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neapolitan

neapolitan

neapolitan Sentence Examples

  • His youth, spent at the Neapolitan court, was far from blameless, and it is not certain that he was married to the mother of his numerous family.

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  • It was to receive a Neapolitan garrison for a year, and, if necessary, for a longer time.

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  • Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.

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  • 6 More recently several men of science, including Sir Oliver Lodge in England, Professor Charles Richet in France, and Professors Schiaparelli and Morselli in Italy, have convinced themselves of the supernormal chaeacter (though not of any spiritualistic explanation) of certain physical phenomena that have occurred in the presence of a Neapolitan medium, Eusapia Palladino, though it is known that she frequently practises deception. ?

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  • After long negotiations he accepted the Sicilian and Neapolitan crowns, and in 1264 he sent a first expedition of Provencals to Italy; he also collected a large army and navy in Provence and France with the help of King Louis, and by an alliance with the cities of Lombardy was able to send part of his force overland.

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  • Under their direction steady advance was made on the side which Bonaparte saw to be all important; a sortie of part of the British, Spanish and Neapolitan forces on the 30th of November was beaten back with loss, General O'Hara, their commander, being severely wounded and taken prisoner.

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  • A Russo-Turkish fleet wrested Corfu from the French; and the Neapolitan Bourbons, emboldened by the news of the battle of the Nile, began hostilities with France which preluded the war of the Second Coalition.

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  • But the battle of Benevento (1266) and the establishment of the dynasty of Charles of Anjou on the Neapolitan throne put an end to the Ghibelline predominance in Tuscany.

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  • On the 1st of October 1860 the Neapolitan forces were defeated on the S.

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  • Giacomo afterwards had one of the bravos murdered, but the other was arrested by the Neapolitan authorities and confessed everything.

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  • Preparations for defence were made; a Neapolitan army was to advance through the Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa; but both expeditions were badly conducted and failed, and on the 8th of September Charles crossed the Alps and joined Lodovico it Moro at Milan.

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  • Louis XII., having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well, and concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the pope on the 25th of June, Frederick being formally deposed.

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  • On the 1st of October 1860 the Neapolitan forces were defeated on the S.

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  • It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.

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  • The Sicilian and Neapolitan contingents were commanded by the marquess of Santa Cruz, and Cardona, Spanish officers.

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  • CAMILLO PORZIO (1526-1580?), Italian historian, belonged to a wealthy and noble Neapolitan family, and was the son of the philosopher, Simone Porzio.

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  • The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.

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  • It is extensively distributed, but especially flourishes in the Neapolitan provinces.

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  • Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.

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  • The Neapolitan troops at first occupied Rome, but, being badly handled by their leader, the Austrian general, Mack, they were soon scattered in flight; and the Republican troops under General The Championnet, after crushing the stubborn resistance Parthenoof the lazzaroni, made their way into Naples and paean proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic (January 23, Republic. 1799).

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  • The Neapolitan Democrats chose five of their leading men to be directors.

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  • In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.

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  • At the same time an Austrian army was marching through the Legations, and Neapolitan and Spanish troops were advancing from the south.

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  • On the 11th Garibaldi landed at Marsala, without opposition, defeated the Neapolitan forces at Calatafimi on the 15th, and on the 27th entered Palermo in triumph, where he proclaimed himself, in King Victor Emmanuels name, dictator of Sicily.

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  • It was certain that, his work in Sicily done, Garibaldi would turn his attention to the Neapolitan dominions on the mainland; and beyond these lay Umbria and the Marches andRome.

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  • He proclaimed himself dictator of the kingdom, with Bertani as secretary of state, but as a proof of his loyalty he consigned the Neapolitan fleet to Persano.

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  • Brigand- age had always existed in the Neapolitan kingdom, largely me rand- owing to the poverty of the people; but the evil was now Wa:

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  • ing He asked for the Neapolitan viceroyalty for life, which the king pre -y wrsely refused.

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  • Arrests of other prominent persons followed, and on the 3rd of February the Chamber authorized the prosecution of De Zerbi, a Neapolitan deputy accused of corruption.

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  • Bisceglie was related to the Neapolitan dynasty, with whose enemies the pope was allied, and he had had a quarrel with Cesare.

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  • (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa), pope from 1555 to 1 559, was born on the 28th of June 1476, of a noble Neapolitan family.

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  • With the exception of Benevento, surrounded by the Neapolitan province of Principato Ulteriore, and the small state of Pontecorvo, enclosed within the Terra di Lavoro, the States of the Church formed a compact territory, bounded on the N.W.

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  • recognized the papal authority over the whole tract from Radicofani in Tuscany to the pass of Ceperano on the Neapolitan frontier - the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, the March of Ancona, the bishopric of Spoleto, Matilda's personal estates, and the countship of Brittenoro; but a good deal of the territory thus described remained for centuries an object of ambition only on the part of the popes.

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  • The Neapolitan or Parma violet (var.

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  • The rival claims to the Neapolitan kingdom of Carlo di Durazzo and Louis of Anjou caused fresh disturbances in Tuscany.

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  • Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.

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  • But the remaining 93 stood firm and were condemned to death, a punishment commuted to slavery in the Neapolitan galleys.

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  • But Ladislas still occupied the papal states, and Florence, alarmed at his growing power and ambition, formed a league with Siena, Bologna and Louis of Anjou who laid claim to the Neapolitan throne, to drive Ladislas from Rome.

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  • From the remote township of his birth, however, the branch of the family to which the philosopher belonged transferred itself soon afterwards to Naples, so that, like his predecessor Vico, Benedetto Croce may be correctly described as a Neapolitan.

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  • He studied at Rome and in Naples, afterwards adopting the life of an independent student and occupying himself especially with literary and with Neapolitan history.

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  • CARLO FILANGIERI (1784-1867), prince of Satriano, Neapolitan soldier and statesman, was the son of Gaetano Filangieri (1752-1788), a celebrated philosopher and jurist.

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  • and entrusted with various military reforms. On the outbreak of the troubles of 1848 Filangieri advised the king to grant the constitution, which he did in February 1848, but when the Sicilians formally seceded from the Neapolitan kingdom Filangieri was given the command of an armed force with which to reduce the island to obedience.

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  • Accordingly, to gratify the pope and the emperor Lothair II., the Pisans entered the Neapolitan territory to combat the Normans.

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  • - The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.

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  • PIETRO COLLETTA (1775-1831), Neapolitan general and historian, entered the Neapolitan artillery in 1796 and took part in the campaign against the French in 1798.

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  • Piero de' Medici, made alliance with the Neapolitan sovereign whose kingdom was claimed by Charles.

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  • As Ferdinand grew up, and after his marriage with a Neapolitan princess, he became the centre of a court opposition to Godoy and to his policy of alliance with France.

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  • The English flag was flown side by side with the Neapolitan, and England actually renewed war with France sooner than give up Malta.

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  • The granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed (17th February 1848) by that of Tuscany, drawn up by Gino Capponi.

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  • Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).

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  • On the 6th of July 1806 Napoleon conferred on his minister the title of prince of Benevento, a papal fief in the Neapolitan territory.

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  • In 1860 it was the first town to rise against the Neapolitan government.

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  • of Austria, and at the death of her brother King Ladislaus in 1414 she succeeded to the Neapolitan crown.

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  • The interior is richly decorated with marbles, almost all of which, except the white Carrara marble, are Neapolitan or Sicilian.

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  • Early in 1806 he proceeded to Naples with a French force in order to expel the Bourbon dynasty from southern Italy, Napoleon adding the promise that the Neapolitan crown would be for Joseph if he chose to accept it.

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  • Troppau was founded in the 13th century; but almost its only claim to historical mention is the fact that in 1820 the monarchs of Austria, Russia and Prussia met here to deliberate on the tendencies of the Neapolitan revolution.

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  • Claudio Acquaviva (Neapolitan)1581-16156.

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  • Vincenzio Caraffa (Neapolitan)1646-16498.

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  • His excesses while at Albano were such that the Neapolitan general Naselli had him arrested and imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, but he was liberated soon after.

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  • Twice he declined the offer of a portfolio in the Neapolitan cabinet, and upon the triumph of the reactionary party undertook the defence of the Liberal political prisoners.

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  • When the army entered Neapolitan territory the king took the chief command, with Fanti as chief of the staff.

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  • ALFONSO MARIA DEI LIGUORI (1696-1787), saint and doctor of the Church of Rome, was born at Marianella, near Naples, on the 27th of September 1696, being the son of Giuseppe dei Liguori, a Neapolitan noble.

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  • He began life at the bar, where he obtained considerable practice; but the loss of an important suit, in which he was counsel for a Neapolitan noble against the grand duke of Tuscany, and in which he had entirely mistaken the force of a leading document, so mortified him that he withdrew from the legal world.

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  • l * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.

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  • In 1214-1259 it passed to the Greek despots of Epirus, and in 1267 became a possession of the Neapolitan house of Anjou.

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  • (1265-1268) an agreement was concluded by which Sicily was handed over to the brother of St Louis, and the victories of Benevento (1266) and Tagliacozzo (1267) assured the triumph of the Guelph party and enabled the Angevins to plant themselves definitely on Neapolitan soil.

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  • After the death of Urban VI., fourteen cardinals of his obedience assembled, and after long negotiations elected the scion of a noble Neapolitan family, Cardinal Pietro BonifacelX., Tomacelli (Nov.

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  • I, 1404), the Roman cardinals once more elected a Neapolitan, Cosimo dei Migliorati, who, at Innocent the age of 65, assumed the name of Innocent VII.

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  • During the earlier part of his reign, Ladislaus obsequiously followed the direction of the Neapolitan court in foreign affairs.

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  • He clearly preferred the society of the semi-heathen Kumanians to that of the Christians; wore, and made his court wear, Kumanian dress; surrounded himself with Kumanian concubines, and neglected and ill-used his ill-favoured Neapolitan consort.

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  • His other work is the E1K6ves (Imagines), ostensibly a description of 64 pictures in a Neapolitan gallery.

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  • Pot Neapolitan violets for forcing; or plant out on a mild hotbed.

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  • The Small Black or Black Suffolk was produced from the old Essex pig by crossing with the Neapolitan.

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  • From these contests of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria stand forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition of foreign authority - successively German, Neapolitan and Milanese - gave way to a state of greater independence in 1339, when the government assumed a more permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanera.

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  • As captain of artillery in the Neapolitan army he took part in the expedition sent by' Ferdinand II.

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  • In 1860 he conducted the third Garibaldian expedition to Sicily, defeated two Neapolitan brigades at Piale (August 23), and marched victoriously upon Naples, where he was appointed minister of war, and took part in organizing the plebiscite.

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  • The conquest of Cephalonia and Zante followed, and we find five counts of the family of Tocco holding Cephalonia, and probably Zante as well as Santa Maura, as tributary to the republic. But the footing thus gained by the Venetians was not maintained, and through the closing part of the 13th and most of the 14th century the islands were a prey by turns to corsairs and to Greek and Neapolitan claimants.

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  • The result of this action was the Neapolitan declaration of war and the occupation of Naples by Austria, with the sanction of the congress.

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  • The next definite stage in the musical history of the Mass was attained by the Neapolitan composers who were first to reach musical coherence after the monodic revolution at the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • The best features of their Masses are those that combine faithfulness to the Neapolitan forms with a contrapuntal richness such as no Neapo litan composer ever achieved.

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  • Bach's method is to treat each clause of his text as a separate movement, alternating choruses with groups of arias; a method which was independently adopted by Mozart in those larger masses in which he transcends the Neapolitan type, such as the great unfinished Mass in,C minor.

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  • excommunicated him because he delayed the crusade which he had promised to undertake; and although he sailed the following year, and concluded a treaty with the sultan of Egypt whereby the kingdom of Jerusalem was re-established, the pope was not satisfied and sent an army into Neapolitan territory.

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  • The French king entered Italy in September 1 495, and conquered the Neapolitan kingdom without VIII.

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  • An anti-Spanish conspiracy of Neapolitan nobles, led by Macchia, with the object of proclaiming the archduke Charles of Austria king of Naples, was discovered; but in 1707 an Austrian army conquered the kingdom, and Spanish rule came to an end after 203 years, during which it had succeeded in thoroughly demoralizing the people.

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  • Ferdinand and Maria Carolina had continued to reign in Sicily, where the extravagance of the court and the odious Neapolitan system of police espionage rendered their presence a burden instead of a blessing to the island.

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  • The new government's first difficulty was Sicily, where the people had risen in rebellion demanding their own charter of 1812, and although the Neapolitan troops quelled the outbreak with much bloodshed the division proved fatal to the prospects of liberty.

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  • The position was complicated by the somewhat enigmatic attitude of Russia; for the Neapolitan Liberals, with many of whom Count Capo d'Istria, the Russian minister of foreign affairs, had been on friendly terms, proclaimed that they had the " moral support " of the tsar.

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  • Both France and Great Britain protested against the general principle laid down in this instrument; but neither of them approved of the Neapolitan revolution, and neither of them was opposed to an intervention in Naples, provided this were carried out, not on the ground of a supposed right of Europe to interfere, but by Austria for Austrian ends.

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  • Under the new constitution, the permission of parliament was necessary before the king could leave Neapolitan territory; but this was weakly granted, after Ferdinand had sworn the most solemn oaths to maintain the constitution.

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  • This decision was notified to the Neapolitan government by Russia, Prussia and Austria - Great Britain and France maintaining a strict neutrality.

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  • Meanwhile the regent, in spite of his declaration that he would lead the Neapolitan army against the invader, was secretly undermining the position of the government, and there were divisions of opinion in the ranks of the Liberals themselves.

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  • But as yet the idea of unity made but little headway, for southern Italy was too widely separated by geographical conditions, history, tradition and custom from the rest of the peninsula, and the majority of the Liberals - themselves a minority of the population - merely aspired to a constitutional Neapolitan monarchy, possibly forming part of a confederation of Italian states.

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  • After considerable delay a Neapolitan army under General Pepe marched towards Lombardy in May, while the fleet sailed for Venice.

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  • After the Austrian victories King Ferdinand sent a Neapolitan army of 20,000 men under Filangieri to subjugate the island.

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  • The British and French admirals imposed a truce with a view to conciliation, and the king offered the Sicilians the Neapolitan constitution and a separate parliament, which they refused.

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  • For a few months after the dissolution of the Neapolitan parliament the government abstained from persecution, but with the crushing of the Sicilian revolution its hands The were free; and when the commission on the affair of Neapolitan prisons, t h e 15th of May had completed its labours the state trials and arrests began.

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  • Garibaldi went on board the British flagship to confer with the Neapolitan generals Letizia and Chretien; Letizia's proposal that the municipality should make a humble petition to the king was indignantly rejected by Garibaldi, who merely agreed to the extension of the armistice until next day.

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  • The dictator now had time to collect ammunition, and the Neapolitan government having given Lanza full powers to treat with him, 15,000 Bourbon troops embarked for Naples on the 7th of June, leaving the revolutionists masters of the situation.

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  • The Neapolitan government then decided on the evacuation of the whole of Sicily except the citadel of Messina, which did not surrender until the following year.

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  • He was soon joined by the rest of his troops, 15,000 in all, and although the Neapolitan government had 30,000 men in Calabria alone, the army collapsed before Garibaldi's advance, and the rose in his favour almost everywhere.

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  • The documents are mostly to be found in Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins; (Navy Records Society, London, 1903), edited by H.

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  • Cavour now decided that Sardinia must take part in the liberation of southern Italy, for he feared that Garibaldi's followers might induce him to proclaim the republic and attack Rome, which would have: provoked French hostility; consequently a Piedmontese army occupied the Marche and Umbria, and entered Neapolitan.

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  • In 1860 Garibaldi summoned him to Naples to take part in the government of the Neapolitan provinces, but he would not agree to the union with Piedmont without local autonomy.

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  • PEPE, GUGLIELMO (1783-1855), Neapolitan general, was born at Squillace in Calabria.

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  • He entered Napoleon's army and served with distinction in several campaigns, including those in the Neapolitan kingdom, first under Joseph Bonaparte and later under Joachim Murat.

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  • After commanding a Neapolitan brigade in the Peninsular campaign, Pepe returned to Italy in 1813, with the rank of general, to help to reorganize the Neapolitan army.

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  • After several engagements the Neapolitans were forced to retire, and eventually agreed to the treaty of Casalanza by which Murat was to abandon the kingdom; but the Neapolitan officers retained their rank under Ferdinand IV.

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  • He was given command of the Neapolitan army which was to co-operate with Piedmont against the Austrians, but when he reached Bologna the king, who had already changed his mind, recalled him and his troops.

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  • Pepe, after hesitating between his desire to fight for Italy, and his oath to the king, resigned his commission in the Neapolitan service and crossed the Po with 2000 volunteers to take part in the campaign.

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  • The pope's prime minister, Count Rossi, was murdered, and Pius himself, escaping to Gaeta, threw himself under Neapolitan protection.

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  • He was recalled from Paris when the occupation of the Marche and Umbria by the Piedmontese caused a breach in Franco-Italian relations, and was appointed secretary of state to the prince of Carignano, viceroy of the Neapolitan provinces.

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  • The best Italian wines, however, are probably those grown in the Neapolitan district.

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  • He studied at Naples, and a book on the philosophy of law based on Liberal principles won for him a post in the Neapolitan treasury.

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  • In the one field his labours are represented by his Storia Pittorica della Italia, the first portion of which, containing the Florentine, Sienese, Roman and Neapolitan schools, appeared in 1792, the rest in 1796.

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  • Rumours reached them there of agitation in the Neapolitan kingdom, where the people were represented as ready to rise en masse at the first appearance of a leader; the Bandieras, encouraged by Mazzini, consequently determined to make a raid on the Calabrian coast.

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  • The Neapolitan government was undoubtedly within its right in executing the Bandieras, and the material results of this heroic but unpractical attempt were nil.

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  • She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII., king of Spain, and of his fourth wife, Maria Christina, a Neapolitan Bourbon, who became queen-regent on 29th September 1833, when her daughter, at the age of three years, was proclaimed on the death of the king.

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  • In 1818, when he was created a baronet, he was commissioned by the British government to examine the papyri of Herculaneum in the Neapolitan museum, and he did not arrive back in England till June 1820.

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  • The notices which he has left us of Neapolitan society at this epoch are interesting, and, it was now, perhaps, that he met Boccaccio for the first time.

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  • Driven from Naples in 1798, the Neapolitan royal family fled to Palermo, and the years from 1800 to 1802 were spent by Marie Amelie with her mother at the Austrian court.

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  • It has a good though not perfect collection of the early Neapolitan newspapers, a complete file of the principal modern ones and many interesting MSS.

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  • The attention of antiquarians to the charms against the Evil Eye used by the inhabitants of the Neapolitan provinces was first drawn in 1888, when it was shown that they were all derived from the survival of ancient classical legends which had sprung from various sources in connexion with classical sites in the neighbourhood.

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  • 25), the former of whom was a Neapolitan by birth.

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  • When the Lombards invaded Italy and pushed their conquests in the southern provinces, the limits of the Neapolitan duchy were considerably narrowed.

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  • During these years, 1503-1506, Leonardo also resumed (if it is true that he had already begun it before his travels with Cesare Borgia) the portrait of Madonna Lisa, the Neapolitan wife of Zanobi del Giocondo, and finished it to the last pitch of his powers.

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  • Here in his account of the rise and progress of the Neapolitan laws and government, he warmly espoused the side of the civil power in its conflicts with the Roman Catholic hierarchy.

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  • On the transfer of the Neapolitan crown to Charles of Bourbon, Giannone lost his Austrian pension and was compelled to remove to Venice.

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  • Ferdinand grew up athletic, but ignorant, ill-bred, addicted to the lowest amusements; he delighted in the company of the lazzaroni (the most degraded class of the Neapolitan people), whose dialect and habits he affected, and he even sold fish in the market, haggling over the price.

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  • On the outbreak of the French Revolution the Neapolitan court was not hostile to the movement, and the queen even sympathized with the revolutionary ideas of the day.

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  • The savage punishment of the Neapolitan Republicans is dealt with in more detail under Naples, Nelson and Caracciolo, but it is necessary to say here that the king, and above all the queen, were particularly anxious that no mercy should be shown to the rebels, and Maria Carolina made use of Lady Hamilton, Nelson's mistress, to induce him to execute her own spiteful vengeance.

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  • On the other hand, a revolt in Sicily, in favour of the recovery of its independence, was suppressed by Neapolitan troops.

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  • 1ST BARON ACTON (JOHN EMERICH EDWARD DALBERG ACTON) (1834-1902), English historian, only son of Sir Richard Acton, 7th baronet, and grandson of the Neapolitan admiral, Sir J.

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  • He next incited the Venetians to attack Ferrara, and then, after having been delivered by their general, Roberta Malatesta, from a Neapolitan invasion, he turned upon them and eventually assailed them for refusing to desist from the hostilities which he had himself instigated.

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  • Stephen was a keen and circumspect politician, and for his future security contracted, during his father's lifetime, a double' matrimonial alliance with the Neapolitan princes of the House of Anjou, the chief partisans of the pope.

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  • The heroic but foolhardy attempt of the brothers Bandiera, Venetians who had served in the Austrian navy against the Neapolitan Bourbons in 1844, was the first event to cause an awakening of Venetian patriotism, and in 1847 Manin presented a petition to the Venetian congregation, a shadowy consultative assembly tolerated by Austria but without any power, informing the emperor of the wants of the nation.

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  • Meanwhile the Austrian forces closed round the city; but Manin showed an astonishing power of organization, in which he was ably seconded by the Neapolitan general, Guglielmo Pepe.

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  • The Sardinian parliament which met in April con- the Italian tained deputies from Central Italy, and after the occupation of the Neapolitan provinces and Sicily the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed (Feb.

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  • Another marriage, that of Peter, the son and successor of James the Conqueror, with Costanza, the daughter of Manfred of Beneventum, gave him claims on the Neapolitan and Sicilian inheritance of the Hohenstaufen.

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  • In the reign (1808-1815) of Joachim Murat a number of secret societies arose in various parts of the country with the object of freeing it from foreign rule and obtaining constitutional liberties; they were ready to support the Neapolitan Bourbons or Murat, if either had fulfilled these aspirations.

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  • The first rising actively promoted by the Carbonari was the Neapolitan revolution of 1820.

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  • (Baldassare Cossa), pope, or rather anti-pope from 1410 to 1415 (fn1), was born of a good Neapolitan family, and began by leading the life of a corsair before entering the service of the Church under the pontificate of Boniface IX.

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  • Then, on Cavour's advice, King Victor decided to participate himself in the occupation of Neapolitan territory, lest Garibaldi's entourage should proclaim the republic or create anarchy.

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  • It tends to go down rather unfavorably with my 11 month old Neapolitan mastiff!

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  • At the beginning of the 19th century, however, some Neapolitan exiles at Milan called attention to the merits of their great countryman, and his reinstatement was completed by Michelet, who in 1827 translated the Scienza nuova and other works with a laudatory introduction.

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  • On the 12th of May the dictatorship of Garibaldi was proclaimed at Salemi, on the 15th of May the Neapolitan troops were routed at Calatafimi, on the 25th of May Palermo was taken, and on the 6th of June 20,000 Neapolitan regulars, supported by nine frigates and protected by two forts, were compelled to capitulate.

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  • Next day he crossed the Strait, won the battle of Reggio on the 21st of August, accepted the capitulation of 9000 Neapolitan troops at San Giovanni and of 11,000 more at Soveria.

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  • His youth, spent at the Neapolitan court, was far from blameless, and it is not certain that he was married to the mother of his numerous family.

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  • It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.

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  • The Sicilian and Neapolitan contingents were commanded by the marquess of Santa Cruz, and Cardona, Spanish officers.

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  • CAMILLO PORZIO (1526-1580?), Italian historian, belonged to a wealthy and noble Neapolitan family, and was the son of the philosopher, Simone Porzio.

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  • His chief literary work is La Congiura dei baroni, a history of the unsuccessful conspiracy of the Neapolitan barons against King Ferdinand L of Naples in 1485; it is based on the authentic records of the state trials, but is prejudiced in favour of the royal power.

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  • The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.

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  • It is extensively distributed, but especially flourishes in the Neapolitan provinces.

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  • Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.

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  • In 1860 and 1861 the royal commissioners (even before the constitution of the new kingdom of Italy had been formally declared) issued decrees by which there were abolished(f) in Umbria, 197 monasteries and 102 convents with 1809 male and 2393 female associates, and 836 chapters or benefices; (2) in the Marches, 292 monasteries and 127 convents with 2950 male and 2728 female associates; (3) in the Neapolitan provinces, 747 monasteries and 275 convents with 8787 male and 7493 female associates.

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  • The Neapolitan troops at first occupied Rome, but, being badly handled by their leader, the Austrian general, Mack, they were soon scattered in flight; and the Republican troops under General The Championnet, after crushing the stubborn resistance Parthenoof the lazzaroni, made their way into Naples and paean proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic (January 23, Republic. 1799).

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  • The Neapolitan Democrats chose five of their leading men to be directors.

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  • In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.

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  • The movement in Naples had been purely local, for the Neapolitan Carbonari had at that time no thought save of Naples; it was, moreover, a movement of the middle ~ 517 and upper classes in which the masses took little Piedmont.

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  • At the same time an Austrian army was marching through the Legations, and Neapolitan and Spanish troops were advancing from the south.

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  • On the 11th Garibaldi landed at Marsala, without opposition, defeated the Neapolitan forces at Calatafimi on the 15th, and on the 27th entered Palermo in triumph, where he proclaimed himself, in King Victor Emmanuels name, dictator of Sicily.

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  • It was certain that, his work in Sicily done, Garibaldi would turn his attention to the Neapolitan dominions on the mainland; and beyond these lay Umbria and the Marches andRome.

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  • He proclaimed himself dictator of the kingdom, with Bertani as secretary of state, but as a proof of his loyalty he consigned the Neapolitan fleet to Persano.

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  • dmont, On the 15th of October King Victor Emmanuel giv ssed the Neapolitan border at the head of his troops.

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  • 1 Fortun- am Iy for his policy, the red-shirts had encountered a formidable;tacle to their advance in the Neapolitan army entrenched the Volturno under the guns of Ca~ua.

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  • Brigand- age had always existed in the Neapolitan kingdom, largely me rand- owing to the poverty of the people; but the evil was now Wa:

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  • ing He asked for the Neapolitan viceroyalty for life, which the king pre -y wrsely refused.

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  • Arrests of other prominent persons followed, and on the 3rd of February the Chamber authorized the prosecution of De Zerbi, a Neapolitan deputy accused of corruption.

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  • Bisceglie was related to the Neapolitan dynasty, with whose enemies the pope was allied, and he had had a quarrel with Cesare.

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  • 6 More recently several men of science, including Sir Oliver Lodge in England, Professor Charles Richet in France, and Professors Schiaparelli and Morselli in Italy, have convinced themselves of the supernormal chaeacter (though not of any spiritualistic explanation) of certain physical phenomena that have occurred in the presence of a Neapolitan medium, Eusapia Palladino, though it is known that she frequently practises deception. ?

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  • After long negotiations he accepted the Sicilian and Neapolitan crowns, and in 1264 he sent a first expedition of Provencals to Italy; he also collected a large army and navy in Provence and France with the help of King Louis, and by an alliance with the cities of Lombardy was able to send part of his force overland.

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  • But the cruelty of the French rulers of Sicily drove the people of the island to despair, and a Neapolitan nobleman, Giovanni da Procida, organized the rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespers (see Vespers, Sicilian), in which the French in Sicily were all massacred or expelled (1282).

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  • (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa), pope from 1555 to 1 559, was born on the 28th of June 1476, of a noble Neapolitan family.

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  • Under their direction steady advance was made on the side which Bonaparte saw to be all important; a sortie of part of the British, Spanish and Neapolitan forces on the 30th of November was beaten back with loss, General O'Hara, their commander, being severely wounded and taken prisoner.

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  • A Russo-Turkish fleet wrested Corfu from the French; and the Neapolitan Bourbons, emboldened by the news of the battle of the Nile, began hostilities with France which preluded the war of the Second Coalition.

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  • It was to receive a Neapolitan garrison for a year, and, if necessary, for a longer time.

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  • Giacomo afterwards had one of the bravos murdered, but the other was arrested by the Neapolitan authorities and confessed everything.

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  • Preparations for defence were made; a Neapolitan army was to advance through the Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa; but both expeditions were badly conducted and failed, and on the 8th of September Charles crossed the Alps and joined Lodovico it Moro at Milan.

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  • Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.

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  • Louis XII., having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well, and concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the pope on the 25th of June, Frederick being formally deposed.

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  • As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.

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  • With the exception of Benevento, surrounded by the Neapolitan province of Principato Ulteriore, and the small state of Pontecorvo, enclosed within the Terra di Lavoro, the States of the Church formed a compact territory, bounded on the N.W.

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  • recognized the papal authority over the whole tract from Radicofani in Tuscany to the pass of Ceperano on the Neapolitan frontier - the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, the March of Ancona, the bishopric of Spoleto, Matilda's personal estates, and the countship of Brittenoro; but a good deal of the territory thus described remained for centuries an object of ambition only on the part of the popes.

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  • The Neapolitan or Parma violet (var.

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  • But the battle of Benevento (1266) and the establishment of the dynasty of Charles of Anjou on the Neapolitan throne put an end to the Ghibelline predominance in Tuscany.

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  • The rival claims to the Neapolitan kingdom of Carlo di Durazzo and Louis of Anjou caused fresh disturbances in Tuscany.

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  • A decree issued by the Neapolitan king (1482) depriving the Sienese of certain territories in favour of Florence entirely alienated their affections from that monarch.

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  • Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.

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  • But the remaining 93 stood firm and were condemned to death, a punishment commuted to slavery in the Neapolitan galleys.

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  • names of Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), the entomologist, who described the reproduction of Aphis; Banks and Solander, who accompanied Captain Cook on his first voyage(1768-1771); Thomas Pennant (1726-1798), the describer of the English fauna; Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811), who specially extended the knowledge of the Linnaean Vermes, and under the patronage of the empress Catherine explored Russia and Siberia; De Geer (1720-1778), the entomologist; Lyonnet (1707-1789), the author of the monograph of the anatomy of the caterpillar of I Cossus ligniperdus; Cavolini (1756-1810), the Neapolitan marine zoologist and forerunner of Della Chiaje (fl.

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  • As ally of the Bourbons of Naples, from whom he had received an annual subsidy, he attempted, after 1860, to facilitate their restoration by fomenting brigandage on the Neapolitan frontier.

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  • But Ladislas still occupied the papal states, and Florence, alarmed at his growing power and ambition, formed a league with Siena, Bologna and Louis of Anjou who laid claim to the Neapolitan throne, to drive Ladislas from Rome.

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  • The following year a revolt of the Neapolitan barons against King Ferdinand broke out, actively supported by Pope Innocent VIII.; Lorenzo remained neutral at first, but true to his policy of maintaining the balance of power and not wishing to see Ferdinand completely crushed, he ended by giving him assistance in spite of the king's unpopularity in Florence.

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  • From the remote township of his birth, however, the branch of the family to which the philosopher belonged transferred itself soon afterwards to Naples, so that, like his predecessor Vico, Benedetto Croce may be correctly described as a Neapolitan.

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  • He studied at Rome and in Naples, afterwards adopting the life of an independent student and occupying himself especially with literary and with Neapolitan history.

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  • CARLO FILANGIERI (1784-1867), prince of Satriano, Neapolitan soldier and statesman, was the son of Gaetano Filangieri (1752-1788), a celebrated philosopher and jurist.

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  • and entrusted with various military reforms. On the outbreak of the troubles of 1848 Filangieri advised the king to grant the constitution, which he did in February 1848, but when the Sicilians formally seceded from the Neapolitan kingdom Filangieri was given the command of an armed force with which to reduce the island to obedience.

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  • Accordingly, to gratify the pope and the emperor Lothair II., the Pisans entered the Neapolitan territory to combat the Normans.

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  • - The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.

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  • PIETRO COLLETTA (1775-1831), Neapolitan general and historian, entered the Neapolitan artillery in 1796 and took part in the campaign against the French in 1798.

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  • Piero de' Medici, made alliance with the Neapolitan sovereign whose kingdom was claimed by Charles.

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  • On one of the ridges Itween these radiating valleys an observatory for watching ie progress of the volcano was established by the Neapolitan)vernment, and is still supported as a national institution.

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  • As Ferdinand grew up, and after his marriage with a Neapolitan princess, he became the centre of a court opposition to Godoy and to his policy of alliance with France.

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  • The English flag was flown side by side with the Neapolitan, and England actually renewed war with France sooner than give up Malta.

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  • The granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed (17th February 1848) by that of Tuscany, drawn up by Gino Capponi.

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  • Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).

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  • On the 6th of July 1806 Napoleon conferred on his minister the title of prince of Benevento, a papal fief in the Neapolitan territory.

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  • In 1860 it was the first town to rise against the Neapolitan government.

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  • of Austria, and at the death of her brother King Ladislaus in 1414 she succeeded to the Neapolitan crown.

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  • The interior is richly decorated with marbles, almost all of which, except the white Carrara marble, are Neapolitan or Sicilian.

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  • Early in 1806 he proceeded to Naples with a French force in order to expel the Bourbon dynasty from southern Italy, Napoleon adding the promise that the Neapolitan crown would be for Joseph if he chose to accept it.

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  • Troppau was founded in the 13th century; but almost its only claim to historical mention is the fact that in 1820 the monarchs of Austria, Russia and Prussia met here to deliberate on the tendencies of the Neapolitan revolution.

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  • Salicetti, the pope's physician, denied that the body showed signs of poisoning, and Tanucci, Neapolitan ambassador at Rome, who had a large share in procuring the breve of suppression, entirely acquits the Jesuits, while F.

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  • Claudio Acquaviva (Neapolitan)1581-16156.

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  • Vincenzio Caraffa (Neapolitan)1646-16498.

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  • His excesses while at Albano were such that the Neapolitan general Naselli had him arrested and imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, but he was liberated soon after.

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  • Twice he declined the offer of a portfolio in the Neapolitan cabinet, and upon the triumph of the reactionary party undertook the defence of the Liberal political prisoners.

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  • When the army entered Neapolitan territory the king took the chief command, with Fanti as chief of the staff.

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  • After defeating a large Neapolitan force at Mola and organizing the siege operations round Gaeta, Fanti returned to the war office at Turin to carry out important army reforms. His attitude in opposing the admission of Garibaldi's 7000 officers into the regular army with their own grades made him the object of great unpopularity for a time, and led to a severe reprimand from Cavour.

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  • ALFONSO MARIA DEI LIGUORI (1696-1787), saint and doctor of the Church of Rome, was born at Marianella, near Naples, on the 27th of September 1696, being the son of Giuseppe dei Liguori, a Neapolitan noble.

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  • He began life at the bar, where he obtained considerable practice; but the loss of an important suit, in which he was counsel for a Neapolitan noble against the grand duke of Tuscany, and in which he had entirely mistaken the force of a leading document, so mortified him that he withdrew from the legal world.

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  • l * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.

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  • In 1214-1259 it passed to the Greek despots of Epirus, and in 1267 became a possession of the Neapolitan house of Anjou.

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  • (1265-1268) an agreement was concluded by which Sicily was handed over to the brother of St Louis, and the victories of Benevento (1266) and Tagliacozzo (1267) assured the triumph of the Guelph party and enabled the Angevins to plant themselves definitely on Neapolitan soil.

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  • After the death of Urban VI., fourteen cardinals of his obedience assembled, and after long negotiations elected the scion of a noble Neapolitan family, Cardinal Pietro BonifacelX., Tomacelli (Nov.

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  • I, 1404), the Roman cardinals once more elected a Neapolitan, Cosimo dei Migliorati, who, at Innocent the age of 65, assumed the name of Innocent VII.

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  • During the earlier part of his reign, Ladislaus obsequiously followed the direction of the Neapolitan court in foreign affairs.

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  • He clearly preferred the society of the semi-heathen Kumanians to that of the Christians; wore, and made his court wear, Kumanian dress; surrounded himself with Kumanian concubines, and neglected and ill-used his ill-favoured Neapolitan consort.

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  • His other work is the E1K6ves (Imagines), ostensibly a description of 64 pictures in a Neapolitan gallery.

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  • Pot Neapolitan violets for forcing; or plant out on a mild hotbed.

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  • The Small Black or Black Suffolk was produced from the old Essex pig by crossing with the Neapolitan.

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  • From these contests of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria stand forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition of foreign authority - successively German, Neapolitan and Milanese - gave way to a state of greater independence in 1339, when the government assumed a more permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanera.

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  • As captain of artillery in the Neapolitan army he took part in the expedition sent by' Ferdinand II.

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  • In 1860 he conducted the third Garibaldian expedition to Sicily, defeated two Neapolitan brigades at Piale (August 23), and marched victoriously upon Naples, where he was appointed minister of war, and took part in organizing the plebiscite.

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  • The conquest of Cephalonia and Zante followed, and we find five counts of the family of Tocco holding Cephalonia, and probably Zante as well as Santa Maura, as tributary to the republic. But the footing thus gained by the Venetians was not maintained, and through the closing part of the 13th and most of the 14th century the islands were a prey by turns to corsairs and to Greek and Neapolitan claimants.

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  • The result of this action was the Neapolitan declaration of war and the occupation of Naples by Austria, with the sanction of the congress.

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  • The next definite stage in the musical history of the Mass was attained by the Neapolitan composers who were first to reach musical coherence after the monodic revolution at the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • The best features of their Masses are those that combine faithfulness to the Neapolitan forms with a contrapuntal richness such as no Neapo litan composer ever achieved.

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  • Bach's method is to treat each clause of his text as a separate movement, alternating choruses with groups of arias; a method which was independently adopted by Mozart in those larger masses in which he transcends the Neapolitan type, such as the great unfinished Mass in,C minor.

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  • excommunicated him because he delayed the crusade which he had promised to undertake; and although he sailed the following year, and concluded a treaty with the sultan of Egypt whereby the kingdom of Jerusalem was re-established, the pope was not satisfied and sent an army into Neapolitan territory.

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  • The French king entered Italy in September 1 495, and conquered the Neapolitan kingdom without VIII.

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  • An anti-Spanish conspiracy of Neapolitan nobles, led by Macchia, with the object of proclaiming the archduke Charles of Austria king of Naples, was discovered; but in 1707 an Austrian army conquered the kingdom, and Spanish rule came to an end after 203 years, during which it had succeeded in thoroughly demoralizing the people.

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  • Ferdinand and Maria Carolina had continued to reign in Sicily, where the extravagance of the court and the odious Neapolitan system of police espionage rendered their presence a burden instead of a blessing to the island.

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  • The new government's first difficulty was Sicily, where the people had risen in rebellion demanding their own charter of 1812, and although the Neapolitan troops quelled the outbreak with much bloodshed the division proved fatal to the prospects of liberty.

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  • The position was complicated by the somewhat enigmatic attitude of Russia; for the Neapolitan Liberals, with many of whom Count Capo d'Istria, the Russian minister of foreign affairs, had been on friendly terms, proclaimed that they had the " moral support " of the tsar.

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  • Both France and Great Britain protested against the general principle laid down in this instrument; but neither of them approved of the Neapolitan revolution, and neither of them was opposed to an intervention in Naples, provided this were carried out, not on the ground of a supposed right of Europe to interfere, but by Austria for Austrian ends.

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  • Under the new constitution, the permission of parliament was necessary before the king could leave Neapolitan territory; but this was weakly granted, after Ferdinand had sworn the most solemn oaths to maintain the constitution.

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  • This decision was notified to the Neapolitan government by Russia, Prussia and Austria - Great Britain and France maintaining a strict neutrality.

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  • Meanwhile the regent, in spite of his declaration that he would lead the Neapolitan army against the invader, was secretly undermining the position of the government, and there were divisions of opinion in the ranks of the Liberals themselves.

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  • But as yet the idea of unity made but little headway, for southern Italy was too widely separated by geographical conditions, history, tradition and custom from the rest of the peninsula, and the majority of the Liberals - themselves a minority of the population - merely aspired to a constitutional Neapolitan monarchy, possibly forming part of a confederation of Italian states.

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