The great governments were: Alsace, Saintonge and Angoumois, Anjou, Artois, Aunis, Auvergne, Beam and Navarre, Berry, Bourbonnais, Bourgogne (Burgundy), Bretagne (Brittany),, Champagne, DauphinC, Flandre, Foix, Franche-Comt, Guienne and Gascogne (Gascony), Ile-de-France, Languedoc, Limousin, Lorraine, Lyonnais.
John was first married to Blanche of Navarre, of the house of Evreux.
By right of Blanche he became king of Navarre, and on her death in 1441 he was left in possession of the kingdom for his life.
But a son Charles, called, as heir of Navarre, prince of Viana, had been born of the marriage.
At the same time negotiations were successfully carried on with John Casimir, with Elizabeth and with Henry of Navarre, and their help secured for the national cause.
In August he was sent to Spain, where he remained a prisoner for two years; in November i 506 he made his escape, and fled to the court of his brother-in-law, the king of Navarre, under whom he took service.
Henry's second wife was Joan, or Joanna, (c. 1370-1437), daughter of Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, and widow of John IV.
He was the youngest son of Juan de Jasso, privy councillor to Jean d'Albret, king of Navarre, and his wife, Maria de Azpilcueta y Xavier, sole heiress of two noble Navarrese families.
ANTOINE AGENOR ALFRED GRAMONT, Duc DE, Duc DE Guiche, Prince De Bidache (1819-1880), French diplomatist and statesman, was born at Paris on the 14th of August 1819, of one of the most illustrious families of the old noblesse, a cadet branch of the viscounts of Aure, which took its name from the seigniory of Gramont in Navarre.
AILLY, PIERRE D' (1350-1420), French theologian, was born at Compiegne in 1350 of a bourgeois family, and studied in Paris at the celebrated college of Navarre.
After his return to Paris, where from 1384 onwards he filled the position of master of the college of Navarre, and took part in a violent campaign against the chancellor of Notre-Dame, he was twice entrusted with a mission to Clement VII.
Urquhart (in his Discovery of a most exquisite jewel) states that while in Paris Crichton successfully held a dispute in the college of Navarre, on any subject and in twelve languages, and that the next day he won a tilting match at the Louvre.
Margaret (now queen of Navarre) led him to take refuge (1 531) at Nerac from persecution.
Expelled from France in 1836, the day after bringing a suit against the duchess of Angouleme for the restitution of the daupnin's private property, he lived in exile till his death at Delft on the 10th of August 1845, and his tomb was inscribed "Louis XVII., roi de France et de Navarre (Charles Louis, duc de Normandie)."
of France in 1589 he aspired to the French throne on the strength of the claims of his wife Catherine, sister of Henry of Navarre, afterwards King Henry IV.
In 1590 he sent an expedition to Provence in the interests of the Catholic League, and followed it himself later, but the peace of 1593, by which Henry of Navarre was recognized as king of France, put an end to his ambitions.
Next year he followed the example of Henry of Navarre by abjuring the Protestant faith.
The throne of Navarre was also filled by the Capetians.
In 1284 Jeanne, daughter and heiress of Henry I., king of Navarre, married Philip IV., king of France, and the two kingdoms were united until Philip of Valois became king of France as Philip VI.
He rose to great distinction in the war between Sancho of Castile and Sancho of Navarre, in which he won his name of Campeador, by slaying the enemy's champion in single combat.
From her first husband she took, during no small part of her life, the appellation Marguerite d'Alengon, and from her second, Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre, that of Marguerite de Navarre.
In 1527 she married Henri d'Albret, titular king of Navarre, who was considerably younger than herself, and whose character was not faultless, but who seems' on the whole, despite slander, to have both loved and valued his wife.
Navarre was not reconquered for the couple as Francis had promised, but ample apanages were assigned to Marguerite, and at Nerac and Pau miniature courts were kept up, which yielded to none in Europe in the intellectual brilliancy of their frequenters.
There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).
She was married, after a liaison with the duke of Guise, to Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV., on the eve of St Bartholomew's Day.
kept Pampeluna, the capital of Navarre.
His family was known among judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into Navarre.
His son, Galactoire, who was president of the parlement of Navarre, died on the 10th of February 1689.
Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII., in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre.
Having become king of Navarre on Jeanne's death in 1349, he suppressed a rising at Pampeluna with much cruelty, and by this and similar actions thoroughly earned his surname of "The Bad."
The promised dowry had not been paid, and the county of Angouleme, which had formerly belonged to Jeanne of Navarre, was now in the possession of the French king's favourite, the constable Charles la Cerda.
The king of Navarre, who defended this deed, had, however, many friends in France and was in communication with Edward III.; and consequently John was forced to make a treaty at Mantes and to compensate him for the loss of Angouleme by a large grant of lands, chiefly in Normandy.
War again broke out, quickly followed by a new treaty, after which the king of Navarre took part in suppressing the peasant rising known as the Jacquerie.
A new cause of trouble arose when the duchy of Burgundy was left without a ruler in November 1361, and was claimed by Charles; but, lacking both allies and money, he was unable to prevent the French king from seizing Burgundy, while he himself returned to Navarre.
Accused of attempting to poison the king of France and other prominent persons, and of other crimes, his French estates were seized by order of Charles V., and soon afterwards Navarre was invaded by the Castilians.
in 1380, the king of Navarre did not interfere in the internal affairs of France, although he endeavoured vainly again to obtain aid from Richard II., and to regain Cherbourg.
Secousse, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de Charles roi de Navarre (Paris, 1 7551 7 68); E.
Meyer, Charles II, roi de Navarre et la Normandie au XIV e stecle (Paris, 1898); F.
Charles III of Navarre >>
It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.
of Navarre and Champagne.
Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about ioo,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant for the emperor," entered Madrid.
Before it landed, the French under Dupont, Moncey and Marshal Bessieres (75,000) had occupied parts of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castiles, holding Madrid and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14,000) was in Catalonia.
With the garrisons of Biscay, Navarre, and a reserve at Bayonne, their strength was about 75,000 men.
by Soule and Lower Navarre, on the N.
As Gaston left only daughters, the viscounty passed at his death to the family of Foix, from whom it was transmitted through the houses of Grailly and Albret to the Bourbons, and they, in the person of Henry IV., king of Navarre, made it an apanage of the crown of France.
See also Olhagaray, Histoire de Foix, Beam et Navarre (1609); Pierre de Marca, Histoire de Beam (1640).
(1361-1425), called THE Noble, king of Navarre and count of Evreux, was the eldest son of Charles II.
Having passed much of his early life in France, he became king of Navarre on the death of Charles II.
Charles sought to improve the condition of Navarre by making canals and rendering the rivers navigable, and in other ways.
1441), who took for her second husband John, afterwards John II., king of Aragon; and the cortes of Navarre swore to recognize Charles (q.v.), prince of Viana, her son by this marriage, as king after his mother's death.
But, if his truculent character was thus early displayed, his abilities were no less conspicuous; and, though still in his teens, he became lecturer on the Humanities at Tournai, whence, after but a short stay, he returned to Paris, to take his degree of doctor of canon law, and become regent of the college of Navarre.
PAMPLONA, or Pampeluna, the capital of the Spanish province of Navarre, and an episcopal see; situated 1378 ft.
From its position it has always been the principal fortress of Navarre.
(El Noble) of Navarre, who is buried within its walls; of the older Romanesque cathedral only a small portion of the cloisters remains.
At the opening of 1354 he was sent with the cardinal of Boulogne, Pierre I., duke of Bourbon, and Jean VI., count of Vendome, to Mantes to treat with Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, who had caused the constable, Charles of Spain, to be assassinated, and from this time dates his connexion with this king.
The king of Navarre had succeeded in escaping from prison and had entered Paris, where his party was in the ascendant; and Robert le Coq became the most powerful person in his council.
He did not scruple to reveal to the king of Navarre secret deliberations, but his fortune soon turned.
After the death of Marcel, he tried, unsuccessfully, to deliver Laon, his episcopal town, to the king of Navarre, and he was excluded from the amnesty promised in the treaty of Calais (1360) by King John to the partisans of Charles the Bad.
In 1363, thanks to the support of the king of Navarre, he was given the bishopric of Calahorra in the kingdom of Aragon, which he administered until his death in 1373.
Charles II of Navarre >>
and Jeanne of Navarre.
as king of France and Navarre early in 1322.
It is the terminus of some important narrow-gauge mining railways and steam tramways, which place it in communication with the mining districts of Guipuzcoa and Navarre, and with the valuable oak, pine and beech forests of both provinces.
C.) Zumalac9rregui, Thomas (1788-1835), Spanish Carlist general, was born at Ormaiztegui in Navarre on the 29th of December 1788.
He succeeded in escaping and in reaching his family in Navarre.
He did not take the field till the Carlist cause appeared to be at a very low ebb, and until he had received a commission from Don Carlos as commander-in-chief in Navarre.
He gradually obtained full possession of Navarre and the Basque provinces, outside of the fortresses, which he had not the means to besiege.
An engaging account of Zumalacarregui will be found in The Most Striking Events of a Twelvemonth Campaign with Zumalacarregui in Navarre and the Basque Provinces, by C. F.
His son, Robert II., took part in the wars in Navarre, Sicily, Guienne and Flanders, and was killed at the battle of Courtrai in 1302.
Af ter the death of her husband, by whom she had no children, she married Henry of Albret, king of Navarre; and thus the count 563 ship of Armagnac came back to the French crown along with the other dominions of Henry IV.
of Champagne and Navarre, are also named among those who urged him to the composition of his "little works," especially the De Institutione Principum.
After spending some time in Rome he visited eastern Europe, and subsequently made the acquaintance of Segur Pardaillan, a representative of Henry, king of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV.
He entered the service of Pardaillan, and in 1587 was sent on a mission to many of the princes of northern Europe, after which he visited England to obtain help from Queen Elizabeth for Henry of Navarre.
Richard's wife was Berengaria, daughter of Sancho VI., king of Navarre, whom he married in Cyprus in May 1191.
By his wife Catherine de' Medici he had seven children living: Elizabeth, queen of Spain; Claude, duchess of Lorraine; Francis (II.), Charles (IX.) and Henry (III.), all of whom came to the throne; Marguerite, who became queen of Navarre in 1572; and Francis, duke of Alencon and afterwards of Anjou, who died in 1584.
His work, which appeared in three parts, entitled respectively History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vols., 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895), is characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, and by scholarship of a high order.
Having gained admission, in a menial capacity, to the college of Navarre, he worked with his hands by day and carried on his studies at night.
JUAN ESCOIQUIZ (1762-1820), Spanish ecclesiastic, politician and writer, was born in Navarre in 1762.
SE.) [[Chenier, Marie - Joseph Blaise De]] (1764-1811), French poet, dramatist and politician, younger brother of Andre de Chenier, was born at Constantinople on the 11th of February 1764.1 He was brought up at Carcassonne, and educated in Paris at the College de Navarre.
As compensation, Henry, king of Navarre, appointed him his chancellor.
In 1734 he was admitted a member of the London Royal Society, four years later he entered the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and in 1753 he was appointed to the newly-instituted chair of experimental physics in the College de Navarre.
He recommended him in 1580 as a "maitre des requetes" (master of requests); and Henry of Navarre, at the instance of Rohan, addressed two letters to Henry III.
After the accession of Henry of Navarre to the throne of France, Vieta filled in 1589 the position of councillor of the parlement at Tours.
Sestao (10,833) is the only other town of more than io,000 inhabitants; the port of Bermeo (9061) is the chief fishing station; Durango (4319), on the river of the same name, was founded by the early kings of Navarre in the 10th century, obtained the rank of a countship in 1153, and contains.
MICHAEL SERVETUS [MIGUEL SERVETO] (151 I - I 553), physician and polemic, was born in i 5 i i 1 at Tudela in Navarre, his father being Hernando Villanueva, a notary of good family in Aragon.
She conceived the project of marrying her favourite son, the duke of Anjou, to Queen Elizabeth of England, and her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre, To this end she became reconciled with the Protestants, and allowed Coligny to return to court and to re-enter the council.
(Paris, 1 757); Griffet, Histoire du regne de Louis XIII., roi de France et de Navarre (Paris, 1758); V.
Twice he obliged the Carlists to raise the siege of Bilbao before he was appointed commander-in-chief of the northern army on the r7th of September 1836, when the tide of war seemed to be setting in favour of the pretender in the Basque provinces and Navarre, though Don Carlos had lost his ablest lieutenant, the Basque Zumalacarregui.
by Navarre, S.
by the two Castiles and Navarre.
the Great, ruler of the newly established kingdom of Navarre, which included the three counties above mentioned, bequeathed them to Gonzalez and Ramiro, his sons.
See, in addition to the works cited in the article Spain (section History), " Les Archives d'Aragon et de Navarre," by L.
when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Marguerite of Navarre.
In 1364 he married, but was soon again in the field, this time against the king of Navarre.
In 1571 he had received the order of Saint-Michel; in 1574 was with the army of the duke de Montpensier; two years later was made gentleman-in-ordinary to Henry III., and next year again to Henry of Navarre.
However this may be, Montaigne had difficulty enough during this turbulent period, all the more so from his neighbourhood to the chief haunts and possessions of Henry of Navarre, who actually visited him at Montaigne in 1584.
In Paris itself he was for a short time committed to the Bastille by the Leaguers, as a kind of hostage, it is said, for a member of their party who had been arrested at Rouen by Henry of Navarre.
When Henry of Navarre came to the throne of France, he wished Montaigne, whom he had again visited in 1587, to come to court, but the essayist refused.
was equalled, when he took the side of Clement VII., by the ardour and resourcefulness which he displayed in defending the cause of the pope of Avignon; it was mainly to him that the latter owed his recognition by Castile, Aragon and Navarre.
In May 1275 the party of Marie secured for Philip, the king's second son, the hand of Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, along with the guardianship of the kingdom of Navarre during the minority of Jeanne.
of Navarre and Champagne, married Edmund, first earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I.; and she and her English husband kept Champagne until, in 1284, Jeanne came of age.
Again a widow in 1579, she had some influence at the court of Henry III., and negotiated his reconciliation with Henry of Navarre (1588).
The territory occupied by the Basque Provinces forms a triangle bounded on the west and south by the provinces of Santander, Burgos and Logrono, on the east by Navarre, on the north by France and the Bay of Biscay.
Leaving aside the legendary and uncertain portion of their history, we find the Provinces in some districts dependent allies of Navarre, in others of Castile.
Guipuzcoa, which had been dependent sometimes on Navarre, sometimes on Castile, was definitively united to Castile in 1200.
In France the Jesuits joined, if they did not originate, the league against Henry of Navarre.
Charles of Navarre >>
(c. 1210-1274), surnamed le Gros, king of Navarre and count of Champagne, was the youngest son of Theobald I.
king of Navarre by Margaret of Foix, and succeeded his eldest brother Theobald III.
as king of Navarre and count of Champagne in December 1270.
In him the male line of the counts of Champagne and kings of Navarre, became extinct.
afterwards king of France in 1284, the crown of Navarre became united to that of France.
Henry II Of Navarre >>
BARTOLOME CARRANZA (1503-1576), Spanish theologian, sometimes called de Miranda or de Carranza y Miranda, younger son of Pedro Carranza, a man of noble family, was born at Miranda d'Arga, Navarre, in 1503.
The exclusiveness with which they were favoured, and their high-handed proceedings, awakened the resentment of the princes of the blood, Anthony king of Navarre and Louis prince of Conde, who gave their countenance to a conspiracy (conspiracy of Amboise) with the Protestants against the house of Guise.
Subsequently he joined Henry of Navarre, whom he succeeded in withdrawing from the corrupting influence of the house of Valois (1576), and to whom he rendered valuable service, both as a soldier and as a counsellor, in the wars that issued in his elevation to the throne as Henry IV.
On his return to Spain in 1892 he was appointed to the command first of the 6th Army Corps in the Basque Provinces and Navarre, where he soon quelled agitations, and then as captain-general at Barcelona, where he remained until January 1896.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
by the Basque Provinces and Navarre, E.
Almost contemporaneous with this fuero of Leon was that granted to Najera (Naxera) by Sancho el Mayor of Navarre (ob.
The former of these, which was distinguished by the unusual largeness of its concessions, and by the careful minuteness of its details, rapidly extended to many places in the neighbourhood, while the latter charter was given also to Miranda by Alphonso VI., and was further extended in 1181 by Sancho el Sabio of Navarre to Vitoria, thus constituting one of the earliest written fora of the "Provincias Vascongadas."
He practised first in his native town, and after his marriage with Jeanne d'Erdoy, the heiress of a noble family of Saint-Palais, at the bar of the parlement of Navarre.
Oihenart published in 1625 a Declaration historique de l'injuste usurpation et retention de la Navarre par les Espagnols and a fragment of a Latin work on the same subject is included in Galland's Memoires pour l'histoire de Navarre (1648).
(Paris, 1638 and 1656), a description of Gascony and Navarre.
The city park system includes Ottawa Park (280 acres), Bay View Park (202 acres), Riverside Park (118 acres), Central Grove Park (loo acres), Collins Park (90 acres), Walbridge Park (67 acres), with a zoological collection, Navarre Park (53 acres), several smaller parks and triangles, and a boulevard, 18 m.
Conti, who belonged to the older faith, appears to have taken no part in the wars of religion until 1587, when his distrust of Henry, third duke of Guise, caused him to declare against the League, and to support Henry of Navarre, afterwards King Henry IV.
So, while he excommunicated Henry of Navarre, and contributed to the League and the Armada, he chafed under his forced alliance with Philip, and looked about for escape.
They belong to that species of literature of which Boccaccio's Decameron and the queen of Navarre's Heptameron are, perhaps, the best known examples.
Navarre, and studied law at Louvain, Cologne and Heidelberg, returning to Paris in 1573.
count of Foix in 1472 opened up the long diplomatic struggle for Navarre, which was destined to pass to the loyal family of Albret shortly after the death of Louis.
At the same time he endeavoured to bring about a union of Aragon with Navarre, by a contract of mutual adoption between himself and the Navarrese king, Sancho, who was old enough to be his grandfather.
As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures.
was investing Paris with Henry of Navarre, Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar, was introduced into his presence on false letters of recommendation, and plunged a knife into the lower part of his body.
By his wife Louise of Lorraine, daughter of the count of Vaudemont, he had no children, and on his deathbed he recognized Henry of Navarre as his successor.
John of Albret, son of Alain, became king of Navarre by his marriage with Catherine of Foix.
Their son Henry, king of Navarre, was created duke of Albret and peer of France in 1550.
By his wife Margaret, sister of the French king, Francis I., he had a daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, who married Anthony de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, and became the mother of Henry IV., king of France.
Thus in the central district of Val de Penas and in the Rioja region (situated between Old Castile and Navarre) in the north-east are produced red wines which in regard to vinosity, body and in some other respects resemble the heavier clarets or burgundies of France - although not possessing the delicacy and elegance of the latter.
During this period he acted as tutor to the two sons of Calignon, chancellor of Navarre.
(1503-1555), titular king of Navarre, was the eldest son of Jean d'Albret (d.
1516) by his wife Catherine de Foix, sister and heiress of Francis Phoebus, king of Navarre, and was born at Sanquesa in April 1503.
When Catherine died in exile in 1517 Henry succeeded her in her claim on Navarre, which was disputed by Ferdinand I.
In the policy of which it was the outcome she enjoyed the support of the Chancellor Michel de l'H6pital and the lieutenant-general of the kingdom, Anthony of Navarre; while on the other hand the heads of the Catholic party had attempted to frustrate any form of negotiation.
He selected his generals without respect of politics, sending Moriones to the Basque provinces and Navarre at the head of 20,000 men, Martinez Campos to Catalonia with several thousand, and Lopez Dominguez, the nephew of Marshal Serrano, to begin the land blockade of the last stronghold of the cantonal insurgents, Cartagena, where the crews of Spain's only fleet had joined the revolt.
Both were double the size of Merton, and the same size as the Navarre college of the queen of France and Navarre, founded at Paris in 1304, which also contained a school.
He divorced his first wife Blanche of Navarre in 1453 on the ground of "mutual impotence."
It was not till even later that he began his literary work, the occasion being a request from Jeanne of Navarre, the wife of Philippe le Bel and the mother of Louis le Hutin.
Alphonso the Battler won his great successes in the middle Ebro, where he expelled the Moors from Saragossa; in the great raid of 1125, when he carried away a large part of the subject Christians from Granada, and in the south-west of France, where he had rights as king of Navarre.
1065), son of Sancho of Navarre, was put in possession of Castile in 1028, on the murder of the last count, as the heir of his mother Elvira, daughter of a previous count of Castile.
Although Ferdinand had grown in power by a fratricidal strife with Bermudo of Leon, and though at a later date he defeated and killed his brother Garcia of Navarre, he ranks high among the kings of Spain who have been counted religious.
After a short period spent at Cambridge (at God's House, afterwards Christ's College) he entered the university of Paris in 1493, studying successively at the colleges of St Barbe, Montaigu and Navarre, and graduating as master of arts in 1496.
Promoted to the doctorate in 1505, he lectured on philosophy at Montaigu College and on theology at Navarre.
(1393-1458), earl of Richmond, constable of France, and afterwards duke of Brittany, was the third son of John IV., duke of Brittany, and Joan of Navarre, afterwards the wife of Henry IV.
In 1348 he was a student in the college of Navarre at Paris, of which he became head in 1356.
Their appeal met with a response in a great part of Italy, France, Navarre, Portugal and England, and in Germany in the states subject to Wenceslas king of the Romans, the electors of Cologne and Mainz, the margrave of Brandenburg, &c. For a time the number of the fathers exceeded five hundred.
The exports are chiefly iron; the imports coal; large quantities of wine from Navarre and the Ebro valley are also sent abroad, and the importation of timber of all kinds from Scandinavia and Finland, and coastwise from Asturias, is of great importance.
Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders.
(c. 1294-1322), "the Tall," king of France, second son of Philip the Fair and Jeanne of Navarre, received the county of Poitiers as an appanage, and was affianced when a year old to Jeanne, daughter and heiress of Otto IV., count of Burgundy.
(1553-1610), king of France, the son of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, head of the younger branch of the Bourbons, descendant of Robert of Clermont, sixth son of St Louis and of Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, was born at Pau (Basses Pyrenees) on the 14th of December 1553..
In 1561 he entered the College de Navarre at Paris, returning in 1565 to Beam.
On the 9th of June 1572, Jeanne d'Albret died and Henry became king of Navarre, marrying Margaret of Valois, sister of Charles IX.
On the 10th of June 1584 the death of Monsieur, the duke of Anjou, brother of King Henry III., made Henry of Navarre heir presumptive to the throne of France.
Then Henry III., driven from Paris by the League on account of his murder of the duke of Guise at Blois (1588), sought the aid of the king of Navarre to win back his capital, recognizing him as his heir.
Henry I Of Navarre >>
BENJAMIN OF TUDELA (in Navarre), a Jewish rabbi of the 12th century.
Richards queen, Berengaria of Navarre, had borne him no children.
He found it convenient to forget that the elder brother of Charles IV., King Louis X., had left a daughter, whose son, the king of Navarre, had on this theory a title preferable to his own.
A far more fatal bar to Edwards claim than the existence of Charles of Navarre was the fact that the peers of France, when summoned to decide the succession question nine years before, had decided that Philip of Valois had the sole valid claim to the crown, and that Edward had then done homage to him for Guienne.
The Nive, a beautiful river of the Basque country, takes its rise in Spain; after flowing past St Jean-Pied-de-Port, formerly capital of French Navarre and fortified by Vauban to guard the pass of Roncevaux, it joins the Adour at Bayonne.
The conservative theology was becoming discredited, and humanists like Jacques Lefevre of Staples (Faber Stapulensis) and Gerard Roussel were favoured by the court under the influence of Margaret of Angouleme, queen of Navarre and sister of Francis I.
Here, too in du Tillet's splendid library, he began the studies which resulted in his great work, the Institutes, and paid a visit to Nerac, where the venerable Lefevre, whose revised translation of the Bible into French was published about this time, was spending his last years under the kindly care of Margaret of Navarre.
After a short visit (April 1536) to the court of Renee, duchess of Ferrara (cousin to Margaret of Navarre), which at that time afforded an asylum to several learned and pious fugitives from persecution, Calvin returned through Basel to France to arrange his affairs before finally taking farewell of his native country.
Moreover, the accession to the throne of France of Henry of Navarre had altogether altered the situation of affairs, and relieved the pressure upon the Dutch by creating a diversion, and placing Parma and his army between hostile forces.
THOMAS, EARL LANCASTER OF (c. 1277-1322), was the eldest son of Edmund, earl of Lancaster and titular king of Sicily, and a grandson of the English king, Henry III.; while he was related to the royal house of France both through his mother, Blanche, a granddaughter of Louis VIII., and his step-sister, Jeanne, queen of Navarre, the wife of Philip IV.
From Navarre there are only three practicable roads for carriages into France - those by the Puerta de Vera, the Puerta de Maya and Roncesvalles.
Navarre is one of the richest provinces of Spain in live stock.
The Ebro Valley railway, which traverses southern Navarre and skirts the western frontier, sends out a branch line from Castejon to Pamplona and Alsasua junction, where it connects with the Northern railways from Madrid to France.
- The kingdom of Navarre was formed out of a part of the territory occupied by the Vascones, i.e.
The name of Navarre is derived by etymologists from "nava" a flat valley surrounded by hills (a commonplace name in Spain; cf.
In recent times ingenious attempts have been made to trace the descent of the first historic king of Navarre from one Semen Lupus, duke of Aquitaine in the 6th century.
Navarre was Sancho Garcia, who ruled at Pamplona in the early years of the 10th century.
When the kingdom was at its height it included all the modern province of the name; the northern slope of the western Pyrenees called by the Spaniards the "Ultra-puertos" or country beyond the passes, and now known as French Navarre; the Basque provinces; the Bureba, the valley between the Basque Mountains and the Montes de Oca to the north of Burgos; the Rioja and Tarazona in the upper valley of the Ebro.
While Navarre was reunited to Aragon -1076-1134- (see Spain: History) it was saved from aggression on the east, but did not recover the territory taken by Castile.
After 1234 Navarre, though the crown was claimed by the kings of Aragon, passed by marriage to a succession of French rulers.
In 1516 Spanish Navarre was finally annexed by Ferdinand the Catholic. French Navarre survived as an independent little kingdom till it was united to the crown of France by Henry IV.
until 1833, when it was fully incorporated with Spain, Navarre was a viceroyalty.
As originally organized, Navarre was divided into Merindades, or districts, governed by a Merino (mayorino) as representative of the king.
They were the Ultrapuertos (French Navarre), Pamplona, Estella, Judela, Sanguesa.
The Cortes of Navarre began with the king's council of churchmen and nobles.
In the later stages of its history the Cortes of Navarre included the representatives of thirty-eight towns.
The independence of the burgesses was better secured in Navarre than in other parliaments of Spain by the constitutional rule which required the consent of a majority of each order to every act of the Cortes.
Navarre was much under clerical influence.
In matters concerning the succession in Flanders, Hainaut and Navarre; in the quarrels of the princes regarding the Empire, and in those of Henry III.
The latter was murdered in 1354 by order of Charles of Navarre, the kings son-in-law, who also prevented the levying of the taxes voted by the states in 1355 with the object of replenishing the treasury.
The Black Prince took this opportunity to ravage the southern provinces, and then marched to join the duke of Lancaster and Charles of Navarre in Normandy.
Indifference and satiety spread speedily; the bourgeoisie forsook the reformers directly they had recourse to violence (February 1358), and the Parisians became hostile when Etienne Marcel complicated his revolutionary work by intrigues with Navarre, releasing from prison the grandson of Louis X., the Headstrong, an ambitious, fine-spoken courter of popularity, covetous of the royal crown.
Re-establishing the royal authority in Paris was not enough; an end had to be put to the war with England and Navarre, and this was effected by the treaty of Brtigny (1360).
For ten years the remnants of the armies Grandes of England, Navarre and Brittanythe Grandes Corn; Compagnies, as they were calledravaged the pagn CS.
In vain did the malcontent princes attempt to set up a new League of Public Weal, the Guerre folle (Mad War), in which the duke of Brittany, Francis II., played the part of Charles the Bold, dragging in the people of Lorraine and the king of Navarre, In vain did Charles VIII., his majority attained, at once abandon in the treaty of Sable the benefits gained by the victory of Saint-Aubin du Cormier (1488).
in Savoy and Piedmont, occupied by the French and claimed by Philibert Emmanuel, Charles V.s ally; in Navarre, unlawfully conquered by Ferdinand the Catholic and claimed by the family of Albret; in Italy, where, aided and abetted by Pope Paul III., Henry II.
It found its first adherents and its first defenders among the clerics and learned men grouped around Faber (Lefvre) of Etaples at Meaux; while Marguerite of Navarre, des Roynes la non.
The Guises set aside, Coligny, supported as he was by Jeanne dAlbret, queen of Navarre, now received all Charles IX.s Coligny favor.
Catherine de Medici, an inveterate match- and the maker, and also uneasy at Philip II.s increasing Nether- power, made advances to Jeanne, proposing to marry lands, her own daughter,Marguerite deValois,to Jeannes son, Henry of Navarre, now chief of the Huguenot party.
A murderous attack upon Coligny, who had opposed the candidature of Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, for the throne of Poland, having only succeeded in wounding him and in exciting the Calvinist leaders, who were congregated in Paris for the occasion of Marguerite deValoismarriage with the king of Navarre,Catherine and the Guises resolved together to put them all to death.
The reformers had now no leaders, and their situation seemed as perilous as that of their co-religionists in the Netherlands; while the sieges of La Rochelle and Leiden, the enforced exile of the prince of Orange, and the conversion under pain of death of Henry of Navarre and the prince of Cond, made the common danger more obvious.
There were the friends of the Montmorency partyDamville at their head; Colignys relations; the king of Navarre; Cond; and a prince of the blood, Catherine de Medicis third son, the duke of Alencon, tired of being kept in the background.
Henry of Navarre escaped from Paris.
and the Protestantism of Henry of Navarre, this party talked of re-establishing the authority of the king; but in reality it inclined more to the Guises, martyrs in the good cause, who were supported by Philip II.
to impotence; fortunately for him, howBergerac ever, the break of the Huguenots with the MalSeveith contents, and the divisions in the court of Navarre War and and in the various parties at La Rochelle, allowed peace of Henry III., after two little wars in the south west, ~ during which fighting gradually degenerated into brigandage, to sign terms of peace at Bergerac (1577),
The crafty king of Navarre being unwilling to alienate the Protestants save by an ear apostasy profitable to himself, Henry III., by the treaty of Nemours (July 7, 1585), granted everything to the head of the League in order to save his crown.
His favorite Joyeuse was to defeat the king of Navarre, whose forces were very weak, while Guise was to deal with the strong reinforcement of Germans that Elizabeth was sending to Henry of Navarre.
had no alternative but an alliance with Henry of Navarre.
August I589 by a Jacobin monk, Jacques Clement; with his dying breath he designated the king of Navarre as his successor.
LOUIS DE BUADE FRONTENAC ET PALLUAU, COMTE DE (1620-1698), French-Canadian statesman, governor and lieutenant-general for the French king in La Nouvelle France (Canada), son of Henri de Buade, colonel in the regiment of Navarre, was born in the year 1620.
The cautious Lutheran princes of Germany, especially Augustus I., elector of Saxony, were not enthusiastic in support of Gebhard, whose friendly relations with the Calvinists were not to their liking; and although Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV.
The ethnology, folk-lore, institutions and history of the Pyrenean region form an interesting study: see Andorra; Aragon; Basques; Bearn; Catalonia; Navarre.
The Cretaceous system is distributed in four great districts: the largest of these extends through the kingdoms of Murcia and Valencia; a second stretches between the two Castiles; a third is found in the Basque Provinces and in Asturias; and a fourth spreads Out along the southern slopes of the P renees from Navarre to the Mediterranean.
Huesca rate of increase during this period of forty Saragossa years was less than 45%, or lower than that Teruel of any other European state, except France Navarre (Nav~ in the later years of the I9th century.
The Navarre census of 1900, however, showed that the Basque Provir annual rate of increase had risen, between 1897 Biscay (Vizc and 1900, to 89%, or nearly double its former Guipflzcoa Alava amount.
The roads which wind through the Pyrenees in northern Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia had long been the channels of an important traffic, although great inconvenience was caused by the snow which blocks the passes in winter.
The vine-growing districts had formerly been mostly in the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Barcelona, Aragon and Navarre.
and in some parts of, the Ebro valley in Navarre anti Aragon.
In these last, however, the prevailing frtut-trees are those of central Europe, and above all the apple, which is very extensively cultivated in Asturias, the Basque Provinces and Navarre.
Besides the cattle reared for field-labor and (in the northern provinces) for regular dairy farming, bulls for bull-fighting are specially reared in many parts of the country, particularly in the forests of Navarre, the mountains separating the two Castiles, the Sierra Morena, and the Serrania de Ronda in Granada, and also in separate enclosures on the islands of the Guadalquivir.
The northern provinces, especially Guip6zcoa and Biscay, Navarre and Oviedo, have followed in the wake of Catalonia for linen and cotton industries and for paper-mills.
But here were the roots of the kingdom of Navarre, of Sobrarbe and Aragon.
closely to the old Roman province of the same name extending from the Bay of Biscay to the line of the Duero, from the ocean to the foot of the mountains of Navarre.
By the beginning of the 11th century the leading place among the Christian kings had been taken by Sancho the Sancho El Mayor (the Great) of Navarre.
He was Great of married to a sister of Garcia, the last count of Navarre.
Navarre was left by Sancho to another son, Garcia, while the small Christian states of the central Pyrenees, Aragon and Sobrarbe with the Ribagorza went to his other sons, Ramiro Sanchez and Gonzalo.
That he took his position of king of kings seriously would seem to be proved by the fact that when his brother Garcia attacked him in 1054, and was defeated and slain at Atapucrca, he did not annex Navarre, but left his nephew, Garcias son, on the throne as vassal.
Navarre, indeed, which had been united with Aragon since the fratricidal murder of its king Sancho in 1076, preferred to remain independent under a new ruler of its choice.
In 1135 he was Aiphonso crowned at Leon, in the presence of the new king vii., of Navarre, of the counts of Barcelona and Toulouse, Emperor and of other princes, Christian and Mahommedan, in Spain.
Aragon was represented by its king Peter II., Navarre by its king Sancho, and Portugal by a strong contingent of Templars and other knights.
John I., a man of ~ndornitable energy and considerable capacity, spent most of his life in endeavouring to enforce his claims to the kingdom of Navarre as the husband and heir of its queen Blanche.
Navarre went to a daughter, and Roussillon was somewhat fraudulently retained by Louis XI.
Ferdinand conquered the Spanish half of Navarre later, and recovered Roussillon from Charles VIII., the successor of Louis XI.
He annexed the southern part of Navarre, which was held by the representatives of his half-sister.
But the Conservatives preferred to support the late kings brother Don Carlos, and they had the active aid of the Basques, who feared for their local franchises, and of the mountaineers of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, who were either quite clerical, or who had become attached, during the French invasion and the troubles of the reign of Ferdinand, to a life of guerrillero adventure.
arils Their leaders, Tomas Zumalacarregui in Biscay and Navarre, and Ramon Cabrera in Valencia, were the ablest Spaniards of their time.
Then all the forces of King Aiphonso under Marshal Quesada gradually closed round the remaindel of the Carlist army in Navarre and in the Basque Provinces at the beginning of 1876.
A civil code was carefully drawn up by Seor Alonzo Martinez, in order to consolidate the very heterogeneous ancient legislation of the monarchy and the local laws of many provinces, especially Catalonia; Aragon, Valencia, Navarre, and the Basque territory.
by hissecond marriage with a daughter of Sancho Abarca of Navarre.
Navarre, king of Castile by right of his mother, and of Leon and Gallicia by the sword.
By a second marriage with a daughter of Sancho Abarca of Navarre he had a son and successor.
Castiie then passed to Garcias sister, the wife L of Sancho ci Mayor of Navarre.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.