How to use Navigation in a sentence
The soldier touched his thumb to the navigation control board.
The rugged Spanish coast is indented by many fjord-like inlets, especially in the west, where navigation is sometimes difficult and dangerous; but its rivers are comparatively unimportant.
But my car is not a CD player, GPS navigation system, or air conditioner.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
Its navigation is of great importance, especially for goods brought from the Volga, and its fisheries are extensive.Advertisement
Above this place the navigation is interrupted by rapids.
His father was a sea captain, and the boy was early skilled in seamanship and navigation.
But with the transfer of Midhat this feeble attempt at navigation was abandoned.
In consequence, largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited by the European traders of the 16th-18th centuries so frequently as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Matakong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist.
Navigation on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers was very important in early days, but is to-day of relatively slight importance in comparison with railway traffic.Advertisement
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
The islands, though well lighted, are dangerous to navigation, and a glance at a wreck chart will show the entire chain to be densely dotted.
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
Attempts have been made to bring it into more general use, but without success; and it is only in particular circumstances that navigation, with the aid either of locks or inclined planes to surmount the elevations, will not present a more convenient medium for an extended trade."
He was instructed to endeavour to bring Spain into the treaty already existing between France and the United States by a guarantee that Spain should have the Floridas in case of a successful issue of the war against Great Britain, reserving, however, to the United States the free navigation of the Mississippi.Advertisement
In May the king's minister, Count de Florida Blanca, intimated to him that the one obstacle to a treaty was the question of the free navigation of the Mississippi, and for months following this interview the policy of the court was clearly one of delay.
In February 1781 Congress instructed Jay that he might make concessions regarding the navigation of the Mississippi, if necessary; but further delays were interposed, the news of the surrender of Yorktown arrived, and Jay decided that any sacrifice to obtain a treaty was no longer advisable.
Noki is on the southern bank of the Congo at the head of navigation from the sea, and close to the Congo Free State frontier.
His earliest governesses were the wives of a tailor and a vintner from the Dutch settlement; a sailor called Norman taught him the rudiments of navigation; and, when he grew older, he was placed under the care of a Hungarian refugee, Janos Zeikin, who seems to have been a conscientious teacher.
He was in Congress during the final stages of the War of Independence, and in 1780 drafted instructions to Jay, then representing the United States at Madrid, that in negotiations with Spain he should insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi and upon the principle that the United States succeeded to British rights affirmed by the treaty of Paris of 1763.Advertisement
Virginia now feared that too much had been given up, and desired joint regulation of the navigation and commerce of the river by Maryland and Virginia.
During Jefferson's presidency and whilst Madison was secretary of state, by the purchase of Louisiana, Madison's campaign begun in i 780 for the free navigation of the Mississippi was brought to a successful close.
In the great causes for which Madison fought in his earlier years - religious freedom and separation of church and state, the free navigation of the Mississippi, and the adoption of the constitution - he met with success.
Among reforms not specifically referred to may be mentioned the improvement of coastwise navigation, the provision of posts, roads, railways, public buildings, hospitals and sanitary works, and the official advancement of industries.
Larger villages are Westerly, in the western part of the township and at the head of navigation (for small vessels) on the Pawcatuck river, and Niantic, in the northeastern part of the township. In Westerly there is a public library (1894), with 23,323 volumes in 1909.Advertisement
Through these the great river runs in a series of rapids, which make navigation by vessels of any size extremely difficult.
The labours of the United States government have much extended and very greatly improved this navigation, materially lessening also the frequency and havoc of floods along the rich bottom-lands through which the rivers plough a tortuous way in the eastern and southern portions of the state.
Severe storms make navigation dangerous in winter.
Its bed continues rocky, so as to forbid all navigation; but its banks are here bordered with a rich strip of cultivation.
Beginning shortly below Tekrit there are indications of considerable canalization, both for the purpose of irrigating country remote from the river, and also of shortening the course of the river for navigation.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
The wheels, called naoura, are of the most primitive construction, made of rough branches of trees, with palm leaf paddles, rude clay vessels being slung on the outer edge to catch the water, of which they raise a prodigious amount, only a comparatively small part of which, however, is poured into the aqueducts on top of the dams. These latter are exceedingly picturesque, often consisting of a series of well-built Gothic arches, and give a peculiar character to the scenery; but they are also great impediments to navigation.
It is the place of transhipment from the large Glasgow passenger steamers to the small craft built for the navigation of the canal.
The Onega, which flows into Onega Bay, has rapids; but timber is floated down in spring, and fishing and some navigation are carried on in the lower portion.
The Svir, also discharging into Lake Ladoga, flows from Lake Onega, and, being part of the Mariinsk canal system, is of great importance for navigation.
Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.
Coral reefs protect the coasts in many parts; they are frequently interrupted, but the passages through them are often difficult of navigation.
This change of attitude is thought to have been due chiefly to his suspicion of the North aroused by John Jay's proposal to surrender to Spain for twentyfive or thirty years the navigation of the Mississippi.
During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).
To this he added the account of Thule (which he placed six days' voyage north of Britain) and the adjoining regions, in which there was no longer any distinction between air, earth and sea, but a kind of mixture of all three, resembling the gelatinous mollusc known as pulmo marinus, which rendered all navigation and progress in any other mode alike impossible.
After this Adams visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and then went to London, where, with Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin, he negotiated (1815) a "Convention to Regulate Commerce and Navigation."
In 1907 he was a delegate to the Imperial Navigation Conference.
Then, sailing round Ceylon, he captured Malacca, the key of the navigation of the Indian archipelago, and opened a trade with Siam and the Spice Islands (Moluccas).
Hertslet, librarian of the foreign office, continued by his son, Sir Edward Hertslet, and later holders of the same office, entitled A Complete Collection of the Treaties and Conventions and Reciprocal Regulations at present subsisting between Great Britain and Foreign Powers, and of the Laws and Orders in Council concerning the same, so far as they relate to Commerce and Navigation, the Slave Trade, Post Office, &c., and to the Privileges and Interests of the Subjects of the Contracting Parties (24 vols., 1820-1907).
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.
The navigation of the Suez Canal is regulated by a treaty of 1888, and that of the future Panama Canal by one of 1901.
Rivers lying to the south of the Kapuas, but of less importance in the way of size, commerce and navigation, are the Simpang, Pawan and Kandawangan, in the neighbourhood of whose mouths, or upon the adjacent coast, the principal native villages are situated in each case.
In Sambas, Montrado and some parts of Pontianak, the greater density of the population is due to the greater fertility of the soil, the opening of mines, the navigation and trade plied on the larger rivers, and the concentration of the population at the junctions of rivers, the mouths of rivers and the seats of government.
Even below Rayoh navigation is rendered difficult and occasionally dangerous by similar obstructions.
This body has power to legislate for the whole empire in reference to all matters connected with the army, navy, postal service, customs, coinage, &c., all political laws affecting citizens, and all general questions of commerce, navigation, passports, &c. The emperor represents the federation in all international relations, with the chancellor as first minister of the empire, and has power, with consent of the Bundesrath, to declare war in name of the empire.
Navigation is greatly impeded by shifting banks of silt, and especially by five rapids which can only be traversed when the river is in full flood.
But between 1900 and 1905 contracts were signed for the construction of three highways, leading respectively from Matagalpa, from Nueva Segovia and from the Pis Pis mining district to the head of steam navigation on the Segovia, about 160 m.
So recently as about 1880 it discharged into the Gulf of Smyrna, but the shoals formed by its silt-laden waters were so obstructive to navigation that it was turned back into its old bed.
The rapids of the Shannon at this point are obviated by means of a lock communication with a basin, which renders the navigation of the river practicable above the town.
The Ganges canal intersects the district, and serves both for irrigation and navigation.
Nizhniy is the chief station of the Volga steamboat traffic. The first steamer made its appearance on the Volga in 1821, but it was not till 1845 that steam navigation began to assume large proportions.
With the fall of Kazan, and the opening of free navigation on the Volga, it became the starting-place for the "caravan" of boats yearly sent to the lower Volga under the protection of a military force, whilst the thick forests of the neighbourhood favoured the development of shipbuilding.
The opportunity for developing water-power by the purchase of the canal around Pawtucket Falls (chartered for navigation in 1792) led them to choose the adjacent village of East Chelmsford as the site of their projected cotton mills; they bought the Pawtucket canal, and incorporated in 1822 the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; in 1823 the first cloth was actually made, and in 1826 a separate township was formed from part of Chelmsford and was named in honour of Francis Cabot Lowell, who with Jackson had improved Cartwright's power loom, and had planned the mills at Waltham.
A line of railway was also under construction in 1906 to Jirardot, at the head of navigation on the upper Magdalena.
Its site is that formerly occupied by the terminus of the Schleswig-Holstein railways, but a handsome central station lying somewhat farther to the N., connected with Hamburg by an elevated railway, now accommodates all the traffic and provides through communication with the main Prussian railway systems. There are also fine municipal and judicial buildings, a theatre (under the same management as the Stadttheater in Hamburg), a gymnasium, technical schools, a school of navigation and a hospital.
Above these two bridges the rivers are accessible only to river navigation.
Fredericksburg at the head of navigation on the Rappahannock and West Point on the York have traffic of commercial importance in lumber and timber, oysters and farm produce, cotton and tobacco especially being shipped in coastwise vessels from West Point.
It derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation, or, according to an Arabic legend, from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake which separated Asia and Africa.
The movements of the waters are of great irregularity and complexity, rendering navigation difficult and dangerous.
A large trade in grain is carried on by, means of the Calder, and the building of boats for inland navigation is a considerable industry.
The grievances of English merchants arising from the violation of the navigation laws by the colonies continued, however, to receive the attention of the home government.
Considerable works have also been made to connect the different lakes and lake-basins for inland navigation, a sum of £1,000,000 having been spent for that purpose.
Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools.
Owing to its situation at the head of deep water navigation on the Mississippi, Memphis has become a leading commercial city of the southern states; its trade in cotton, lumber, groceries, mules and horses is especially large.
Below Astrakhan navigation is difficult, and on the sand-bars at the mouth the maximum depth is only 12 ft.
It lies on the river Stort, close to the county boundary with Essex, and has water-communication with London through the Lea and Stort Navigation.
Sale is the head of the Gippsland lakes navigation, the shipping being brought from the lakes to the town by canal.
On Riddarholm also are various government offices, and most of the steamers for Molar and the inland navigation lie alongside its quays.
He served on the committee which drafted the Articles of Confederation, and contended that there should be no treaty of peace with Great Britain which did not grant to the United States both the right to the Newfoundland fisheries and the free navigation of the Mississippi.
As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April.
Navigation in the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is impeded from the end of November to the beginning of May, and in the north the gulf is covered with ice from November to the last half of May.
The extensive system of natural waterways, especially in central Sweden, has been utilized to the full in the development of internal navigation, just as the calm waters within the skargard afford opportunity for safe and economical coastwise, traffic. The earliest construction of canals dates from the 15th century, the patriot Engelbrekt and King Gustavus Vasa both foreseeing its importance.
A large local traffic is carried on by steam launches on the lakes during the season of open navigation; and vessels have even been introduced on some of the lakes and rivers of the far north, principally in connexion with the timber trade.
With one exception they all drain westward into the Pacific through short and partly navigable rivers, and some of the lakes are also utilized for steamship navigation.
The only navigation on any portion of its course is carried on in boats of basket-work.
If the reefs impede navigation they form some good harbours.
At the eastern extremity of the Coastal Plain Region an outer coast line is formed by a chain of long narrow barrier beaches from which project capes Hatteras, Lookout and Fear, whose outlying shoals are known for their dangers to navigation.
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
River transport has some local value on the upper Sao Francisco and its larger tributaries, and this will be greatly increased when the Central do Brazil railway reaches the head of navigation on that river.
It will thus be seen that European (excluding Russian) power in Asia is based almost entirely on improved navigation.
In the 12th century it was a free city, governed by a podesta and consuls after the model of the Italian republics, which it also emulated in commerce and navigation.
Richmond is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railways, and by the Old Dominion, the Virginia Navigation and the Chesapeake steamship lines.
The harbour islands, three of which have been ceded to the United States for the purpose of fortification, are numerous, and render the navigation of the shipping channels difficult and easily guarded.
Navigation of the lake is rendered difficult both by sudden storms and by the absence of good bays and ports.
Since 1890 much has been done by the national Government, aided in many cases by the local authorities and by private enterprise, to improve the harbours and to extend the limits of river navigation.
The charter of incorporation granted in 1614 states that by the invasion of the Spaniards it had been treacherously spoiled and burnt but that its strength, prosperity and usefulness for navigation, and the acceptable and laudable services of the inhabitants in rebuilding and fortifying it, and their enterprise in erecting a pier, have moved the king to grant the petition for its incorporation.
Surface currents are set up by prevailing winds, which also seriously affect water levels, lowering the water at Chicago and raising it at the strait, or the reverse, so as greatly to inconvenience navigation.
The average date of the opening and closing of navigation at the strait of Mackinac, where the ice remains longest, is the 17th of April and the 9th of January respectively.'
Sand bars keep filling up the mouths of these channels, necessitating frequent dredging and extension of the breakwaters, work undertaken by the Federal government, which also maintains a most comprehensive and completeystem of aids to navigation, including lighthouses and lightships, fog alarms, gas and other buoys, life-saving, storm signal and weather report stations.
The water is deep right to the base of the cliff and owing to the winds and the strength of the ocean currents, navigation is dangerous.
The "residue" grant is expended on navigation and swimming classes.
The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.
So marked is this current that it has to be taken into account in the navigation of the Black Sea.
There are many " bayous," several of which are of great importance, both for navigation and for drainage.
The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
Butler occupied that city The navigation of the river being secured by this success and by later operations in the north ending in July 1863 with the capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the state was wholly at the mercy of the Union armies.
Tradition avers that but forty days were needed for the completion of the work, six thousand men being employed night and day; guns and troops were hurriedly put in, and all navigation of the Bosporus was stopped.
He was the author also of a mathematical work on the use of the astrolabe and of a book (Muhit, " the ocean ") on the navigation of the Indian seas.
In February 1773 the Russian plenipotentiary delivered his ultimatum, of which the most important demands were the cession of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, the free navigation of the Black Sea and Archipelago for Russian trading and war vessels, and the recognition of the tsar's right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the sultan.
Commerce and navigation in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were free to both countries.
The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.
The navigation of the Tigris during the greater party of its course from Bagdad to Korna is slow and uncertain.
To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the stream frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel.
For the rest of the year navigation is stopped, though the winter months form the busy seal-killing season.
But out of a total population of about 75,000 there are Ii,000 foreigners, living mostly by trade and navigation.
In 1823 the first river steamboat reached St Paul; the Mississippi was soon afterwards opened to continuous if irregular navigation; and in 1826 a party of refugees from Lord Selkirk's colony on the Red River settled near Fort Snelling.
The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
Based on rivers (the navigation of which greatly improved) and the sea, he formed depots or magazines of provisions at many points, which enabled him always to take and keep the field.
There must also be mentioned the fine public zoological gardens, Hagenbeck's private zoological gardens in the vicinity, the schools of music and navigation, and the school of commerce.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
This is probably the most elevated system of navigation in the world.
The bed of the great river maintains a fairly constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer traffic.
The navigation of the Cochecho river has been greatly improved by the Federal government, at a cost between 1829 and 1907 of about $300,000, and in 1909 there was a navigable channel, 60-75 ft.
Owing to this twinning and the general direction of their courses, the rivers of Siberia offer immense advantages for inland navigation, not only 'from north to south but also from west to east.
The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
Navigation on the Siberian rivers has developed both as regards the number of steamers plying and the number of branch rivers traversed.
In 1884 this line was continued as far as Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Siberian rivers.
It is the terminus of steamer navigation on the Brahmaputra, and also of a railway running to important coal-mines and petroleum wells, which connects with the Assam-Bengal system.
In the first statute passed for improving the navigation of the river near Oxford (21 Jac. I.) it is called the river of Thames, and it was only in a statute of George II.
Concurrently with the repair of the canal, the navigation works on the Thames were remodelled at a large cost, and barges drawing 3 ft.
Although the Thames, as one of the "great rivers of England," was always a navigable river, that is to say, one over which the public had the right of navigation, it was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that any systematic regulation of its flow in the upper reaches was attempted.
The number of locks is 47, including four navigation weirs above Oxford.
Navigation is also carried on by the Medway to Tonbridge, on the lower parts of the Darent and Cray, from Dartford and Crayford, and on the Wey up to Guildford and Godalming.
The application of this property to the construction of the mariner's compass is obvious, and it is in connexion with navigation that the first references to it occur '(see' Compass).
In both classes navigation is greatly impeded by sandbars at the mouths of these rivers, while in the districts of periodical rainfall it is greatly restricted in the dry season.
These inland channels often afford many miles of sheltered navigation.
The largest of the river lines is the Amazon Steam Navigation Co.
Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
The Nerbudda is nowhere utilized for irrigation, and navigation is confined to the lower section.
In 1892 a harbour was built, but the shipping of Tiel is now chiefly confined to craft for inland navigation.
One consequence of this is that the bed of the river just below Hamburg is obstructed by a bar, and still lower down is choked with sandbanks, so that navigation is confined to a relatively narrow channel down the middle of the stream.
The large towns through which the river flows have vied with one another in building harbours, providing shipping accommodation, and furnishing other facilities for the efficient navigation of the Elbe.
Finally, in 1870, 1,000,000 thalers were paid to Mecklenburg and 85,000 thalers to Anhal, which thereupon abandoned all claims to levy tolls upon the Elbe shipping, and thus navigation on the river became at last entirely free.
The tendency to divide into parallel branches has been curbed in the interests of navigation, and many windings have been cut off by leading the water into straight and regular channels.
The Romans exerted themselves to improve the lower navigation of the river, and appointed prefects of the Rhine to superintend the shipping and to exact the moderate dues imposed to keep the channel in repair.
In T831, on the separation of Holland and Belgium, the former had become more amenable to reason; and a system was agreed upon which practically gave free navigation to the vessels of the riverine states, while imposing a moderate tariff upon foreign ships.
The management of the channel and navigation is now vested in a central commission, meeting at Mannheim on the 1st of July in each year.
One of the most interesting features of the Rhine navigation is afforded by the huge rafts of timber that are floated down the river.
The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.
From this time the town, on account of its favourable commercial and strategic position at the gateway of the Iroquois country and at the head of navigation on the Hudson river, was for a century and a half one of the most important places in the colonies.
The river bar obstructs navigation, the depth not exceeding 14 ft., so that large vessels must lie outside.
Progress was made in improving river and lake navigation.
The cities of Shanghai, Hangchow and Suchow form the three points of a triangle, each being connected with the other by canal, and trade is now open by steam between all three under the inland navigation rules.
Hangchow lies at the head of the large estuary of that name, which is, however, too shallow for navigation by steamers.
The coast-line is fringed with small islets and shoals and reefs, which make navigation dangerous.
The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.
It is true that the river forms at this point several arms, and the adjoining districts were subjected to periodical inundations, while navigation was by no means easy here.
But in 1870 works for the regulation of the river were started with the object of making it quite safe for navigation, and of avoiding the dangers of inundation.
For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be.
The township is at the head of navigation on the Charles, and occupies the fertile undulating plains along the river running back to a range of hills, the highest of which are Whitney Hill (200 ft.) and Meeting House Hill (250 ft.).
Of a widely different character is the navigation of Lake Titicaca, where steamers ply regularly between Puno and Guaqui, the latter on the south-east shore in railway connexion with La Paz, the capital of Bolivia.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
Experiments in steam navigation were carried out in 1802 with the "Charlotte Dundas" on the Forth and Clyde Canal at Grangemouth.
He studied surveying and navigation, and joined his father in his ship-building, fishing and general trading business, quickly becoming one of the wealthiest and most influential men in the province.
Between it and other ports in the Caspian communication is maintained by the mail-steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Steam Navigation Company and many vessels of commercial firms with head offices chiefly at Baku.
The passage of the Sugar Act of April 5, 1764, and the steps taken by the British government to enforce the Navigation Acts seriously affected this trade.
On the 9th of June 1772 the " Gaspee," a British vessel which had been sent over to enforce the acts of trade and navigation, ran aground in Narragansett Bay and was burned to the water's edge by a party of men from Providence.
The sea immediately east of the town has a considerable depth, but its navigation is impeded by sandbanks and a bar north and west of the town, which can be passed only by vessels drawing not more than 9 ft.
It is now not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British India Steam Navigation Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra.
Nor are there any long rivers, and all are so broken by shallows and rapids that navigation is generally impossible except by means of flat-bottomed boats drawing only a few inches.
There are two gymnasia, schools of marine engineering, navigation, wood-carving and agriculture.
The city is served by the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company, and by the Sumpter Valley railway, a short line (62 m.) extending from Baker City to Austin, Oregon.
Beyond this city the navigation is conducted by native craft, - the modern facilities for traffic by rail and the increasing shoals in the river having put an end to the previous steamer communication, which plied until about 1860 as high up as Allahabad.
Navigation in either is insignificant.
There are numerous educational institutions, including classical and modern schools, and schools of commerce, navigation and telegraphy.
The river, which is navigable for 8 months in the year, has been internationalized under the Treaty of Versailles as far as Grodno (extreme point for steamer navigation).
The Berkeley Ship Canal connects Gloucester with docks at Sharpness, avoiding the difficult navigation of the upper part of the Severn estuary.
It carried the art of navigation through the Mediterranean, along the Atlantic seaboard as far as Great Britain, leaving colonies along its path.
In its lower course the river is a rapid stream flowing between steep jungle-clad hills, with one fall of 50 feet,, and is of little use for navigation.
In this war, which presented no features of a creditable kind, the loss to English commerce from Dutch cruisers was so great that it was found necessary to suspend the clause of the navigation act which forbade the purchase of foreign-built vessels.
It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
The contents of these logs, it is true, refer more to maritime meteorology than to oceanography properly so-called, as their main purpose is to promote a rational system of navigation especially for sailing ships, and they are supplied by the voluntary co-operation of the sailors themselves.
This accounts for the great range of submarine sound signals, which can thus be very serviceable to navigation in foggy weather.
The principal rivers, besides the Cher and its tributaries, are the Grande Sauldre and the Petite Sauldre on the north, but the Loire and Allier, though not falling within the department, drain the eastern districts, and are available for navigation.
In navigation he suggested many new contrivances, such as water-tight compartments, floating anchors to lay a ship to in a storm, and dishes that would not upset during a gale; and beginning in 1757 made repeated experiments with oil on stormy waters.
It is regularly visited by the vessels of the China Navigation Company and the Chinese Merchants' Steam Navigation Company.
Passing Santarem, the highest point to which the tide ascends, and the limit of navigation for large sailing vessels and steamers, the river divides below Salvaterra into two arms, called the Tejo Novo (the only one practicable for ships) and the Mar de Pedro.
In March 1785 commissioners from Virginia and Maryland met here to discuss the commercial relations of the two states, finishing their business at Mount Vernon on the 28th with an agreement for freedom of trade and freedom of navigation of the Potomac. The Maryland legislature in ratifying this agreement on the 22nd of November proposed a conference between representatives from all the states to consider the adoption of definite commercial regulations.
At Fajao the navigation can be resumed into Lake Albert.
This was due first to the difficulties of the navigation, next to the exclusiveness of the Dutch, who, holding the Spice Islands, prevented all access to places east of them, and lastly to the stream of enterprise being latterly diverted to the more temperate regions farther south.
The English Navigation Acts were generally evaded, and were economically of little effect; politically they were of great importance in Massachusetts as a force that worked for independence.
The development of steam navigation for the carrying of large cargoes has driven this fleet from the sea.
When the Civil War and steam navigation put an end to the supremacy of Massachusetts wooden sailing ships, much of the capital which had been employed in navigation was turned into developing railway facilities and coasting steamship lines.
The commonwealth also maintains aboard a national ship a nautical training school (1891) for instruction in the science and practice of navigation.
Navigation, which was formerly the distinctive feature of its business prosperity, has under the pressure of laws and circumstances given place to manufactures, and the development of carrying facilities on the land rather than on the sea.
The Swine, in the middle, is the main channel for navigation.
Of these the only one of importance for navigation is the Warthe, which through the Netze is brought into communication with the Vistula.
The simplest form of navigation in Brazil was the woodskin, a piece of bark stripped from a tree and crimped at the ends.
In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic League.
Bintang has an area of about 440 sq m., and is surrounded by many rocks and small islands, making navigation dangerous.
The canal was begun in 1885 and was opened to navigation in June 1893.
Where the lake waters flood the stream mouths, there are excellent harbours, and lake navigation is therefore of high importance.
Buffalo lies at the lower end of natural lake navigation, though by the building of a ship canal in Canada, lake steamers can proceed into Lake Ontario and thence to the St Lawrence.
The rivers and smaller lakes freeze in winter and navigation on the St Lawrence river is closed by ice on the average from about the middle of December until early in April.
The Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, chartered by the state in 1792, completed three canals within about four years and thereby permitted the continuous passage from Schenectady to Lake Ontario of boats of about 17 tons.
England's attempt to make the colonies pay the expenses of the war by means of the stamp tax thoroughly aroused the opposition of commercial New York, already chafing under the hardships imposed by the Navigation Acts and burdened with a war debt of its own exceeding £300,000.
He served in the British navy from 1807 until 1817, and was director of the school of navigation at Hamburg from 1819 till 1820.
The Weser on the whole is shallow, and navigation above Bremen is sometimes interrupted by drought.
A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
The navigation of the Weser was long hampered by the various and vexatious claims and rights of the different states through whose territories it ran.
The opening of the Amazon to navigation, and the subsequent arrival of foreign ocean-going vessels at Iquitos, added immensely to the importance of the city, and made it the commercial entrepot of eastern Peru.
The Northern Pacific sends a branch line south from Tacoma parallel with the coast to Portland on the Columbia river, where it meets the Southern Pacific and the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company's line (a subsidiary of the Union Pacific), thus affording communication southwards, and up the valley of the Columbia to the east.
Entering the south-east corner of the state, the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company extends a line northwards to Spokane, and a branch of the Great Northern, leaving the main line at this city, runs north-westward into British Columbia.
The report of Lewis and Clark attracted many traders and trappers, and within a few years the Missouri Fur Company, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, the Hudson Bay Company and the American Fur Company had established fortified trading posts on the Missouri, the Yellowstone, the Marias, the Milk and other rivers; the most prominent among these was Fort Benton, which was established in 1846 at the head of navigation on the Missouri, and was made the headquarters of the American Fur Company.
Livingstone and Robert Fulton, was prominent in the development of steam navigation.
Ordinarily bridges are fixed bridges, but there are also movable bridges with machinery for opening a clear and unobstructed passage way for navigation.
In many cases the span is fixed by local conditions, such as the convenient sites for piers, or the requirements of waterway or navigation.
When in 1845 the plans for carrying the Chester and Holyhead railway over the Menai Straits were considered, the conditions imposed by the admiralty in the interests of navigation involved the adoption of a new type of bridge.
Sometimes a wide space is left for navigation, and the platform at this part is carried by a timber and iron truss.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
The Harbour Department was, as stated above, a branch of the marine department until 1866, so far as it is connected with the physical adjuncts of navigation, but various other matters have since been added, e.g.
Belief in the strength of its walls and of the castle that occupied the centre bridge, thus effectually command ing navigation by the river, engendered arrogance and overconfidence, and the people of Dinant thought they could defy the full power of Burgundy.
Here are the headquarters of the Kistna canal system, which irrigates more than 500,000 acres, and also provides navigation throughout the delta.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
Tondern was in early days a seaport, but since the reclamation of the marshes and the dredging of the Widane navigation has ceased, and vessels load and unload at Hoyer, with which the place has direct railway communication.
The object of the work has been described as the glorification of Vespasian's achievements in securing Roman rule in Britain and opening up the ocean to navigation (as the Euxine was opened up by the Argo).
The tolls imposed by the Dutch on navigation on the Scheldt strangled Belgian trade, for Antwerp was the only port of the country.
The chief rivers are the Tenasserim and Tavoy, the former being farmed by the junction of two streams which unite near Met-ta; for the greater part of its course it is dangerous to navigation.
Here are found members of the different Indian nations, originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators; and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism.
It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
Unlike the Yangtsze, the Hwang-ho is of no practical value for navigation.
As early as 1783 steps were taken to extend these facilities to the navigable waters of the Ohio, chiefly by improving the navigation of the Potomac above Georgetown.
Ground was broken in 1828 and in 1850 the canal was opened to navigation from Georgetown to Cumberland, a distance of 186 m.
Such are the Salat, at whose confluence river navigation proper begins, and the Arize and the Ariege (both names signifying "river").
The public buildings include St Margaret's (1862) and St Winifred's (1883), the parish churches of Mountain Ash and Penrhiwceiber respectively; old and new town halls (1864 and 1904), cottage hospital (1896), and a library institute and public hall erected in 1899, at a cost of £8000, by the workmen of Nixon's Navigation collieries.
Kentucky's trade during the greater part of the 19th century was very largely with the South, and with the facilities which river navigation afforded for this the development of a railway system was retarded.
The delay, together with the proposal of John Jay, the Secretary for Foreign Affairs and commissioner to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Spanish envoy, to surrender navigation rights on the lower Mississippi for twenty-five years in order to remove the one obstacle to the negotiations, aroused so much feeling that General James Wilkinson and a few other leaders began to intrigue not only for a separation from Virginia, but also from the United States, and for the formation of a close alliance with the Spanish at New Orleans.
He promoted navigation and commerce, but was avaricious and deceitful.
He has regard, however, to political as well as economic interests, and on the ground that "defence is of much more importance than opulence" pronounces the Navigation Act to have been "perhaps the wisest of all the commercial regulations of England."
Edward Wright, who was a fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, occupies a conspicuous place in the history of navigation.
In 1 599 he published Certaine errors in Navigation detected and corrected, and he was the author of other works; to him also is chiefly due the invention of the method known as Mercator's sailing.
He at once saw the value of logarithms as an aid to navigation, and lost no time in preparing a translation, which he submitted to Napier himself.
The progress of navigation and the association of divinities of the sky with maritime affairs probably also assisted to bring about the change, although the memory of her earlier function as a goddess of childbirth survived till imperial times.
An active trade is promoted by several trunk lines of railway which cross the province (total mileage in 1906, 1889 m., exclusive of light railways) and by the navigation of the Weser (on which Minden has a port), Ems, Ruhr and Lippe.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western and Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways, by interurban electric lines and by lake and river steamboat lines, it being the head of lake navigation on the Fox river.
Bismarck is the headquarters for navigation of the upper Missouri river, is situated in a good agricultural region, and has a large wholesale trade, shipping grain, hides, furs, wool and coal.
Schandau has an Evangelical parish church, a hydropathic establishment and a school of river navigation.
With the opening of the Karun river, as far as Ahvaz, to international navigation in 1889, Muhamrah acquired greater importance, and its customs, which until then were leased to the governor for 150o per annum, rose considerably, and paid 8000 until taken over by the central customs department under Belgian officials in 1902.
On the southern side the ports of San Jose, Champerico and Ocos are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the Pacific Steam Navigation Companies.
The treaty included regulations for the improvement of commerce and navigation in the area affected by the war, and provided for the settlement of subsequent disputes by the arbitration of the United States and Mexico.
Hence rivers in the Appalachians are not navigable; it is only farther down-stream, where the rivers have been converted into estuaries and bayssuch as Chesapeake and Delaware baysby a slight depression of the coastal plain belt, that they serve the purposes of navigation.
According to a special report of the department of commerce and labor of 1906, 290 streams are used to a substantial degree for navigation, affording together an aggregate of 2600 m.
More than $250,000,000 has been spent by the national government for the improvement of waterways, yet no general system exists, and a large part of this enormous sum has been wasted on unimportant or impossible projects, especially in recent decades, since the river navigation has been a declining interest.
Weirs are essential for raising the head of water for water-wheels at mills, and for diverting some of the flow of a river into irrigation canals; but they have received their greatest and most varied extension in the canalization of rivers for navigation.
There are three distinct classes of weirs, namely, solid weirs, draw-door weirs, including regulating sluices for irrigation, and movable weirs, which retain the water above them for navigation during the low stage of the river, and can be lowered or removed so as to leave the channel quite open in flood-time.
Kolberg also possesses four other churches, a theatre, a gymnasium, a school of navigation, and an exchange.
What Ontario lacks in salt water navigation is, however, made up by the busy traffic of the Great Lakes.
Thus canoe navigation may be carried on for hundreds of miles, with here and there a waterfall or a rapid requiring a portage of a few hundred yards or at most a mile or two.
All of these are rapid and shallow, affording navigation only for canoes; but the largest of them, Nelson river, drains the great Manitoban lakes, Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba, which are frequented by steamers, and receive the waters of Lake-of-the-Woods, Lake Seul and many others emptying into Winnipeg river from Ontario; of Red river coming in from the United States to the south; and of the southern parts of the Rocky Mountains and the western prairie provinces drained by the great Saskatchewan river.
In addition to these causes of difference there was an unsettled boundary dispute in British Columbia, and questions about the navigation of rivers common to the United States and Canada.
By the terms of this treaty the " Alabama " claims and the San Juan boundary were referred to arbitration; the free navigation of the St Lawrence was granted to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and certain Alaskan rivers; and it was settled that a further commission should decide the excess of value of the Canadian fisheries thrown open to the United States over and above the reciprocal concessions made to Canada.
The Athenians fully recognized its importance to them, as supplying them with corn and cattle, as securing their commerce, and as guaranteeing them against piracy, for its proximity to the coast of Attica rendered it extremely dangerous to them when in other hands, so that Demosthenes, in the De corona, speaks of a time when the pirates that made it their headquarters so infested the neighbouring sea as to prevent all navigation.
The American trading vessels of that period were supposed to be excluded by the navigation laws from commerce with the British West Indian Islands, though with the concealed or very slightly disguised assistance of the planters, they engaged in a good deal of contraband commerce.
There are several boys' schools, a college for girls, a scientific college, a commercial college (1826), a school of navigation, and Chalmers' Polytechnical College, founded by William Chalmers (1748-1811), a native of Gothenburg of English parentage.
The opening up of the upper waters of the Yangtsze to steam navigation has made it a commercial entrepot second only to Shanghai.
Like the Amazon, the Mearim has a pororoca or bore in its lower channel, which greatly interferes with navigation.
The navigation on the Elbe has of recent years largely developed, and, in addition to trade by river with Bohemia and Magdeburg-Hamburg, there is a considerable pleasure-boat traffic during the summer months.
Among the more important legislative changes with which he was principally connected were a reform of the Navigation Acts, admitting other nations to a full equality and reciprocity of shipping duties; the repeal of the labour laws; the introduction of a new sinking fund; the reduction of the duties on manufactures and on the importation of foreign goods, and the repeal of the quarantine duties.
Article 5 provides that they are " neutralized for ever and their free navigation is guaranteed to the flags of all nations.
It has long been an established principle in the intercourse of nations, that where the navigable parts of a river pass through different countries their navigation is free to all.
By the treaty of Vienna of the 9th of June 1815, the powers whose territories were separated or traversed by the same navigable river, undertook to regulate by common consent all that regarded its navigation, and for this purpose to name commissioners who should adopt as the bases of their proceedings the principle that the navigation of such rivers along their whole course " from the point where each of them becomes navigable to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall not in respect of commerce be prohibited to anyone."
Technology, electricity, mining, railways, navigation and many other subjects are now dealt with in international congresses.
But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
Each of the larger islands has one or more ports which a local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation Co., the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the Mexican Oriental and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha); it is a midway station for vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia and Southern Asia.
He edited two editions of Hamilton Moore's Navigation, and in 1802 published a valuable work, New American Practical Navigator, founded on the earlier treatise by Moore.
The mariner's compass, with which this article is concerned, is an instrument by means of which the directive force of that great magnet, the Earth, upon a freely-suspended needle, is utilized for a purpose essential to navigation.
The compass as we know it is the result of the necessities of navigation, which have increased from century to century.
In view of the serious difficulties connected with the inclining of every ship, Smith's formulae for ascertaining and providing for the correction of the heeling error with the ship upright continue to be of great value to safe navigation.
The discovery that a lodestone, or a piece of iron which has been touched by a lodestone, will direct itself to point in a north and south position, and the application of that discovery to direct the navigation of ships, have been attributed to various origins.
Gunpowder, the compass, the Arabic numerals and paper, are nowhere spoken of as discoveries, and yet they must have wrought a total change in war, in navigation, in science, and in education.
Further, we learn from Osorio that the Arabs at the time of Gama "were instructed in so many of the arts of navigation, that they did not yield much to the Portuguese mariners in the science and practice of maritime matters."
Smith, writing in the Philosophical Transactions for 1683-1684, says of the Turks (p. 439), "They have no genius for Seavoyages, and consequently are very raw and unexperienced in the art of Navigation, scarce venturing to sail out of sight of land.
On the east it is hampered by the stringent regulations of the Russian frontier, and the great waterway of the Oder, though in process of being regulated, is sometimes too low in summer for navigation.
The new road cut through the Juniata region in the march of the army of Brigadier-General John Forbes, against Fort Duquesne in 1758, was a result of the influence of Pennsylvania, for it was considered even then a matter of great importance to the future prosperity of the province that its seaport, Philadelphia, be connected with navigation on the Ohio by the easiest line of communication that could be had wholly within its limits.
In 1818 the Lehigh Navigation Company was formed to improve the navigation of the Lehigh river from its confluence with the Delaware to Coalport, and two years later coal was successfully carried down the Lehigh and Delaware rivers to Philadelphia in " arks " or rectangular boxes, two or more of which were joined together and steered by a long oar.
The western division of the system was abandoned by the new owners in 1865 and the worked portion of the east division gradually decreased until it, too, was wholly abandoned in 1904, with the exception of the Delaware Division Canal, which since 1866 has been worked by the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company in connexion with the Lehigh Canal.
In its natural condition there were bars in the Delaware river below Philadelphia which obstructed the navigation of vessels drawing more than 17-20 ft.
The Federal government has much improved the navigation of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers and is committed to a project for slack-water navigation on the Ohio which is expected to give Pittsburg communication with the sea by vessels drawing 9 ft.
The first railway in the state was that built in 1827 by the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company from Mauch Chunk to its mines, 9 m.
The mean depth of the sea is estimated at 133 fathoms. The bora (north-east wind), and the prevalence of sudden squalls from this quarter or the south-east, are dangers to navigation in winter.
The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the treaty of Minster in 1648 carried with it the death-blow to Antwerp's prosperity as a place of trade, for one of its clauses stipulated that the Scheldt should be closed to navigation.
It is at the head of the navigation of the Tigris, which is traversed down stream by keleks or rafts supported by inflated skins.
The Istrians, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts, were only subdued by the Romans in 177 B.C. after two wars.
The navigation of the stream is considerably obstructed by sandbanks, but vessels of 200 tons can unload at the quays, which, with the town and Friarton harbours, lie below the South Inch.
From the beginning of the 20th century, however, the practical introduction of submarine navigation brought about the development of new elaborate periscopes of great length and provided with an optical system of lenses, which were built into the structure of the submarine.
The river is locked up to Godalming, and navigation is assisted by cuts.
In the year 1618 was published The True Honour of Navigation and Navigators, by John Wood, D.D., dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith, governor to the East India Company, and about the same time appeared the well-known treatise of Hugo Grotius, De veritate religionis christianae, written for the express use of settlers in distant lands.
The navigation of the Magdalena is carried on by means of lightdraught steamboats which ascend to Yeguas, 14 m.
The city is at the head of navigation on the Thames river, whose channel is 100-200 ft.
Besides the communications afforded by railway, Barnsley has the advantage of connexion with the Aire and Calder Navigation system of canals.
Nine-tenths of the natives of Sumatra live by agriculture, the rest by cattle-rearing, fishing, navigation, and, last but not least, from the products of the forests; they are therefore little concentrated in towns.
The main ditches, or canals, afterwards also serve as a means of navigation.
Among the schools which give specialized instruction, mention must be made of the admirable trade schools (ambachtsscholen) established in 1861, and the corresponding industrial schools for girls; the fishery schools and schools of navigation; the many private schools of domestic science, and of commerce and industry, among which the municipal school at Enschede (1886) deserves special mention; and the school of social work, " Das Huis," at Amsterdam (1900).
The Navigation Act was re-enacted, old grievances revived, and finally the Dutch colony of New Netherland was seized in time of peace (1664) and its capital, New Amsterdam, renamed New York.
Owing to its position at the terminus of steam navigation up the river Tobol, it has become second only to Tyumen as a commercial centre.
Among educational institutions, other than the university, may be mentioned the veterinary and agricultural college, established in 1773 and adopted by the state in 1776, the military academy and the school of navigation.
Nelson could only have retreated before the south-easterly wind by going past the Trekroner fort, where the passage is narrow, and the navigation difficult.
The ancients regarded him as the oldest navigator, and the patron of navigation.
The industries and manufactures of Bremen are of considerable variety and extent, but are more particularly developed in such branches as are closely allied to navigation, such as shipbuilding, founding, engine-building and rope-making.
Yet such was the dread of The France and the enfeebled state of the country that Holland retained the privilege, which had been con- Nether- ceded to her during the war, of garrisoning the principal fortresses or Barrier towns, on the French frontier, and her right to close the navigation on the Scheldt was again ratified by a European treaty.
He was able to compel the Dutch to withdraw their garrisons from the Barrier towns, but was wholly unsuccessful in his high-handed attempt to free the navigation of the Scheldt.
The extensive colonial and foreign trade of the Dutch furnished them with markets, while the opening of the navigation of the Scheldt raised Antwerp once more to a place of high commercial importance.
The Dutch, however, still held two forts, which enabled them to command the navigation of the Scheldt, and these they stubbornly refused to yield.
In 1860 the communal octrois or duties on articles of food brought into the towns was abolished; in 1863 the navigation of the Scheldt was made free, and a treaty of commerce established with England.
The river often changes its bed, and, notwithstanding repeated attempts to regulate it, offers great difficulties to navigation.
It is an important transit centre for the Rhine railways and for the Rhine navigation.
The borough was founded by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company in 1818.
During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation.
Some way below Bellegarde, between Le Parc and Pyrimont, the Rhone becomes officially "navigable," though as far as Lyons the navigation now consists all but wholly of the floating of flat-bottomed boats, named g igues, laden chiefly with stone quarried from the banks of the river.
By the treaty of Munster in 1648 the Dutch obtained the right to close the Scheldt to navigation, and they clung tenaciously to it for over two centuries.
In 1839 on the final dissolution of the kingdom of the Netherlands, Holland gave definite form to this right by fixing the toll, and by obtaining the assent of the powers to the arrangement which fettered the trade of Antwerp. In 1863 after long negotiations Belgium bought up this right - each of the powers interested in the trade contributing its quota - and the navigation of the Scheldt was then declared free.
In less than five years he had opened up the navigation of the Niger, made roads, and established a market to which the native produce was brought for sale and barter.
The former section, which is too shallow to store up any large amount of heat during the summer, freezes for three or four months along the shores, effectually stopping navigation on the lower Volga, but out in the middle ice appears only when driven there by northerly winds.
They sometimes continue for days together with great violence, rendering navigation dangerous and driving the sea-water up over the shores.
It is the limit of navigation on the Irrawaddy, and the terminus of the railway from Rangoon and Sagaing.
There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories, the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported.
It stands at the head of navigation for barges on the Suir.
The Naviglio Grande of Lombardy is a very fine work drawn from the left bank of the Ticino and useful for navigation as well as irrigation.
Numerous regulating bridges and locks have been built to give absolute control of the water and facilities for navigation; and since 1901 a second weir has been constructed opposite Zilta, across the Damietta branch of the Nile, to improve the irrigation of the Dakhilia province.
The Baltic has no perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is in winter covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours that navigation is interrupted for several months every year.
The navigation of the rivers is regularly interrupted by frost.
The inland navigation is served by nearly 25,000 river, canal and coasting vessels, of a tonnage of about 4,000,000.