What makes you so negative about him?
I try to resurrect my first impression of Howard Abbott not colored by Quinn's negative appraisal.
This approach has a long and mostly negative history.
She could find no negative remarks about the self-made man.
the working of several instruments from one set of batteries or accumulators, is adopted, the positive and negative currents have to be sent from independent batteries, as shown by fig.
Damian chuckled despite himself, unable to shake the negative emotions running through him.
It was strong enough to wipe out anything negative he might feel towards her.
Speranski went on to say that honor, l'honneur, cannot be upheld by privileges harmful to the service; that honor, l'honneur, is either a negative concept of not doing what is blameworthy or it is a source of emulation in pursuit of commendation and rewards, which recognize it.
This would be the first year he'd gone into the negative in a thousand of years.
Yet Xander felt nothing negative towards her.
Both Quinn and Howie protested as one with a negative shout.
I don't mean to sound so negative about him.
I didn't think I was being negative, but there's a lot to think about, Alex.
Although the direct object of Pasteur was to prove a negative, yet it was on these experiments that sterilization as known to us was developed.
Lorrain, pursing up his lips, waved a severely negative finger before his nose.
The WWW news was either negative or tardy because each took turns bickering at the other until Dean was ready to toss the entire family.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
The air, as is now known, has always present in it ions, some carrying a positive and others a negative charge, and those having the opposite sign to the charged body are attracted and tend to discharge it.
He was peppered with questions from the rescuers, many of whom he recognized, but he held responses to a negative shake of his head and Billy Langstrom's name.
Again Pierre's negative answer seemed to distress him, and he hastened to add:
Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
This is the moment to examine whether there is a more complete polarization in a direction somewhat oblique; and it is found that with 0 positive there is, in fact, a direction of more complete polarization, while with 0 negative the polarization is more imperfect than in the perpendicular direction itself.
In the raised position a negative battery is connected to the distributor and in the depressed position a positive battery.
Sometimes they are negative and sometimes they are positive.
Economic changes that have long-term positive benefits for society often have short-term negative ones.
Thus for a dot, first a negative and then a positive current is sent to the line, the effect of the current continuing during the time required for the paper to travel the space between two holes.
Hard on this came the recognition of the fact that freely charged positive and negative ions are always present in the atmosphere, and that a radioactive emanation can be collected.
Table Potential, Dissipation, Ioniz If we regard the potential gradient near the ground as representing a negative charge on the earth, then if the source of supply of that charge is unaffected the gradient will rise and become high when the operations by which discharge is promoted slacken their activity.
At the sending station one battery was to have its positive pole connected to the earth and its negative pole to an insulated condenser.
Napier uses abundantes and defectivae for positive and negative, defining them as meaning greater or less than nothing ("Abundantes sunt quantitates majores nihilo: defectivae sunt quantitates minores nihilo").
Suppose the arm c of the switch S to be in contact with 2; thin when the key is manipulated it sends alternately positive and negative currents into the line.
At most stations a negative potential gradient is exceptional, unless during rain or thunder.
So, negative on our end.
Each transmitter is therefore able to transmit a separate series of positive and negative currents in different combinations; these are distributed, by suitably arranged distributors and relays at the receiving end of the line, into their respective receivers.
To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
For working " double current," two sets of accumulators are provided, one set to send the positive and the other set the negative currents; that is to say, when, for example, a double current Morse key is pressed down it sends, say, a positive current from one set, but when it is allowed to rise to its normal position then a negative current is transmitted from the second set of accumulators.
He was not one of those many diplomats who are esteemed because they have certain negative qualities, avoid doing certain things, and speak French.
We'll keep a low profile and limit any negative publicity to really egregious errors.
That great separation of positive and negative electricity sometimes takes place during rainfall is undoubted, and the charge brought to the ground seems preponderatingly negative.
How can you still seem so negative when you.re surrounded by all this!
The proportion of occurrences of negative potential under a clear sky was much above its average in autumn.
Lenard, Elster and Geitel, and others have found the potential gradient negative near waterfalls, the influence sometimes extending to a considerable distance.
a negative charge is lost much faster than a positive charge.
The colour and appearance differ in the two cases, red predominating in a positive, blue in a negative discharge.
If the positive is called the signalling current, the line will be charged positively each time a signal is sent; but as soon as the signal is completed a negative charge is communicated FIG.
Since each letter is represented by a specific combination of positive and negative currents, it is possible, by means of the combinations, to close a local circuit at any given interval, and so cause the paper to be pressed against the periphery of the type-wheel at the time when the letter required is opposite.
Thus a latent image of the " reseau-lines " will be formed on the sensitive plate, and, when the latter has been exposed to the sky in the telescope, we obtain, on development, a negative of the images both of the stars and of the reseau-lines.
Thus for a dash the interval between the positive and the negative current is equal to the time the paper takes to travel over twice the space between two successive holes.
Not exactly the reaction she had expected, but certainly not a negative one.
The largest positive and negative values recorded are met with during disturbed weather.
In some localities, however, negative potential gradient is by no means uncommon, at least at some seasons, in the absence of rain.
During rain the potential is usually but not always negative, and frequent alternations of sign are not uncommon.
If workers are in unsafe work environments, they are bearing a risk that has a measurable negative cost.
in diameter, charged to a negative potential of at least 2000 volts, is supported between insulators in the open, usually at a height of about 2 metres.
We have seen the negative effect of hubris in individuals and nations throughout history.
"Tetrahedral co-ordinates" are a system of quadriplanar co-ordinates, the fundamental planes being the faces of a tetrahedron, and the co-ordinates the perpendicular distances of the point from the faces, a positive sign being given if the point be between the face and the opposite vertex, and a negative sign if not.
The function of the " combiner " in each receiving instrument is so to group the received combination of positive and negative currents that they operate polarized relays in such a manner that the position of the tongues corresponds with the operation of the levers on the transmitter.
At the receiving station a telephone receiver was placed in series with another insulated battery, the negative terminal of which was to be in connexion with the earth.
In the Rowland multiple method of telegraphic working, the transmitter consists of a mechanical keyboard provided with a series of levers, which effect certain combinations of positive and negative currents for each letter.
In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree (and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of equations.'
By using a word with a negative connotation, Jenny caused her graduation speech to be a disaster.
A great way to solve a dilemma is to make a decision table, listing all the positive and negative aspects for each option.
Similarly, the forces acting in the opposite direction on the negative poles of the filaments have a resultant at another point S, which is called the south or negative pole.
9), " religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas," and by the use of the Greek aMywC', to pay heed to, frequently with a negative, in the sense of the Latin negligere (nec-legere), cf.
Altogether, in mana we have what is par excellence the primitive religious idea in its positive aspect, taboo representing its negative side, since whatever has mana is taboo, and whatever is taboo has mana.
(1904), and " Is Taboo a Negative Magic?"
In most cases, two thin lenses are combined, one of which has just so strong a positive aberration (" under-correction," vide supra) as the other a negative; the first must be a positive lens and the second a negative lens; the powers, however, may differ, so that the desired effect of the lens is maintained.
If a collective system be corrected for the axis point for a definite wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in the negative components - the flint glasses; - over-correction will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the error of the negative components), and under-correction for the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses preponderating in the red).
are any quantities whatever, positive or negative, is called a " continued fraction."
The value of such a fraction is the positive root of a quadratic equation whose coefficients are real and of which one root is negative.
He was not wanting in soldierly qualities; but his virtues were rather negative than decided.
Discretion must therefore be exercised in interpreting negative results in the lower animals.
But there is most to say for the negative.
Negative Fractional Numbers 6.5 68.
On the other hand, in writing decimals, the sequence (of negative powers) is from left to right.
This is a more advanced method, which leads easily to the idea of negative quantities, if the subtraction is such that we have to go behind the o of the standard series.
We can, however, denote the result of the process by a symbol, and deal with this symbol according to the laws of arithmetic. In this way we arrive at (i) negative numbers, (ii) fractional numbers, (iii) surds, (iv) logarithms (in the ordinary sense of the word).
The result of 3-7 is the same as that of o-4; and we may write it " - 4," and call it a negative number, if by this we mean something possessing the property that - 4+4 = o.
It would therefore be better, in some ways, to retain the unit throughout, and to describe - 4A as a negative quantity, in order to avoid confusion with the " negative numbers " with which operations are performed in formal algebra.
The positive quantity or number obtained from a negative quantity or number by omitting the " - " is called its numerical value.
We can obtain negative fractional numbers in the same way that we obtain negative integral numbers; thus - 4 or - 7A means that 4 or 7A is taken negatively.
When the result of any arithmetical operation or operations is represented approximately but not exactly by a number, the excess (positive or negative) of this number over the number which would express the result exactly is called the error.
It should be observed that the numerical value of the error is to be subtracted from or added to the stated value according as the error is positive or negative.
In the same way, by dividing by powers of so we may get negative indices.
In The Case Of Negative Numbers And Reciprocals, Only One Is Involved; And There Might Be Three Or More, As In The Case Of A Number Expressed By (A B)".
It is, after all, too negative a thing to stand by itself or to satisfy God."
In = the negative principle.
In negative answers na precedes the verb.
When she came back to check it, the results were negative.
His silence indicated he hadn't taken the test ... or it was negative?
By his actions, she was betting it was negative.
Yes. The test was negative.
She wasn't being negative.
The volume of air from which the ions have been extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on the ions, whether positive or negative.
I + is used to denote the charge on positive ions, I_ that on negative ions.
6 X30o for the negative.
Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.
This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.
Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
A highly insulated tube contains a little mercury, which is used as a negative electrode, and the tube also has sealed through the glass a platinum wire carrying an iron plate as an anode.
would give negative, surd or imaginary values; Diophantus then traces how each element of the equation has arisen, and formulates the auxiliary problem of determining how the assumptions must be corrected so as to lead to an equation (in place of the "impossible" one) which can be solved rationally.
The inequality in question has its greatest negative value near the time of the moon's first quarter, and the greatest positive value near the third quarter.
According to the recognized convention, the unit pole is that which acts upon an equal pole at unit distance with unit force: a north pole is reckoned as positive (+) and a south pole as negative (-).
Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.
A pole which points north is reckoned positive, one which points south negative.
If m, and m 2 are the strengths of two poles, d the distance between them expressed in centimetres, and f the force in dynes, f=ml m2/d2 (I) The force is one of attraction or repulsion, according as the sign of the product m l m 2 is negative or positive.
No substance has yet been discovered having a negative susceptibility sufficiently great to render the permeability (= I +471K) negative.
Forces acting on a Small Body in the Magnetic Field.-If a small magnet of length ds and pole-strength m is brought into a magnetic field such that the values of the magnetic potential at the negative and positive poles respectively are V 1 and the work done upon the magnet, and therefore its potential energy, will be W =m(V2-Vi) =mdV, which may be written W =m d s- = M d v= - MHo = - vIHo, ds ds where M is the moment of the magnet, v the volume, I the magnetization, and Ho the magnetic force along ds.
The coefficient K/(i +171-K) is positive for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic substances, which will therefore tend to move from weaker to stronger parts of the field; for all known diamagnetic substances it is negative, and these will tend to move from stronger to weaker parts.
For small bodies other than spheres the coefficient will be different, but its sign will always be negative for diamagnetic substances and positive for others; hence the forces acting on any small body will be in the same directions as in the case of a sphere' Directing Couple acting on an Elongated Body.
Since i +47-K' can never be negative, the apparent susceptibility will be positive or negative according as is greater or less than Thus, for example, a tube containing a weak solution of an iron salt will appear to be diamagnetic if it is immersed in a stronger solution of iron, though in air it is paramagnetic.4 Circular Magnetization.
In order to establish the cyclic condition, it is sufficient to apply alternately the greatest positive and negative forces employed in the test (greatest H=about ?5 C.G.S.
The susceptibility is therefore constant and independent of the field, while its negative sign indicates that the substance is diamagnetic. There being no resistance, the induced current will continue to circulate 1 This deduction from Ewing's theory appears to have been first suggested by J.
The mass of each is about 3 7 1 o T th part of that of a hydrogen atom, and with each is indissolubly associated a charge of negative electricity equal to about 3.1 Xio '° C.G.S.
For those orbits whose projection upon a plane perpendicular to the field is righthanded, the period of revolution will be accelerated by the field (since the electron current is negative), and the magnetic moment consequently increased; for those which are left-handed, the period will be retarded and the moment diminished.
If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
Indeed, no sooner was the harmony apparently established by Aquinas than Duns Scotus began this negative criticism, which is carried much farther by William of Occam.
The knowledge of these laws, however, does not imply the existence of a conception of negative quantities.
The principal step in the modern development of algebra was the recognition of the meaning of negative quantities.
This involved not only the geometrical interpretation of negative quantities, but also the idea of continuity; this latter, which is the basis of modern analysis, leading to two separate but allied developments, viz.
One of the most difficult questions for the teacher of algebra is the stage at which, and the extent to which, the ideas of a negative number and of continuity may be introduced.
On the one hand, the modern developments of algebra began with these ideas, and particularly with the idea of a negative number.
Negative Quantities and Fractional Numbers.
(v.) Permutations and Combinations may be regarded as arithmetical recreations; they become important algebraically in reference to the binomial theroem (ï¿½ï¿½ 41, 44)ï¿½ (vi.) Surds and Approximate Logarithms. - From the arithmetical point of view, surds present a greater difficulty than negative quantities and fractional numbers.
We cannot solve the equation 7s.+X=4s.; but we are accustomed to transactions of lending and borrowing, and we can therefore invent a negative quantity - 3s.
ï¿½ 2 7 (i.)); and we are assisted to the conception of negative quantities.
"), that the graphic method leads without arithmetical reasoning to the properties of negative values.
It is not necessary to regard - 4 here as a negative number; all that is meant is that 4x2 has to be subtracted.
Negative Numbers and Formal Algebra.
Negative quantities will have arisen in various ways, e.g.
(ii.) Simple equations, especially equations in which the unknown quantity is an interval of time, can often only be satisfied by a negative solution (ï¿½ 33).
The occurrence of negative quantities does not, however, involve the conception of negative numbers.
The graphic method, therefore, does not give any direct assistance towards the conception of negative numbers as operators, though it is useful for interpreting negative quantities as results.
These constructed symbols may be called positive and negative coefficients; or a symbol such as (- p) may be called a negative number, in the same way that we call 3 a fractional number.
The result of the extension is that the number or quantity represented by any symbol, such as P, may be either positive or negative.
Negative Indices and Logarithms. - (i.) Applying the general principles of ï¿½ï¿½ 47-49 to indices, we find that we can interpret Xm as being such that X m .Xm =X 0 =I; i.e.
(v.) The further extension to fractional values (positive or negative) of n depends in the first instance on the establishment of a method of algebraical evolution which bears the same relation to arithmetical evolution (calculation of a surd) that algebraical division bears to arithmetical division.
The application of the method to the calculation of (I +x) n, when n= p/q, q being a positive integer and p a positive or negative integer, involves, as in the case where n is a negative integer, the separate consideration of the form of the coefficients b 1, b 2, ...
(vi.) The definition of no.), which has already been extended in (iv.) above, has to be further extended so as to cover fractional values of n, positive or negative.
The results in (b) apply also if n is a negative integer.
(ix.) The extension of n (r), and therefore of n [r ], to negative and fractional values of n, enables us to extend the applicability of the binomial coefficients to the summation of series (ï¿½ 46 (ii.)).
This accounts for the fact that the same table of binomial coefficients serves for the expansions of positive powers of i+x and of negative powers of i - x.
- There are two kinds of approach to a limit, which may be illustrated by the series forming the expansion of (x+h) n, where n is a negative integer and 1> h/x> o.
ï¿½; the successive terms of this series, after the first, are alternately positive and negative, and consist of fractions with numerators I and denominators continually increasing.
This insertion of irrational numbers (with corresponding negative numbers) requires for its exact treatment certain special methods, which form part of the algebraic theory of number, and are dealt with under Number.
The development of the theory of equations leads to the amplification of real numbers, rational and irrational, positive and negative, by imaginary and complex numbers.
This led to a prolonged controversy on the nature of negative and imaginary quantities, which was ultimately settled in a very curious way.
The progress of analytical geometry led to a geometrical interpretation both of negative and also of imaginary quantities; and when a " meaning " or, more properly, an interpretation, had thus been found for the symbols in question, a reconsideration of the old algebraic problem became inevitable, and the true solution, now so obvious, was eventually obtained.
A point A in space may be associated with a (real, positive, or negative) numerical quantity a, called its weight, and denoted by the symbol aA.
A notable improvement on the ideas of Diophantus is to be found in the fact that the Hindus recognized the existence of two roots of a quadratic equation, but the negative roots were considered to be inadequate, since no interpretation could be found for them.
In this work, which is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of algebra, Cardan shows that he was familiar with both real positive and negative roots of equations whether rational or irrational, but of imaginary roots he was quite ignorant, and he admits his inability to resolve the so-called lation of Arabic manuscripts.
He denotes quantities by the letters of the alphabet, retaining the vowels for the unknown and the consonants for the knowns; he introduced the vinculum and among others the terms coefficient, affirmative, negative, pure and adfected equations.
He possessed clear ideas of indices and the generation of powers, of the negative roots of equations and their geometrical interpretation, and was the first to use the term imaginary roots.
After their passage the Adriatic question was again allowed to stagnate, the Powers resuming their negative attitude, while advocating direct discussion between the two parties.
In the first hybrid generation formed by the union of the reproductive germs of the positive variety (that possessing the structural character selected for observation) with those of the negative variety, it is not surprising that all or nearly all the individuals were found to exhibit, as a result of the mixture, the positive character.
In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
On the other hand, the vast number of experiments in the cropping of the tails and ears of domestic animals, as well as of similar operations on man, are attended with negative results.
The part corresponding to negative values of u is similar, OA being a line of symmetry.
[True, there was not so much said about Babylon as we should have expected even in the first book; the paucity of references to the local characteristics of Babylonia is in fact one of the negative arguments urged by older scholars in favour of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy.] Israel himself, with all his inconsistent qualities, becomes the absorbing subject of the prophet's meditations.
That quinine, chloroform, glycerin, alcohol, with others, had no attractive influence on them - negative chemiotaxis.
Then we have the property of adaptation, in which the negative reaction may be changed into a positive; a given toxin may at first repel the cell, but by a gradual process the cell becomes accustomed to such a toxin and will move towards it.
The influence of the chemical substance is either that of attraction or repulsion, the one being known as positive, the other as negative chemiotaxis.
The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.
So prognosis became pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their earliest flow.
In religion he protested stoutly, and no doubt sincerely, that his own attitude was not purely negative; but here also he seems to have failed altogether to distinguish between pruning and cutting down.
Negative values of n must be interpreted by a streaming motion on a parallel plane at a level slightly different, as on a double Riemann sheet, the stream passing from one sheet to the other across a cut SS' joining the foci S, S'.
There is no Stokes' function when the axis of the doublet at S does not pass through 0; the image system will consist of an inclined doublet at H, making an equal angle with OS as the doublet S, and of a parallel negative line doublet, extending from H to 0, of moment varying as the distance from O.
An oblate flattened body, like a disk or plate, has c 2 -c 1 negative, so that the medium steers the body axially; this may be verified by a plate dropped in water, and a leaf or disk or rocket-stick or piece of paper falling in air.
There are perfect cleavages parallel to the rhombohedral faces, and the crystals exhibit a strong negative double refraction, like calcite.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
Immediately the current passed through the solenoid it caused the iron cylinder to rise, and, by means of its supporting rod, forced the end of the balance beam upwards, so depressing the other end that the negative carbon rod was forced downwards into contact with the metal in the crucible.
This action completed the furnace-circuit, and current passed freely from the positive carbon through the fragments of metal to the negative carbon, thereby reducing the current through the shunt.
At once the attractive force of the solenoid on the iron cylinder was automatically reduced, and the falling of the latter caused the negative carbon to rise, starting an arc between it and the metal in the crucible.
As in Bantu, the verb presents a multiplicity of forms, including one present, three past and future tenses, with personal endings complete, passive, interrogative, conditional, elective, negative and other forms, each with its proper participial inflexions.
Experiments on monkeys have, however, given negative results.
and vi.; Negative and Positive Beneficence, 1893).
&c., where p+pq is the quantity whoseTi power or root is required, p the first term of that quantity, and q the quotient of the rest divided by p, m the power, which may be a positive or negative integer or a fraction, and a, b, c, &c., the several terms in order, In a second letter, dated the 24th of October 1676, to Oldenburg, Newton gave the train of reasoning by which he devised the theorem.
A rigorous demonstration was wanting for many years, Leonhard Euler's proof for negative and fractional values being faulty, and was finally given by Niels Heinrik Abel.
In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.
Experiment showed, however, that instead of only potash appearing at the negative electrode, hydrogen is also liberated; this is inexplicable by Berzelius's theory, but readily explained by the " hydrogen-acid " theory.
By this theory potassium is liberated at the negative electrode and combines immediately with water to form potash and hydrogen.
It is apparent that metallic salts of organic acids would, in aqueous solution, be ionized, the positive ion being the metal, and the negative ion the acid residue.
The expedition which followed produced negative successes, but the absence of any positive success and the pressure of financial difficulty, coupled with the defection of Jason (probably before 37 1), and the high-handed action of Thebes in destroying Plataea (373), induced Athens to renew the peace with Sparta which Timotheus had broken.
This proves the existence of two kinds of electricity, called positive and negative.
The sign of the electrification imparted to the electroscope when so charged - that is, whether positive or negative - can be determined by rubbing the sealing-wax rod with flannel and the glass rod with silk, and approaching them gently to the electroscope one at a time.
Hence if the electrified sealing-wax rod makes the leaves collapse, the electroscopic charge is positive, but if the glass rod does the same, the electroscopic charge is negative.
The electrified ebonite is said to act by " electrostatic induction " on the tray, and creates on it two induced charges, one of positive and the other of negative electricity.
If then the ball be withdrawn, the leaves will diverge a second time with negative electrification.
(iii.) Association of Positive and Negative Electricities.
- The third leading fact in electrostatics is that positive and negative electricity are always created in equal quantities, and that for every charge, say, of positive electricity on one conductor there must exist on some other bodies an equal total charge of negative electricity.
Every tube of electric force must therefore begin and end on electrified surfaces of opposite sign, and the quantities of positive and negative electricity on its two ends are equal, since the force E just outside an electrified surface is normal to it and equal to a/41r, where a is the surface density; and since we have just proved that for the ends of a tube of force EdS = E 1 dS', it follows that adS = a'dS', or Q = Q', where Q and Q' are the quantities of electricity on the ends of the tube of force.
This can be done by placing at B an equal negative point-charge -q in the place which would be occupied by the optical image of A if PO were a mirror, that is, let -q be placed at B, so that the distance BO is equal to the distance AO, whilst AOB is at right angles to PO.
So the potential distribution in the space due to the electric point-charge +q as A together with -q at B is the same as that due to +q at A and the negative induced charge erected on the infinite plane (earthed) metal sheet placed half-way between A and B.
If then we put a negative point-charge -qr/d at B, it follows that the spherical surface will be a zero potential surface, for q rq 1 (24).
Suppose then we remove the negative point-charge, and let the sphere be supposed to become conductive and be connected to earth.
If we make a distribution of negative electricity over it, which has a density a varying according to the law a = -(d 2 -r 2) q /42rr AP3.
exactly similar to that which would exist if the sphere were removed and a negative point charge - grid were placed at B.
This equation is generally true for any series of transformations, provided that we regard H and W as representing the algebraic sums of all the quantities of heat supplied to, and of work done by the body, heat taken from the body or work done on the body being reckoned negative in the summation.
The area DABbd under the return path (v diminishing) represents work done on the substance, or against the back-pressure, and is negative.
In the notation of the calculus the relations become - dH/dp (0 const) = odv /do (p const) (4) dH/dv (0 const) =odp/do (v const) The negative sign is prefixed to dH/dp because absorption of heat +dH corresponds to diminution of pressure - dp. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion co efficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.
The increment of this area (or the decrement of the negative area E--04) at constant temperature represents the external work obtainable from the substance in isothermal expansion, in the same way that the decrement of the intrinsic energy represents the work done in adiabatic expansion.
The function G is represented by the negative area D"DM under the isothermal, bounded by the isopiestic DM and the axis of pressure.
Effects of Immigration.-The effects of emigration are negative in character; those of immigration are positive.
Rutherford had announced the nuclear theory of atomic structure which required each atom to consist of a minute positively charged nucleus about which negative electrons were distributed.
The point is of no very great significance, however, since no one has pretended that the Western civilization compared with the Eastern in point of antiquity; and in any event, no amount of negative evidence weighs a grain in the balance against the positive evidence of the Cretan inscriptions.
Other methods are to place the metal and mercury together in dilute acid, to add mercury to the solution of a metallic salt, to place a metal in a solution of mercuric nitrate, or to electrolyse a metallic salt using mercury as the negative electrode.
Soc., 1909, 31, p. 20) seem to negative its existence.
The negative criticisms of Kosters have, however, been strengthened by his replies (in the Dutch Theolog.
Some excellent instruments of the second type were subsequently made by Dollond's eldest son Peter, in which for the " convex glass within the tube " was substituted an achromatic object-glass, and outside that a divided negative achromatic combination of long focus.
1) cut from a complete negative achromatic combination of 84 in.
xvii., 1815, pp - 344-359) describes a micrometer in which a negative lens is introduced between the eye-piece and the objectglass.
It is essentially the same in principle as Amici's micrometer, except that the divided lens is an achromatic positive instead of a negative lens.
The former is the basis of the negative part of his argument; the latter supplies him with all the positive account he has to give, and that is meagre enough.
de la Borderie, L'Historia Britonum (Paris and London, 1883), which summarizes the older negative criticism; H.
The moment of W 1 may be positive or negative.
Indirectly, indeed, Kant had indicated a very definite opinion on theology: from the Critique of Pure Reason it was clear that for him speculative theology must be purely negative, while the Critique of Practical Reason as clearly indicated the view that the moral law is the absolute content or substance of any religion.
But in consciousness there is equally given a primitive act of op-positing, or contra-positing, formally distinct from the act of position, but materially determined, in so far as what is op-posited must be the negative of that which was posited.
No molecule could possibly be imagined for which n had a negative value or the value n =1.
The theory therefore passes a crucial test when it is discovered that no gases exist for which n is either negative or unity.
It consists, that is to say, in a range of bright lines, the agreement of which with the negative pole bands of nitrogen, together with details of interest connected with its mode of production, was ascertained by a continuance of the research.
These last two steps may introduce magnitudes which have to be subtracted, and which therefore have to be treated as negative quantities in the arithmetical.
3, if AN and NB are regarded as positive, then SF, TG, ET and SA are negative, but the products ET.
This will be seen by taking the mid-ordinate as the ordinate for which x = o, and noticing that the odd powers of x introduce positive and negative terms which balance one another when the whole area is taken into account.
This, the negative aspect of the congregational idea, has emerged at certain stages of its history as Independency.
Independency, like Nonconformity, is primarily a negative term.
Its two halves have each a negative and a positive scene.
We see at once that, where u=o, the velocity has its " normal " value, while where u is positive the velocity is in excess, and where u is negative the velocity is in defect of the normal value.
It is in fact in these cases, like " heterodoxy," a term of purely negative significance, and its intellectual value is of the slightest.
As to anemometer pressures, it should be observed that the recorded pressure is made up of a positive front and negative (vacuum) back pressure, but in structures the latter must be absent or only partially developed.
The attitude of Ultramontanism, for instance, towards the right claimed and exercised by the state to make laws concerning marriage is wholly negative; for it recognizes no marriage laws except those of the Church, the Church alone being regarded as competent to decide what impediments are a bar to marriage, and to exercise jurisdiction over such cases.
This negative aspect has a twofold bearing.
In the introductory letter he criticized Gladstone's pronouncement on the subject, and especially examined the allegation of a general tendency towards disestablishment in the civilized world at large, and arrived at a negative conclusion.
heat; but the essential idea of moving electric ions of both kinds, positive and negative, in the molecules had still to be introduced.
A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.
The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.
Its use appears to have spread more rapidly outside Germany than in Germany itself, one cause of its popularity being that it was negative and colourless, and could thus be applied by adherents of the "old religion" to those of the "new religion," without giving offence, on occasions when it was expedient to avoid abusive language.
The symbol (alp) which is known as Legendre's symbol, and denotes the positive or negative unit which is the remainder when au s (-1) is divided by a prime number p, does not appear in this memoir, but was first used in the Essai sur la theorie des nombres.
The Sophistic epoch of Greek philosophy was, in great part, such a negative reaction against the self-confident assertion of the nature-philosophies of the preceding age.
But the attitude maintained by the Academics was chiefly that of a negative criticism of the views of others, in particular of the somewhat crude and imperious dogmatism of the Stoics.
More celebrated than any of the above was Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), whose scepticism lay more in his keen negative criticism of all systems and doctrines which came before him as literary historian than in any theoretic views of his own as to the possibility of knowledge.
The importance of Rudolph's reign is negative rather than positive, consisting more in what he did not do than in what he did; although it is questionable whether any ruler could have prevented the religious struggles of Germany and the Thirty Years' War.
It is used in the manufacture of carbon rods for arc lights, and for the negative element in the Bunsen battery.
He extended the "law of continuity" as stated by Johannes Kepler; regarded the denominators of fractions as powers with negative exponents; and deduced from the quadrature of the parabola y=xm, where m is a positive integer, the area of the curves when m is negative or fractional.
This is given somewhat as follows: the distance represented by the square root of a negative quantity cannot be measured in the line backwards or forwards, but can be measured in the same plane above the line, or (as appears elsewhere) at right angles to the line either in the plane, or in the plane at right angles thereto.
1434 on the fine wire, and the Clark cell is connected in between the sliding contact and one terminal of the galvanometer, so that its negative pole is connected through the galvanometer with that end of the fine wire to which the negative pole of the working battery is attached.
On placing a piece of potash on a platinum plate, connected to the negative of a powerful electric battery, and bringing a platinum wire, connected to the positive of the battery, to the surface of the potassium a vivid action was observed: gas was evolved at the upper surface of the fused globule of potash, whilst at the lower surface, adjacent to the platinum plate, minute metallic globules were formed, some of which immediately inflamed, whilst others merely tarnished.
Limnadia (Brongniart, 1820) is supposed to consist of species exclusively parthenogenetic. But when asked to believe that males never occur among these amazons, one cannot but remember how hard it is to prove a negative.
The posterior end of the organ is positive, the anterior negative, and the current, passes from the tail to the head.
Cheyne (in Critica Biblica, 1903), whose restorations resting on a dubious theory of Hebrew history have met with little approval, though his negative criticism of the text is often keen and suggestive.
A Spanish ambassador early in the reign thought that Elizabeth's own religion was equally negative, though she told him she agreed with nearly everything in the Augsburg Confession.
In January 1843 the government put a final and peremptory negative on the church's claims for spiritual independence.
the minus sign being usually written over the characteristic, and not before it, to indicate that the characteristic only, and not the whole expression, is negative; thus 1.4084604 stands for -I+ 4084604.
It should be mentioned that in most tables of trigonometrical functions, the number io is added to all the logarithms in the table in order to avoid the use of negative characteristics, so that the characteristic 9 denotes in reality 1, 8 denotes a, io denotes o, &c. Logarithms thus increased are frequently referred to for the sake of distinction as tabular logarithms, so that the tabular logarithm =the true logarithm -IIo.
In tables of logarithms of numbers to base io the mantissa only is in general tabulated, as the characteristic of the logarithm of a number can always be written down at sight, the rule being that, if the number is greater than unity, the characteristic is less by unity than the number of digits in the integral portion of it, and that if the number is less than unity the characteristic is negative, and is greater by unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant figure.
Napier said that he had already thought of the change, and pointed out a further improvement, viz., that the characteristics of numbers greater than unity should be positive and not negative, as suggested by Briggs.
The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions.
From these are given off at irregular intervals short lateral branches, each of which terminates in a flame-cell (f) precisely similar in structure to the flame-cells found in Planarians, Trematodes and Cestodes; here as there the question whether they are open to the body cavity or not must probably be answered in the negative.
The extraing to foot of rotifers; at, median blastoporic opening of antenna, united by a nerve to br, brain the cloaca leads us to a (letter omitted in B); bl, bladder, re ver y different view, which ceiving ramified kidney in B, C, D; finds negative support f, foot, and f.g, its cement-gland;.
the thought of the identical, indifferent, absolute substratum of both nature and spirit, the advance to Identitdtsphilosophie; (3) the opposition of negative and positive philosophy, an opposition which is the theme of the Berlin lectures, though its germs ma y be traced back to 1804.
For this common basis, however, he did not succeed at first in finding any other than the merely negative expression of indifference.
Finally, then, there emerges the opposition of negative, i.e.
(x.) The use of animals in magic may sometimes give rise to a kind of respect for them, but this is of a negative nature.
Manichaean ethics is not merely negative, however, since it is necessary to cherish, strengthen and purify the elements of light, as well as free oneself from the elements of darkness.
It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).
It is as follows: (1) Negative rejection of Plato's hypothesis of forms and formal number, and reduction of forms to the common in the early dialogu€ 7rEpi uXoaogtas and in the early work 7rEpt 13€&w.
In analysing the syllogism, he first says that a premiss is an affirmative or negative sentence, and then that a term is that into which a premiss is dissolved, i.e.
It Will Be Remarked, That As L 1 Cannot Either Be O Or Negative, We Must Add 7 To Las Often As May Be Necessary, In Order That L 1 May Be A Positive Whole Number.
Cheruel, prove a complete negative, for in them appears the zeal of Mazarin for the peace.
But his conduct after the battle was sharply criticized in England, and its negative results were used as a weapon against the ministry.
But the negative part of Ruskin's teaching on economics, social and political problems, has been much more effective than the positive part of his teaching.
But his results were mainly negative.
It was a purely negative condition.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
The question as to whether the motion was due to an irregular distribution of the earth's atmosphere, thus involving abnormal variations in the refractive index, was also investigated; here, again, negative results were obtained.
These forms all agree in making the frequency negative when s falls below a certain value sp. Rydberg's second law states that if the main branch series is taken, the numerical value of np_I corresponding to sp_ I is equal.
Now it follows from Rydberg's second law put on a more accurate basis by Ritz that in one case at any rate a negative period has reality and must be interpreted just as if it were positive.
The band fades towards the red or violet according as A is positive or negative, and the appearance is sometimes complicated by the fact that several sets of lines start from identical or closely adjoining heads.
If a is negative the frequency passes through infinity and the maximum distance between the lines occurs there.
If a negative value of the frequency is admitted, more complicated effects may be predicted.
If we adopt Thiele's view that each band is accompanied by a second branch for which s has negative values the complication is still further increased, but there does not seem to be sufficient reason to adopt this view.
Close to and on either side of the absorptive band µ 2 has large positive and negative values, and if the above expression remains correct the change of frequency would, close to the centre of absorption, be 2 k-2"+3, which for n =3 and k= Io is 1/2000, or 500 times greater than the observed shifts, but this represents now the maximum displacement and not the displacement of the most intense portion of the radiation.
Lorentz, and leave no manner of doubt that the radiating centres are negative electrons.
He now distinguished two philosophies: negative philosophy starting from notions, and positive philosophy starting from being; the former a philosophy of conditions, the latter of causes, i.e.
Hegel, he said, had only supplied the logic of negative philosophy; and it must be confessed that the most which could be extracted from the Hegelian dialectic would be some connexion of thoughts without proving any existence of corresponding things.
96 (I Clement), had nothing to contribute to the question of authorship except the negative opinion that it was not by Paul (Euseb.
During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.
The negative rotation in ferro-magnetic media is the only fact of importance which remained to be discovered afterwards (by M.
If, however, the energy of surface tension between the two substances were negative the surface would tend to a maximum, and complete mixture would follow.
From this point of view the natural solubility of two substances involves a negative energy of surface tension between them.
The observations of Moller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of Ulothrix and Ectocarpus, for example From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
If the cortical layer should exhibit positive reaction and the medulla of the same species a negative reaction with both reagents, the result is represented thus, K CaCI i.
The Heroult cell consists of a square iron or steel box lined with carbon rammed and baked into a solid mass; at the bottom is a cast-iron plate connected with the negative pole of the dynamo, but the actual working cathode is undoubtedly the layer of already reduced and molten metal that lies in the bath.
If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.
not even avoid fractional exponents ("Racine cubique de serait en circle"), and is ignorant only of negative exponents.
The glass is excited positively by friction with the rubbers, and the charge is drawn off by the action of the points which, when acted upon inductively, discharge negative electricity against it.
The cushions must be connected to earth to remove the negative electricity which accumulates on them.
Nairne's machine could give either positive or negative electricity, the first named being collected from the prime conductor carrying the collecting points and the second from the prime conductor carrying the cushion.
charged with positive electricity on its inner coating and the other with negative, and let both have their outsides connected to earth.
a negative on the side nearest and a positive on the side most removed.
Likewise the negative charge on B induces a positive charge on the side of B' nearest to it and repels negative electricity to the far side.
The ball A' will give up its charge of negative electricity to the Leyden jar B, and the ball B' will give up its positive charge to the Leyden jar A.
In the course of their rotation two diametrically opposite carriers touched against the ends of a neutralizing conductor so as to form for a moment one conductor, and the moment afterwards these two carriers were insulated, one carrying away a positive charge and the other a negative.
Continuing their rotation, the positively charged carrier gave up its positive charge by touching a little knob attached to the positive field plate, and similarly for the negative charge carrier.
The carriers which were touched under the influence of the positive field plate passed on and gave up a portion of their negative charge to increase that of the negative field plate; in the same Nichol= FIG.
The action of the machine is as follows: Suppose one paper armature to be charged positively, it acts by induction on the right hand comb, causing negative electricity to issue from the comb points upon the glass revolving disk; at the same time the positive electricity passes through the closed discharge circuit to the left comb and issues from its teeth upon the part of the glass disk at the opposite end of the diameter.
He also devised an alternating current electrical machine in which the discharge balls were alternately positive and negative.
They are usually included in Oomycetes, but their simple structure, minute size, usually uniciliate zoospores, and their negative characters would justify their retention as a separate group. It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.
Thus, in Sumerian we find such forms as numunnib-bi, " he speaks not to him," where the negative prefix nu and the verbal prefix mun are in harmony, but in dissimilation to the infix nib, " to him," and to the root bi, " speak," which are also in harmony.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
These iso-diazotates are formed much more readily when the aromatic nucleus in the diazonium salt contains negative radicals.
The weak points in Hume's empiricism are so admirably realized Negative by the author himself that it is only fair to quote his own Negativ of summary in the Appendix to the Treatise.
For what reason this volume may differ from case to case lies close at hand; in connexion with the notion of negative and positive atoms, like chlorine and hydrogen, experience tends to show that the former, as well as the latter, have a mutual repulsive power, but the former acts on the latter in the opposite sense; the necessary consequence is that, when those negative and positive groups are distributed in the molecule, its volume will be smaller than if the negative elements are heaped together.
Now taking the isomers H 3 C CC1 3 (M„ = 108) and C1H 2 C CHC1 2 (M„ = we see the negative chlorine atoms heaped up in the left hand formula, but distributed in the second; the former therefore may be presumed to occupy a larger space, the molecular volume, that is, the volume in cubic centimetres occupied by the molecular weight in grams, actually being 108 in the former, and 103 in the latter case (compare Chemistry: Physical).
Other physical properties might be considered; as a general rule they depend upon the distribution of negative and positive elements in the molecule.
The outward gradient is dO/dr, and is negative if the central hole is heated.
Where the difficulty rises respecting him is that most thinkers since his day, who have seen this difference with equal clearness, have advanced from it to the negative side, while he advanced to the positive.
To the Cyrenaics pleasure was something active and positive; to Epicurus it was rather negative - tranquillity more than vigorous enjoyment.
But the Reichsregiment had taken one step, although this was of a negative character.
They did so reluctantly, because they would thereby condemn themselves to assume that attitude of purely negative criticism which, during the great days of their prosperity, they had looked down upon with contempt, and were putting themselves under the leadership of Eugen Richter, whom they had long opposed.
The true work of his episcopate was, however, positive, not negative.
At Bossekop and Cape Thorsden there were a considerable proportion of negative or impossible parallaxes.
Out of a total of 146 auroral lines, with wave-lengths longer than 3684 tenth-metres, Westman identifies 82 with oxygen or nitrogen lines at the negative pole in vacuum discharges.
Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Peloponnesian coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to the Sicilian Expedition of 415.
Another negative cause may be found in the failure of an attempt or attempts to subdue the Thraceward towns.
they form a long negative confession, in which the dead man declares that he has sinned neither against man nor against the gods.
Minute vesicular cavities are not infrequently present, sometimes as negative cubes, and these may contain saline solutions or carbon dioxide or gaseous hydrocarbons.
We have thus five precepts of piety on the first table, and five of probity, in negative form, on the second, an arrangement which is accepted by the best recent writers.
In 1906 the question of uniting Allegheny with Pittsburg under one municipal government was submitted to a joint vote of the electorate of the two cities, in accordance with an act of the state legislature, which had been passed in February of that year, and a large majority voted for the union; but there was determined opposition in Allegheny, every ward of the city voting in the negative; the constitutionality of the act was challenged; the supreme court of the state on the 11th of March 1907 declared the act valid, and on the 18th of November 1907 this decision was affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States.
It is noteworthy that although all the members of the group are aquatic no zoospores are produced, a negative character common to them and the Blue-green Algae.
While, therefore, there is much evidence of a negative character against the existence of an extensive polymorphism among algae, some amount of metamorphosis is known to occur.
The simplest is for the impression made by an observed object on the retina, the eye; in this connexion the term "after-image" (better "after-sensation") is used for an image which remains when the eye is withdrawn from a brilliantly lighted object; it is called positive when the colour remains the same, negative when the complementary colours are seen.
Goethe, by singularly different methods, had emerged from a merely negative position into a lofty and coherent conception of the universe.
Yet their Christology and negative attitude towards the state rather indicate, as in the case of Wicklif, Hus and the Fraticelli, an affinity to the Cathari and other medieval sects.
The negative, un-Aryan, is used of each of the two low aims. It is possible that this rendering should have been introduced into the translation; but the ethical meaning, though still associated with the tribal meaning, had probably already become predominant in the language of the time.
The negative side, the qualities that have to be suppressed by the cultivation of the opposite virtues, are the Ten Bonds (Samyojanas), the Four Intoxications (Asava) and the Five Hindrances (Nivaranas).
Schonbein (loc. cit.) assumed that the ordinary oxygen molecule is decomposed into two parts which carry electrical charges of opposite kinds, the one with the positive charge being called "antozone" and the other carrying the negative charge being called "ozone," one variety being preferentially used up by the oxidizing compound or element and the other for the secondary reaction.
It called for a legislature of two branches, one chosen by the people and based on free population (or on wealth) and the other chosen by the first out of candidates nominated by the state legislatures; a majority vote only was required in each house; and Congress was to have a negative on such state legislation as seemed to the Congress to contravene the articles of the Union.
The absurdity of excluding the plebeians from all but a merely theoretical citizenship, based on the negative fact of freedom, seems to have become apparent before the close of the monarchical period.
At a later date, with the call of Schelling to Berlin in 1841, it became fashionable to speak of Hegelianism as a negative philosophy requiring to be complemented by a " positive " philosophy which would give reality and not mere ideas.
In what we may call their psychological aspect these three stages are known as the abstract stage, or that of understanding (Verstand), the dialectical stage, or that of negative reason, and the speculative stage, or that of positive reason (Vernunft).
The dialectic of negative reason rudely dispels these theories.
But reason is not negative only; while it disintegrates the mass or unconscious unity, it builds up a new unity with higher organization.
Bradley's Appearance and Reality (1893 2nd ed., 1897) and answered in the negative.
The measure had a negative report from committee in the house, and was strongly opposed in the Senate; but it passed both branches, and on the 2nd of July 1862 was signed by President Lincoln.
Twenty years later, the word "dismissed" (dimittantur) became the subject of controversy, some maintaining that it amounted to a direct approval, others that it was purely negative and did not imply that the books were free from error.
One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which was answered in the negative.
2 when the eye-lens is concave (or negative).
The substitution of a positive or negative eye-piece for the simple convex or concave eye-lens, and of an achromatic object-glass for the simple object-lens, transforms these, early forms into the modern achromatic telescope.
It is possible to construct a triple objective of two positive lenses enclosing between them one negative lens, the two former being made of the same glass.
Hence it is clear that if the two positive lenses of equal curvature power of o 60 and 0.102 respectively are combined with a negative lens of light flint o 569, then a triple objective, having no secondary spectrum (at any rate with respect to the blue rays), may be obtained.
But while an achromatic combination of o 60 and 0.102 alone will yield an objective whose focal length is only 1.28 times the focal length of the negative or extra dense flint lens, the triple combination will be found to yield an objective whose focal length is 73 times as great as the focal length of the negative light flint lens.
This case well illustrates the much closer approach to strict rationality of dispersion which is obtainable by using two different sorts of glass for the two positive lenses, even when one of them has a higher dispersive power than the glass used for the negative lens.
Proctor found that between Aldebaran and the Pleiades most of the stars have a motion positive in right ascension and negative in declination, a phenomenon which he designated " star-drift."
True theology is negative.
Among the features of the plan which were not embodied in the constitution were the following: proportionate representation in the Senate and the election of its members by the lower house "out of a proper number of persons nominated by the individual legislatures"; the vesting in the national Congress of power to negative state acts; and the establishment of a council of revision (the executive and a convenient number of national judges) with veto power over all laws passed by the national Congress.
The ministration to intellect or reason, aided by the negative elimination by means of contradictory instances of whatever in the instances is not always present, absent and varying with the given subject investigated, and finally by the positive inference that whatever in the instances is always present, absent and varying with the subject is its essential cause.
- Aristotle, by distinguishing affirmative and negative, particular and universal, made the fourfold classification of judgments, A, E, I and 0, the foundation both of opposition and of inference.
On the one hand, having reduced categorical judgments to an existential form, Brentano proposes to reform the syllogism, with the results that it must contain four terms, of which two are opposed and two appear twice; that, when it is negative, both premises are negative; and that, when it is affirmative, one premise, at least, is negative.
An old error that we may have a valid syllogism from merely negative premises (ex omnibus negativis), long ago answered by Alexander and Boethius, is now revived by Lotze, Jevons and Bradley, who do not perceive that the supposed second negative is really an affirmative containing a " not " which can only be carried through the syllogism by separating it from the copula and attaching it to one of the extremes, thus: The just are not unhappy (negative).
Some not-recognized are not unhappy (negative).
Schuppe, however, who is a fertile creator of quasi-syllogisms, has managed to invent some examples from two negative premises of a different kind: (I) (2) (3) No MisP. NoMisP. NoPisM.
The only difference between these and the previous examples (2) and (3) is that, while those break the rule against two negative premises, these break that against undistributed middle.
S is partially identical with P. In the first the fallacy is the indifferent contingency of the conclusion caused by the non-sequitur from a negative premise to an affirmative conclusion; while the second is either a mere repetition of the premises if the conclusion means " S is like P in being M," or, if it means " S is P," a non-sequitur on account of the undistributed middle.
To give the name of syllogism to inferences which infringe the general rules against undistributed middle, illicit process, two negative premises, non-sequitur from negative to affirmative, and the introduction of what is not in the premises into the conclusion, and which consequently infringe the special rules against affirmative conclusions in the second figure, and against universal conclusions in the third figure, is to open the door to fallacy, and at best to confuse the syllogism with other kinds of inference, without enabling us to understand any one kind.
(a) Of the idea we may say that whatever else it is, and apart from all puzzles as to ideas of relations such as smallness, of negative qualities such as injustice, or of human inventions such as beds, it is opposed to that of which it is the idea as its intelligible formula or law, the truth or validity - Herbart's word - of the phenomenon from the point of view of nexus or system.
Plato proceeds to explain by his principle of difference both privative and negative predicates, and also the possibility of false predication.
Nor is it Bacon's method of exclusions, which escapes the imputation of being dialectical, if not that of being unduly cumbrous, in virtue of the cogency of the negative instance.
The antinomies with which it concludes are more naturally taken as a prelude to the discussion of the Sophistes than as an unnecessary retreatment of the doctrine of the one and the many in a more negative form.
The second, though it might still have preceded the Parmenides might equally well have followed the negative criticism of that dialogue, as the beginning of reconstruction.
all differences of affirmative and negative, universal and particular within the figures, the cogent or legitimate forms are 9 Topics 160a 37-b 5.
The positive procedure by hypothesis and verification is rejected by Bacon, who thinks of hypothesis as the will o' the wisp of science, and prefers the cumbrous machinery of negative reasoning.
4 But once introduce the conception of division of labour as between the collector of data on the one hand and the expert of method, the interpreter of nature at headquarters, on the other, and Bacon's attitude to hypothesis and to negative reasoning is at least in part explained.
If judged by his positive contribution to the theory of method he may claim to find a more than negative justification for his teaching in its success.
With much that suggests an affirmative answer, Leibnitz gives the negative.
Nevertheless the thing-initself is a problematic conception and of a limiting or negative use merely.
Only the distinction of affirmative and negative judgments remains unresolved, and the exception is a natural one from the point of view of a philosophy of pluralism.
The negative judgment, for example, cannot be held in one and the same undivided act to presuppose the unity of the real, project an adjective as conceivably applicable to it and assert its rejection.
It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.
One geometrical interpretation of the negative sign of algebra was early seen to be mere reversal of direction along a line.
Thus, when an image is formed by a plane mirror, the distance of any point in it from the mirror is simply the negative of that of the corresponding point of the object.
Or if motion in one direction along a line be treated as positive, motion in the opposite direction along the same line is negative.
To turn a line through a certain angle in a given plane, a certain operator is required; but when we wish to turn it through an equal negative angle we must not, in general, employ the negative of the former operator.
For the negative of the operator which turns a line through a given angle in a given plane will in all cases produce the negative of the original result, which is not the result of the reverse operator, unless the angle involved be an odd multiple of a right angle.
For the square of j, like that of i, was assumed to be negative unity.
And we now see that the square of V is the negative of Laplace's operator; while V itself, when applied to any numerical quantity conceived as having a definite value at each point of space, gives the direction and the rate of most rapid change of that quantity.
Q and KQ have a common centre and equal and opposite radii; that is, the t of KQ is the negative conjugate of that of Q.
For the depression of the freezing-point a relation of the same form applies, but do is negative, and L is the latent heat of fusion.
It is evident that this is a very delicate method of determining the wetness z, but, since with dry saturated steam at low pressures this formula always gives negative values of the wetness, it is clear that Regnault's numerical coefficients must be wrong.
It is in this connexion that he insists on the necessity of the Nay to the Yea, of the negative to the positive.
In God, however, as the condition of His manifestation, lies, according to Boehme, the "eternal nature" or the mysterium magnum, which is as anger to love, as darkness to light, and, in general, as the negative to the positive.
As these sanyojanas give a very good idea of what has been termed the negative aspect of the Path, we may enumerate them as follows: i.
It is mere prejudice to deny that Mandeville had considerable philosophic insight; at the same time he was mainly negative or critical, and, as he himself said, he was writing for "the entertainment of people of knowledge and education."
Nothing is known of its natural history outside the body, but on cultivation it is apt to undergo numerous involution forms. Its presence in a patient is regarded as positive diagnostic proof of plague; but failure to find or to identify it does not possess an equal negative value, and should not be too readily accepted, for many instances are recorded in which expert observers have only succeeded in demonstrating its presence after repeated attempts.
If the approach of the glass rod causes the leaves in their final state to collapse, then the charge in the rod was positive, but if it causes them to expand still more the charge was negative, and vice versa for the sealing-wax rod.
If the electrified body is touched against the upper plate whilst at the same time the lower plate is put to earth, the condenser formed of the two plates and the film of air or varnish becomes charged with positive electricity on the one plate and negative on the other.
The moment of a force about a point 0 is the product of the force into the perpendicular drawn to its line of action from o 0, this perpendicular being reckoned J~ positive or negative according as 0 lies on one side or other of the line of action.
or negative according as they lie to the right or left of AO.
Thus a, negative rotation about OA may be regarded as a positive rotation about OA, the prolongation of AO.
ACA, is C 2~r 2C. This is equivalent to a negative riitation 2C about OC, whence the theorem that FIG.
x,,, the sign being positive or negative according as the direction is that of OX or the reverse.
also, by giving suitable values (positive or negative) to the ratios a :7 we can make G assume any assigned position in the plane ABC. We have here the origin of the barycentric co-ordinates of MObius, now usually known as areal co-ordinates.
If this amount be negative the sum in question is diminished by a corresponding amount.
If the quadratic (38) has a negative root, the trigonometrical functions in (36) are to be replaced by real exponentials, and the position x=o, y=o is unstable.
(4) Since 2ATT1=B (AB)q1+C(AC)r, it appears that if A> B> C the coefficient of x2 in (4) is positive, that of Ii is negative, whilst that of y2 is positive or negative according as 2BT ~ P. Hence the polhode cone surrounds the axis of greatest or least moment according as 2BT ~ F.
Hence if the system be started from rest in a configuration for which V is less than in the equilibrium configuration considered, this quantity must sUll further decrease (since T cannot be negative), and it is evident that either the system will finally come to rest in some other equilibrium configuration, or V will in the long run diminish indefinitely.
This leads to a determinantal equation in X whose 2n roots are either real and negative, or complex with negative real parts, on the present hypothesis that the functions T, V, F are all essentially positive.
Let a represent the area of the section of a piston made by a plane perpendicular to its direction of motion, and v its velocity, which is to be considered as positive when outward, and negative when inward.
92, AB is to be treated as negative, which will give a negative value to a, indicating that in this case the rotation of AB round A is contrary to that of the cylinder bbb.
care being taken to attend to the sign of a, so that when that is negative the arithmetical values of y and a are to be added in order to give that of $.
For otitside gearing that ratio is negative, Cs because the wheels turn contrary ways; for inside gearing it is positive, because they turn the same way.
CB, downward motion being negative.
Now from the laws of statics it is known that, in order that a system of forces applied to a system of connected points may be in equilibrium, it is necessary that the sum formed by putting together the products of the forces by the respective distances through which their points of application are capable of moving simultaneously, each along the direction of the force applied to it, shall be zero, products being considered positive or negative according as, the direction of the forces and the possible motions of their points of application are the same or opposite.
In other words, the sum of the negative products is equal to the sum of the positive products.
To find the distance s through which a brake, exerting the friction F, must rub in order to stop a machine having the total actual energy E at the moment when the brake begins to act, reduce, by the principles of 96, the various efforts and other resistances of the machine which act at the same time with the friction of the brake to the rubbing surface of the brake, and let R be their resultantpositive if resistance, negative if effort preponderates.
An interesting confirmation of this view from the negative side is furnished by the city which ranked as chief among the Asiatic colonies of Greece, viz.
And even the more moderate believers in the pope's infallibility maintained that it was merely negative, a heaven-sent immunity against falling into error.
Even this negative infallibility was stoutly contested by the French and German bishops during the eight months that the council lasted (December 1869 to July 1870).
The apparent absence of human remains in the beds yielding dingo teeth and bones (which are almost certainly not older than the Pleistocene) is of only negative value, and liable to be upset by new discoveries.
Though couched in the negative, these rules must be interpreted in the amplest and widest sense by all believers.
He also discovered that a body charged with positive or negative electricity repels a body free to move when the latter is charged with electricity of like sign, but attracts it if it is charged with electricity of opposite sign, i.e.
positive repels positive and negative repels negative, but positive attracts negative.
The subject of pyro-electricity, or the power possessed by some minerals of becoming electrified when merely heated, and of exhibiting positive and negative electricity, now began to attract notice.
It was then found that when the end plates of Volta's pile were connected to an electroscope the leaves diverged either with positive or negative electricity.
Its duplex character, and the fact that the electricity produced by rubbing glass and vitreous substances was different from that produced by rubbing sealing-wax and resinous substances, seemed to necessitate the assumption of two kinds of electric fluid; hence there arose the conception of positive and negative electricity, and the two-fluid theory came into existence.
possessed opposite electricities, so that in charging the jar as much positive electricity is added to one side as negative to the other, led Franklin about 1750 to suggest a modification called the single fluid theory, in which the two states of electrification were regarded as not the results of two entirely different fluids but of the addition or subtraction of one electric fluid from matter, so that positive electrification was to be looked upon as the result of increase or addition of something to ordinary matter and negative as a subtraction.
The positive and negative electrifications of the two coatings of the Leyden jar were therefore to be regarded as the result of a transformation of something called electricity from one coating to the other, by which process a certain measurable quantity became so much less on one side by the same amount by which it became more on the other.
The notion then formed of the nature of electrification was something as follows: All bodies were assumed to contain a certain quantity of a so-called neutral fluid made up of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity, which when in this state of combination neutralized one another's properties.
Canton (1 753, 1 754) When, for instance, a positively electrified body was found to induce upon another insulated conductor a charge of negative electricity on the side nearest to it, and a charge of positive electricity on the side farthest from it, this was explained by saying that the particles of each of the two electric fluids repelled one another but attracted those of the positive fluid.
Hence the operation of the positive charge upon the neutral fluid was to draw towards the positive the negative constituent, of the neutral charge and repel to the distant parts of the conductor the positive constituent.
Kundt prepared metallic films of iron, nickel and cobalt, and obtained powerful negative optical rotation with them (Wied.
Faraday discovered the existence of a dark space round the negative electrode which is usually known as the " Faraday dark space."