The "Norfolk" navy yard is in the southern part of the city of Portsmouth.
At the time when further armaments were suspended, the effective strength of the Argentine navy consisted of 3 ironclads, 6 first-class armoured cruisers, 2 monitors (old), 4 second-class cruisers, 2 torpedo cruisers, 3 destroyers, 3 high-sea torpedo boats, 14 river torpedo boats, 1 training ship, 5 transports, and various auxiliary vessels.
After joining the "Giovine Italia" he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a number of companions on board the frigate "Euridice," plotted to seize the vessel and occupy the arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont.
During his later years he served as commissioner of the navy, and was president of the board of naval commissioners from 1833 till his death at Washington on the 27th of February 1840.
During his long service as a lieutenant he took part in the bombardment of Tripoli, and on a subsequent occasion showed great firmness in resisting the seizure of a seaman as an alleged deserter from the British navy, his ship at the time lying under the guns of Gibraltar.
He was brought up in the merchant service, and entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1798.
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
Low-key, contemporary furnishings in light wood colors and pale neutrals were mixed with splashes of color: the navy blue rug, lime couch pillows, cinnamon drapes, and yellow floorboards.
The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.
In March 1907 the Italian navy contained, excluding ships of no fighting value: Effective.
He hoped to see further service, but the queen was opposed to this, and he was removed from the navy, and given the honorary post of colonel-general of hussars.
At the outbreak of the Civil War the city was abandoned, and the navy yard was burned by the Federals in April 1861; Norfolk was then occupied until the 9th of May 1862 by Virginia troops, first under General William Booth Taliaferro (1822-1898) and later under General Benjamin Huger (1806-1877).
The personnel of the navy consists of the following corps: (I) General staff; (2) naval engineers, chiefly employed in building and repairing war vessels; (3) sanitary corps; (4) commissariat corps, for supplies and account-keeping; (5) crews.
He entered the navy as midshipman (1799) with his father, Christopher Raymond Perry (1761-1818), a captain in the navy, and saw service against the Barbary pirates.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
The materiel of the Italian navy has been completely transformed, especially in Virtue of the bill of the 31st of March 1875.
The rebels were captured and shot, but the significance of the attempt lies in the fact that it was the first occasion on which north Italians (the Bandieras were Venetians and officers in the Austrian navy) had tried to raise the standard of revolt in the south.
An invitation to the Swedish court was urged upon Descartes, and after much hesitation accepted; a vessel of the royal navy was ordered to wait upon him, and in September 1649 he left Egmond for the north.
I) and maintaining a navy at Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba (1 Kings ix.
He has command of the army and navy, and appoints federal ministers and judges.
in founding a regular navy began to establish dockyards, and the harbour formed by the deep channel of the Medway was utilized by Elizabeth, who built a dockyard and established an arsenal here.
He was secretary of the navy in President Tyler's cabinet (1844-1845), and was attorney-general (1845-1846) and secretary of the navy (1846-1849), succeeding George Bancroft, under President Polk.
The Rhodian navy, which had distinguished itself in most of these wars, did further good service on behalf of Pompey in his campaigns against the pirates and against Julius Caesar.
Appalled by the weakness, or rather the non-existence, of the navy, Admiral Saint-Bon, with his coadjutor Signor Brin, addressed ~form.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
Credits for the army and navy were voted almost without a dissentient voice; new battleships were laid down, the strength of the army was increased, and the defences of the exposed eastern border were strengthened.
In 1668 he was appointed joint treasurer of 'the navy with Sir Thomas Lyttelton, and subsequently sole treasurer.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
Woolwich remained the chief dockyard of the English navy until the introduction of iron ship building, but the dockyard was closed in 1869.
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
When, however, the Civil War began, he volunteered into the navy, was rated acting master's mate, and became a midshipman in October 1861, and a lieutenant in July 1862, serving in the North Atlantic blockading squadron.
The president, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints judges, diplomatic agents, governors of territories, and officers of the army and navy above the rank of colonel.
For the navy, instant action was imperative.
Central Administration.The head of the French navy is the Minister of Marine, who like the other ministers is appointed by decree of the head of the state, and is usually a civilian.
The statute, however, would not seem to have had much effect; for in spite of a proclamation of Queen Elizabeth in 1560 imposing a fine of £ 20 for each offence on butchers slaughtering animals during Lent, in 1563 Sir William Cecil, in Notes upon an Act for the Increase of the Navy, says that "in old times no flesh at all was eaten on fish days; even the king himself could not have license; which was occasion of eating so much fish as now is eaten in flesh upon fish days."
dealing with the organization of the army and navy are outside its competence; these are no longer called " laws " but " ordinary administrative rules."
A number of officers of the army and navy agreed to lend assistance to a revolutionary outbreak, and towards the end of July 1893 matters came to a head.
The head of the cabinet prepares for the consideration of the minister all the business of the navy, especially questions of general importance.
His interest in the navy meanwhile continued.
The defence of the coast is provided by the French navy.
Six new cruisers were projected, but the republic has no pressing need of a navy.
He entered the navy in 1767 as a midshipman on board the "Yarmouth," under the command of his uncle; and, his family interest obtaining for him rapid promotion, he was raised in 1778 to the rank of post-captain, and appointed to the "Raleigh," a fine 32-gun frigate.
In November 1805 he was raised to the rank of admiral; and in the summer of 1807, whilst still a lord of the admiralty, he was appointed to the command of the fleet ordered to the Baltic, which, in concert with the army under Lord Cathcart, reduced Copenhagen, and enforced the surrender of the Danish navy, consisting of nineteen ships of the line, besides frigates, sloops, gunboats, and naval stores.
THOMAS MACDONOUGH (1786-1825), American sailor, was born in the state of Delaware, his father being an officer of the Continental Army, and entered the United States navy in 1800.
One of their most distinguished explorers was Samuel Champlain, a captain in the navy, French North who, after a remarkable journey through Mexico and the America.
The cemetery also contains monuments to Alonzo P. Stinson, the first soldier from Portland killed in the Civil War, to the Portland soldiers in the War of Independence, and to Rear-Admiral James Alden (1810-1877), of the U.S. Navy, a native of Portland.
His son and heir, another Sir John, admiral of the king's navy in the north, was a banneret who displayed his banner in the army that laid siege to Calais.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
Guchkov attacked the maladministration in the navy, pointing out that no reforms were possible so long as grand-dukes were at the head of its departments.
Indian affairs, the committee on foreign relations and others, was prominent in the discussion of matters brought before the Senate from these committees, advocated the enlargement of the navy and the reform of the civil service, and opposed the pension veto messages of President Cleveland.
He was promoted to commodore in 1898, to rear-admiral on the 3rd of March 1899, and was made commandant of the Boston (Charlestown) Navy Yard in October of the same year.
Pepys, a far more trustworthy judge, speaks of him invariably in terms of respect and approval as a " grave, serious man," and commends his appointment as treasurer of the navy as that of " a very notable man and understanding and will do things regular and understand them himself."
Navy and is the oldest, technically active warship afloat.
In 1904, under the old system of three-years service with numerous total and partial exemptions, 324,253 men became liable to incorporation, of whom 25,432 were rejected as unfit, 55,265 were admitted as one-year volunteers, 62,160 were put back, 27,825 had already enlisted with a view to making the army a career, 5257 were taken for the navy, and thus, with a few extra details and casualties, the contingent for full service dwindled to 147,549 recruits.
The ordnance department of the navy is carried on by a large detachment of artillery officers and artificers provided by the war office for this special duty.
As to the number of vessels, which fluctuates from month to month, little can be said that is wholly accurate at any given moment, but, very roughly, the French navy in 1909 included 25 battleships, 7 coast defence ironclads, 19 armoured cruisers, 36 protected cruisers, 22 s1oops, gunboats, &c., 45 destroyers, 319 torpedo boats, 71 submersibles and submarines and 8 auxiliary cruisers.
Haldane was afterwards present at the relief of Gibraltar, but at the peace of 1783 he finally left the navy, and soon afterwards settled on his estate of Airthrey, near Stirling.
After long negotiations he accepted the Sicilian and Neapolitan crowns, and in 1264 he sent a first expedition of Provencals to Italy; he also collected a large army and navy in Provence and France with the help of King Louis, and by an alliance with the cities of Lombardy was able to send part of his force overland.
He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1881, served two years as midshipman, then resigned from the navy and became a civil engineer.
In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.
The "cat" was the regular instrument with which floggings were performed in the British army and navy.
(See also NAVY.)
The incorporation of the Cinque Ports had its origin in the necessity for some means of defence along the southern seaboard of England, and in the lack of any regular navy.
Hence the following appliance was worked out by Lieutenant Solari and officers in the Italian navy.
During his three years of office he laid the foundation upon which Brin was afterwards to build up a new Italian navy.
In Italy public opinion as a whole was favorable to the visit, especially as it was not considered an obstacle to the projected increase of the army and navy.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
But in the operations before Port Arthur and in the Navy.
His influence was felt decisively in the distribution of guns and armour, and in the training of the personnel of the navy.
In February 1661 he had obtained a captaincy of horse, and in 1667 he exchanged his vice-treasuryship of Ireland for the treasuryship of the navy.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
- a relationship which does much to explain his early rise in the navy.
Richard Howe entered the navy in the "Severn," one of the squadron sent into the south seas with Anson in 1740.
During 1763 and 1765 he was a member of the Admiralty board, and from 1765 to 1770 was treasurer of the navy.
The firmness of character which he displayed caused him to be recommended in 1782 for the navy by one of the inspectors of the school; but a new inspector, who was appointed in 1783, frustrated this plan.
The executive powers were placed almost entirely in his hands, as will be seen by the terms of article 41 which defined his functions: "The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other leading agents serving abroad, the officers of the army and navy, the members of local administrative bodies and the commissioners of government attached to the tribunals.
They were Talleyrand, Foreign Affairs; Berthier, War; Abrial, Justice; Lucien Bonaparte, Interior; Gaudin, Finance; Forfait, Navy and Colonies.
The news of the strengthening of the British army and navy lately announced in the king's speech had perhaps annoyed him; but seeing that his outbursts of passion were nearly always the result of calculation - he once stated, pointing to his chin, that temper only mounted that high with him - his design, doubtless, was to set men everywhere talking about the perfidy of Albion.
But he needed time in order to build a navy and to prepare for the execution of the schemes for the overthrow of the British power in India, which he had lately outlined to General Decaen, the new governor of the French possessions in that land.
At any rate, he spoke at Guildhall on Lord Mayor's Day in a worthy manner; admitting that the growth of the German navy was a main factor in British construction, and pointing out that no power was better able to bear the strain or less likely to fail than Great Britain.
Great Britain must never conduct her affairs so that the navy of any one power could engage her at any moment with a reasonable prospect of success.
He announced a complete reorganization of the navy, which was to be grouped in four fleets, three being for home defence, based on home ports (the third being the Atlantic fleet previously based on Gibraltar), and the fourth, based on Gibraltar, to operate either in home waters or in the Mediterranean.
There was a slight decline of £300,000 in the total of these estimates; but this was merely a pause after the £12,000,000 increase of the past three years; and by the summer a new German navy law necessitated a supplementary estimate of about a million.
A United States navy yard, officially known as the Portsmouth Navy Yard, is on an island of the Piscataqua but within the township of Kittery, Maine.
In 1800 Fernald's Island was purchased by the Federal government for a navy yard; it was the scene of considerable activity during the War of 1812, but was of much greater importance during the Civil War, when the famous " Kearsarge " and several other war vessels were built here.'
in 1842, and in the following year entered the U.S. navy as surgeon.
Morton; an emancipation group of Thomas Ball with a portrait statue of Lincoln; a fine equestrian statue, by the same sculptor, of Washington, one of the best works in the country (1869); an army and navy monument in the Common by Martin Millmore, in memory of the Civil War; another (1888) recording the death of those who fell in the Boston Massacre of 1770; statues of Admiral D.
The architects of the United States navy are sent here for instruction in their most advanced courses.
It is built on low land, around a small, nearly enclosed harbour, the northern shore of which is formed by Navy Point, a narrow tongue of land extending about 4 m.
In the War of 1812 Sackett's Harbor was an important strategic point for the Americans, who had here a naval station, Fort Tompkins, at the base of Navy Point, and Fort Volunteer, on the eastern side of the harbour.
On May 25 1921 the Senate had adopted an amendment of Senator Borah to the Navy bill, authorizing and inviting the President to call such a conference.
ought to be enquired after, and to mulct, arrest, punish, chastise and reform"; also "to preserve the public streams of our admiralty as well for the preservation of our royal navy, and of the fleets and vessels of our kingdom.
Sailing directions for Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and the Strait of Mackinac, U.S. Navy Hydrographic office publication No.
He resisted the navy, the mainspring of Washington's foreign policy; he opposed commercial treaties and diplomatic intercourse in a similar fashion.
Amid many difficulties, and thwarted even by Jefferson himself in the matter of the navy, Gallatin pushed on; and after six years the public debt was decreased (in spite of the Louisiana purchase) by $14,260,000, a large surplus was on hand, a comprehensive and beneficent scheme of internal improvements was ready for execution, and the promised land seemed in sight.
James Nicholson (1737-1804), an American naval officer, commander-in-chief of the navy from 1 777 until August 1781, when with his ship the "Virginia," he was taken by the British "Iris" and "General Monk."
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
But the real work on which his title to remembrance rests is the influence he exercised on the thought and practice of the navy.
He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
He set himself to devise the former as far back as 1858, but his system of signals was not adopted by the navy until 1867.
In the sequel he prepared a new evolutionary signal-book, which was adopted by the royal navy, and still remains in substance the foundation of the existing system of tactical evolutions at sea.
II 1918 one i,ri 13 of the city's pop.-56 - was in the army, navy or marine corps.
Preston (1805-1862), secretary of the navy in 1849-1850; William Cabell Rives and General Sterling Price (1809-1867).
For the next five years he sought every opportunity of inflicting defeat and humiliation on the Spanish navy, and he distinguished himself by his bravery in the engagement at Guetaria (1638), the expedition to Corunna (1639), and in battles at Tarragona (1641), Barcelona (1643), and the Cabo de Gata.
The French navy being left unemployed during the minority of Louis XIV., Duquesne obtained leave to offer his services to the king of Sweden, who gave him a commission as vice-admiral in 1643.
By the Peace of Apamea (188) the Seleucid navy was abolished; Antiochus undertook to keep no more than to ships of war.
In June 1747 he became a lord of the treasury, and in 1754 treasurer of the navy and privy councillor.
As treasurer of the navy in 1758 he introduced and carried a bill which established a less unfair system of paying the wages of the seamen than had existed before.
Having started as a tanner and merchant at Havre, he acquired considerable wealth, was elected to the National Assembly on the 21st of August 1881, and took his seat as a member of the Left, interesting himself chiefly in matters concerning economics, railways and the navy.
He entered the United States navy in 1812, and was actively employed till the beginning of the Civil War.
The task of mapping the coast was largely undertaken by officers of the Indian navy, while the first explorers of the interior were officers of the Indian army quartered at Aden - Lieut.
In 1840 various treaties were concluded by Captain Robert Moresby of the Indian Navy " on the part of the English Government in India " with the sultan of Tajura and the governor of Zaila, who engaged not to enter into treaties with any other foreign power.
Around the foot of the obelisk (besides an heroic statue of Lincoln) are four groups of figures in bronze, symbolizing the army and navy of the United States.
The franchise is granted to every male Cuban twenty-one years of age, not mentally incapacitated, nor previously a convict of crime, nor serving in the army or navy of the state.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
In 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took the island of New Providence; he soon, however, abandoned it as untenable, but in 1781 it was retaken by the Spanish governor of Cuba.
(For the history of the Turkish army, see Army, § 98.) Navy.
It should be added that the Greek War (1897) revealed to the sultan the decrepit state into which the Ottoman navy had fallen, and considerable " extraordinary " expenditure - much of which was wasted - has been incurred since (and including) 1902 to put the least out-of-date warships into a serviceable condition.
Amid the cares of state he found time for works of public utility and for the support of literature and art; he is credited with having sent the first embassy to a Christian power, after the Venetian expedition to Gallipoli in 1416, and the Ottoman navy is first heard of in his reign.
The Mussulman population of the Morea, taken unawares, was practically exterminated during the fury of the first few days; and, most fatal of all, the defection of the Greeks of the islands crippled the Ottoman navy by depriving it of its only effective sailors.
After the Greek revolution the system of manning the navy from the Christian natives of the archipelago and the Mediterranean littoral was abandoned, and recruits for the navy are now selected under the ordinary law.
Naval Operations The French navy came under the direct and exclusive control of Napoleon after the 18th Brumaire.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
The function of the British navy in the long conflict with Napoleon was of the first importance, and its services were rendered in every sea, but their very number, extent and complexity render it impossible here to record them in detail.
He had already decided upon a literary career, and after brief service in the navy he resigned and for a time was connected with the Army and Navy Journal.
Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one, where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for the German navy are built, employs about 5000 persons.
STEPHEN DECATUR (1779-1820), American naval commander, was born at Sinnepuxent, Maryland, on the 5th of January 1779, and entered the United States navy as a midshipman in 1798.
On his return he was made a navy commissioner (November 1815), an office which he held until his death, which took place in a duel with Commodore James Barron at Bladensburg, Md., on the 22nd of March 1820.
By the beginning of September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound.
It precipitated the RussoTurkish war of 1828-1829, and, by annihilating the Ottoman navy, weakened the resisting power of Turkey to Russia and later to Mehemet Ali.
Young Marryat distinguished himself as a boy by frequently running away to go to sea; and at last, at the age of fourteen, he was allowed to enter the navy.
In 1901 the merchant navy included 228 steamers of 91,465 tons net, and 343 sailing vessels of 76,992 tons net.
The national government reserves for itself the exclusive right to direct the foreign affairs of the republic, to maintain an army and navy, to impose duties on imports, to regulate foreign commerce, to collect port dues, to issue money and create banks of issue, and to maintain a postal and national telegraph service.
The chamber has the right of initiative in the organization of the annual budget laws and those relative to the numerical strength of the army and navy.
The members of the army and navy are governed by special laws, enjoy immunities from civil process, and are subject to the jurisdiction of military courts.
The naval programme of the republic for 1905 provided for the prompt construction of 3 battleships of the largest displacement, 3 armoured cruisers, 6 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats and 3 submarine boats; and by 1909 the reorganization of the navy was far advanced.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
Discontented officers in the army and navy rallied to this idea, and a conspiracy was organized to depose the emperor and declare a republic. On the 14th of November 1889 the palace was quietly surrounded, and on the following morning the emperor and his family were placed on board ship and sent off to Portugal.
Frederick Schwatka, U.S. navy; and Sir Hector Macdonald, " Fighting Mac " of Omdurman.
Natal makes an annual contribution of £35, 00 0 towards the upkeep of the British navy.
In 1823 Francis George Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with other merchants of Cape Town, formed a company to trade with the natives of the southeast coast.
King, who had been a midshipman in the navy, Farewell visited Port Natal, St Lucia and Delagoa Bays.
At the beginning of 1857 tidings from China reached England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary in that country and the governor of the Canton provinces in reference to a small vessel or lorcha called the "Arrow," which had resulted in the English admiral destroying the river forts, burning 23 ships belonging to the Chinese navy and bombarding the city of Canton.
Rating, in maritime vocabulary, is the classification of men according to rank, and was formerly employed to class ships of a navy according to strength.
A sailor is said to be "rated A.B.," or in the navy "rated petty officer," "seaman," "gunner," and so on.
Thus in 1741 in the British navy there were six rates: 1st, loo guns; 2nd, 90; 3rd, 70 to 80; 4th, 50 to 60; 5th, 40; and 6th, 20.
Pepys, who was secretary to the navy, has recorded the patient industry and unflinching probity of his naval administration.
He was born on the 12th of December 1724, and entered the navy on the 6th of May 1741.
His correspondence during his command in America has been published by the Navy Record Society.
He was secretary of the navy in 1831-1834, secretary of the treasury in 1834-1841, and associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1846 until his death, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the 4th of September 1851.
Bath has a good harbour and its principal industry is the building of ships, both of wood and of iron and steel; several vessels of the United States navy have been built here.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
108 D., Sailing Directions for Lake Ontario, Hydrographic Office, U.S. Navy (Washington, D.C., 1902); St Lawrence Pilot (7th ed.), Hydrographic Office, Admiralty (London, 1906).
Russia had in consequence been virtually cut off from intercourse by water with the outer world, seeing that the Baltic likewise was closed owing to action of the German navy; no adequate outlet for the Russian Empire's produce remained available; the most promising avenue for the introduction of warlike stores into the Tsar's dominions from without had been effectually barred.
Mansel, vice-admiral and treasurer of the navy, acquired the sole rights of making glass in England.
The army advanced as far north as Dunottar, in Kincardineshire, while the navy sailed to Caithness.
parliament, congress, colleges, schools, workhouses, cemeteries), or to the army and the navy.
In the navy, chaplains are likewise appointed but do not hold official rank.
In the U.S. navy the chaplains are 24 in number, of whom 13 rank as lieutenants, 7 as commanders, 4 as captains.
He entered the navy in 1 755, and in 1757, while serving on his father's ship, was promoted to the rank of ensign for his bravery in action.
At that time the officers of the Frency navy were divided into two parties - the reds or nobles, and the blues or roturiers.
He adopted the new ideas, and in a pamphlet entitled Le Bon Sens attacked feudal privileges; he also submitted to the Constituent Assembly a scheme for the reorganization of the navy, but it was not accepted.
From this time onward his chief aim was the realization of the navy scheme which he had vainly submitted to the Constituent Assembly.
He continued to devote himself to questions concerning the navy and national defence, prepared a report on the English political system and the navy, and caused a decree to be passed for the formation of a committee of general defence, which after many modifications was to become the famous Committee of Public Safety.
He had also had a decree passed concerning the navy on the 11th of January 1793.
His brother, GUY Pierre (1747-1822), also served in the navy, and took part in the American war of independence.
He was restored to his rank in the navy in 1803, and died in 1822, after having been prefet maritime of Antwerp, and prefect of the department of Meurthe.
The rising in the north was easily crushed; but in the south the Ottoman power was hampered by the defection of the sea-faring Greeks, by whom the Turkish navy had hitherto been manned.
He entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1818, and became a lieutenant in 1826.
He was disrated (becoming a captain on the retired list) in November 1862 on the ground that he had been too old to receive the rank of commodore under the act then governing promotions; and engaged in a long controversy with Gideon Welles, secretary of the navy.
He served in the state House of Representatives in 1827,1829-30,1832 and 1834-35, was state comptroller in 1835 and 1842-43, was postmaster at Hartford in 1835-42, and was chief of the bureau of provisions and clothing in the Navy Department at Washington in 1846-1849.
On the inauguration of President Lincoln in 1861 he was appointed secretary of the navy, a position which he held until the close of President Andrew Johnson's administration in 1869.
And even during the first years of the harsh Lombard rule the need recognized by these oppressors of defending the Italian coast from the attacks of the Byzantines was favourable to the development of the Pisan navy.
Thereupon the Florentines obtained Porto Talamone from Siena and established a navy of their own.
He resigned from the navy in 1881.
The Peruvian navy was practically annihilated in the war with Chile, and the poverty of the country prevented for many years the adoption of any measure for its rebuilding.
The naval school at Callao is under the direction of an officer of the French navy.
It was extensively adopted in the British navy, the Cunard line and many other important emigrant and mercantile lines.
In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
Many types of distilling plant are in use in addition to those mentioned above, for example the Rayner, Kirkaldy, Merlees, Normand; the United States navy has adopted a form designed by the Bureau of Engineering.
It is an important highway of commerce, especially for the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News, and is the chief rendezvous of the United States navy.
In the spring of 1861 the Federals set fire to several war vessels in the Gosport navy yard on the Elizabeth river and abandoned the place.
Bennett's The Monitor and the Navy under Steam (Boston, 1900); and William Swinton, Twelve Decisive Battles of the War (New York, 1867).
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
As a young man he fought against the Turks and the pirates, and after signally distinguishing himself at the battle of Naxos in 1650 he was appointed commander-inchief of the Venetian navy.
Its harbour affords ample accommodation for the largest fleets, it is a coaling station for the British navy, the headquarters of the British military forces in West Africa, the sea terminus of the railway to the rich oil-palm regions of Mendiland, and a port of call for all steamers serving West Africa.
In the first half of the 18th century, when Bushire was an unimportant fishing village, it was selected by Nadir Shah as the southern port of Persia and dockyard of the navy which he aspired to create in the Persian Gulf, and the British commercial factory of the East India Company, established at Gombrun, the modern Bander Abbasi, was transferred to it in 1759.
He was the son of Samuel Humphreys (1778-1846), chief constructor U.S.N., and grandson of Joshua Humphreys (1751-1838), the designer of the "Constitution" and other famous frigates of the war of 1812, sometimes known as the "father of the American navy."
In another street, leading from the gate, are the foreign office, the supreme court, the local court and the departments of justice and the navy.
In 1803 Tierney, partly because peace had been ratified with France and partly because Pitt was out of office, joined the ministry of Addington as treasurer of the navy, and was created a privy councillor; but this alienated many of his supporters among the middle classes, and offended most of the influential Whigs.
On a vote having been passed for the establishment of a German navy, he was appointed secretary of the committee to deal with the whole question, and was subsequently made ministerial councillor (Ministerialrat) in the naval department of the government.
In 367 Athens and Thebes sent rival ambassadors to Persia, with the result that Athens was actually ordered to abandon her claim to Amphipolis, and to remove her navy from the high seas.
There is no doubt that, with very few exceptions, the cities were held to their allegiance solely by the superior force of the Athenian navy.
The school is primarily divided into classical and modern sides, with a special department for preparation for army, navy or professional examinations.
The corsair retaliated by leading what remained of his navy on a plundering raid to the Balearic Islands.
Entering the navy as a volunteer, he served in the Dutch Wars and became postcaptain in 1673.
Rooke's Journal for 1700-2 has been printed by the Navy Record Society.
SA.) [[Villele, Jean Baptiste Guillaume Marie Anne Seraphin, Comte De]] (1773-1854), French statesman, was born at Toulouse on the 14th of April 1773 and educated for the navy.
Sacheverell took especial interest in the state of the navy and spoke in many debates on this question.
The trees were formerly felled for building the ships of the navy and for feeding the iron furnaces of Sussex and Hampshire.
Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
In the great Persian war of 480 Corinth served as the Greek headquarters: her army took part at Thermopylae and Plataea and her navy distinguished itself at Salamis and Mycale.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
In 1340, however, he took personal part in the great naval battle off Sluys, in which he absolutely destroyed the French navy.
Deane's capacities and activities were now required for the navy.
The administration of the navy, called upon as it was to deal with a war of unprecedented magnitude, was overtaxed by the obligation to refit ships, raise crews, and provide for the numerous sick or wounded.
Numbers of Scotch sailors and of English deserters served in the Dutch fleet in this war - the bad administration of the navy and the constant ill-treatment of the crews having caused bitter discontent.
It entered the Thames, forced the entrance of the Medway, and burnt both the dockyard at Chatham and a number of the finest ships in the navy which were lying in the river.
The English fleets were, therefore, comparatively small, were illprovided and had to co-operate with French squadrons which in the then raw state of King Louis' young navy, proved inefficient allies.
It was characteristic of the morality of his time and the spirit of the English navy as it had been shaped by the corrupt government of Charles II., that the officers concerned quarrelled violently and accused one another of fraud.
It is true that his allies provided him with 10 ships of their own, but the Spanish navy had sunk to abject inefficiency.
Gardiner for the Navy Record Society (1899).
1911, as Minister for the Navy, a post which he retained when Caillaux succeeded Monis, and in the Poincare Cabinet which was formed on Jan.
Connected with the harbour are dry docks, the yards where the largest ships in the French navy are constructed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops requisite for a naval arsenal of the first class.
He entered the Prussian navy in 1865, and by 1890 had risen to be chief-of-staff of the Baltic station in the Imperial navy.
For the long period of 19 years, from 1897 to 1916, he was Secretary of State for the Imperial navy, and in this capacity advocated the navy bills of 1898, 1900, 1907 and 1912 for increasing the German fleet and successfully carried them through the Reichstag.
In that book he shows how gigantic was the task of creating the new German navy with which Great Britain had to reckon at the outbreak of the World War.
In the conduct of the naval war the official role of Tirpitz was confined to reporting and advising at general headquarters, the actual conduct and initiative in operations being in the hands of the higher command of the navy at Wilhelmshaven, subject to the Emperor's approval or veto.
Tirpitz advances two contentions; first, that he would have sent the navy into decisive action at an earlier stage of the war; secondly, that he would have made an earlier and more ruthless use of the German U-boats; but his opponents traverse both these claims, and in particular assert that as Secretary of State he had neglected the construction of submarines, so that Germany entered the war with a comparatively small supply of these vessels.
But this policy was, in any case, bound to make England peculiarly sensitive to provocation by Germany, - a point which was ignored by the champions of a great German navy.
Fentress, Centennial History of the U.S. Navy Yard at Portsmouth, N.
This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which made him notorious throughout Greece; but his real purpose in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia.
In 1868 he was created vice-admiral of the Italian navy, but, two years later, left Italy to ascend the Spanish throne, his reluctance to accept the invitation of the Cortes having been overridden by the Italian cabinet.
In the war thus begun she built, equipped and manned many vessels for the Federal navy, and furnished from IMI to 1865 26,163 (or, including final credits, probably more than 30,000) men for the navy.
Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the War of 1861-65 (Official, Boston, 2 vols., 1896).
The British navy cut off the French from all help from home, and after a gallant struggle, their dominion in Canada was conquered, and the French retired from the North American continent.
It was not, however, till 1829 that a tangent sight (designed by Major-General William Millar) was introduced into the navy; this was adopted by the army in 1846.
The rocking-bar sight, which had been for some time in use in the navy, was introduced.
In the navy the conditions of an unstable platform rendered quadrant elevation of little use, and necessitated a special pattern of tangent sight to facilitate firing the moment the roll of the ship brought the sights on the target.
In the navy one of the first essentials is rapidity of fire; to attain this the duties of laying are subdivided; one man laying for elevation, elevating and firing, a second laying for line and traversing, and a third putting on the elevation ordered or communicated by electric dial.
In England the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, manufactures and stores the requirements of the army and navy (see Woolwich).
ISAAC HULL (1775-1843), commodore in the U.S. navy, was born at Derby in Connecticut on the 9th of March 1775.
In 1798 he was appointed lieutenant in the newly organized U.S. navy.
He had a high reputation in the United States navy for practical seamanship. He died at Philadelphia on the 13th of February 1843.
At the age of twelve Hood entered the navy, and whilst still a boy saw active service on the north coast of Spain, and afterwards on the coast of Syria.
He was thoroughly acquainted with the routine work of the office and the established armament of the navy, but he had not the power of adapting himself to the changes which were being called for, and still less of initiating them; so that during his period of office the armament of the ships remained sadly behind the general advance.
The intense conservatism of his character, however, and his antagonistic attitude towards every change, regardless of whether it was necessary or not, had much to do with the alarming state of the navy towards 1889.
He served in the British navy from 1807 until 1817, and was director of the school of navigation at Hamburg from 1819 till 1820.
Financial reform and reorganization of the customs service were found equally necessary, if only to provide means for the increased cost of the army and navy.
Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
1918 the mutiny, which had broken out in the navy at Kiel, developed into sanguinary street fighting and the naval authorities were unable to restore order, Noske was sent to Kiel with the Democratic Secretary of State, Hausmann, and, after a conference with representatives of the sailors and dockyard workers, arranged a suspension of hostilities on the basis of the sailors', soldiers' and workmen's demands.
But as the army and the navy grew year by year, the tone of Japanese policy became firmer.
For the navy, which had materially only a narrow margin of superiority over the Russian Pacific Squadron, the object was to keep the two halves of that squadron, at Port Arthur and Vladivostok respectively, separate and to destroy them in detail.
Admiral Alexeiev, the tsar's viceroy in the Far East and the evil genius of the war, was at Port Arthur and forbade the navy to take the risks of proceeding to sea.
Then the advocates of passivity regained the upper hand and kept the squadron in harbour, and henceforward for many months the Japanese navy lay unchallenged off Port Arthur, engaging in minor operations, covering the transport of troops to the mainland, and watching for the moment when the advance of the army should force the Russian fleet to come out.
The Japanese had not waited to gain command of the sea before beginning the sea transport of that part of their troops allotted to Korea: The roads of that country were so poor that the landing had 3 A vivid picture of the state of affairs in the navy at this period is given in Semenov's Rasplata (Eng.
Meanwhile the Japanese navy had scored two important successes.
The president's mother, Martha Bullock, was of an old Georgia family of Scotch-Irish and Huguenot extraction; her grandfather was Archibald Bullock (1730-1777), first president (1776-77) of Georgia; and her brother, James Dunwoody Bullock, often compared by Theodore Roosevelt to Colonel Newcome, was in the Confederate navy, and equipped in England vessels (including the "Alabama") as Confederate cruisers.
After a strenuous two years in this office, he was appointed by President McKinley in 1897 assistant-secretary of the navy.
He was certain that war with Spain was inevitable, and he did much to prepare the navy for hostilities, framing an important personnel bill, collecting ammunition, getting large appropriations for powder and ammunition used in improving the marksmanship of the navy by gunnery practice, buying transports and securing the distribution of ships and supplies (especially in the Pacific) in such a way that, when hostilities were declared, American naval victories would be assured.
He urged upon the administration the bold policy of protesting against the sailing of Cervera's fleet, on the ground that it would be regarded as a warlike measure not against the Cuban revolutionaries, who had no navy, but against the United States; and he advised that, if Cervera sailed, an American squadron be sent to meet him and to prevent his approach to America.
At the outbreak of the war with Spain he resigned from the Navy Department and raised the first volunteer regiment of cavalry, popularly known as the "Rough Riders," because many of its members were Western cowboys and ranchmen expert in the handling of the rough and often unbroken horses of the Western frontier.
It is doubtful if, without the experience of this secretaryship, he could have successfully originated and carried out the plan of sending the United States navy around the world in 1907.
But, with this advocacy of international peace, he also advocated the maintenance by the United States of an efficient and thoroughly equipped army and navy.
Although he himself served in the army during the Spanish War his special interest was in the navy, springing probably from his relationship with the navy during his brief term as assistant secretary.
The successful and dramatic voyage of the American fleet around the world, undertaken in spite of predictions of disaster made by naval experts in Europe and the United States, was conceived and inspired by him, and this single feat would alone justify the statement that no American public man had done so much since the Civil War as he to strengthen the physical power and the moral character of the United States navy.
C. Lodge; Winning of the West (4 vols., 1889-96); a part of the sixth volume of the History of the Royal Navy of England (1898) by W.
Claude de Beauharnais, comte des Roches-Baritaud, uncle of the marquis and of the vicomte de Beauharnais, served in the navy and became a vice-admiral.
During November tlfe British West India steamer "Trent" was boarded by a vessel of the Federal Navy, the "San Jacinto," and Messrs Slidell and Mason, commissioners for the Confederate States, who were on their way to England, were seized.
Congress, in a joint resolution, tendered its thanks to Commodore Dewey, and to the officers and men under his command, and authorized "the secretary of the navy to present a sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and cause to be struck bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic squadron of the United States."
During President Cleveland's first administration (1885-1889), Whitney was secretary of the navy department and did much to develop the navy, especially by encouraging the domestic manufacture of armour plate.
Soon afterwards he was transferred to the navy and cruised in the West Indies, until, when blockaded by a British cruiser, he left his ship and travelled through the United States.
He was secretary of the navy in President Roosevelt's cabinet from July 1905 to December 1906, when he was made attorney-general of the United States.
By a law passed in 1903, the ancient system of recruiting the army and navy from the descendants of former prisoners of war was abolished in favour of compulsory service by all able-bodied men.
The navy, many of the officers of which are Danes and Norwegians, comprises a steel twin-screw cruiser of 2500 tons which serves as the royal yacht, four steel gunboats of between 500 and 700 tons all armed with modern quick-firing guns, two torpedo-boat destroyers and three torpedo boats, with other craft for river and coast work.
Unlike the army, which is purely colonial, the navy in Netherlands India is partly colonial, partly belonging to the royal navy of the Netherlands, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother country and partly by the colony.
About six ironclads and twenty smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters; the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.
Ships' cables of esparto, being light, have the quality of floating on water, and have long been in use in the Spanish navy.
Fleury had economized in the army and navy, as elsewhere, and when in 1733 war was forced upon him he was hardly prepared.
The town surrendered on the 7th of September, but disease and the defeat of the fleet by the Aragonese navy at Las Farmiguas Islands led to a retreat, during which, on the 5th of October, the king died.
The navy likewise remained national, and of its officers very few went with their states, for the foreign relations of the navy tended to produce a sentiment wider than local.
Virginia, and with it the Federal navy yard at Norfolk and the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, was controlled by the rebels.
- Meanwhile the Federal navy had settled down to its fourfold task of blockading the enemy's coast against.
the export of cotton and the import of war material, protecting the Union commerce afloat, hindering the creation of a Confederate navy and co-operating with the land forces.
As against the civilian enemy the navy strangled commerce; its military preponderance nipped in the bud every successive attempt of the Confederates to create a fleet (for each new vessel as it emerged from the estuary or harbour in which it had been built, was destroyed or driven back), while at any given point a secure base was available for the far-ranging operations of the Union armies.
During these campaigns the United States navy had not been idle.
The Federal navy was enormously expanded.
The existing Federal navy of 1861 already included some large and powerful modern vessels, such as the "Minnesota" and "Powhatan."
The exciting and profitable occupation of blockade-running led to countless small fights off the various harbours, and sometimes the United States navy had to fight a more serious action when some new "rebel" ironclad emerged from her harbour, inlet or sound.
Many of the greater combats in which the navy was engaged on the coast and inland have been referred to above, and thefightingbefore Charleston,NewOrleans, Mobile and Vicksburg is described in separate articles.
When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced by commerce-destroying pure and simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy.
The sixteen volumes of the Campaigns of the Civil War (1881-1882) and the Navy in the Civil War (1883) (written by various authors) are of very unequal merit, but several of the volumes are indispensable to the study of the Civil War.
He finally chose the navy, and went to sea in his uncle's ship, the "Hind," in 1793.
His efforts were now steadily directed to securing his restoration to the navy, and in this he succeeded in 1832; but though he was granted a "free pardon" he failed to obtain the new trial for which he was anxious, or to secure the arrears of pay he claimed.'
He, more than any other man, must be regarded as the practical creator of the Italian navy.
A gunboat and a torpedo boat constitute the navy, which, however, requires.
Mexico may be said to have no navy, the ten small vessels in commission in 1908 hardly meriting such a designation.
In 1814 he published a political pamphlet, "The United States and England," which attracted the notice of President Madison, who in 1815 appointed him secretary to the board of navy commissioners, which position he held until November 1823.
Subsequently Paulding was navy agent in New York City from 1825 to 1837, and from 1837 to 1841 was secretary of the navy in the cabinet of President Van Buren.
(1) From 1 775 till the summer of 1778 the British navy was engaged in co-operating Eff e o with the troops employed against the insurgents, on - the coasts, rivers and lakes of North America, or in endeavouring to protect British commerce against the enterprise of American privateers.
The British navy was able to cover the retreat of the army from Boston to Halifax in April 1776, and to convey it to New York in'June.
A violent quarrel exacerbated by political differences broke out among the British commands, which led to two courts-martial and to the resignation of Keppel, and did great injury to the discipline of the navy.
So far the British navy had stood on the defensive, without material loss except in the West Indies, but without triumph.
For accounts of the American navy see C. O.
Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution (Chicago, 1906); E.
Maclay, History of the U.S. Navy, vol.
Lincoln, Naval Records of the American Revolution (Washington, 1906); and Edward Field, Esek Hopkins, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolution (Providence, R.I., 1898).
Laird Clowes's The Royal Navy: A History (London, 1897, &c.).
From 1847 to 1862 he was advising astronomer to the headquarters of the army and navy; chairman of the International Astronomical Congress from 1867-1878; acting president of the International Metric Commission in 1872; and president of the International Congress for a Photographic Survey of the Stars in 1887, in which year he was also made a privy councillor.
Marcy of New York, secretary of state; Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, secretary of war; James Guthrie (1792-1869) of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; James C. Dobbin (1814-1857) of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert McClelland (1807-1880) of Michigan, secretary of the interior; James Campbell (1813-1893) of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; and Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts, attorney-general.
The school was never incorporated, it had no buildings, and the lectures were delivered in the law offices of its instructors, but among its 1000 or more students were many who afterwards became famous, including John C. Calhoun; Levi Woodbury (1789-1851), United States senator from New Hampshire in1825-1831and in 1841-1845, secretary of the navy in 1831-1834 and of the treasury in 1834-1841, and a justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1845; John Y.
On the south side of the town there are three harbours - the large western or merchant harbour, the western flank of which is formed by a great mole joining the fortifications which traverse the breadth of the island on this side; the middle harbour, used chiefly for fitting out and repairing vessels; and the eastern or war harbour for vessels of the Russian navy.
The superintendent of the Ninth Census, 1870, presented a computation 01 the effects of this causefirst, through direct losses, by wounds or disease, either in actual service of the army or navy, or in a brief term following discharge; secondly, through the retardation of the rate of increase in the colored element, due to the privations, exposures and excesses attendant upon emancipation; thirdly, through the check given to immigration by the existence of war, the fear of conscription, and the apprehension abroad of results prejudicial to the national welfare.
While nearly all important measures are brought into parliament by the ministers of the sovereign, and nominally under his instructions, the American president cannot introduce bills either directly or through his the secretary of the treasury, the secretary of war, the attorneygeneral, the postmaster-general, the secretary of the navy, the secretary of the interiorthis order to apply only to such officers as shall have been appointed by the advice and consent of the Senate.
As commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and as charged with the faithful execution of all laws, he is likely to assume, and would indeed he expected to assume, all the powers which the emergency requires.
The navy department has charge of the dockyards and vessels of war; and the post office department directs the postal system, including the railway mail service.
From 1791 to 1886 the aggregate net ordinary expenditures of the governmentthese expenditures being exclusive of payments on account of principal and interest of the public debtwere as follows, in millions of dollars: for the army, 4563; navy, 1106; military pensions, ~oo; miscellaneous, 2168; total 8737.
The average yearly disbursements during the decade, distributed according to object, were as Tollows: for civil list and miscellaneous objects, $143,697,123.09; army, $130,416,902.62; navy, $96,722,000.90; military pensions, $144,856,529.16; Indians, $12,966,563.00; on account of debt, $25,632,072.60; total, $586,942,920.
(See also Navy and Navies.)
allowed her navy to decline and her people showed little inclination for emigration to the colonies.
At the Restoration he returned, and became one of the commissioners of the navy, but on the outbreak of the second Dutch War in 1664 he once more hoisted his flag as rear-admiral of the Blue, and took part in the battle of Lowestoft (June 3rd, 1665).
WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE (1774-1833), commodore in the United States navy, was born on the 7th of May 1774 in Princeton, New Jersey.
When the United States navy was organized in 1798 he was included in the corps of naval officers, and appointed to the schooner "Retaliation."
The United States navy paid great attention to its gunnery, which the British navy, misled by its easy victories over the French, had greatly neglected.
During his later years he served on the board of navy Commissioners.
An officer of the Japanese navy, Lieut.
The marine hydrometers, as supplied by the British government to the royal navy and the merchant marine, are glass instruments with slender stems, and generally serve to indicate specific gravities from 1.000 to 1.040.
It is a fortified coaling station for the British navy.
He was no less distinguished in other attacks with fireships at Samos and Mytilene in 1824, which finally established an utter panic in the Turkish navy.
When the Greeks tried to organize a regular navy he was appointed captain of the frigate "Hellas" in 1826.
side, formerly used as a coal depot by ships of the British navy.
The islands are regularly visited by vessels of the Messageries Maritimes fleet, and a coaling station for the French navy has been established.
The older shipyards have been considerably extended, and shipbuilding is actively carried on, especially by the Orlando yard which builds large ships for the Italian navy, while new industries - namely, glass-making and copper and brass-founding, electric power works, a cement factory, porcelain factories, flour-mills, oil-mills, a cotton yarn spinning factory, electric plant works, a ship-breaking yard, a motorboat yard, &c. - have been established.
Other reforms. followed in quick succession during the next five or six years: army and navy organization, a new judicial administration on the French model, a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure, an elaborate scheme of local self-government for the rural districts and the large towns, with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the minister of the interior.
The same year he strongly supported Woodrow Wilson for president and on the latter's election was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1913.
In April 1826 he entered the Mexican navy, of which his father was commander-in-chief, and which he left in 1828, after the capture by the Spanish of the "Guerrero," on which he was serving under his cousin, David H.
He became a midshipman in the United States navy in 1829, and was in the coast survey in 1836-1842.
Borie (1809-1880), of Pennsylvania, was secretary of the navy in President Grant's cabinet, Porter was virtually in charge of the navy department.
Porter urged the reconstruction of the navy, which he saw begun in 1882.
Porter wrote a Life of Commodore David Porter (1875), gossipy Incidents and Anecdotes of the Civil War (1885), a none too accurate History of the Navy during the War of the Rebellion (1887), two novels, Allan Dare and Robert le Diable (1885; dramatized, 1887) and Harry Marline (1886), and a short "Romance of Gettysburg," published in The Criterion in 1903.
Admiral Porter's three brothers were in the service of the United States: William David Porter (1809-1864) entered the navy in 1823, commanded the "Essex" on the Tennessee and the Mississippi in the Civil War, and became commodore in July 1862; Theodoric Henry Porter (1817-1846) was the first officer of the American army killed in the Mexican War; and Henry Ogden Porter (1823-1872) resigned from the United States navy in 1847, after seven years' service, fought under William Walker in Central America, returned to the American navy, was executive officer of the "Hatteras" when she was sunk by the "Alabama," and received wounds in the action from the effects of which he died several years later.
In 1823 he was appointed president of the board of trade and treasurer of the navy, and shortly afterwards he received a seat in the cabinet.
The break-up or sale of obsolete warships is a diminution of the paper effective of a navy, and their purchase by another state a paper increase of theirs.
The object of her navy is therefore necessarily defensive, unless it act in co-operation with a foreign conscript army.
He had begun to build his own boats at a very early age, and the ultimate result of these pastimes was the creation of the Russian navy.
In 1695 he had only advanced to the post of "skipper" in his own navy and of "bombardier" in his own army.
No person is allowed to vote by reason of being in or attached to the army or navy.
from Honolulu, a Pacific cable relay station and a post of the U.S. navy marines; and the county of Kauai, including Kauai and Niihau islands.
The " Explorer," a steamer of 170 tons, which had been employed in the copra trade, was purchased for $20,000, and refitted as a man-of-war, to form the " nest-egg " of the future Hawaiian navy.
The town was noted for the manufacture of ropes and cables as early as 1213, and an act of parliament (21 Henry VIII.) shows that the inhabitants had "from time out of mind" made the cables, ropes and hawsers for the royal navy and for most of the other ships.
Every compass and corrector supplied to the ships of the British navy is previously examined in detail at the Compass Observatory established by the admiralty at Deptford.
Until 1876, when Sir William Thomson introduced his patent compass, this compass was not only the regulation compass of the British navy, but was largely used in other countries in the same or a modified form.
In 1820 Peter Barlow reported to the Admiralty that half the compasses in the British Navy were mere lumber and ought to be destroyed.
Allen had a large share in the struggle by which Methodist work both in the army and the navy was developed.
SIR SAMUEL HOOD (1762-1814), British vice-admiral, cousin of Lord Hood and of Lord Bridport, entered the Royal Navy in 1776.
His elder brother, Captain Alexander Hood (1758-1798), entered the Royal Navy in 1767, and accompanied Captain Cook in his second voyage round the world.
From 1903 to 1905 he was a member of the joint Army and Navy Board and also a member of the general staff.
In the southern part of the city is a United States navy yard and station, officially the Norfolk Yard (the second largest in the country), of about 450 acres, with three immense dry docks, machine shops, warehouses, travelling and water cranes, a training station, torpedoboat headquarters, a powder plant (20 acres), a naval magazine, a naval hospital and the distribution headquarters of the United State Marine Corps.
Shortly before the War of Independence the British established a marine yard where the navy yard now is, but during the war it was confiscated by Virginia and in 1801 was sold to the United States.
In April 1861 it was burned and abandoned by the Federals, and for a year afterwards was the chief navy yard of the Confederates.
Two months later, on the 9th of May, the Confederates abandoned the navy yard and evacuated Norfolk and Portsmouth, and the "Virginia" was destroyed by her commander, Josiah Tattnall.
He entered the navy and served under Keppel and Rodney.
In 1889-1893 he was secretary of the navy in the cabinet of President Benjamin Harrison, and then resumed the practice of law in New York City.
Charles Yorke's second son by his second marriage was Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke (1768-1831), an admiral in the navy, whose son succeeded to the earldom of Hardwicke.
Even when Athens had developed a rival navy Greek observers noted with admiration the discipline kept on board the Phoenician ships and the skill with which they were handled (Xen.
- The development of the German navy in the first years of the 10th century rendered it necessary to create a British naval base suitable for a fleet concentrated in the North Sea, and in 1903 it was decided to establish a firstclass naval base at Rosyth on the Firth of Forth.
A typical instrument in the British navy was 30 ft.
Owing to proximity to the magnetic compass the whole of the tube must be non-magnetic. High-strength bronze was used in the earlier practice in the British navy.
Krupp for use for the outer tube of the German navy periscope used before the war, and a similar steel was developed and used in the British service, but it is costly and more difficult to machine to the required accuracy than is the case with bronze.
The Danish navy, which in 1596 consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 16 10 rose to sixty, some of them being built after Christian's own designs.
The Distinguished Service Order, an order of military merit, was founded on the 6th of September 1886 by Queen Victoria, its object being to recognize the special services of officers in the army and navy.
The storming parties numbered 50 officers and 980 men of the Royal Navy, drawn chiefly from the Grand Fleet and the Nore, and 32 officers and 718 men of the Royal Marines.
In judging what was achieved it is necessary to remember that at the end of 1917 and early in 1918 the whole efforts of the navy were directed toward one goal - to counter the submarine.
The navy chafed at its inactivity and looked eagerly for some outlet where it could get at grips with its enemy.
And if it did not wholly succeed, the work of those who took part in it sent a breath of inspiration through the navy and gave all who took part in it a lasting name.
On the British side, the naval force in American waters under Sir John Borlase Warren, who took up the general command on the 26th of September 1812, consisted of ninety-seven vessels in all, of which eleven were of the line and thirty-four were frigates, a power much greater than the national navy of America, but inadequate to the blockade of the long coast from New Brunswick to Florida.
- The American people, who had expected little from their diminutive navy, had calculated with confidence on being able to overrun Canada.
The British Admiralty employ it to save weight in the Navy, and the war-offices of the European powers equip their soldiers with it wherever possible.
He entered the navy in 1862, serving on the East African and Cochin-China stations in the medical department until the Franco-German War, when he resigned and volunteered for the army medical service.
In the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet of 1899 to 1902 he was minister of marine, and in 1901 he secured the passage of a naval programme intended to raise the French navy during the next six years to a level befitting the place of France among the great powers.
To him belong the ultimate direction of foreign affairs, the power to declare war and peace, to make treaties and alliances, and to dissolve one or both chambers of parliament, the supreme command of the army and navy, the supreme administration of the state finances and of the colonies and other possessions of the kingdom, and the prerogative of mercy.
The Dutch navy at home and in Indian waters consists (1909) of 9 small battleships, 6 small cruisers and 80 other vessels, manned by 8600 officers and men of the navy and about 2250 marines.
was thus preserved, but with the loss of the firm hand and strong personality of that great ruler the United Provinces were relegated to a subordinate place in the councils of the nations, and with the gradual decadence of its navy the Dutch republic ceased to rank as a power to be reckoned with.
He entered the U.S. navy in 1822, and was commissioned lieutenant in 1830.
After cruising round the world (1837-1840) in the " John Adams," he was assigned to the Philadelphia Naval Asylum, and later (1846-1848) to the Boston Navy Yard.
From October 1858 to the outbreak of the Civil War, he was in charge of the Brooklyn Navy Yard, becoming a full captain in 1861.
The first supplies the navy with provisions, medicines, furniture, &c., manufactured or stored in the large warehouses here.
From the south end of Kongens Nytorv, a street called Holmens Kanal winds past the National Bank to the Holmens Kirke, or church for the royal navy, originally erected as an anchor-smithy by Frederick II., but consecrated by Christian IV., with a chapel containing the tombs of the great admirals Niels Juel and Peder TordenskjOld, and wood-carving of the 17th century.
From 1911 to 1913 he was commandant of the Mare Island navy yard and in the latter year was promoted to rear-admiral.
Belgium has no state navy, although various proposals have been made from time to time to establish an armed flotilla in connexion with the defence of Antwerp. The state, however, possesses a certain number of steamers.
In 1639 he became comptroller of the English navy.
In 1651 Carteret, after a seven weeks' siege, was compelled to surrender Jersey to a Parliamentary force; he then joined the Royalist exiles in France, where for a time he held a command in the French navy.
From 1661 to 1667 he was treasurer of the navy.
Sir Samuel Greig, the father of the Russian navy and designer of the fortifications at Cronstadt, was born at Inverkeithing in 1735.
In1883-1889he was a member of the National House of Representatives, and from March 1897 to May 1902 was secretary of the navy, in the cabinet, first of President McKinley and then of President Roosevelt.
In 1845 he entered Polk's cabinet as secretary of the navy, serving until 1846, when for a month he was acting secretary of war.
degree, joined the royal navy in 1848.
One of the first acts of "Grattan's parliament" was to prove its loyalty to England by passing a vote for the support of 20,000 sailors for the navy.
The sphere of the state authority embraced most of the powers of government, except, for instance, those relating to foreign affairs, army and navy, inter-state commerce, coinage a.nd the tariff; the powers of the central government were specified in the fundamental law.
He instituted by proclamation of the 19th of April a blockade of the Southern ports, took effective steps to extemporize a navy, convened Congress in special session (on the 4th of July), and asked for legislation and authority to make the war "short, sharp and decisive."
As soon as this order, by the slow method of communication by sea, reached the newspapers, Lincoln (May 19) published a proclamation declaring it void; adding further, "Whether it be competent for me as commander-in-chief of the army and navy to declare the slaves of any state or states free, and whether at any time or in any case it shall have become a necessity indispensable to the maintenance of the government to exercise such supposed power, are questions which under my responsibility I reserve to myself, and which I cannot feel justified in leaving to the decision of commanders in the field.
Arnold, History of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery (Chicago, 1867), revised and enlarged as Life of Abraham Lincoln (Chicago, 1885), valuable for personal reminiscences; Gideon Welles, Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), the reply of Lincoln's secretary of the navy to Charles Francis Adams's eulogy (delivered in Albany in April 1873) on Lincoln's secretary of state, W.
As regards its legislative functions, the empire has supreme and independent control in matters relating to military affairs and the navy, to the imperial finances, to German commerce, to posts and telegraphs, and also to railways, in so far as these affect the common defence of the country.
Soldiers and those in the navy are not thus entitled, so long as they are serving under the colors.
The imperial admiralty (Reichsmarineamt), which is the chief board for the administration of the imperial navy, its maintenance and development.
Voluntarily enlisted in the army and navy, on or before attailling service age..
army and navy ~-untrained-~ 9 77
As for war, the total fighting strength of the German nation (including the navy) has been placed at as high a figure as 11000,000, Of these 7,000,000 have received little or no training, owing to medical unfitness, residence abroad, failure to appear, surplus of annual contingents, &c., as already explained, and not more than 3,000,000 of these would be available in war.
NavyThe German navy is of recent origin.
Prussia however, began laying the foundations of a small navy.
From the time of the formation of the North German Confederation the navy has belonged to the common federal interest.
From 1848 to 1868 the increase of the navy was slow.
In 1868 it consisted of ~5 steamers (including 2 ironclads) and 44 sailing vessels, but during the various wars of the period 1848-1871, only a few minor actions were fought at sea, and for many years after the French War the development of the navy did not keep pace with that of the empires commercial interests beyond the seas, or compete seriously with the naval power of possible rivals.
Details of this development will be found in the article NAVY (see also History below, ad fin.).
The navy is divided between the Baltic (Kid) and North Sea (Wilhelmshaven) stations, which are strategically linked by the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal (opened in 1895), across the Schleswig-Holstein peninsula.
Personnel .T he German navy is manned by the obligatory service of the essentially maritime populationsuch as sailors, fishermen and others, as well as by volunteers, who elect for naval service in preference to that in the army.
The imperial budget, like that of most European nations, is divided into two portions, the ordinary and the extraordinary; and the increase under both heads (especially for army and navy) became a recurrent factor.
The Danes, who were supported by Russia, responded by blockading the Baltic ports, which Germany, having no navy, was unable effectually to defend.
The Prussian plan of reform laid before the diet included the exclusion of Austria from the Confederation; the creation of a federal navy; the division of the supreme command of the army between Prussia and Bavaria; a parliament elected by manhood suffrage; the regulation of the relations between the Confederation and Austria by a special treaty.
The increased expenditure on the navy after 1897 again caused the contributions required from the states to exceed the grants to them from the imperial exchequer.
They would only give their support to the Navy Bills of 1897 and 1900 in return for large concessions limiting the importation of margarine and American preserved meat, and the removal of the Indemnitts Na-chweis acted as a kind of bounty on the export of corn.
This was at once accepted by the chancellor; it was the time when the Navy Bill was coming on, and it was necessary to win votes.
In 1890 a change in the organization separated the command of the fleet from the office of secretary of state, who was responsible for the representation of the admiralty in the Reichstag, and the emperor was brought into more direct connection with the navy.
Instead of simply proposing to build a number of new ships, the bill laid down permanently the number of ships of every kind of which the navy was to consist.
The bill was strongly opposed by the Radicals; the Centre was divided; but the very strong personal influence of the emperor, supported by an agitation of the newly-formed Flottenverein (an imitation of the English Navy League), so influenced public opinion that the opposition broke down.
When war broke out in 1899 it was obviously impossible to give any efficient help to the Boers, but the govern ment did not allow the moment to pass without using .~ it for the very practical purpose of getting another ~7ey bill through the Reichstag by which the navy was to be nearly doubled.
The Navy Bill was introduced in January 1900.
lishing a strong sea power was proved by the rapid extension of the Navy League, which in 1904 had already 3595 branches.
For an increase in the navy there was, indeed, sufficient excuse in the enormous expansion of German over-sea commerce and the consequent growth of the mercantile marine; the value of foreign trade, which in 1894 was 365,000,000, had risen in 1904 to 610,000,000, and in the same period the tonnage of German merchant shipping had increased by 234%.
On the 16th of November 1905 a new Navy Bill amplifying the programme of 1900 was accepted by the Federal Diet.
The Navy League, encouraged by its success, now redoubled its exertions and demanded that the whole programme should be completed by 1912 instead of 1917.