How to use Negative in a sentence
What makes you so negative about him?
I try to resurrect my first impression of Howard Abbott not colored by Quinn's negative appraisal.
This approach has a long and mostly negative history.
She could find no negative remarks about the self-made man.
It was strong enough to wipe out anything negative he might feel towards her.Advertisement
Speranski went on to say that honor, l'honneur, cannot be upheld by privileges harmful to the service; that honor, l'honneur, is either a negative concept of not doing what is blameworthy or it is a source of emulation in pursuit of commendation and rewards, which recognize it.
I don't mean to sound so negative about him.
Yet Xander felt nothing negative towards her.
This is the moment to examine whether there is a more complete polarization in a direction somewhat oblique; and it is found that with 0 positive there is, in fact, a direction of more complete polarization, while with 0 negative the polarization is more imperfect than in the perpendicular direction itself.
The air, as is now known, has always present in it ions, some carrying a positive and others a negative charge, and those having the opposite sign to the charged body are attracted and tend to discharge it.Advertisement
Both Quinn and Howie protested as one with a negative shout.
This would be the first year he'd gone into the negative in a thousand of years.
He was peppered with questions from the rescuers, many of whom he recognized, but he held responses to a negative shake of his head and Billy Langstrom's name.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
Damian chuckled despite himself, unable to shake the negative emotions running through him.Advertisement
Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
Lorrain, pursing up his lips, waved a severely negative finger before his nose.
In the raised position a negative battery is connected to the distributor and in the depressed position a positive battery.
In the same way, by dividing by powers of so we may get negative indices.
Economic changes that have long-term positive benefits for society often have short-term negative ones.Advertisement
Although the direct object of Pasteur was to prove a negative, yet it was on these experiments that sterilization as known to us was developed.
Table Potential, Dissipation, Ioniz If we regard the potential gradient near the ground as representing a negative charge on the earth, then if the source of supply of that charge is unaffected the gradient will rise and become high when the operations by which discharge is promoted slacken their activity.
That great separation of positive and negative electricity sometimes takes place during rainfall is undoubted, and the charge brought to the ground seems preponderatingly negative.
Suppose the arm c of the switch S to be in contact with 2; thin when the key is manipulated it sends alternately positive and negative currents into the line.
Each transmitter is therefore able to transmit a separate series of positive and negative currents in different combinations; these are distributed, by suitably arranged distributors and relays at the receiving end of the line, into their respective receivers.Advertisement
Similarly, the forces acting in the opposite direction on the negative poles of the filaments have a resultant at another point S, which is called the south or negative pole.
Altogether, in mana we have what is par excellence the primitive religious idea in its positive aspect, taboo representing its negative side, since whatever has mana is taboo, and whatever is taboo has mana.
In most cases, two thin lenses are combined, one of which has just so strong a positive aberration (" under-correction," vide supra) as the other a negative; the first must be a positive lens and the second a negative lens; the powers, however, may differ, so that the desired effect of the lens is maintained.
If a collective system be corrected for the axis point for a definite wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in the negative components - the flint glasses; - over-correction will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the error of the negative components), and under-correction for the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses preponderating in the red).
The value of such a fraction is the positive root of a quadratic equation whose coefficients are real and of which one root is negative.
He was not wanting in soldierly qualities; but his virtues were rather negative than decided.
Discretion must therefore be exercised in interpreting negative results in the lower animals.
But there is most to say for the negative.
On the other hand, in writing decimals, the sequence (of negative powers) is from left to right.
This is a more advanced method, which leads easily to the idea of negative quantities, if the subtraction is such that we have to go behind the o of the standard series.
We can, however, denote the result of the process by a symbol, and deal with this symbol according to the laws of arithmetic. In this way we arrive at (i) negative numbers, (ii) fractional numbers, (iii) surds, (iv) logarithms (in the ordinary sense of the word).
The result of 3-7 is the same as that of o-4; and we may write it " - 4," and call it a negative number, if by this we mean something possessing the property that - 4+4 = o.
It would therefore be better, in some ways, to retain the unit throughout, and to describe - 4A as a negative quantity, in order to avoid confusion with the " negative numbers " with which operations are performed in formal algebra.
The positive quantity or number obtained from a negative quantity or number by omitting the " - " is called its numerical value.
We can obtain negative fractional numbers in the same way that we obtain negative integral numbers; thus - 4 or - 7A means that 4 or 7A is taken negatively.
When the result of any arithmetical operation or operations is represented approximately but not exactly by a number, the excess (positive or negative) of this number over the number which would express the result exactly is called the error.
It should be observed that the numerical value of the error is to be subtracted from or added to the stated value according as the error is positive or negative.
In The Case Of Negative Numbers And Reciprocals, Only One Is Involved; And There Might Be Three Or More, As In The Case Of A Number Expressed By (A B)".
Sometimes they are negative and sometimes they are positive.
To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
When she came back to check it, the results were negative.
His silence indicated he hadn't taken the test ... or it was negative?
By his actions, she was betting it was negative.
Yes. The test was negative.
She wasn't being negative.
The volume of air from which the ions have been extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on the ions, whether positive or negative.
Thus for a dot, first a negative and then a positive current is sent to the line, the effect of the current continuing during the time required for the paper to travel the space between two holes.
Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.
This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
A highly insulated tube contains a little mercury, which is used as a negative electrode, and the tube also has sealed through the glass a platinum wire carrying an iron plate as an anode.
The inequality in question has its greatest negative value near the time of the moon's first quarter, and the greatest positive value near the third quarter.
Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.
A pole which points north is reckoned positive, one which points south negative.
If m, and m 2 are the strengths of two poles, d the distance between them expressed in centimetres, and f the force in dynes, f=ml m2/d2 (I) The force is one of attraction or repulsion, according as the sign of the product m l m 2 is negative or positive.
No substance has yet been discovered having a negative susceptibility sufficiently great to render the permeability (= I +471K) negative.
Forces acting on a Small Body in the Magnetic Field.-If a small magnet of length ds and pole-strength m is brought into a magnetic field such that the values of the magnetic potential at the negative and positive poles respectively are V 1 and the work done upon the magnet, and therefore its potential energy, will be W =m(V2-Vi) =mdV, which may be written W =m d s- = M d v= - MHo = - vIHo, ds ds where M is the moment of the magnet, v the volume, I the magnetization, and Ho the magnetic force along ds.
The coefficient K/(i +171-K) is positive for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic substances, which will therefore tend to move from weaker to stronger parts of the field; for all known diamagnetic substances it is negative, and these will tend to move from stronger to weaker parts.
For small bodies other than spheres the coefficient will be different, but its sign will always be negative for diamagnetic substances and positive for others; hence the forces acting on any small body will be in the same directions as in the case of a sphere' Directing Couple acting on an Elongated Body.
Since i +47-K' can never be negative, the apparent susceptibility will be positive or negative according as is greater or less than Thus, for example, a tube containing a weak solution of an iron salt will appear to be diamagnetic if it is immersed in a stronger solution of iron, though in air it is paramagnetic.4 Circular Magnetization.
For those orbits whose projection upon a plane perpendicular to the field is righthanded, the period of revolution will be accelerated by the field (since the electron current is negative), and the magnetic moment consequently increased; for those which are left-handed, the period will be retarded and the moment diminished.
If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
Indeed, no sooner was the harmony apparently established by Aquinas than Duns Scotus began this negative criticism, which is carried much farther by William of Occam.
The knowledge of these laws, however, does not imply the existence of a conception of negative quantities.
The principal step in the modern development of algebra was the recognition of the meaning of negative quantities.
This involved not only the geometrical interpretation of negative quantities, but also the idea of continuity; this latter, which is the basis of modern analysis, leading to two separate but allied developments, viz.
One of the most difficult questions for the teacher of algebra is the stage at which, and the extent to which, the ideas of a negative number and of continuity may be introduced.
On the one hand, the modern developments of algebra began with these ideas, and particularly with the idea of a negative number.
We cannot solve the equation 7s.+X=4s.; but we are accustomed to transactions of lending and borrowing, and we can therefore invent a negative quantity - 3s.
It is, after all, too negative a thing to stand by itself or to satisfy God."
It is not necessary to regard - 4 here as a negative number; all that is meant is that 4x2 has to be subtracted.
Negative quantities will have arisen in various ways, e.g.
The occurrence of negative quantities does not, however, involve the conception of negative numbers.
The graphic method, therefore, does not give any direct assistance towards the conception of negative numbers as operators, though it is useful for interpreting negative quantities as results.
These constructed symbols may be called positive and negative coefficients; or a symbol such as (- p) may be called a negative number, in the same way that we call 3 a fractional number.
This accounts for the fact that the same table of binomial coefficients serves for the expansions of positive powers of i+x and of negative powers of i - x.
This insertion of irrational numbers (with corresponding negative numbers) requires for its exact treatment certain special methods, which form part of the algebraic theory of number, and are dealt with under Number.
This led to a prolonged controversy on the nature of negative and imaginary quantities, which was ultimately settled in a very curious way.
The progress of analytical geometry led to a geometrical interpretation both of negative and also of imaginary quantities; and when a " meaning " or, more properly, an interpretation, had thus been found for the symbols in question, a reconsideration of the old algebraic problem became inevitable, and the true solution, now so obvious, was eventually obtained.
A point A in space may be associated with a (real, positive, or negative) numerical quantity a, called its weight, and denoted by the symbol aA.
A notable improvement on the ideas of Diophantus is to be found in the fact that the Hindus recognized the existence of two roots of a quadratic equation, but the negative roots were considered to be inadequate, since no interpretation could be found for them.
In this work, which is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of algebra, Cardan shows that he was familiar with both real positive and negative roots of equations whether rational or irrational, but of imaginary roots he was quite ignorant, and he admits his inability to resolve the so-called lation of Arabic manuscripts.
In negative answers na precedes the verb.
If the plate receives a mixed charge, as, for example, from an induction coil, a "mixed" figure results, consisting of a large red central nucleus, corresponding to the negative charge, surrounded by yellow rays, corresponding to the positive charge.
It's known for instance that bees, which have a positive electric charge, can sense the negative charge that certain flowers emit.
We have seen the negative effect of hubris in individuals and nations throughout history.
He denotes quantities by the letters of the alphabet, retaining the vowels for the unknown and the consonants for the knowns; he introduced the vinculum and among others the terms coefficient, affirmative, negative, pure and adfected equations.
He possessed clear ideas of indices and the generation of powers, of the negative roots of equations and their geometrical interpretation, and was the first to use the term imaginary roots.
After their passage the Adriatic question was again allowed to stagnate, the Powers resuming their negative attitude, while advocating direct discussion between the two parties.
In the first hybrid generation formed by the union of the reproductive germs of the positive variety (that possessing the structural character selected for observation) with those of the negative variety, it is not surprising that all or nearly all the individuals were found to exhibit, as a result of the mixture, the positive character.
In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
On the other hand, the vast number of experiments in the cropping of the tails and ears of domestic animals, as well as of similar operations on man, are attended with negative results.
The part corresponding to negative values of u is similar, OA being a line of symmetry.
That quinine, chloroform, glycerin, alcohol, with others, had no attractive influence on them - negative chemiotaxis.
Then we have the property of adaptation, in which the negative reaction may be changed into a positive; a given toxin may at first repel the cell, but by a gradual process the cell becomes accustomed to such a toxin and will move towards it.
The influence of the chemical substance is either that of attraction or repulsion, the one being known as positive, the other as negative chemiotaxis.
The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.
So prognosis became pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their earliest flow.
In religion he protested stoutly, and no doubt sincerely, that his own attitude was not purely negative; but here also he seems to have failed altogether to distinguish between pruning and cutting down.
Negative values of n must be interpreted by a streaming motion on a parallel plane at a level slightly different, as on a double Riemann sheet, the stream passing from one sheet to the other across a cut SS' joining the foci S, S'.
An oblate flattened body, like a disk or plate, has c 2 -c 1 negative, so that the medium steers the body axially; this may be verified by a plate dropped in water, and a leaf or disk or rocket-stick or piece of paper falling in air.
There are perfect cleavages parallel to the rhombohedral faces, and the crystals exhibit a strong negative double refraction, like calcite.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
Immediately the current passed through the solenoid it caused the iron cylinder to rise, and, by means of its supporting rod, forced the end of the balance beam upwards, so depressing the other end that the negative carbon rod was forced downwards into contact with the metal in the crucible.
This action completed the furnace-circuit, and current passed freely from the positive carbon through the fragments of metal to the negative carbon, thereby reducing the current through the shunt.
At once the attractive force of the solenoid on the iron cylinder was automatically reduced, and the falling of the latter caused the negative carbon to rise, starting an arc between it and the metal in the crucible.
As in Bantu, the verb presents a multiplicity of forms, including one present, three past and future tenses, with personal endings complete, passive, interrogative, conditional, elective, negative and other forms, each with its proper participial inflexions.
Experiments on monkeys have, however, given negative results.
A rigorous demonstration was wanting for many years, Leonhard Euler's proof for negative and fractional values being faulty, and was finally given by Niels Heinrik Abel.
In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.
Experiment showed, however, that instead of only potash appearing at the negative electrode, hydrogen is also liberated; this is inexplicable by Berzelius's theory, but readily explained by the " hydrogen-acid " theory.
By this theory potassium is liberated at the negative electrode and combines immediately with water to form potash and hydrogen.
It is apparent that metallic salts of organic acids would, in aqueous solution, be ionized, the positive ion being the metal, and the negative ion the acid residue.
The expedition which followed produced negative successes, but the absence of any positive success and the pressure of financial difficulty, coupled with the defection of Jason (probably before 37 1), and the high-handed action of Thebes in destroying Plataea (373), induced Athens to renew the peace with Sparta which Timotheus had broken.
This proves the existence of two kinds of electricity, called positive and negative.
The sign of the electrification imparted to the electroscope when so charged - that is, whether positive or negative - can be determined by rubbing the sealing-wax rod with flannel and the glass rod with silk, and approaching them gently to the electroscope one at a time.
Hence if the electrified sealing-wax rod makes the leaves collapse, the electroscopic charge is positive, but if the glass rod does the same, the electroscopic charge is negative.
The electrified ebonite is said to act by " electrostatic induction " on the tray, and creates on it two induced charges, one of positive and the other of negative electricity.
If then the ball be withdrawn, the leaves will diverge a second time with negative electrification.
Every tube of electric force must therefore begin and end on electrified surfaces of opposite sign, and the quantities of positive and negative electricity on its two ends are equal, since the force E just outside an electrified surface is normal to it and equal to a/41r, where a is the surface density; and since we have just proved that for the ends of a tube of force EdS = E 1 dS', it follows that adS = a'dS', or Q = Q', where Q and Q' are the quantities of electricity on the ends of the tube of force.
This can be done by placing at B an equal negative point-charge -q in the place which would be occupied by the optical image of A if PO were a mirror, that is, let -q be placed at B, so that the distance BO is equal to the distance AO, whilst AOB is at right angles to PO.
If then we put a negative point-charge -qr/d at B, it follows that the spherical surface will be a zero potential surface, for q rq 1 (24).
Suppose then we remove the negative point-charge, and let the sphere be supposed to become conductive and be connected to earth.
If we make a distribution of negative electricity over it, which has a density a varying according to the law a = -(d 2 -r 2) q /42rr AP3.
This equation is generally true for any series of transformations, provided that we regard H and W as representing the algebraic sums of all the quantities of heat supplied to, and of work done by the body, heat taken from the body or work done on the body being reckoned negative in the summation.
The area DABbd under the return path (v diminishing) represents work done on the substance, or against the back-pressure, and is negative.
In the notation of the calculus the relations become - dH/dp (0 const) = odv /do (p const) (4) dH/dv (0 const) =odp/do (v const) The negative sign is prefixed to dH/dp because absorption of heat +dH corresponds to diminution of pressure - dp. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion co efficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.
The increment of this area (or the decrement of the negative area E--04) at constant temperature represents the external work obtainable from the substance in isothermal expansion, in the same way that the decrement of the intrinsic energy represents the work done in adiabatic expansion.
The function G is represented by the negative area D"DM under the isothermal, bounded by the isopiestic DM and the axis of pressure.
Effects of Immigration.-The effects of emigration are negative in character; those of immigration are positive.
Rutherford had announced the nuclear theory of atomic structure which required each atom to consist of a minute positively charged nucleus about which negative electrons were distributed.
The point is of no very great significance, however, since no one has pretended that the Western civilization compared with the Eastern in point of antiquity; and in any event, no amount of negative evidence weighs a grain in the balance against the positive evidence of the Cretan inscriptions.
Other methods are to place the metal and mercury together in dilute acid, to add mercury to the solution of a metallic salt, to place a metal in a solution of mercuric nitrate, or to electrolyse a metallic salt using mercury as the negative electrode.
Some excellent instruments of the second type were subsequently made by Dollond's eldest son Peter, in which for the " convex glass within the tube " was substituted an achromatic object-glass, and outside that a divided negative achromatic combination of long focus.
It is essentially the same in principle as Amici's micrometer, except that the divided lens is an achromatic positive instead of a negative lens.
The former is the basis of the negative part of his argument; the latter supplies him with all the positive account he has to give, and that is meagre enough.
The moment of W 1 may be positive or negative.
But in consciousness there is equally given a primitive act of op-positing, or contra-positing, formally distinct from the act of position, but materially determined, in so far as what is op-posited must be the negative of that which was posited.
No molecule could possibly be imagined for which n had a negative value or the value n =1.
The theory therefore passes a crucial test when it is discovered that no gases exist for which n is either negative or unity.
It consists, that is to say, in a range of bright lines, the agreement of which with the negative pole bands of nitrogen, together with details of interest connected with its mode of production, was ascertained by a continuance of the research.
These last two steps may introduce magnitudes which have to be subtracted, and which therefore have to be treated as negative quantities in the arithmetical.
This will be seen by taking the mid-ordinate as the ordinate for which x = o, and noticing that the odd powers of x introduce positive and negative terms which balance one another when the whole area is taken into account.
This, the negative aspect of the congregational idea, has emerged at certain stages of its history as Independency.
Independency, like Nonconformity, is primarily a negative term.
Its two halves have each a negative and a positive scene.
We see at once that, where u=o, the velocity has its " normal " value, while where u is positive the velocity is in excess, and where u is negative the velocity is in defect of the normal value.
It is in fact in these cases, like " heterodoxy," a term of purely negative significance, and its intellectual value is of the slightest.
As to anemometer pressures, it should be observed that the recorded pressure is made up of a positive front and negative (vacuum) back pressure, but in structures the latter must be absent or only partially developed.
The attitude of Ultramontanism, for instance, towards the right claimed and exercised by the state to make laws concerning marriage is wholly negative; for it recognizes no marriage laws except those of the Church, the Church alone being regarded as competent to decide what impediments are a bar to marriage, and to exercise jurisdiction over such cases.
This negative aspect has a twofold bearing.
In the introductory letter he criticized Gladstone's pronouncement on the subject, and especially examined the allegation of a general tendency towards disestablishment in the civilized world at large, and arrived at a negative conclusion.
The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.
Its use appears to have spread more rapidly outside Germany than in Germany itself, one cause of its popularity being that it was negative and colourless, and could thus be applied by adherents of the "old religion" to those of the "new religion," without giving offence, on occasions when it was expedient to avoid abusive language.
The symbol (alp) which is known as Legendre's symbol, and denotes the positive or negative unit which is the remainder when au s (-1) is divided by a prime number p, does not appear in this memoir, but was first used in the Essai sur la theorie des nombres.
The Sophistic epoch of Greek philosophy was, in great part, such a negative reaction against the self-confident assertion of the nature-philosophies of the preceding age.
But the attitude maintained by the Academics was chiefly that of a negative criticism of the views of others, in particular of the somewhat crude and imperious dogmatism of the Stoics.
More celebrated than any of the above was Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), whose scepticism lay more in his keen negative criticism of all systems and doctrines which came before him as literary historian than in any theoretic views of his own as to the possibility of knowledge.
The importance of Rudolph's reign is negative rather than positive, consisting more in what he did not do than in what he did; although it is questionable whether any ruler could have prevented the religious struggles of Germany and the Thirty Years' War.
It is used in the manufacture of carbon rods for arc lights, and for the negative element in the Bunsen battery.
He extended the "law of continuity" as stated by Johannes Kepler; regarded the denominators of fractions as powers with negative exponents; and deduced from the quadrature of the parabola y=xm, where m is a positive integer, the area of the curves when m is negative or fractional.
Limnadia (Brongniart, 1820) is supposed to consist of species exclusively parthenogenetic. But when asked to believe that males never occur among these amazons, one cannot but remember how hard it is to prove a negative.
The posterior end of the organ is positive, the anterior negative, and the current, passes from the tail to the head.
Cheyne (in Critica Biblica, 1903), whose restorations resting on a dubious theory of Hebrew history have met with little approval, though his negative criticism of the text is often keen and suggestive.
A Spanish ambassador early in the reign thought that Elizabeth's own religion was equally negative, though she told him she agreed with nearly everything in the Augsburg Confession.
In January 1843 the government put a final and peremptory negative on the church's claims for spiritual independence.
It should be mentioned that in most tables of trigonometrical functions, the number io is added to all the logarithms in the table in order to avoid the use of negative characteristics, so that the characteristic 9 denotes in reality 1, 8 denotes a, io denotes o, &c. Logarithms thus increased are frequently referred to for the sake of distinction as tabular logarithms, so that the tabular logarithm =the true logarithm -IIo.
In tables of logarithms of numbers to base io the mantissa only is in general tabulated, as the characteristic of the logarithm of a number can always be written down at sight, the rule being that, if the number is greater than unity, the characteristic is less by unity than the number of digits in the integral portion of it, and that if the number is less than unity the characteristic is negative, and is greater by unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant figure.
Napier said that he had already thought of the change, and pointed out a further improvement, viz., that the characteristics of numbers greater than unity should be positive and not negative, as suggested by Briggs.
The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions.
From these are given off at irregular intervals short lateral branches, each of which terminates in a flame-cell (f) precisely similar in structure to the flame-cells found in Planarians, Trematodes and Cestodes; here as there the question whether they are open to the body cavity or not must probably be answered in the negative.
The extraing to foot of rotifers; at, median blastoporic opening of antenna, united by a nerve to br, brain the cloaca leads us to a (letter omitted in B); bl, bladder, re ver y different view, which ceiving ramified kidney in B, C, D; finds negative support f, foot, and f.g, its cement-gland;.
For this common basis, however, he did not succeed at first in finding any other than the merely negative expression of indifference.
Finally, then, there emerges the opposition of negative, i.e.
Manichaean ethics is not merely negative, however, since it is necessary to cherish, strengthen and purify the elements of light, as well as free oneself from the elements of darkness.
It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).
In analysing the syllogism, he first says that a premiss is an affirmative or negative sentence, and then that a term is that into which a premiss is dissolved, i.e.
It Will Be Remarked, That As L 1 Cannot Either Be O Or Negative, We Must Add 7 To Las Often As May Be Necessary, In Order That L 1 May Be A Positive Whole Number.
Cheruel, prove a complete negative, for in them appears the zeal of Mazarin for the peace.
But his conduct after the battle was sharply criticized in England, and its negative results were used as a weapon against the ministry.
But the negative part of Ruskin's teaching on economics, social and political problems, has been much more effective than the positive part of his teaching.
But his results were mainly negative.
It was a purely negative condition.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
The question as to whether the motion was due to an irregular distribution of the earth's atmosphere, thus involving abnormal variations in the refractive index, was also investigated; here, again, negative results were obtained.
These forms all agree in making the frequency negative when s falls below a certain value sp. Rydberg's second law states that if the main branch series is taken, the numerical value of np_I corresponding to sp_ I is equal.
Now it follows from Rydberg's second law put on a more accurate basis by Ritz that in one case at any rate a negative period has reality and must be interpreted just as if it were positive.
The band fades towards the red or violet according as A is positive or negative, and the appearance is sometimes complicated by the fact that several sets of lines start from identical or closely adjoining heads.
If a is negative the frequency passes through infinity and the maximum distance between the lines occurs there.
If a negative value of the frequency is admitted, more complicated effects may be predicted.
If we adopt Thiele's view that each band is accompanied by a second branch for which s has negative values the complication is still further increased, but there does not seem to be sufficient reason to adopt this view.
Close to and on either side of the absorptive band µ 2 has large positive and negative values, and if the above expression remains correct the change of frequency would, close to the centre of absorption, be 2 k-2"+3, which for n =3 and k= Io is 1/2000, or 500 times greater than the observed shifts, but this represents now the maximum displacement and not the displacement of the most intense portion of the radiation.
Lorentz, and leave no manner of doubt that the radiating centres are negative electrons.
Hegel, he said, had only supplied the logic of negative philosophy; and it must be confessed that the most which could be extracted from the Hegelian dialectic would be some connexion of thoughts without proving any existence of corresponding things.
During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.
If, however, the energy of surface tension between the two substances were negative the surface would tend to a maximum, and complete mixture would follow.
From this point of view the natural solubility of two substances involves a negative energy of surface tension between them.
The observations of Moller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of Ulothrix and Ectocarpus, for example From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
If the cortical layer should exhibit positive reaction and the medulla of the same species a negative reaction with both reagents, the result is represented thus, K CaCI i.
The Heroult cell consists of a square iron or steel box lined with carbon rammed and baked into a solid mass; at the bottom is a cast-iron plate connected with the negative pole of the dynamo, but the actual working cathode is undoubtedly the layer of already reduced and molten metal that lies in the bath.
If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.
The glass is excited positively by friction with the rubbers, and the charge is drawn off by the action of the points which, when acted upon inductively, discharge negative electricity against it.
The cushions must be connected to earth to remove the negative electricity which accumulates on them.
Nairne's machine could give either positive or negative electricity, the first named being collected from the prime conductor carrying the collecting points and the second from the prime conductor carrying the cushion.
Likewise the negative charge on B induces a positive charge on the side of B' nearest to it and repels negative electricity to the far side.
In the course of their rotation two diametrically opposite carriers touched against the ends of a neutralizing conductor so as to form for a moment one conductor, and the moment afterwards these two carriers were insulated, one carrying away a positive charge and the other a negative.
Continuing their rotation, the positively charged carrier gave up its positive charge by touching a little knob attached to the positive field plate, and similarly for the negative charge carrier.
The carriers which were touched under the influence of the positive field plate passed on and gave up a portion of their negative charge to increase that of the negative field plate; in the same Nichol= FIG.
He also devised an alternating current electrical machine in which the discharge balls were alternately positive and negative.
They are usually included in Oomycetes, but their simple structure, minute size, usually uniciliate zoospores, and their negative characters would justify their retention as a separate group. It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.
Thus, in Sumerian we find such forms as numunnib-bi, " he speaks not to him," where the negative prefix nu and the verbal prefix mun are in harmony, but in dissimilation to the infix nib, " to him," and to the root bi, " speak," which are also in harmony.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
These iso-diazotates are formed much more readily when the aromatic nucleus in the diazonium salt contains negative radicals.
The weak points in Hume's empiricism are so admirably realized Negative by the author himself that it is only fair to quote his own Negativ of summary in the Appendix to the Treatise.
For what reason this volume may differ from case to case lies close at hand; in connexion with the notion of negative and positive atoms, like chlorine and hydrogen, experience tends to show that the former, as well as the latter, have a mutual repulsive power, but the former acts on the latter in the opposite sense; the necessary consequence is that, when those negative and positive groups are distributed in the molecule, its volume will be smaller than if the negative elements are heaped together.
Other physical properties might be considered; as a general rule they depend upon the distribution of negative and positive elements in the molecule.
The outward gradient is dO/dr, and is negative if the central hole is heated.
Where the difficulty rises respecting him is that most thinkers since his day, who have seen this difference with equal clearness, have advanced from it to the negative side, while he advanced to the positive.
To the Cyrenaics pleasure was something active and positive; to Epicurus it was rather negative - tranquillity more than vigorous enjoyment.
But the Reichsregiment had taken one step, although this was of a negative character.
They did so reluctantly, because they would thereby condemn themselves to assume that attitude of purely negative criticism which, during the great days of their prosperity, they had looked down upon with contempt, and were putting themselves under the leadership of Eugen Richter, whom they had long opposed.
The true work of his episcopate was, however, positive, not negative.
At Bossekop and Cape Thorsden there were a considerable proportion of negative or impossible parallaxes.
Out of a total of 146 auroral lines, with wave-lengths longer than 3684 tenth-metres, Westman identifies 82 with oxygen or nitrogen lines at the negative pole in vacuum discharges.
Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Peloponnesian coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to the Sicilian Expedition of 415.
Another negative cause may be found in the failure of an attempt or attempts to subdue the Thraceward towns.
Minute vesicular cavities are not infrequently present, sometimes as negative cubes, and these may contain saline solutions or carbon dioxide or gaseous hydrocarbons.
We have thus five precepts of piety on the first table, and five of probity, in negative form, on the second, an arrangement which is accepted by the best recent writers.
In 1906 the question of uniting Allegheny with Pittsburg under one municipal government was submitted to a joint vote of the electorate of the two cities, in accordance with an act of the state legislature, which had been passed in February of that year, and a large majority voted for the union; but there was determined opposition in Allegheny, every ward of the city voting in the negative; the constitutionality of the act was challenged; the supreme court of the state on the 11th of March 1907 declared the act valid, and on the 18th of November 1907 this decision was affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States.
It is noteworthy that although all the members of the group are aquatic no zoospores are produced, a negative character common to them and the Blue-green Algae.
While, therefore, there is much evidence of a negative character against the existence of an extensive polymorphism among algae, some amount of metamorphosis is known to occur.
The simplest is for the impression made by an observed object on the retina, the eye; in this connexion the term "after-image" (better "after-sensation") is used for an image which remains when the eye is withdrawn from a brilliantly lighted object; it is called positive when the colour remains the same, negative when the complementary colours are seen.
Goethe, by singularly different methods, had emerged from a merely negative position into a lofty and coherent conception of the universe.
The negative, un-Aryan, is used of each of the two low aims. It is possible that this rendering should have been introduced into the translation; but the ethical meaning, though still associated with the tribal meaning, had probably already become predominant in the language of the time.
The negative side, the qualities that have to be suppressed by the cultivation of the opposite virtues, are the Ten Bonds (Samyojanas), the Four Intoxications (Asava) and the Five Hindrances (Nivaranas).
Schonbein (loc. cit.) assumed that the ordinary oxygen molecule is decomposed into two parts which carry electrical charges of opposite kinds, the one with the positive charge being called "antozone" and the other carrying the negative charge being called "ozone," one variety being preferentially used up by the oxidizing compound or element and the other for the secondary reaction.
It called for a legislature of two branches, one chosen by the people and based on free population (or on wealth) and the other chosen by the first out of candidates nominated by the state legislatures; a majority vote only was required in each house; and Congress was to have a negative on such state legislation as seemed to the Congress to contravene the articles of the Union.
The absurdity of excluding the plebeians from all but a merely theoretical citizenship, based on the negative fact of freedom, seems to have become apparent before the close of the monarchical period.
At a later date, with the call of Schelling to Berlin in 1841, it became fashionable to speak of Hegelianism as a negative philosophy requiring to be complemented by a " positive " philosophy which would give reality and not mere ideas.
In what we may call their psychological aspect these three stages are known as the abstract stage, or that of understanding (Verstand), the dialectical stage, or that of negative reason, and the speculative stage, or that of positive reason (Vernunft).
The dialectic of negative reason rudely dispels these theories.
But reason is not negative only; while it disintegrates the mass or unconscious unity, it builds up a new unity with higher organization.
Bradley's Appearance and Reality (1893 2nd ed., 1897) and answered in the negative.
The measure had a negative report from committee in the house, and was strongly opposed in the Senate; but it passed both branches, and on the 2nd of July 1862 was signed by President Lincoln.
Twenty years later, the word "dismissed" (dimittantur) became the subject of controversy, some maintaining that it amounted to a direct approval, others that it was purely negative and did not imply that the books were free from error.
One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which was answered in the negative.
The substitution of a positive or negative eye-piece for the simple convex or concave eye-lens, and of an achromatic object-glass for the simple object-lens, transforms these, early forms into the modern achromatic telescope.
It is possible to construct a triple objective of two positive lenses enclosing between them one negative lens, the two former being made of the same glass.
Hence it is clear that if the two positive lenses of equal curvature power of o 60 and 0.102 respectively are combined with a negative lens of light flint o 569, then a triple objective, having no secondary spectrum (at any rate with respect to the blue rays), may be obtained.
But while an achromatic combination of o 60 and 0.102 alone will yield an objective whose focal length is only 1.28 times the focal length of the negative or extra dense flint lens, the triple combination will be found to yield an objective whose focal length is 73 times as great as the focal length of the negative light flint lens.
This case well illustrates the much closer approach to strict rationality of dispersion which is obtainable by using two different sorts of glass for the two positive lenses, even when one of them has a higher dispersive power than the glass used for the negative lens.
Proctor found that between Aldebaran and the Pleiades most of the stars have a motion positive in right ascension and negative in declination, a phenomenon which he designated " star-drift."
True theology is negative.
The ministration to intellect or reason, aided by the negative elimination by means of contradictory instances of whatever in the instances is not always present, absent and varying with the given subject investigated, and finally by the positive inference that whatever in the instances is always present, absent and varying with the subject is its essential cause.
On the one hand, having reduced categorical judgments to an existential form, Brentano proposes to reform the syllogism, with the results that it must contain four terms, of which two are opposed and two appear twice; that, when it is negative, both premises are negative; and that, when it is affirmative, one premise, at least, is negative.
Some not-recognized are not unhappy (negative).
The only difference between these and the previous examples (2) and (3) is that, while those break the rule against two negative premises, these break that against undistributed middle.
S is partially identical with P. In the first the fallacy is the indifferent contingency of the conclusion caused by the non-sequitur from a negative premise to an affirmative conclusion; while the second is either a mere repetition of the premises if the conclusion means " S is like P in being M," or, if it means " S is P," a non-sequitur on account of the undistributed middle.
To give the name of syllogism to inferences which infringe the general rules against undistributed middle, illicit process, two negative premises, non-sequitur from negative to affirmative, and the introduction of what is not in the premises into the conclusion, and which consequently infringe the special rules against affirmative conclusions in the second figure, and against universal conclusions in the third figure, is to open the door to fallacy, and at best to confuse the syllogism with other kinds of inference, without enabling us to understand any one kind.
Plato proceeds to explain by his principle of difference both privative and negative predicates, and also the possibility of false predication.
Nor is it Bacon's method of exclusions, which escapes the imputation of being dialectical, if not that of being unduly cumbrous, in virtue of the cogency of the negative instance.
The antinomies with which it concludes are more naturally taken as a prelude to the discussion of the Sophistes than as an unnecessary retreatment of the doctrine of the one and the many in a more negative form.
The second, though it might still have preceded the Parmenides might equally well have followed the negative criticism of that dialogue, as the beginning of reconstruction.
The positive procedure by hypothesis and verification is rejected by Bacon, who thinks of hypothesis as the will o' the wisp of science, and prefers the cumbrous machinery of negative reasoning.
If judged by his positive contribution to the theory of method he may claim to find a more than negative justification for his teaching in its success.
With much that suggests an affirmative answer, Leibnitz gives the negative.
Nevertheless the thing-initself is a problematic conception and of a limiting or negative use merely.
Only the distinction of affirmative and negative judgments remains unresolved, and the exception is a natural one from the point of view of a philosophy of pluralism.
The negative judgment, for example, cannot be held in one and the same undivided act to presuppose the unity of the real, project an adjective as conceivably applicable to it and assert its rejection.
It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.
One geometrical interpretation of the negative sign of algebra was early seen to be mere reversal of direction along a line.
Thus, when an image is formed by a plane mirror, the distance of any point in it from the mirror is simply the negative of that of the corresponding point of the object.
Or if motion in one direction along a line be treated as positive, motion in the opposite direction along the same line is negative.
To turn a line through a certain angle in a given plane, a certain operator is required; but when we wish to turn it through an equal negative angle we must not, in general, employ the negative of the former operator.
For the negative of the operator which turns a line through a given angle in a given plane will in all cases produce the negative of the original result, which is not the result of the reverse operator, unless the angle involved be an odd multiple of a right angle.
For the square of j, like that of i, was assumed to be negative unity.
And we now see that the square of V is the negative of Laplace's operator; while V itself, when applied to any numerical quantity conceived as having a definite value at each point of space, gives the direction and the rate of most rapid change of that quantity.
For the depression of the freezing-point a relation of the same form applies, but do is negative, and L is the latent heat of fusion.
It is evident that this is a very delicate method of determining the wetness z, but, since with dry saturated steam at low pressures this formula always gives negative values of the wetness, it is clear that Regnault's numerical coefficients must be wrong.
It is in this connexion that he insists on the necessity of the Nay to the Yea, of the negative to the positive.
In God, however, as the condition of His manifestation, lies, according to Boehme, the "eternal nature" or the mysterium magnum, which is as anger to love, as darkness to light, and, in general, as the negative to the positive.
It is mere prejudice to deny that Mandeville had considerable philosophic insight; at the same time he was mainly negative or critical, and, as he himself said, he was writing for "the entertainment of people of knowledge and education."
Nothing is known of its natural history outside the body, but on cultivation it is apt to undergo numerous involution forms. Its presence in a patient is regarded as positive diagnostic proof of plague; but failure to find or to identify it does not possess an equal negative value, and should not be too readily accepted, for many instances are recorded in which expert observers have only succeeded in demonstrating its presence after repeated attempts.
If the approach of the glass rod causes the leaves in their final state to collapse, then the charge in the rod was positive, but if it causes them to expand still more the charge was negative, and vice versa for the sealing-wax rod.
If the electrified body is touched against the upper plate whilst at the same time the lower plate is put to earth, the condenser formed of the two plates and the film of air or varnish becomes charged with positive electricity on the one plate and negative on the other.
Thus a, negative rotation about OA may be regarded as a positive rotation about OA, the prolongation of AO.
If this amount be negative the sum in question is diminished by a corresponding amount.
If the quadratic (38) has a negative root, the trigonometrical functions in (36) are to be replaced by real exponentials, and the position x=o, y=o is unstable.
Hence if the system be started from rest in a configuration for which V is less than in the equilibrium configuration considered, this quantity must sUll further decrease (since T cannot be negative), and it is evident that either the system will finally come to rest in some other equilibrium configuration, or V will in the long run diminish indefinitely.
This leads to a determinantal equation in X whose 2n roots are either real and negative, or complex with negative real parts, on the present hypothesis that the functions T, V, F are all essentially positive.
Let a represent the area of the section of a piston made by a plane perpendicular to its direction of motion, and v its velocity, which is to be considered as positive when outward, and negative when inward.
For otitside gearing that ratio is negative, Cs because the wheels turn contrary ways; for inside gearing it is positive, because they turn the same way.
Now from the laws of statics it is known that, in order that a system of forces applied to a system of connected points may be in equilibrium, it is necessary that the sum formed by putting together the products of the forces by the respective distances through which their points of application are capable of moving simultaneously, each along the direction of the force applied to it, shall be zero, products being considered positive or negative according as, the direction of the forces and the possible motions of their points of application are the same or opposite.
In other words, the sum of the negative products is equal to the sum of the positive products.
To find the distance s through which a brake, exerting the friction F, must rub in order to stop a machine having the total actual energy E at the moment when the brake begins to act, reduce, by the principles of 96, the various efforts and other resistances of the machine which act at the same time with the friction of the brake to the rubbing surface of the brake, and let R be their resultantpositive if resistance, negative if effort preponderates.
An interesting confirmation of this view from the negative side is furnished by the city which ranked as chief among the Asiatic colonies of Greece, viz.
And even the more moderate believers in the pope's infallibility maintained that it was merely negative, a heaven-sent immunity against falling into error.
Even this negative infallibility was stoutly contested by the French and German bishops during the eight months that the council lasted (December 1869 to July 1870).
The apparent absence of human remains in the beds yielding dingo teeth and bones (which are almost certainly not older than the Pleistocene) is of only negative value, and liable to be upset by new discoveries.
Though couched in the negative, these rules must be interpreted in the amplest and widest sense by all believers.
He also discovered that a body charged with positive or negative electricity repels a body free to move when the latter is charged with electricity of like sign, but attracts it if it is charged with electricity of opposite sign, i.e.
The subject of pyro-electricity, or the power possessed by some minerals of becoming electrified when merely heated, and of exhibiting positive and negative electricity, now began to attract notice.
It was then found that when the end plates of Volta's pile were connected to an electroscope the leaves diverged either with positive or negative electricity.
Its duplex character, and the fact that the electricity produced by rubbing glass and vitreous substances was different from that produced by rubbing sealing-wax and resinous substances, seemed to necessitate the assumption of two kinds of electric fluid; hence there arose the conception of positive and negative electricity, and the two-fluid theory came into existence.
The positive and negative electrifications of the two coatings of the Leyden jar were therefore to be regarded as the result of a transformation of something called electricity from one coating to the other, by which process a certain measurable quantity became so much less on one side by the same amount by which it became more on the other.
Canton (1 753, 1 754) When, for instance, a positively electrified body was found to induce upon another insulated conductor a charge of negative electricity on the side nearest to it, and a charge of positive electricity on the side farthest from it, this was explained by saying that the particles of each of the two electric fluids repelled one another but attracted those of the positive fluid.
Hence the operation of the positive charge upon the neutral fluid was to draw towards the positive the negative constituent, of the neutral charge and repel to the distant parts of the conductor the positive constituent.
Faraday discovered the existence of a dark space round the negative electrode which is usually known as the " Faraday dark space."
The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
Electric charge consists, therefore, in an excess or deficit of negative electrons in a body.
The negative adverbs are ni, nid, conjunctive na, nad.
The verb may be preceded by an affirmative, a negative, or an interrogative particle.
The microbes appear in many cases to attract the leucocytes (positive chemiotaxis), but when very virulent they usually repel the leucocytes (negative chemiotaxis) and excrete toxins which kill the leucocytes.
To the first of these a negative, to the second an affirmative answer is returned.
Nor does he even attempt a refutation of the crucial point, which Scioppius had proved, as far as a negative can be proved - namely, that William, the last prince of Verona, had no son Nicholas, the alleged grandfather of Julius, nor indeed any son who could have been such grandfather.
The negative evidence afforded in the account of his establishment suggests the inference that, like Lucilius and Horace, Juvenal had no personal experience of either the cares or the softening influence of family life.
This arises from its adhesion to the tube, and the upper part of the mercury sustains a considerable tension, or negative pressure, without the separation of its parts.
If, however, it were negative, the displacement of the liquids which tends to enlarge the surface of contact would be aided by the molecular forces, so that the liquids, if not kept separate by gravity, would at length become thoroughly mixed.
It is probable, however, that there are many cases in which the integral belonging to the less dense fluid is negative.
This shows that f E (x - xo) p dv must be negative for water in contact with glass.
If n +4 be positive, the attraction of infinitely distant parts contributes to the result; while if n+4 be negative, the parts in immediate contiguity act with infinite power.
It is theoretically probable that they are often negative, and may be called surface-pressures.
The pressure at any point of the liquid which is above this level is negative T unless another fluid as, for instance, the air, presses on the upper surface, but it is only the difference of pressures with which we have to do, because two equal pressures on opposite sides of the surface produce no effect.
The force, therefore, with which the two plates are drawn together consists first of a positive part, or in other words an attraction, varying inversely as the square of the distance, and second, of a negative part of repulsion independent of the distance.
When the mercury is made positive it becomes dull and spreads itself out; when it is made