Longimanus (465-425), attracts attention because the famous Jewish reformers Ezra and Nehemiah flourished under a king of this name.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
We have no information regarding Jerusalem during the period of the captivity, but fortunately Nehemiah, who was permitted to return and rebuild the defences about 445 B.C., has given a fairly clear description of the line of the wall which enables us to obtain a good idea of the extent of the city at this period.
The Temple had already been partially rebuilt by Zedekiah and his companions, but on a scale far inferior to the magnificent building of King Solomon, and Nehemiah devoted his attention to the reconstruction of the walls.
Nehemiah mentions a number of places on the eastern hill, including the tomb of David, the positions of which cannot with our present knowledge be fixed with any certainty.
After the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a considerable number of Jews returned to the city, but we know practically nothing of its history for more than a century until, in 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Syria.
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
There is none on Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah.
44 8 -447), independent evidence for the position of Judah is needed, since a catastrophe apparently befell the unfortunate state before Nehemiah appears upon the scene.
- The biblical history for the Persian period is contained in a new source - the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, whose standpoint and period are that of Chronicles, with which they are closely joined.
4 See Ezra And Nehemiah with bibliographical references, also T.
presupposes the desolation after that disaster, and some traces of these families are found in Nehemiah's time; and while the traditions know of a separation from Edom (viz.
It is the work of rebuilding and reorganization, of social and of religious reforms, which we encounter in the last pages of biblical history, and in the records of Ezra and Nehemiah we stand in Jerusalem in the very centre of epoch-making events.
Nehemiah, the cup-bearer of Artaxerxes at Susa, plunged in grief at the news of the desolation of Jerusalem, obtained permission from the king to rebuild the ruins.
It was insinuated that Nehemiah had his prophets to proclaim that Judah had again its own king; it was even suggested that he was intending to rebel against Persia!
Nehemiah naturally gives us only his version, and the attitude of Haggai and Zechariah to Zerubbabel may illustrate the feeling of his partisans.
Nevertheless the undaunted Judaean pressed on unmoved by the threatening letters which were sent around, and succeeded in completing the walls within fifty-two days.2 In the next place, Nehemiah appears as governor of the small district of Judah and Benjamin.
Nehemiah was faced with old abuses, and vehemently contrasted the harshness of the nobles with the generosity of the exiles who would redeem their poor countrymen from slavery.
Nehemiah also turns his attention to religious abuses.
Again Nehemiah's wrath was kindled.
With this Nehemiah brings the account of his reforms to a conclusion, and the words " Remember me, 0 my God, for good " (xiii.
The story of this scribe (now combined with the memoirs of Nehemiah) crystallizes the new movement inaugurated after a return of exiles from Babylonia.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
- The biblical history for the period in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah is exceptionally obscure, and it is doubtful how far the traditions can be trusted before we reach the reign of Artaxerxes (Ezra vii.
(c) In the 10th year (445 B.C.) Nehemiah returned with permission to rebuild the walls, the citadel and the governor's house (Neh.
The disaster which aroused Nehemiah's grief was scarcely the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., but a more recent one, and it has been conjectured that it followed the work of Ezra (in b above).
Next, since there are three distinct sources, for (a) above, and for the work of Nehemiah and of Ezra, implicit reliance cannot be placed upon the present sequence of narratives.
This agrees substantially with the independent records of Nehemiah, and unless we assume two disasters not widely separated in date - viz.
7) to frighten Nehemiah (Neh.
15 seq., 20 seq.), and it may possibly be gathered that Nehemiah at once departed to justify himself (Neh.
seq.), Nehemiah's position as a reformer would be more secure.
Jerusalem had suffered some serious catastrophe before Nehemiah's return; a body of exiles returned, and in spite of interference the work of rebuilding was completed; through their influence the Judaean community underwent reorganization, and separated itself from its so-called heathen neighbours.
In the records of Nehemiah the ruins of the city are extensive (ii.
13), and the tradition that Nehemiah rebuilt this Temple (Jos.
7-23 and overlook the serious intricacies in the book of Nehemiah.
and iv.) from a subsequent stage when the first inhabitants of Jerusalem correspond in the main to the new population after Nehemiah had repaired the ruins (I Chron.
With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.
Laws were 1 It is at least a coincidence that the prophet who took the part of Tobiah and Sanballat against Nehemiah (vi.
The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.
This again simply means that the Mosaism of Ezra or Nehemiah must have differed essentially from the priestly teaching prior to their arrival.
This is especially true of the history of the exilic and post-exilic periods, where the effort is made to preserve the continuity of Israel and the Israelite community (Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah).
The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
14); and when Nehemiah prepared to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem an Ammonite was foremost in opposition (Neh.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
For the impression which we get from Nehemiah's memoirs is that in his days the community at Jerusalem was in the main poverty-stricken, while Malachi's exhortations to the people to pay their dues to the priests implies that in the middle of the fifth century B.C. the Temple was by no means wealthy.
Ben Sira indeed in his list of worthies mentions Zerubbabel, Joshua and Nehemiah; but Zerubbabel and Joshua he must have known from the books of Haggai and Zechariah, and he may well have been acquainted with that document relating to Nehemiah which the Chronicler incorporated with his book.
In Nehemiah xii.
41 the gild of singers as a whole is called Bne Asaph, as it was apparently in the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
Malachi, Ezra and Nehemiah, like Haggai and Zechariah, are still very far from holding that the sin of Israel lies all in the past.
There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th century B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general rising against Persia.
7-10, is most easily understood of the time when the Lord who had shown Himself strong and mighty by His victories over the heathen returned in triumph to His Temple in 164 B.C. - in the days of Zerubbabel or of Nehemiah Jehovah had not recently shown Himself " mighty in battle."
which contain the Syriac Massorah or tradition of the reading of the text pass over Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, and in the case of the Nestorians also Esther.
The manufacture of jewelry, which was established in Providence in 1784, was greatly promoted ten years later by Nehemiah Dodge's invention of the process of " gold-filling," still further improved in 1846 by Thomas H.
The book closes with an appeal to observe the law of Moses, and with a promise that Elijah shall come before the threatened judgment.3 The topics noticed clearly relate the prophecy to the period of Ezra and Nehemiah, when the Temple had been rebuilt (i.
The majority of modern scholars are agreed that the prophet prepares for the work of those reformers (Ezra, 458; Nehemiah, 444, 43 2 B.C.).
The abuses of which he particularly complains are such as were found rampant by Ezra and Nehemiah - marriage with foreign women (ii.
produce the impression that it was not introduced for the first time by Ezra and Nehemiah, though the collection of the tithe was enforced by them.
From the authentic report of his cup-bearer Nehemiah we see that he was a kind, good-natured, but rather weak monarch, and he was undoubtedly much under the baneful influence of his mother Amestris (for whose mischievous character cf.
Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judentums, 1896; see further Jews, § 19, 21, 22; Ezra And Nehemiah).
BOOKS OF EZRA AND NEHEMIAH, in the Old Testament.
The two canonical books entitled Ezra and Nehemiah in the English Bible' correspond to the I and 2 Esdras of the Vulgate, to the 2 Esdras of the Septuagint, and to the Ezra and Nehemiah of the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.
8) reckoned Nehemiah as apart from Ezra.
That the Jews themselves recognized no real separation is shown by the fact that no Massoretic notes are found after Ezra x., but at the end of Nehemiah the contents of both are reckoned together, and it is stated that Neh.
26, 47), to the days of Jaddua (the grandson of Nehemiah's contemporary Joiada; ib.
(c) Twelve years elapse before the return of Nehemiah, whose description of his work is one of the most interesting pieces of Old Testament narrative (Neh.
In the twentieth year of Artaxerxes (445 B.C.), Nehemiah the royal cup-bearer at Shushan (Susa, the royal winter palace) was visited by friends from Judah and was overcome with grief at the tidings of the miserable condition of Jerusalem and the pitiful state of the Judaean remnant which had escaped the captivity.
But notwithstanding attempts upon the city and upon the life of Nehemiah, and in spite of intrigues among certain members of the Judaean section, in fifty-two days the city walls were complete (Neh.
A valuable account is given of Nehemiah's economical reforms, illustrating the internal social conditions of the period and the general character of the former governors who had been placed in charge (v., cf.
(d) The remaining chapters carry on the story of the labours of both Ezra and Nehemiah.
The book concludes with another extract from Nehemiah's memoirs dealing with the events of a second visit, twelve years later (xiii.
12-26) 3; the character of the name-lists; the lengthy gaps in the history; the use made of two distinct sources, attributed to Ezra and Nehemiah respectively, and from the varying form in which the narratives are cast.
There are relatively few traces of it in Nehemiah's memoirs and in the Aramaic documents, but elsewhere the sources are largely coloured, if not written from the standpoint of his age.
i.; that the walls had been destroyed and the gates burnt down; that some external opposition (with which, however, Ezra did not have to contend) had been successful; that the main object of Ezra's mission was delayed for twelve years, and, finally, that only through Nehemiah's energy was the work of social and religious reorganization successful.
is that of families which returned "every man unto his city" under twelve leaders (including Nehemiah, Azariah [cf.
21 and looks forward to the time of Ezra or Nehemiah.
Memoirs of Nehemiah and Ezra.
- The memoirs of Ezra and Nehemiah do not appear to have been incorporated without some adjustment.
is probably from another source; the style is different, Nehemiah is absent, and the high-priest is unusually prominent.
2 Chap. v., where Nehemiah reviews his past conduct as governor, turns aside to economic reforms and scarcely falls within the fifty-two days of the building of the walls.
31, 38, 40), it is probably now due as a whole to the chronicler, and when the more trustworthy memoirs of Nehemiah are resumed (xiii.
3 Nehemiah's attitude towards intermarriage is markedly moderate in contrast to the drastic measures of Ezra, whose mission and work the simpler and perhaps earlier narratives of Nehemiah originally ignored, and the relation between the two is complicated further by the literary character of the memoir of Ezra.
36), and whilst as a whole the memoirs of Ezra point to ideas later than those of Nehemiah, the present close literary connexion between them is seen in the isolated reference to Johanan the son of Eliashib in Ezra x.
It is precisely at this age that there is evidence for a return, apparently other than that of Ezra or Nehemiah (see Ezr.
I I) makes the date of Nehemiah's arrival practically the anniversary of Ezra's return (Ezr.
The present chronological order of Nehemiah's work is confused (cf.
Nehemiah speaks not of Philistines, but of Ashdodites (iv.
The book of Nehemiah is really part of the same work with the book of Ezra, though it embodies certain memoirs of Nehemiah in which he writes in the first person.
Apart from what is related in this book we possess little information about Nehemiah.
See further Ezra And Nehemiah (Books), Jews :' History §§ 21 seq.
A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
With this it accords that in Nehemiah five generations of high priests are enumerated from Joshua (xii.
See further Ezra And Nehemiah.
Nehemiah Grew and his contemporary Marcello Malpighi were the earliest discoverers in the department of plant anatomy.
Nehemiah Grew seems to have been the first to describe, in a paper on the Anatomy of Plants, read before the Royal Society in November 1676, the functions of the stamens and pistils.
13 it is said that Nehemiah, " founding a library, gathered together the things concerning the kings and prophets, and the (writings) of David, and letters of kings about sacred gifts."
(c) The remaining books, Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah (forming one book), Chronicles.'
The expansion of the Talmudic twenty-four to the thirty-nine Old Testament books of the English Bible is effected by reckoning the Minor Prophets one by one, by separating Ezra from Nehemiah, and by subdividing the long books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.
1 The books of Samuel, Kings, Ezra and Nehemiah, and Chronicles, were by the Jews each treated (and written) as one book, and were not divided by them into two till the 16th century, through Christian influence.
The historical books of the Old Testament form two series: one, consisting of the books from Genesis to 2 Kings (exclusive of Ruth, which, as we have seen, forms in the Hebrew canon part of the Hagiographa), embracing the period from the Creation to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586 B.C.; the other, comprising the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, beginning with Adam and ending with the second visit of Nehemiah to Jerusalem in 432 B.C. These two series differ from one another materially in scope and point of view, but in one respect they are both constructed upon a similar plan; no entire book in either series consists of a single, original work; but older writings, or sources, have been combined by a compiler - or sometimes, in stages, by a succession of compilers - in such a manner that the points of juncture are often clearly discernible, and the sources are in consequence capable of being separated from one another.
These books form the second series of historical books referred to above, Ezra and Nehemiah carrying on the narrative of Chronicles, and forming its direct sequel.
The books of Ezra and Nehemiah are of similar structure; here the sources excerpted are the Memoirs of Ezra.
and Nehemiah, written by themselves in the first person;, viz.
It is not a version, but merely that text of the Pentateuch which has been preserved by the Samaritan community since the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
about 332 B.C. It is possible that he is correct in placing the building of the temple at the later date, but probably he errs in connecting it with the secession of Manasseh, which, according to Nehemiah, occurred a century earlier; it has been suggested that he has confused Darius Codomannus with his predecessor, Darius Nothus.
Ezra and Nehemiah were written after, Esther during, or after, the captivity: Job, which is not a history but a philosophical poem, at an uncertain date.
There is no doubt but that in the Maccabean times and onward 218 was the shekel; but the use of the word darkemon by Ezra and Nehemiah, and the probabilities of their case, point to the daragmaneh, 1/60 maneh or shekel of Assyria; and the mention of 1/3 shekel by Nehemiah as poll tax nearly proves that the 129 and not 218 grains is intended, as 218 is not divisible by 3.
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
Moses Kimhi also composed commentaries to the biblical books; those on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah are in the great rabbinical bibles falsely ascribed to Abraham ibn Ezra.
If Sanballat the Horonite was really a native of the Moabite Horonaim, he finds an appropriate place by the side of Tobiah the Ammonite and Gashmu the Arabian among the strenuous opponents of Nehemiah.
It has indeed been argued that, as the author seems to take no offence at the marriage of Israelites with Moabite women, he must have lived before the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix.; Neh.
No definite conclusion can be drawn from the fact that the language stands in marked contrast to that of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c., since writings presumably more or less contemporary did not necessarily share the same characteristics (observe, for example, the prose parts of Job).
The independent evidence for the present post-exilic form of the book has consequently led many scholars to the conclusion that it was directed against the drastic steps associated with the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, which, as is known, were not everywhere acceptable.
On the other hand, the provision of regular support for the priests and Levites, the ministers of the public ritual, was now all important, and received special attention from Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.
The last change in the system was the appropriation of the Levitical tithe by the priests, which apparently was effected by John Hyrcanus, though a tradition, glaringly inconsistent with Nehemiah, ascribes it to Ezra, alleging that he deprived the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Mishnah, "Ma'aser Sh."
But there is an interesting parallel in the legend of the kindling of the sacred fire and the igniting of the "thick water" in the time of Nehemiah (2 Macc. i.
The greatest merit of this book is the use of the number of cotyledons as a basis of classification; though it must be remembered that the difference between the monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous embryo was detected by Nehemiah Grew.
i., and appears to have been unknown in the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
The name, which may be translated "Separatists," indicates their devotion to the ideal, enforced by Ezra and Nehemiah upon the reluctant Jews, of a nation separate from all other nations in virtue of its the old titles of the rulers of the separate king peculiar relation to Yahweh (Neh.
The close of Old Testament history (the book of Nehemiah) in the Persian age forms a convenient division between ancient Palestine and the career of the land under non-oriental influence during the Greek and Roman ages.
4 Not until the middle of the 5th century do the biblical records (book of Nehemiah) furnish a foundation for any reconstruction.
Amid internal and external difficulties Nehemiah proceeds to repair religious and social abuses, and there is an important return of exiles from Babylonia.
Biblical history itself recognizes in the times of Artaxerxes, Nehemiah and Ezra the commencement of a new era, and although only too much remains obscure we have in these centuries a series of vicissitudes which separate the old Palestine of Egyptian, Hittite, Babylonian and Assyrian supremacy from the land which was about to enter the circle of Greek and Roman civilization.
There is internal literary support for this in the criticism of Deuteronomy (which appears to have in view a comprehensive Israel and Judah at this period), and of various passages evidently earlier than Nehemiah's time (see R.
i), in the age of Nehemiah, at the very close of biblical history.
The simplicity of the legislation (traditionally associated with Moab and Sinai and with Kadesh in South Palestine), the humanitarian and reforming spirit, the condemnation of abuses and customs are features which, in view of the background and scope of Deuteronomy, can hardly be severed from the internal events which connect Palestine of the Assyrian supremacy with the time of Nehemiah.'
Chronicles, with the book of Ezra and Nehemiah, makes a continuity between the old Judah which fell in 586 and the return (time of Cyrus), the rebuilding of the temple (Darius), and the reorganization associated with Nehemiah and Ezra (Artaxerxes).
Historical material after 586 is scanty in the extreme, and, apart from the records of Nehemiah and a few other passages, the interest lies in the religious history of the communities and reformers who returned from Babylonia.
iii.);"(b) the gaps in the history between the fall of Samaria (722) and Jerusalem (586) to the rise of the hierocracy, and (c) the relation between the hints of renewed political activity in Zerubbabel's time, when the Temple was rebuilt (c. 520-516), and the mysterious catastrophe (with perhaps another disaster to the Temple), probably due to Edom, which is implied in the book of Nehemiah (c. 444).
Genesis - Kings (incomplete; some further material in Jeremiah) and the later Chronicles - Nehemiah are in their present form posterior to Nehemiah's time.
Failing this, one must descend to the time of Nehemiah, which the biblical history itself regards as epoch-making.
Nehemiah (a contemporary of Meir and Simeon b.
in question is Jewish in the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
The hill of Zion is still a deserted site haunted by jackals, as it was when Nehemiah arrived, 445 B.C. (Neh.
And the conditions, political and economic, seem to agree with what is told us by Nehemiah of the state of things which he found, and which prevailed before his coming: cf.
which Nehemiah himself might not have written, had he been a poet (cf.
Darius allowed the restoration of the Temple; and Artaxerxes I., by the protection accorded to Ezra and Nehemiah, made the foundation of Judaism possible (see JEws: ~ 19 sqq.).
Of Oriental sources, only the contemporary books of Ezra and Nehemiah are of much importance:
For a more detailed account of these sources see separate articles on HERODOTUS, &c.; EZRA and NEHEMIAH.
The only remains of the Old Testament are three short fragments of Ezra and Nehemiah.
His book and that of Nehemiah form one work (see Ezra,And Nehemiah, Books Of), apart from which we have little trustworthy evidence as to his life.
Even in the beginning of the 2nd century B.C., when Ben Sira praises notable figures of the exilic and post-exilic age (Zerubbabel, Jeshua and Nehemiah), Ezra is passed over (Ecclesiasticus xlix.
11-13), and he is not mentioned in a still later and somewhat fanciful description of Nehemiah's work (2 Macc. i.
The apocryphal books, called 1 and 2 Esdras (the Greek form of the name) in the English Bible, are dealt with below as Ezra, Third Book Of, and Ezra, Fourth Book Of, while the canonical book of Ezra is dealt with under Ezra And Nehemiah.
According to this, Genesis is a post-exilic work composed of a post-exilic priestly source (P) and non-priestly earlier sources which differ markedly from P in language, style and religious standpoint, but much less markedly from one and another.6 These sources can be traced elsewhere in the Pentateuch and Joshua, and P itself is related to the post-exilic works Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah.
Names related to those of Edomite and kindred groups are found in the late genealogies of both Judah and Benjamin, and recur even among families of the time of Nehemiah.
It closes with the reorganization associated with Ezra and Nehemiah and the compilation of the historical books in practically their present form.
On the other hand, the original addressees knew nothing yet about Nehemiah and Artaxerxes's letter of Neh 2:8.
The next section is simply Nehemiah 6, but it contains an utterly crucial piece of information at Nehemiah 6:6-7.
knee jerk reaction from Nehemiah.
But the curtain is raised for too brief an interval to allow of more than a passing glimpse at the restoration of Judaean fortunes; not until the time of Nehemiah, about 140 years after the fall of Jerusalem, does the historical material become less imperfect.
But (d), whilst as governor he accomplishes various needed reforms, there is much confusion in the present narratives, due partly to the resumption of Ezra's labours after an interval of twelve years, and partly to the closely related events of Nehemiah's activity in which room must be found for his twelve-years' governorship and a second visit.
The internal literary and historical questions are extremely intricate, and the necessity for some reconstruction is very generally felt (for preliminary details, see Ezra And Nehemiah).
On the other hand, a place can hardly be found for the history of Ezra before the appearance of Nehemiah; he moves in a settled and peaceful community such as Nehemiah had helped to form, his reforms appear to be more mature and schematic than those of Nehemiah; and, whilst Josephus handles the two separately, giving Ezra the priority, many recent scholars incline to place Nehemiah's first visit before the arrival of Ezra.'
13) or Nehemiah (i.
5, 17), should now interfere when Nehemiah was armed with a royal mandate (Neh.
Their insinuations that Nehemiah was seeking to be ruler and their representations to Artaxerxes would be enough to alarm the king (cf.
proves too doubtful, they may belong to the history preceding Nehemiah's return, provided the internal features do not stand in the way (e.g.
seq.; probably the older form) is curiously indebted to material which seems to have belonged to the history of the work of Nehemiah (cf.
Consequently, underlying the canonical form of post-exilic history, one may perhaps recognize some fresh disaster, after the completion of Zerubbabel's temple, when Judah suffered grievously at the hands of its Edomite brethren (in Malachi, date uncertain, vengeance has at last been taken); Nehemiah restored the city, and the traditions of the exiles who returned at this period have been thrown back and focussed upon the work of Zerubbabel.
The criticism of the history of Nehemiah, which leads to this conjecture, suggests also that if Nehemiah repulsed the Samaritan claims (ii.
s That Joel wrote not only after the exile but after the work of Ezra and Nehemiah may be viewed as confirmed by the allusions to the walls of Jerusalem in ch.
Its emphasis on the observance of ri lual finds fullest development in the Priestly Code, subsequently promulgated; its protest against foreign marriages is made effective through the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah;' the influence of its closing words on later expectation is familiar to every reader of the new Testament.'
the Jewish religion was definitely established and sanctioned by law in Jerusalem, on the basis of a firman granted by the king to the Babylonian priest Ezra in his seventh year, 458 B.C., and the appointment of his cup-bearer Nehemiah as governor of Judaea in his twentieth year, 445 B.C. The attempts which have been made to deny the authenticity of those parts of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah which contain an account of these two men, taken from their own memoirs, or to place them in the reign of Artaxerxes II., are not convincing (cf.
The period of history covered by the books of Ezra and Nehemiah extends from the return of the exiles under Zerubbabel in 537-536 B.C. to Nehemiah's second visit to Jerusalem in 432 B.C. In their present form, however, the books are considerably later, and allusions to Nehemiah in the past (Neh.
6 ("before this"), which would imply that the dedication of the walls was on the occasion of Nehemiah's later visit (see G.
From historical allusions in the book of Nehemiah, it may be inferred that the compiler wrote at about 300 B.C. (S.
The tendency to make the exile an abrupt and complete change in life is based upon the theory underlying Chronicles - Nehemiah and is misleading (see Torrey, op. cit.
Note: Adam and CT were removed from the game for fighting and were later replaced by MJ Garrett (Real World Philadelphia) and Nehemiah Clark (Real World Austin).
Nehemiah and Ezra.
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