranial nerve function.
atropine injectors used by panicky Iranian troops as an antidote against Iraqi nerve gas attacks.
The drug atropine inhibits the parasympathetic nerve, causing the pupil to dilate.
auditory nerve to the brain.
They work by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve (nerve of hearing ).
The motor nerve cell body has a long fiber called an axon, which extends from the central nervous system to the muscles.
The cell body of a sensory nerve has two axons.
Gray matter contains nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated axons.
A single long axon carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body.
Figure 22 Transport of material along the nerve axon.
Some branchial motor axons travel with the inferior alveolar nerve.
Nerves These are made up of bundles of nerve cell axons.
John O'Neill should be well known to Nerve readers, having provided the breathtaking backdrops for our last two covers.
No attack materialized, and during Sunday there was increasing bewilderment and loss of nerve.
cheeky blighter had the nerve to nip me, but IÃ¢m pretty confident it was only a nip rather than a sting.
Your vet may be able to perform temporary nerve blocks to see if an anesthetic can temporarily stop the headshaking.
Digital nerve blockade is simple and easy to perform and provides useful analgesia for a variety of minor surgical procedures.
The boardroom A reconstruction of the company boardroom, the nerve center of the manufacturing process.
Will they have the nerve to tell you that you have a huge bogie under your nose?
bony metastases is usually localized, except where there is associated nerve involvement or damage.
brachial plexus block, we just do not know the incidence of long term nerve problems.
brainstem implants have been used for adults who have suffered trauma to their hearing nerve which means that it is no longer useful.
The heat thickens and seals the disk wall and reduces inner disk bulge and irritation of the spinal nerve.
capsaicin application results in desensitization of nerve fibers with reduced nerve responses to subsequent doses.
carpusedle tip in flexor carpi ulnaris does not help an ulnar nerve block.
The problem is that only 0.2% of the damaged nerve cells are replaced.
checked into the motel, I knew that something or someone might cause me to loose my nerve.
At the optic chiasm about half of the visual information in each optic nerve swaps over to the opposite nerve.
McTimoney chiropractic aims to restore nerve function in order to promote natural health.
cholinergic poison, not very dissimilar from what you would know as a " nerve agent " .
They are nerve poisons, inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which can have severe effects on the central nervous system.
cinema screenings for schools, The Nerve Center Monday 17 January, 10.00am - 1.00pm, The Diary of Anne Frank.
Numerous chemical and biological phenomena are modeled by non-linear ODE's, for example chemical reactions and voltage clamped nerve cells.
cleavage of these proteins precludes fusion of the vesicles with the nerve membrane, thereby preventing release of neurotransmitters into the neuromuscular junction.
conduction of impulses through the nerve.
Digoxin also acts indirectly by increasing parasympathetic activity via the vagus nerve, further slowing atrioventricular node conduction.
Asked how nerve conduction studies work at which point bell went thank goodness.
Local anesthetic agents may be administered intradermally or subcutaneously to block impulse conduction in local nerve fibers.
The two hemispheres communicate via dense bundles of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
cranial nerve carries information from the teeth to the brain?
cranial nerve palsy had significantly worse prognosis than those with bony erosion alone.
This is when a small muscle in the ear, which is also controlled by the 7th cranial nerve, stops working temporarily too.
Cranial nerve palsies of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves may occur, affecting extraocular motility.
The trigeminal nerve is exposed by performing a craniotomy (small hole in the skull behind the ear ).
The Schwann cell has an extensive cytoplasm which allows it to wrap a myelin sheath around nerve axons.
nerve damage can interfere with the activity of the sweat glands, making it difficult for the body to regulate temperature.
deaden nerve and destroy brain, had still to develop.
decompress the nerve when all else fails.
decompression of a trapped nerve.
Microvascular decompression treats the cause of the disease without inducing nerve damage.
In cases where there has been trauma, facial nerve decompression may be justified.
dendrite of a postsynaptic nerve cell.
The narrowing of the hole is detected by a nerve cell dendrite which projects into it, producing an electric signal.
The most frequently involved cranial nerve dermatome is the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve.
testing the sacral dermatomes is especially important with an epidural, as these nerve roots are not always blocked.
desperate to escape, have the nerve to leave?
differentiate into specialized cells such as muscle cells, nerve cells or blood cells.
dissection of the facial nerve is the more popular in China.
ducts of the gland must be distinguished from the facial nerve.
dystrophytal nerve and muscle disease, including muscular dystrophies.
Reflexology is a system of healthcare that works by stimulating the many nerve endings in the feet.
These nerve endings or ' reflex points ' are related to various zones of the body.
Orthoptic findings included concomitant esotropia, sixth, third and fourth nerve palsies.
This is normally prevented by a tiny messenger substance known as " GABA " which makes the nerve cells less excitable.
This causes the membrane potential to become more negative and results in muscle and nerve cells becoming less excitable.
There is a rational explanation: in some of these mutants, particular subsets of nerve cells are absent.
The superior and inferior longitudinal muscles each had an average of 40 distinct muscle fascicles, each supplied by a nerve branch.
New branches of the remaining nerve cells were sent out to adopt the orphaned muscle fibers.
fibre optic nerve is made up of thousands of nerve fibers.
Results: Neither moving the head forward or trunk flexion caused significant movement of the median nerve.
flexor carpi ulnaris does not help an ulnar nerve block.
This large nerve exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to enter the gluteal region - more info.
Several branchial motor nerves are also given off as the mandibular nerve enters the infratemporal fossa.
HSV is transported along the axons to the sensory nerve cell bodies, which for the oral cavity are located within the trigeminal ganglion.
ganglion cells form the optic nerve.
Other people believe that the virus only resides within the nerve ganglion, which is further away from the skin.
geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve.
glia cells slow nerve regeneration, they're not the only problem.
harmonize.S. Power Box tunes in on the nerve endings, harmonizing with the body 's own electrical impulses.
WHAT IT DOES It helps conduct nerve impulses, muscle function and regulates heartbeat and blood pressure.
Corpus callosum: A thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
histopathology of diabetic peripheral nerve disease.
Carmen is an expert horsewoman and held her nerve admirably when it mattered.
hyperventilation results in nerve and muscle irritability and muscle spasms.