Within the yard there are extensive naval stores and barracks.
He entered the Naval Academy from New York in 1857, but resigned in March 1861.
Since the British occupation Valletta has been a naval and military station of the first importance.
A definite issue was therefore sought by the congress on which to join battle, and it arose out of the death sentences which had been pronounced on certain naval and military officers who had been implicated in the Santa Fe outbreak.
Each arrondissement is divided into sousarrondissements, having their centres in the great commercial ports, but this arrangement is purely for the embodiment of the men of the Inscription Maritime, and has nothing to do with the dockyards as naval arsenals.
The vessel had done much damage to the Federal naval forces, and her destruction was greatly desired.
There is also a dockyard and torpedo arsenal at La Plata, an artillery depot at Zarate, above Buenos Aires, and naval depots on the island of Martin Garcia and at Tigre, on the Lujan river.
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
Military and naval defence forces to be under one command.
At the northeastern extremity is a group of islands, upon one of which is the naval station of La Maddalena: farther S.E.
They were naval or military officers in command of the garrison, the convicts and the few free settlers.
The French coast is divided into five naval arrondissements, which have their headquarters at th.e five naval ports, of which Cherbourg, Brest, and Toulon.
After this the Pisan supremacy of the island seems to have become more of a reality, but Arborea remained independent, and after the defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at the naval battle of Meloria in 1284 they were obliged to surrender Sassari and Logudoro to Genoa.
During his later years he served as commissioner of the navy, and was president of the board of naval commissioners from 1833 till his death at Washington on the 27th of February 1840.
Paupers, insane, and those convicted of treason, felony or bribery in an election are barred, " while the disability continues," and no person in the military, naval or marine service of the United States is deemed.
There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.
It contains models of the principal dockyards and fortifications of the British empire, naval models of all dates, and numerous specimens of weapons of war from the remotest times to the present day.
Down to the close of the 17th century it was of some importance as a naval station.
In undress naval uniform, with a dirk, and holding his cap under his arm, he handed Kutuzov a garrison report and the keys of the town.
In 1778 he served in the squadron of D'Orvilliers, and was present in the naval, battle of Ushant on the 27th of July 1778.
The work of fortifying the place has been carried on by the British government, which possesses here a naval hospital, military prison and other necessary institutions.
The money thus obtained was appropriated in part to naval defence and harbours, and in part to the provision of old age pensions under the Federal Old Age Pension Act of 1908.
The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.
The harbour, now of little commercial or strategic importance, but formerly a celebrated naval station, is sheltered on the west and south-west by the promontory of Mt.
The dockyard, chiefly used for naval repairs, covers about 60 acres, and consists of three basins and large docks, the depth of water in the basins ranging down to 26 ft.
In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.
Anatole kept on refilling Pierre's glass while explaining that Dolokhov was betting with Stevens, an English naval officer, that he would drink a bottle of rum sitting on the outer ledge of the third floor window with his legs hanging out.
In the Queen Anne range is the Royal Naval Museum, containing models, relics of Nelson and of Franklin, and other objects.
It is mentioned in 354 B.C. as a trading port, and became important as a naval harbour during the Punic Wars.
Greenwich Hospital, as it is still called, became in 1873 a Royal Naval College.
The government maintains a naval school at Flores, a school of mechanics in Buenos Aires, an artillery school on the cruiser " Patagonia," and a school for torpedo practice at La Plata.
The naval prefect is assisted by a rearadmiral as chief of the staff (except at Lorient and Rochefort, where the office is filled by a captain), and a certain number of other officers, the special functions of the chief of the staff having relation principally to the efficien.cy and personnel of the fleet, while the major-general, who is usually a rear-admiral, is concerned chiefly with the materiel.
At the end of 1908 the strength of the naval forces under the Commonwealth defence department was: permanent, 217, naval militia, 1016; the estimated expenditure for 1908-1909 being £63,531.
Under the agreement a royal naval reserve was maintained, three of the Imperial vessels provided being utilized as drill ships for crews recruited from the Australian states.
The retired naval man was speaking very boldly, as was evident from the expression on the faces of the listeners and from the fact that some people Pierre knew as the meekest and quietest of men walked away disapprovingly or expressed disagreement with him.
The naval officer spoke in a particularly sonorous, musical, and aristocratic baritone voice, pleasantly swallowing his r's and generally slurring his consonants: the voice of a man calling out to his servant, Heah!
Toby's birth certificate listed her as the mother, no father, and the naval hospital in Annapolis as his birthplace.
A middle-aged man, handsome and virile, in the uniform of a retired naval officer, was speaking in one of the rooms, and a small crowd was pressing round him.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
Rustichuk is the headquarters of a military division and of a naval flotilla stationed on the Danube.
The naval arsenal is situated on the " north basin " of the Buenos Aires port, and the military port at Bahia Blanca is provided with a dry dock of the largest size, and extensive repair shops.
In January 1895 a special session of congress was summoned to take into consideration the financial proposals of the government, which included an increase in the naval and military estimates.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The chief naval school is the Ecole navale at Brest, which is devoted to the training of officers; the age of admission is from fifteen to eighteen years, and pupils after completing their course pass a year on a frigate school.
Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.
Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of Charles I., were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on the 23rd of June, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed, England securing Tangier and Bombay, with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about 300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.
It gave the naval power of the Turks a blow from which it never recovered, and put a stop to their aggression in the Eastern Mediterranean.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
It was then devoted to the accommodation of the students of the Royal Naval College, the Infirmary being granted to the Seamen's Hospital Society.
In addition, there is a corps of coast artillery numbering 450 men, from which garrisons are drawn for the military port, Zarate arsenal and naval prison.
The faded jeans circled her slender hips slightly below the naval.
Woolwich seems to have been a small fishing village until in the beginning of the 16th century it rose into prominence as a dockyard and naval station.
He was made commander-in-chief of both the military and naval forces with supreme authority, and in his hands was placed the final appointment to all political and judicial posts and to vacant city magistracies.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
These naval victories were followed by a further military alliance with France against Spain, termed the treaty of Paris (the 23rd of March 1657).
The great naval battle of Sluys, in which Edward III.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
and Charles II., and became the chief naval station of England.
his Life of his father (1898), his Address to London Chamber of Commerce on " Imperial Telegraphic Communication " (1902), Lecture to Royal United Service Institution on " Submarine Telegraphy " (1907), Lectures to Royal Naval War College (1910) and R.E.
In July and August 1899 the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy was tried for the first time during British naval manoeuvres, and the two cruisers, " Juno " and " Europa," were fitted with the new means of communication.
The important results obtained showed that a weapon of great power had been provided for assisting naval warfare.
In 1904, during the RussoJapanese war, war news was transmitted for The Times by wireless telegraphy, the enormous importance of which in naval strategy was abundantly demonstrated.
at the same time it has taken a position of the greatest importance in connexion with naval strategy and communication between ships and ships and the shore in time of peace.
Cartagena is fortified, and possesses an arsenal and naval dockyards.
Together with Ferrol and San Fernando near Cadiz, the other great naval stations of Spain, it is governed by an admiral with the title of captain-general.
For purposes of naval organization the Italian coast is divided into three maritime departments, with headquarters at Spezia, Naples and Venice; and into two comandi militari, with headquarters at Taranto and at the island of Maddalena.
The personnel of the navy consists of the following corps: (I) General staff; (2) naval engineers, chiefly employed in building and repairing war vessels; (3) sanitary corps; (4) commissariat corps, for supplies and account-keeping; (5) crews.
Naval expenditure has enormously increased since 1871, the total for 1871 having been about 900,000, and the total for 1905-1906 over 5~ 100,000.
This sum consists of 4,240,000 of naval expenditure proper, 220,000 for naval pensions and 380,000 for premiums upon mercantile shipbuilding.
A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
The losses of men and money which the war of Chioggia, as it was called, entailed, though they did not immediately depress the spirit of the Genoese republic~ signed her naval ruin.
Venice not only paid the costs of the war to the two chief belligerents, but her naval resources also helped to launch the young general on his career of eastern adventure.
This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
part of Great Andaman, where a naval arsenal was to be established.
On the 12th of April 1769 the British expedition to observe the transit of Venus, under the naval command of James Cook, arrived at Tahiti.
in 1594, was attacked by a Spanish fleet, and, after a desperate naval engagement, was forced to surrender.
On the 6th of May 1615 Spilbergen entered the Pacific Ocean, and touched at several places on the coast of Chile and Peru, defeating the Spanish fleet in a naval engagement off Chilca.
Spain appointed two accomplished naval officers, the brothers Ulloa, as coadjutors.
He was elected to the House of Representatives of the last Royal .Assembly of New Hampshire and then to the second Continental Congress in 1775, and was a member of the first Naval Committee of the latter, but he resigned in 1776, and in June 1776 became Congress's agent of prizes in New Hampshire and in 1778 continental (naval) agent of Congress in this state, where he supervised the building of John Paul Jones's "Ranger" (completed in June 1777), the "America," launched in 1782, and other vessels.
He refused the naval portfolio in Jefferson's cabinet.
Agrippa made the fine natural harbour into the main naval station of the Mediterranean fleet, and founded a colony there probably in 31 B.C. The emperor Tiberius died in his villa here.
One of the former city gates (1615) remains, and there are a town hall, communal buildings (1863), court-house, weigh-house, synagogue and churches of various denominations, in one of which is the tomb of the naval hero of the 16th century, Lange, or Groote Pier (Long or Great Peter).
It is now used as a depot for the Naval Reserve, for whom a large drill hall was added.
Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
This tendency was already shown by Catherine when she created the League of Neutrals as an arm against the naval supremacy of England, and by Paul when he insisted that his peace negotiations with Bonaparte should be regarded as part of a general European pacification, in which he must be consulted.
59), he ordered Batum to be transformed into a fortified naval port, but in the Balkan Peninsula he persistently refrained, under a good deal of provocation, from any intervention that might lead to a European war.
Stanley was for some years a naval station, but ceased to be so in 1904.
of it in 1900, with the written consent of the native chiefs, appointed a naval governor.
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
Strabo, writing probably a few years after Ravenna had been thus selected as a naval arsenal, gives us a description of its appearance which certainly corresponds more closely with modern Venice than with modern Ravenna.
WILLIAM THOMAS SAMPSON (1840-1902), American naval commander, was born at Palmyra, New York, on the 9th of February 1840, and graduated at the head of his class from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1861.
He served on distant stations and (1868-1871 and 1876-1878) at the Naval Academy, and became lieutenant-commander in 1866 and commander in 1874.
He was a member of the International Prime Meridian and Time Conference in 1884, and of the Board of Fortifications in 1885-1886; was superintendent of the Naval Academy from 1886 to 1890; and was promoted to captain and served as delegate at the International Maritime Conference at Washington in 1889.
By a series of delays he caused the failure of the naval expedition prepared at Sluys against England in 1386, and a second accusation of military negligence led to disgrace of the royal princes and the temporary triumph of the marmousets, as the advisers of the late king were nicknamed.
In 292 Constantius Chlorus besieged and captured Gessoriacum (hitherto in possession of Carausius), together with part of his fleet and naval stores.
But a year later he acquiesced in the establishment of a Labour council of action, and in the threat of a general strike in case of any military or naval intervention against the Soviet Government of Russia.
Jason sent money for a sacrifice to Heracles at Tyre; and the only recorded opposition to his policy came from his envoys, who pleaded that the money might be applied to naval expenditure.
Vibo was the naval base of Octavian in the conflict with Sextus Pompeius (42-36 B.C.).
At the same time he was reported to have been the first monarch who established a naval power, and acquired what was termed by the Greeks the Thalassocracy, or dominion of the sea.
On the same day Georgi Pasha, the Christian governor-general, took refuge on board a Russian ironclad, and, on the next, naval detachments from the warships of the powers occupied Canea.
The powers, however, reiterated their decision to maintain the status quo, and increased their military and naval forces; the Greek flag was hauled down at Canea and Candia, and some desultory engagements with the insurgents took place, the international troops co-operating with the native gendarmerie.
The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets.
He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1881, served two years as midshipman, then resigned from the navy and became a civil engineer.
naval brigade, was made captain, and during the Spanish-American War commanded the second division of the auxiliary U.S. naval force on the Atlantic coast.
military advisory board and of the military board of examiners; in 1896 he was a member of the board of visitors of the U.S. Naval Academy.
He again accompanied De Ruyter in 1672 and took an honourable part in the great naval fight at Sole Bay against the united English and French fleets.
In the 16th century a new era began with the discovery by the Portuguese of the route to India round the Cape, and the naval powers of Europe started one after another on careers of oriental conquest.
The countries west of India, being less exposed to naval invasion, remained comparatively untouched.
457, and in Ralf's Naval Biographies, i.
See also Beatson's Naval and Military Annals, James's Naval History, and Chevalier's Histoire de la Marine francaise, vols.
Tampa is an important shipping point for naval stores and phosphate rock, for vegetables, citrus fruit and pineapples, raised in the vicinity, and for lumber, cattle and fuller's earth.
Having founded an observatory there, he returned to Paris in 1747, was appointed geographical astronomer to the naval department with a salary of 3000 livres, and installed an observatory in the Hotel Cluny.
In 1785 Bentham started, by way of Italy and Constantinople, on a visit to his brother, Samuel Bentham, a naval engineer, holding the rank of colonel in the Russian service; and it was in Russia that he wrote his Defence of Usury.
The great increase in recent years in British military and naval expenditure, made necessary by the exceptional demands of a state of war and the great development of foreign powers, was partly responsible for the new difficulties; partly it was due to the great extension of the functions of the state during the latter part of the 19th century.
Whitworth also warned them on the 10th of April that "the chief motives for delay are that they (the French) are totally unprepared for a naval war."
Naval preparations went on apace at all the dockyards, and numbers of flat-bottomed boats were built or repaired at the northern harbours.
It is, however, highly probable that he meant to strike at London if naval affairs went well, but that he was glad to have at hand an alternative which would shroud a maritime failure under military laurels.
To this demand (the real commencement of the "Continental System") the Berlin government had to accede, though at the cost of a naval war with England, and the ruin of its maritime trade.
As usually happened in this strife of the land power and the sea power, Napoleon's continental policy attained an almost complete success, while the naval and oriental schemes which he had more nearly at heart utterly miscarried.
The importance which he then assigned to naval affairs appears in many letters of the months May to June 1808.
In the case of King Louis, family quarrels embittered the relations between the two brothers; but it is clear from Napoleon's letters of November - December 1809 that he had even then resolved to annex Holland in order to gain complete control of its customs and of its naval resources.
1912 he submitted that naval power to the Germans was a luxury; it was existence to the English, it was expansion to them.
He had in the previous month announced the establishment of a naval war staff, and in the autumn he reorganized the internal administration of his office.
The same tone was maintained in his speech on introducing the naval estimates.
Meanwhile, he had thrown out, on the estimates of 1913, a hint to Germany that all naval Powers might well take a year's holiday from shipbuilding; but, though he repeated and emphasized his plea for this " naval holiday " in a speech in the autumn of 1913, it met with no response from Berlin.
Large as the estimate for 1914 was, it was attacked by naval experts as inadequate.
But there were some naval disasters for which the public were not prepared.
He rushed to Antwerp when there were hopes of saving it from the Germans, but though he exerted himself indefatigably both in diplomacy and in the actual work of defence, and sent a British naval division to help, the effort was in vain.
The naval situation was sensibly relieved by the destruction in Dec. by Adml.
It is arguable, and he was disposed to maintain, that the movement would have succeeded if resolutely pushed by those in command, both in the initial stage, when it was a purely naval attack, and in the later stage, when considerable military forces had been landed and fought many desperate fights.
When the danger of a war with Germany came first to be apprehended, it was proposed to establish the chief British naval base, in the event of war, at Rosyth in the Firth of Forth, but it was afterwards decided that a larger base in a natural harbour farther N.
Scapa Flow was preferred to the Cromarty Firth as his chief naval base by Admiral Jellicoe, but no preparations had been made and everything had to be improvised, guns being landed from the ships to strengthen the defences.
By the end of 1914, the entrances of Scapa Flow had been adequately protected, facilities for carrying out all but the most serious repairs were installed, and Scapa Flow gradually assumed the aspect of a great naval station, which it retained to the end of the war.
A=D= -_-- - - ---Island =r= b = o =ir- monument by James Edward Kelly to General Fitz John Porter; a cottage hospital (1886); a United States naval hospital (1891); a home for aged and indigent women (1877); and the Chase home for children (1877).
Subsequently a large naval prison was erected.
Vettor Pisani was placed in command, and by a stroke of naval genius he grasped the weakness of Doria's position.
He is commanderin-chief of the static military and naval forces, except when they are called into the service of the United States.
On his return in 1847, he exchanged the naval for the military service, and was sent to join the U.S. army in Mexico, where he had some extraordinary adventures, and where he was again stricken with fever.
At Sackett's Harbor are Madison Barracks, a United States military post, established in 1813 and including a reservation of 99 acres; and a United States Naval Station.
In the War of 1812 Sackett's Harbor was an important strategic point for the Americans, who had here a naval station, Fort Tompkins, at the base of Navy Point, and Fort Volunteer, on the eastern side of the harbour.
Almost all the American stores at the naval station were destroyed to save them from the enemy.
Foote established at Mound City a naval depot, which was the basis of his operations on the Mississippi.
When the War of 1812 opened there were fully 600 seamen in the city, practically all of whom were engaged in privateering or in the regular naval service of the United States.
In 1915 he urged " preparedness " for naval defence.
They refused to permit the vital problem of limitation of armaments to be side-tracked, and surprised the conference by proposing a ten-year naval holiday and a drastic scrapping of tonnage by the three chief naval Powers.
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
sought to unite the king of Hungary and the king of Cyprus in a common Crusade against the Turks; but it was not till 1396 that an attempt was at last made to supplement by a land Crusade the naval Crusades of 1344 and 1345.
3 "Don Henrique's scheme," it has been said, "represents the final effort of the crusading spirit; and the naval campaigns against the Moslem in the Indian seas, in which it culminated, forty years after Don Henrique's death, may be described as the last Crusade."
In 1740 General James Edward Oglethorpe, governor of Georgia, supported by a naval force, made an unsuccessful attack upon St Augustine; two years later a Spanish expedition against Savannah by way of St Simon's Island failed, and in 1745 Oglethorpe again appeared before the walls of St Augustine, but the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 prevented further hostilities.
He has no power to modify a sentence, a power which is reserved to the admiralty by ï¿½ 53 (1) of the Naval Discipline Act 1866, except in the case of a death sentence, which can only be remitted by the crown.
James Nicholson (1737-1804), an American naval officer, commander-in-chief of the navy from 1 777 until August 1781, when with his ship the "Virginia," he was taken by the British "Iris" and "General Monk."
The town now possesses an exchange, a large theatre, a gymnasium, a naval school, municipal buildings and several hospitals and charitable institutions erected by private munificence.
After a second political reaction, the prospect of a second Persian war, and the naval superiority of Aegina led to the assumption of a bolder policy.
When Antigonus Gonatas threatened to restore Macedonian power in Greece, the Athenians, supported perhaps by the king of Egypt, formed a large defensive coalition; but in the ensuing " Chremonidean War " (266-263) a naval defeat off Andros led to their surrender and the imposition of a Macedonian garrison.
YOKOSUKA, a seaport and naval station of Japan, on the W.
In 1868 the Japanese government converted the shipyard into a naval dockyard, and subsequently carried out many improvements.
In 1884 the port became a first-class naval station; and naval barracks, warehouses, offices, hospitals, &c., were established here.
After his retirement Colomb devoted himself rather to the history of naval warfare, and to the large principles disclosed by its intelligent study, than to experimental inquiries having an immediate practical aim.
Entering the Royal Marines in 1854, he rose to be captain in 1867, retiring in 1869; and thenceforth he devoted himself to the study of naval and military problems, on which he had already published some excellent essays.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
After Sextus Pompeius had been subdued, the chief naval harbour was transferred to Misenum.
The United States maintains here naval and marine hospitals, and the state a soldiers' home.
ABRAHAM DUQUESNE, MARQUIS (1610-1688), French naval officer, was born at Dieppe in 1610.
Born in a stirring seaport, the son of a distinguished naval officer, he naturally adopted the profession of a sailor.
He spent his youth in the merchant service, and obtained his first distinction in naval warfare by the capture of the island of Lerins from the Spaniards in May 1637.
Sir Richard Grenville (Naval Commander) >>
England, which had entered upon a career of naval conquest and scientific exploration, had reason to be proud of J.
Desbarres, Atlantic Neptune (1774), a North-American Pilot (1779), which first made known the naval surveys of J.
JOSIAH TATTNALL (1795-1871), American naval officer, was born.
He was put in command of its naval forces when Franklin Buchanan resigned after he was wounded in the action with the Federal squadron in Hampton Roads.
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
This port was accordingly for a short time (April 1904) occupied by a British naval force.
Count Stanislas Russell, a naval officer, was sent on a mission to the Red Sea in 1857, and he reported strongly on the necessity of a French establishment in that region in view of the approaching completion of the Suez Canal.
defeated the Spaniards in a naval action close by.
Part of the French losses, which were disproportionately heavy, were caused by the gunboats which lay close inshore and cannonaded the left flank of the French columns, and by a heavy naval gun which was placed in battery near the position of the 28th.
A.).] During the anarchy which accompanied Ottoman rule in Egypt from first to last, Alexandria sank to a small town of about 4000 inhabitants; and it owed its modern renascence solely to Mehemet Ali, who wanted a deep port and naval station for his viceregal domain.
There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
On the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in the 6th century Suez became a naval as well as a trading station, and here fleets were equipped which for a time disputed the mastery of the Indian Ocean with the Portuguese.
Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), a distinguished Spanish naval officer and scholar, came to New Orleans in 1766 to take possession for his king.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
He became a professor at the Turkish naval college; then entered the legal branch of the Turkish service, rising to the post of procureur imperial at the court of cassation.
Abd-ul-Aziz, however, with the aid of British naval officers, succeeded in creating an imposing fleet of ironclads constructed in English and French yards.
British naval officers were engaged for training the personnel, and to assist in the reorganization of the fleet.
A powerful naval expedition was fitted out, but failed, an armistice and treaty of commerce being signed with the grand master, Pierre d'Aubusson (1479).
This reign saw the end of the Mussulman rule in Spain, Turkey's naval power not being yet sufficient to afford aid to her co-religionists.
On the 7th of October was fought the naval battle of Lepanto, which broke for ever the tradition of the invincibility of the Turks at sea.
A naval school and a modern factory and arsenal were established.
Russia and Turkey thus regained full liberty as regards their naval forces and armaments in the Euxine; the passage of the straits remained interdicted to ships of war.
The Porte opposed the project, and an international naval demonstration and the occupation of Mytilene by the powers became necessary before Turkey gave way in December 1905.
The naval history of1803-1815includes the culmination and the sequel of the struggle for command of the sea which began in 1793 and reached its maximum intensity on the day of Trafalgar.
Naval Operations The French navy came under the direct and exclusive control of Napoleon after the 18th Brumaire.
The deficiencies both in number and in quality of his naval resources doomed him to fail in all three.
At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith, had sailed from Gibraltar, escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
With the collapse of the invasion scheme, the naval war between Napoleon and Great Britain entered on a new phase.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
In pursuance of his conservative policy which aimed at maintaining Athens as a land power, he was one of the chief opponents of the naval policy of Themistocles.
Naval Academy in 1894.
He had been a merchant captain, and was chosen to lead the naval forces of the islands when they rose against the government of the Sultan.
He continued to be the naval chief of the Greeks till Lord Dundonald entered their service in 1827, when he retired in order to leave the English officer free to act as commander.
In the interval he had had the general direction of the naval side of the Greek struggle for freedom.
As the war went on the naval power of the Greeks diminished, partly owing to the penury of their treasury, and partly to the growth of piracy in the general anarchy of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Its noteworthy public buildings are the custom-house and its storehouses which occupy the old quadrangular fortress built by the Spanish government between 1770 and 1775, and cover 15 acres, the prefecture, the military and naval offices and barracks, the post-office, three Catholic churches, a hospital, market, three clubs and some modern commercial houses.
Before the surrender all the Peruvian naval vessels in the harbour were sunk, to prevent their falling into the possession of the enemy.
A good deal of special investigation relating to naval and especially submarine warfare was carried on during 1914-8, but the results of this confidential work were not published.
It consists of a rocky promontory, containing three natural harbours, a large one on the north-west which is still one of the chief commercial harbours of the Levant, and two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval purposes.
23) that not Soult's corps alone, but three French corps, had come through the pass of Banos without opposition; that Soult himself was at Naval Moral, between him and the bridge of Almaraz on the Tagus, and that Cuesta was retreating from Talavera.
Hellevoetsluis is an important naval station, and possesses a naval arsenal, dry and wet docks, wharves and a naval college for engineers.
STEPHEN DECATUR (1779-1820), American naval commander, was born at Sinnepuxent, Maryland, on the 5th of January 1779, and entered the United States navy as a midshipman in 1798.
Naval Station), the bar at the entrance of which was removed (1903) by the U.S. government.
On the 29th of September a Greek naval force, commanded by an English Philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings, had destroyed some Turkish vessels in Salona Bay, on the north side of the Gulf of Corinth.
Codrington, by his daughter Lady Bourchier (London, 1873); Naval History of Great Britain, by W.
Next to Toulon, Bizerta is the most important naval port of France in the Mediterranean.
The lake, which merchant vessels are not allowed to enter, contains the naval port and arsenal.
There is a torpedo and submarine boat station on the north side of the channel at the entrance to the lake, but the principal naval works are at Sidi Abdallah at the south-west corner of the lake and to m.
Since then the canal has been widened and deepened, and the naval port at Sidi Abdallah created.
The northern part of the Sea of Japan, which washes the Usuri region, has, besides the smaller bays of Olga and Vladimir, the beautiful Gulf of Peter the Great, on which stands Vladivostok, the Russian naval station on the Pacific. Okhotsk and Ayan on the Sea of Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk on the east shore of Kamchatka, Nikolayevsk, and Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan, and Dui on Sakhalin are the only ports of Siberia.
This fiscal policy he pursued during his three Federal premierships (1903-4, 1905-8, 1909-10), and he was also a strong supporter of Australia's cooperation in Imperial defence, being responsible for the acceptance of the measure authorizing Australian naval construction in 1909 and for the invitation to Lord Kitchener to come to Australia to report on the question of defence.
Vivero Bay and the Ria del Barquero y Vares are of a similar character; while the harbour of Ferrol ranks among the best in Europe, and is the chief naval station on the northern coast of Spain.
After holding various commands he commissioned the "Larne," 20, for the East Indies and was senior naval officer at Rangoon during the Burmese War from May to September 1824.
Frank Mildmay, or the Naval Officer, was published in 1829, and The King's Own followed in 1830.
Captain Marryat had retired from the naval service in 1830, becoming equerry to the duke of Sussex.
WEI-HAI-WEI, a British naval and coaling station, on the N.E.
It was formerly a Chinese naval station strongly fortified, but was captured by the Japanese in February 1895, and occupied by their troops until May 1898, pending the payment of the indemnity.
PEMBROKE DOCK (formerly known as Pater, or Paterchurch), a naval dockyard and garrison town, is situated close to Hobb's Point, at the eastern extremity of Milford Haven.
The place owes its origin to the decision of the government in 1814 to form a naval depot on Milford Haven.
In historical times it belonged to the Ozolian Locrians; but about 455 B.C., in spite of a partial resettlement with Locrians of Opus, it fell to the Athenians, who peopled it with Messenian refugees and made it their chief naval station in western Greece during the Peloponnesian war.
The mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto was the scene of the great sea fight in which the naval power of Turkey was for the time being destroyed by the united papal, Spanish and Venetian forces (October 7, 1571).
Since the naval revolt of 1893-1894 the name of the capital of Santa Catharina has been changed from Desterro to Florianopolis in honour of President Floriano Peixoto.
The military organization is provided with an elaborate code and systems of military courts, which culminate in a supreme military tribunal composed of 15 judges holding office for life, of which 8 are general army officers, 4 general naval officers and 3 civil judges.
The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.
Many of the wooden and iron vessels listed in the Naval Annual, 1906, though obsolete and of no value whatever as fighting machines, are used for river and harbour service, and in the suppression of trifling insurrections.
The naval programme of the republic for 1905 provided for the prompt construction of 3 battleships of the largest displacement, 3 armoured cruisers, 6 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats and 3 submarine boats; and by 1909 the reorganization of the navy was far advanced.
The principal naval arsenal is located at Rio de Janeiro.
The naval school, which has always enjoyed a high reputation among Brazilians, is situated on the island of Enxadas in the bay of Rio de Janeiro.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
An army of Correntine, Uruguayan and Brazilian troops, under General Urquiza, assisted by a Brazilian naval squadron, advanced on Buenos Aires, completely routed the forces of Rosas, and crushed for ever the power of that dictator.
On the 6th of September prevailing discontent took definite .shape in the form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.
Admiral Custodio de Mello took command of the naval forces, and demanded the resignation of the president.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
The batteries are manned by the naval corps (150 strong) of the Natal militia.
The settlers had been joined in the year named (1835) by Captain Gardiner, a naval officer, whose chief object was the evangelization of the natives.
'But while he was in the midst of the negotiations, Lord Palmerston brought forward in the House of Commons a measure for fortifying the naval arsenals of England, which he introduced in a warlike speech pointedly directed against France, as the source of danger of invasion and attack, against which it was necessary to guard.
There are also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.
Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbanya, Nagyag and Felsobanya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvar; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbanya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Deva and Zagrab, and a naval school at Fiume.
a mainly Yugoslav revolutionary committee had almost gained control of the Cattaro naval base, which would have fallen into Entente hands if the ringleaders, who crossed the Adriatic for help, had not been detained by subordinate Italian subordinates until the Pola squadron had time to crush the mutiny.
18, and a most dangerous situation arose between them and the Italians in Istria and Dalmatia, which was only very partially mitigated by the dispatch of American military and naval forces to Trieste and Fiume.
12, the very day on which American and British police were to be installed, D'Annunzio and his Arditi occupied the town, with the open connivance of the Italian naval and military authorities though to the embarrassment of the Roman Cabinet.
From that day the role of the Natal Field Force was changed from that of a mobile field army into that of a garrison, and two days later it was completely isolated, but not before General French had succeeded in escaping south by train, and the naval authorities had been induced by Sir George White's urgent appeals to send into the town a naval brigade with a few guns of sufficient range and calibre to cope with the heavy position artillery which Joubert was now able to bring into action against the town.
Pepys, who was secretary to the navy, has recorded the patient industry and unflinching probity of his naval administration.
His victory over the Dutch in 1665, and his drawn battle with De Ruyter in 1672, show that he was a good naval commander as well as an excellent administrator.
He became commissioner of the dockyard at Portsmouth and governor of the Naval Academy.
But his subordinate rank gave him no chance to impart a greater measure of energy to the naval operations.
The history of his campaigns will be found in the historians of the wars in which he served: for the earlier years, Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs; for the later, James's Naval History, vol.
Basing his foreign policy upon the alliance, as supplemented by the naval entente with Great Britain negotiated by his predecessor, Count Robilant, Crispi assumed a resolute attitude towards France, breaking off the prolonged and unfruitful negotiations for a new Franco-Italian commercial treaty, and refusing the French invitation to organize an Italian section at the Paris Exhibition of 1889.
The streets are well shaded, chiefly with elms. At Bath are the state military and naval orphan asylum, two homes for the aged, and a soldiers' monument.
(1250-1309), king of Naples and Sicily, son of Charles I., had been captured by Ruggiero di Lauria in the naval battle at Naples in 1284, and when his father died he was still a prisoner in the hands of Peter of Aragon.
We hear of a naval expedition to the Etruscan coast and Corsica about 453 B.C. and of the great military and naval preparations of Syracuse in 439 (Diod.
Yet all that we read of Syracusan military and naval action during the former part of the Athenian siege shows how Syracuse had lagged behind the cities of old Greece, constantly practised as they were in warfare both by land and sea.
The military skill of Gylippus enabled the Syracusan militia to meet the Athenian troops on equal terms, to wrest from them their fortified position on Plemmyrium, which Nicias had occupied as a naval station shortly after Gylippus's arrival, and thus to drive them to keep their ships on the low beach between their double walls, to take Labdalum, an Athenian fort on the northern edge of Epipolae, and make a third counter-work right along Epipolae in a westerly direction, to the north of the circular fort.
The naval preparations of the Syracusans, under the advice of Hermocrates, had led them, too, to confidence in their powers of giving battle to the Athenian fleet.
Its naval power, too, was vastly increased; the docks were enlarged; and 200 new warships were built.
Wounds caused by projectiles, sabres, etc, are the special subject of naval and military surgery.
It was cut on the rocks by an Egyptian nobleman named Hannu, who states that he was sent by Pharaoh Sankhkere, Menthotp IV., with a force gathered out of the Thebaid, from Coptos to the Red Sea, there to take command of a naval expedition to the Holy Land of Punt (Puoni), "to bring back odoriferous gums."
(The principal hospitals having schools are noted in the list of hospitals, Section VII.) Military and Naval.
- The Royal Military College and the Ordnance College are at Woolwich; the Royal Naval College at Greenwich.
The proclamation of the king's daughter Isabella as heiress was almost the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol, who were partisans of the constitutional cause.
The question of the mastering of this all-important lower waterway in the event of a contest with the Turks had indeed engaged the close attention of British naval and military experts some years earlier.
The conclusion arrived at on that occasion had, however, been that, whether the campaign were to take the form of a purely naval operation or whether the task were to be performed by an amphibious expeditionary force, the enterprise was bound to prove most difficult.
The consequence was that the feasibility of forcing a way from the Mediterranean up into the Sea of Marmora as a purely naval undertaking came to be examined afresh in London.
French concurrence was obtained, French support was promised, and measures were at once set on foot to concentrate such naval forces in the Aegean as appeared to be required for the execution of the plan.
But the fleet also included two semidreadnoughts (" Lord Nelson," " Agamemnon "), the battlecruiser " Inflexible " and the newly completed " Queen Elizabeth," 1 On the naval operations, see also the article Naval History Of The War.
The conveniently situated islands of Tenedos and Lemnos (the latter offering the immense landlocked haven of Mudros as an anchorage) were occupied to serve as naval bases, and on Feb.
The defenders employed mines drifting down with the current with striking success on this occasion, and ` the damage caused by them contributed largely to bring about the defeat of the naval force.
De Robeck felt himself obliged to inform the Admiralty that the offensive against the Straits ought not to be continued as a purely naval operation of war.
Between the last days of March and the day of the landing the defence system was overhauled and greatly developed.2 The Franco-British expeditionary force was to be composed of seven divisions - three, the 29th, the 42nd and the Royal Naval, furnished by the United Kingdom, two formed of Australian and New Zealand troops, and two composed of French colonial troops.
At the time however when active operations began the 42nd Division and one of the French divisions could 1 The chief naval incidents of this month were: - a raid by the Turkish destroyer " Demir Hissar " which sank the British transport " Manitou " on March 16, but had to be blown up next day off Chios to avoid capture; an attempt of the British submarine E15 to enter the Straits, which led to her being forced ashore (April 16) and in the sequel to her destruction by a daring boat's crew from the " Majestic " (April 18); bombardments of the defences of Smyrna on March 28, April 6 and April 22; and operations at Gaza and El Arish on the Syrian coast by the French battleship " St.
From the Black Sea the Russian naval forces bombarded the Bosporus defences on March 28; some fruitless operations were then carried out against the "Goeben " and " Breslau " (in the course of which the Turkish cruiser " Medjidieh " was sunk off Odessa (April 3), and on April 25, the day of the landing in the Peninsula, and on May 2, the Bosporus defences were again shelled.
The German naval forces were commanded by Adml.
The effort at Helles was to be entrusted to the 29th Division, supported by the Royal Naval Division, and ultimately to be reinforced by the French division.
Two British battleships were sunk off the peninsula (" Triumph " May 25, " Majestic " May 27), and owing to the risks run by warships and transports while in the open the Allied troops on shore were thenceforward almost deprived of support from naval gunfire, while reinforcements and stores were mostly brought from Mudros to the various landing places in small craft.
The naval authorities had been busy assembling and organizing the available small craft in anticipation of the operation that appeared to be imminent, and jetties damaged in the Nov.
Most authorities on the art of war agree that the collapse of the Entente in this memorable campaign was primarily due to the abortive naval effort to force the Dardanelles.
Amalfi is first mentioned in the 6th century,and soon acquired importance as a naval power; in the 9th century it shared with Venice and Gaeta the Italian trade with the East, and in 848 its fleet went to the assistance of Pope Leo IV.
The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port Defence Volunteers, comprising artillery, naval, and engineer corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles.
Remonstrance was consequently made by the British government, and its envoys were supported by a small naval force.
C. Bayldon, a British naval officer, Capt.
The naval architect distinguishes between the stability of form, represented by the righting couple W.BM, and the stability of ballasting, represented by W.BG.
War against the Pisans, who had been defeated by the Genoese in the naval battle of La Meloria in 1284, was carried on in a desultory fashion, and in i 293 peace was Campal= made.
He came of an old family, his father, Guy Francois de Coetnempren, comte de Kersaint, being a distinguished naval officer.
lords of the treasury, civil or naval lords of the admiralty.
In the naval revolt of 1893-94 the older districts of the city suffered much damage from desultory bombardments, but the insurgents were too few to take possession.
In 652 Abu Sari) with a fleet from Egypt won a naval battle over the Byzantine fleet near Alexandria.
Kuwet was not formally placed under British protection, but it was officially announced by the government on the 5th of May 1903 " that the establishment of a naval base or fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other power would be regarded as a very grave menace to British interests which would certainly be resisted with all the means at its disposal."
Henderson to visit Australia and report on its naval needs.
CHARLES WILKES (1798-1877), American naval officer and explorer, was born in New York City on the 3rd of April 1798.
In 1386 he was sent to Calais, and raided French territory, but was shortly afterwards recalled to defend England against a naval attack by France.
The number of naval ships was increased between 1861 and 1865 from 90 to 670, the officers from 1300 to 6700, the seamen from 7500 to 51,500, and the annual expenditure from $12,000,000 to $123,000,000; important changes were made in the art of naval construction, and the blockade of the Confederate ports was effectively maintained.
These places are noticed separately, as are also Goletta (formerly the port of Tunis), Bizerta (a naval port and arsenal), Kef, Porto Farina, and the ruins at Carthage and Sbeitla (Sufetula).
He graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1873 and was instructor in physics and chemistry there during 18 75-9.
The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.
The naval school at Callao is under the direction of an officer of the French navy.
In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
A further extension of the naval dockyard was begun in 1902, and a new commercial pier was opened in 1900.
The losses which they sustained by land roused the Byzantines to indemnify themselves on the vessels which still crowded the harbour, and the merchantmen which cleared the straits; but this had the effect of provoking a war with the neighbouring naval powers.
It is now not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British India Steam Navigation Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra.
in length, 490 in width and to in depth), was apparently made for naval exhibitions.
Here three promontoriesNomo, Shimabar~ and Kizakienclose a large bay having on its shores Nagasaki, thi great naval port of Sasebo, and other anchorages.
Passing farther north, the shore line of the main island along the Japan Sea is found to be compara tively straight and monotonous, there being only one noteworth~ indentation, that of Wakasa-wan, where are situated the naval por of Maizuru and the harbour of Tsuruga, the Japanese point 0 communication with the Vladivostok terminus of the Trans-Asiai railway.
Many other smaller towns suffered both in Sicily and in Calabria; the loss of life was appalling and the distress widespread, in spite of the prompt assistance rendered by Italian naval and military forces and by the crews of British, Russian and German warships and other vessels, and the contribution of funds for relief works from every part of the world.
He was the son of a naval officer, and nephew of David Porter of the frigate "Essex."
After acting for a short time as assistant in Harvard College Observatory, he was appointed assistant professor of mathematics in the U.S. Naval Academy in 1866, and in the following year became director of the Allegheny Observatory at Pittsburg, a position which he held until his selection in 1887 as secretary of the Smithsonian.
He left two sons, William, his successor as emperor, and Henry, who adopted a naval career.
The decisive successes for the Alliance were gained by its naval victories, whose importance William somewhat underrated and for whose execution he had only an indirect responsibility.
Military historians point out that he sometimes sacrificed great advantages to impetuosity; naval experts that he sometimes threw away great opportunities by indifference.
On a vote having been passed for the establishment of a German navy, he was appointed secretary of the committee to deal with the whole question, and was subsequently made ministerial councillor (Ministerialrat) in the naval department of the government.
The naval project was abandoned, Jordan was pensioned and afterwards resided at Frankfort-on-Main until his death on the 25th of June 1904, devoting himself to literary work, acting as his own publisher, and producing numerous poems, novels, dramas and translations.
Thus nickel, which was formerly used in the manufacture of " German silver " as a substitute for silver, is now widely employed in naval construction and in the manufacture of steel armourplate and projectiles.
Titanium is alloyed in small quantities with aluminium for use in naval architecture.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
The result was, however, extremely bad for the allies, whose status in the league necessarily became lower in relation to that of Athens, while at the same time their military and naval resources correspondingly diminished.
It was at this time that Cimon, who had striven to maintain a balance between Sparta, the chief military, and Athens, the chief naval power, was successfully attacked by Ephialtes and Pericles.
The next important event was the serious attempt on the part of Epaminondas to challenge the Athenian naval supremacy.
There are a number of subsidiary branches of work, such as the Young People's Legion, and the Naval and Military League for work among men in the military, naval and merchant services.
SIR GEORGE ROOKE (1650-1709), English naval commander, was born near Canterbury in 1650.
And, when Henry had succeeded to the crown on the announcement of Baldwin's death, it was Villehardouin who fetched home his bride Agnes of Montferrat, and shortly afterwards commanded under him in a naval battle with the ships of Theodore Lascaris at the fortress of Cibotus.
Later in the century the rapid development of Athenian trade and naval power became a serious menace.
In 1861 the strategic importance of Taranto was recognized by the Italian government, and in 1864 a Naval Commission designated it as third maritime arsenal after Spezia and Venice.
In 1901, in addition to visitors and the naval and military forces, 18,922 Maltese spoke English, and the number has been rapidly increasing.
There are great naval docks, refitting yards, magazines and stores on the south-east side of the Grand Harbour; small vessels of war have also been built here.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
Jehan Parisot de la Valette had participated in the defence of Rhodes, and in many naval engagements.
A naval officer was placed over the police to diminish difficulties with the naval authorities and sailors.
The co-operation of naval and military authorities was obtained for the construction, at imperial expense, of the breakwater designed to save Malta from being abandoned by long and deep draft modern vessels.
It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian war of 178 B.C. (Liv.
In 1340, however, he took personal part in the great naval battle off Sluys, in which he absolutely destroyed the French navy.
Conspicuous among them were his famous combat with Eustace de Ribemont, near Calais, in 1349, and the hard-fought naval victory over the Spaniards off Winchelsea, in 1350.
Later he was made president of the commission for the settlement of Scotland, with supreme command of the military and naval forces.
In 1653 Deane was with Blake in command at the battle off Portland and later took the most prominent and active part in the refitting of the fleet on the reorganization of the naval service.
By Englishmen the term "Dutch Wars" is usually applied to the two purely naval wars of 1652-53 and 1663-67 and to the Anglo-Dutch or naval part of the war that began in 1672.
Naval Operations First Dutch War (1652-53).
Under the influence of their fear of a French naval force King Charles's ministers committed a great blunder.
Spain, unable to defend its possessions singlehanded, appealed to the Dutch for naval help. In September 1675 De Ruyter was sent into the Mediterranean with 18 sail of the line and four fire-ships.
His naval officers insisted on making prize of all Dutch-built vessels found under the English flag.
- For the English side, see Naval History of England, by Thomas Lediard (London, 1735); Memorials of Sir W.
For critical studies of these wars the reader may be referred to Naval Warfare, by Rear-admiral P. H.
In 1676 the naval successes of France in the Mediterranean enabled the corps under Marshal Vivonne in Sicily to make considerable progress, and he won an important victory at Messina on the 25th of March.
SEVASTOPOL, or Sebastopol, an important naval station of Russia on the Black Sea, on the S.W.
This village, after the Russian conquest in 1783, was selected for the chief naval station of the empire in the Black Sea and received its present name ("the August City,").
In November 1870, during the Franco-German War, the Russian government decided again to make Sevastopol a naval arsenal.
Four miles south is Fredriksvaern, formerly a station of the Norwegian fleet and the seat of a naval academy.
"CORONEL (German, Santa Maria), the name given to the naval battle fought on Nov.
He fought a brave fight, checked von Spee in his onward career, and he and his men take their place in the great roll of naval heroes.
When the Germans at Valparaiso acclaimed him a naval hero, he shook his head.
The first years of the king's rule were marked by the great schemes of Colbert for the financial, commercial, industrial and naval reorganization of France, and in these schemes Louis took a deep interest.
His military and naval enterprises were for the most part disastrous failures, and in England he was exceedingly unpopular.
In 1867 he was appointed president of the supreme military and naval tribunal.
HENRY PARRY LIDDON (1829-1890), English divine, was the son of a naval captain and was born at North Stoneham, Hampshire, on the 10th of August 1829.
Yet we find that the naval command of Sir George Nares.
CHERBOURG, a naval station, fortified town and seaport of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Manche, on the English Channel, 232 m.
Cherbourg is a fortified place of the first class, headquarters of one of the five naval arrondissements of France, and the seat of a sub-prefect.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee and a naval school.
Cherbourg derives its chief importance from its naval and commercial harbours, which are distant from each other about half a mile.
Connected with the harbour are dry docks, the yards where the largest ships in the French navy are constructed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops requisite for a naval arsenal of the first class.
There is a large naval hospital close to the harbour.
von Tirpitz's naval achievements and political activities is contained in the book which he published in 1919 under the title of Erinnerungen.
In the conduct of the naval war the official role of Tirpitz was confined to reporting and advising at general headquarters, the actual conduct and initiative in operations being in the hands of the higher command of the navy at Wilhelmshaven, subject to the Emperor's approval or veto.
His own experiences in the Reichstag, and the close contact with the political parties which his advocacy of successive naval bills had involved, made him a master of political intrigue.
Tirpitz himself maintains that his naval aspirations were directed not towards a war with Great Britain, but to the creation of a state of naval equilibrium or of German superiority, which would have enabled Germany to insist upon the unreserved cooperation of British policy in her world aims. It was probably true that Germany's policy was directed rather towards being so strong at sea as to make England unwilling to fight her unless absolutely necessary, than towards actually challenging British naval supremacy.
His resignation in 1916, and the stages of his relations with the Emperor and the Higher Naval Command which led to it, are described in his Erinnerungen with almost tragic vividness.
But he was suspicious of Sir Edward Grey's foreign policy, which he thought too slavish in its following of Lord Lansdowne; and he opposed the naval increases of the years before the World War, as the socialists in Berlin had opposed the German increases which provoked British rejoinders.
Acting as American naval agent for the many successful privateers who harried the English Channel, and for whom he skilfully got every bit of assistance possible, open and covert, from the French government, he was continually called upon for funds in these ventures.
The naval crown (corona navalis), decorated in like manner with a series of miniature prows of ships, was the reward of him who gained a notable victory at sea.
Wissmann, with 1000 soldiers, chiefly Sudanese officered by Germans, and a German naval contingent, succeeded by the end of 1889 in crushing the power of the Arabs.
The Germans raised levies of Masai and Sudanese, and brought natives from New Guinea to help in suppressing the rising, besides sending naval and military contingents from Germany.
It is garrisoned by Imperial and local troops, and is connected by railway with the naval station at Simon's Town on the east of the Cape Peninsula.
He also encountered and heavily defeated a coalition of two great naval powers of the Asiatic coast, Miletus and Lesbos.
It is more probable that the breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to support him with a naval contingent.
- Down to near the close of the republic a naval command was never held independently but only in connexion with the command of an army, and, when the general appointed an officer to command the fleet in his room, this lieutenant was styled "praefect of the fleet" (praefectus classium).
When in 311 B.C. the people took the appointment of these lieutenants into their own hands the title was changed from "praefects" to duo viri navales, or "two naval men"; but under the empire the admirals went by their old name of praefects.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
The state, however, bore her full part in the war, and much of its naval success was due to her sailors.
On the west side of the entrance to the bay is the Prussian naval port of Wilhelmshaven.
Konigsberg is a naval and military fortress of the first order.
In particular, it was rendered practicable on board ship, and its application to the manipulation of heavy naval guns and other purposes on warships was not the least important of Armstrong's achievements.
It was a typical medieval sea-fight, and accomplished the ruin of Pisa as a naval power.
In Ireland Island is situated the royal dockyard and naval establishment.
The Bermudas became an important naval and coaling station in 1869, when a large iron dry dock was towed across the Atlantic and placed in a secure position in St George, while, owing to their important strategic position in mid-Atlantic, the British government maintains a strong garrison.
Aemilius Regillus, after a naval victory over Antiochus (190 B.C.), vowed a temple in the Campus Martius, which was dedicated by M.
His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 600 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
During the Punic Wars it was still a naval port, but in the latter part of the 2nd century B.C. it became the greatest commercial harbour of Italy and we find Lucilius about 125 B.C. placing it next in importance to Delos, then the greatest harbour of the ancient world.
After the peace he held a variety of commands at sea, and was a naval commissioner from 1815 to 1817.
The outbreak of the Russian war made the commission a very long one; and on the 27th of November 1854 Hood was promoted to be commander in recognition of his service with the naval brigade before Sebastopol.
From 1862 to 1866 he commanded the "Pylades" on the North American station, and was then appointed to the command of the "Excellent" and the government of the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth.
This was essentially a gunnery appointment, and on the expiration of three years Hood was made Director of Naval Ordnance.
The establishments in 1910 consisted of thirteen regiments and fifty separate companies of infantry, two squadrons and two troops of cavalry, four light batteries, one regiment of engineers, a signal corps of two companies and a naval militia, commanded by a captain and consisting of two battalions and two separate divisions.
A naval demonstration against the Dardanelles was also made.
She continued naval operations and occupied all Turkish islands not under the Italian flag; and on Jan.
17 1913 a Greek squadron roughly handled the Turkish fleet in serious naval encounter.
Among the results were the increase of the naval contribution (first to £40,000 and then, in 1908, to £100,000), and the imposition in 1903 and again in 1907 of severe discriminating duties against imports from foreign countries.
Having been appointed naval commander-in-chief he put his crews through a course of training, until he felt in a position to meet the fleet of Pompeius.
In 36 he was victorious at Mylae and Naulochus, and received the honour of a naval crown for his services.
1918 the mutiny, which had broken out in the navy at Kiel, developed into sanguinary street fighting and the naval authorities were unable to restore order, Noske was sent to Kiel with the Democratic Secretary of State, Hausmann, and, after a conference with representatives of the sailors and dockyard workers, arranged a suspension of hostilities on the basis of the sailors', soldiers' and workmen's demands.
The founders of Megara Hyblaea settled here temporarily, according to Thucydides, in the winter of 729-728 B.C., but it seems to have remained almost if not entirely uninhabited until the Athenians used it as a naval station in their attack on Syracuse early in 414 B.C. A number of tombs were excavated in 1894, containing objects belonging to a transitional stage between the second and third Sicel period, attributable roughly to r000-goo B.C., and with a certain proportion of Mycenean importations.
Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
25 g) while crediting him with a knowledge of the conditions of naval warfare, ridicules his description of the battles of Leuctra and Mantineia as showing ignorance of the nature of land operations.
These improvements caused Galle to be abandoned as a port of call for steamers in favour of Colombo, while Trincomalee has been abandoned as a naval station.
No less than ten draft treaties were discussed in vain between August 1903 and February 1904, and finally negotiations were broken off on February 5th.1 Japan had already on the 4th decided to use force, and her military and naval preparations, unlike those of Russia, kept pace with her diplomacy.
This was in fact an eventuality which had been foreseen and on which the naval and military policy of Japan had been based for ten years.
But, though not destroyed, the Port Arthur squadron was paralysed by the instantaneous assertion of naval superiority.
The squadron nevertheless tamely returned to harbour, Togo resumed the blockade and Nogi began his advance from Nanshan, but the 2nd and 4th Armies came to a standstill at once (naval escort for their sea-borne supplies being no longer available), and the 1st Army, whose turn to advance had just arrived, only pushed ahead a few miles to cover a larger supply area.
After months of blockade and minor fighting, the Russian Port Arthur squadron had been brought to action on the 10th of Naval battle of August.
One naval narrative of absorbing interest has, however, appeared, Semenov's Rasplata (English trans.).
He was certain that war with Spain was inevitable, and he did much to prepare the navy for hostilities, framing an important personnel bill, collecting ammunition, getting large appropriations for powder and ammunition used in improving the marksmanship of the navy by gunnery practice, buying transports and securing the distribution of ships and supplies (especially in the Pacific) in such a way that, when hostilities were declared, American naval victories would be assured.
but in this office he gained an experience which was of great value in his administration of naval affairs during his presidency.
As assemblyman, as police commissioner, as naval secretary and as president, he advocated this fundamental doctrine.
The successful and dramatic voyage of the American fleet around the world, undertaken in spite of predictions of disaster made by naval experts in Europe and the United States, was conceived and inspired by him, and this single feat would alone justify the statement that no American public man had done so much since the Civil War as he to strengthen the physical power and the moral character of the United States navy.
A.) The following is a list of his principal works: - The Naval Operations of the War between Great Britain and the United States-1812-1815 (1882), written to correct the history of James; Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888), both in the American Statesmen Series; New York City (1891; revised 1895) in the Historic Towns Series; Hero Tales, from American History (1895) with H.
When Pompeius, having been defeated in a naval engagement at Naulochus by the fleet of Octavian under Agrippa, fled to Asia, Cassius went over to Antony, and took part in the battle of Actium (31).
GEORGE DEWEY (1837-), American naval officer, was born at Montpelier, Vermont, on the 26th of December 1837.
He studied at Norwich University, then at Norwich, Vermont, and graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1858.
He was with the European squadron in 1866-1867; was an instructor in the United States Naval Academy in 1868-1869; was in command of the "Narragansett" in 1870-1871 and 1872-1875, being commissioned commander in 1872; was light-house inspector in 1876-1877; and was secretary of the light-house board in 1877-1882.
Two or three associations in London supply male nurses (fees 2 to 4 guineas a week), but there appears to be only one institution, apart from the military and naval services, at which they are systematically trained - namely, the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic.
The State offers employment to nurses in the naval and military hospitals.
The Royal Naval Nursing Service is organized on much the same basis.
After the foundation of the naval station at Ravenna, it became the practice to take ship from there to Altinum, instead of following the Via Popillia round the coast, and thence to continue the journey by land.
The French' then despatched gunboats from Saigon to enforce their demands at Bangkok, and these made their way up to the capital in, spite of an attempt on the part of the Siamese naval forces to bar their way.
But neither company could restrain its agents in the East from aggressive action, and many fresh causes of dispute arose, the chief being the failure of the British to provide the naval forces required for service against the Portuguese, and the so-called "massacre of Amboyna" (q.v.) in 1623.
The hardship inflicted on the native races provoked an insurrection throughout Java, in which the Chinese settlers participated; but the Dutch maintained naval and military forces strong enough to crush all resistance, and a treaty between the company and the Susuhunan in November 1749 made them practically supreme throughout the island.
A British naval squadron arrived in the Moluccas in February 181 o and captured Amboyna, Banda, Ternate and other islands.
It was an important naval station under Spanish colonial rule, and is the principal naval station of Colombia.
1591), were well aware of the importance of securing a coast-land which would enable Poland to become a naval power.
In 1834 he was appointed governor of Greenwich hospital, where thenceforward he devoted himself with conspicuous success to the charge of the naval pensioners; in 1837 he became vice-admiral.
See Marshall, Royal Naval Biography, ii.
824) Phorcys was a king of Corsica and Sardinia, who, having been defeated by King Atlas in a naval engagement in the course of which he was drowned, was subsequently worshipped as a marine divinity.
Among the principal institutions in the state are the university of Maryland, an outgrowth of the medical college of Maryland (1807) in Baltimore, with a law school (reorganized in 1869), a dental school (1882), a school of pharmacy (1904), and, since 1907, a department of arts and science in St John's College (non-sect., opened in 1789) at Annapolis; Washington College, with a normal department (non-sect., opened in 1782) at Chestertown; Mount St Mary's College (Roman Catholic, 1808) at Emmitsburg; New Windsor College (Presbyterian, 1843) at New Windsor; St Charles College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1848) and Rock Hill College (Roman Catholic, 1857) near Ellicott City; Loyola College (Roman Catholic, 1852) at Baltimore; Western Maryland College (Methodist Protestant, 1867) at Westminster; Johns Hopkins University (nonsect., 1876) at Baltimore; Morgan College (coloured, Methodist, 1876) at Baltimore; Goucher College (Methodist, founded 1884, opened 1888) at Baltimore; several professional schools mostly in Baltimore (q.v.); the Peabody Institute at Baltimore; and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.
The naval war had been likewise fruitful of lessons for the future.
Though wooden ships were still largely employed, the ironclad even then had begun to take a commanding place, and the sailing ship at last disappeared from naval warfare.
Mines, torpedoes and submarines were all employed, and with the "Monitor" may fairly be said to have begun the application of mechanical science to the uses of naval war.
It has been said that the blockade of the Confederate coast became in the end practically impenetrable, and that every attempt of the Confederate naval forces to break out was checked at once by crushing numerical preponderance.
A naval battle was fought on the 5th of May 1864, in which the double-ender "Sassacus" most gallantly rammed the "Albemarle" and was disabled alongside her, and Smith's vessel and others, unarmoured as they were, fought the ram at close quarters.
Two naval demonstrations were made by France during the reign of Louis XIV., one by Abraham Duquesne in 1682, and the other by Marshal Jean d'Estrees in 1688, but these repressive measures were too intermittent to produce a durable effect.
Nevertheless the naval demonstrations made by Lord Exmouth in 1816, and by a combined English and French squadron in 1819, remained equally fruitless.
He could already count nearly five years' nominal service, an example of those naval abuses which he was to denounce (and to profit by) during a large part of his career.
In the House of Commons he soon made his mark as a radical, and as a denouncer of naval abuses.
In the interval he was restlessly active in parliament in denouncing naval abuses, and was also, most disastrously for himself, led into speculations on the Stock Exchange, by which he was brought at the beginning of 1814 into pressing danger of total ruin.
In 1817 he accepted the invitation of the Chileans, who were then in revolt against Spain, to take command of their naval forces, and remaining in their service until 1822 contributed largely to their success.
No one ever excelled him in daring and resource as a naval officer, but he suffered from serious defects of character, and even those who think him guiltless of the charge on which he was convicted in 1814 must feel that he had his own imprudence and want of self-command to thank for many of his misfortunes.
The Hawaiian Islands forma territory of the United States of America and are administered as such; Guam is a naval station, as is Tutuila of the Samoan Islands, where the commandant exercises the functions of governor.
BENEDETTO BRIN (1833-1898), Italian naval administrator, was born at Turin on the 17th of May 1833, and until the age of forty worked with distinction as a naval engineer.
By his initiative Italian naval industry, almost non-existent in 1873, made rapid progress.
A seven years' war followed, in which an English legion under Sir George de Lacy Evans and a naval force under Lord John Hay took part.
He held Dover successfully through the darkest hour of John's fortunes; he brought back Kent to the allegiance of Henry III.; he completed the discomfiture of the French and their allies by the naval victory which he gained over Eustace the Monk, the noted privateer and admiral of Louis, in the Straits of Dover (Aug.
He was the author of the Cretan constitution and the founder of its naval supremacy (Herodotus iii.
An institution was founded in 1780 under the name of the Bible Society, but as its sphere was restricted to soldiers and seamen the title was afterwards changed to the Naval and Military Bible Society.
One of his favourite places of resort in these years was a club of which Dr Hutton, Dr Black, Dr Adam Ferguson, John Clerk the naval tactician, Robert Adam the architect, as well as Smith himself, were original members, and to which Dugald Stewart, Professor Playfair and other eminent men were afterwards admitted.
The emperor Frederick I.'s claim of overlordship was haughtily rejected at the very outset, and his attempt to stir up Duke Bogislav of Pomerania against Denmark's vassal, Jaromir of Riigen, was defeated by Archbishop Absalon, who destroyed 465 of Bogislav's 500 ships in a naval action off Strela (Stralsund) in 1184.
Small naval schools are maintained at Campeche and Mazatlan.
CAVITE, a fortified seaport, the capital of the province of Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, and the seat of the principal Asiatic naval station of the United States, on a forked tongue of land in Manila Bay, 8 m.
The naval station proper and the old town of Cavite are on the south fork of the peninsula.
Cavite has long been the principal naval base of the Philippine Islands, and one of the four Spanish penitentiaries in the Islands was here.
officers, the attorney-general, auditor, important administrative boards, coroners and certain naval and military officers; they have power to pardon offences; and they may exercise some control over expenditure through the constitutional requirement of the governor's warrant for drawing money from the treasury.
War, declared before England had gained the naval experience and wealth of the next fifteen years, and before Spain had been weakened by the struggle in the Netherlands and the depredations of the sea-rovers, would have been a desperate expedient; and the ideas that any action on Elizabeth's part could have made France Huguenot, or prevented the disruption of the Netherlands, may be dismissed as the idle dreams of Protestant enthusiasts.
As the naval operations in connexion with the war have a European interest as well, they are dealt with in a separate section.
His left flank was thrown across the East river beyond the village of Brooklyn, while his front and right on the harbour and North or Hudson river were open to a combined naval and military attack.
In September 1 779 he was besieged by Lincoln in conjunction with a French naval and military force under Admiral d'Estaing, but successfully repelled an assault (October 9), and Lincoln again fell back to Charleston.
Failing, as stated, to achieve any advantage in the north in 1779, Sir Henry Clinton, under instructions from government, himself headed a combined military and naval expedition southward.
There he fortified himself, and remained until the American-French military and naval combination, referred to above, appeared and compelled his surrender.
Its nine chapters, prepared by different writers, give a complete review of the struggle, both military and naval, and each closes with numerous illustrative notes, editorial criticisms and a full list of authorities.
P. J.*) The naval operations of the War of Independence divide themselves naturally into two periods.
(2) During the second period the successive interventions of France, Spain and Holland extended the naval war till it ranged from the West Indies to the Bay of Bengal.
This second period lasted from the summer of 1778 to the middle of 1783, and it included both such operations as had already been in progress in America, or for the protection of commerce, and naval campaigns on a great scale carried out by the fleets of the maritime powers.
The history of the naval war from 1775 to 1778 was made up of many small operations.
The naval force at the disposal of the admirals commanding on the station, who until Lord Howe took up the command on the 12th of July 1776 were Samuel Graves and Molyneux Shuldham, was insufficient to patrol the long line of coast.
Howe at Boston, in seeking stores for the army and in supplying naval brigades.
The French government, which by the fault of the British administration was allowed to take the offensive, had three objects in view - to help the Americans, to expel the British from the West Indies and to occupy the main strength of the naval forces of Great Britain in the Channel.
The approach of winter made a naval campaign on the coast of North America dangerous.
The operations of naval forces in the New World were largely dictated by the facts that from June to October are the hurricane months in the West Indies, while from October to June includes the stormy winter of the northern coast.
During the early part of this year the naval forces in the West Indies were mainly employed in watching one another.
During the rest of the year, and part of the next, the British and French naval forces in North American waters remained at their respective headquarters, New York and Newport, watching one another.
At the close of 1779 Sir George Rodney had been appointed to command a large naval force which was to relieve Gibraltar, then closely blockaded, and send stores to Minorca.
The rambling operations of the naval war till the close of 1780 - directed by the allies to such secondary objects as the capture of West Indian islands, or of Minorca and Gibraltar, and by Great Britain to defensive movements - began to assume a degree of coherence in 1781.
The French admiral gave the allies a superiority of naval strength on the coast of Virginia, and Lord Cornwallis, the British commander, was beleaguered in Yorktown.
A naval engagement of a very feeble kind took place on the 10th of August in the Bay of Bengal, between the British naval officer in command and M.
But his capture of Trincomalee in July 1782 in spite of Sir Edward Hughes, and the heavy loss he inflicted on the British fleet in several of the actions he fought, constitute the most honourable part of the French naval operations in the war.
The Influence of Sea Power upon History, by Captain Mahan, gives the best critical examination of the naval aspects of the war.
Lincoln, Naval Records of the American Revolution (Washington, 1906); and Edward Field, Esek Hopkins, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolution (Providence, R.I., 1898).
For details of actions the reader may be referred to Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 to 1783 (London, 1804), and to Sir W.
of Waukegan, there is a United States Naval Training Station.
KRONSTADT or CRONSTADT, a strongly fortified seaport town of Russia, the chief naval station of the Russian fleet in the northern seas, and the seat of the Russian admiralty.
Among other public buildings are the naval hospital, the British seaman's hospital (established in 1867), the civic hospital, admiralty (founded 1785), arsenal, dockyards and foundries, school of marine engineering, the cathedral of St Andrew, and the English church.
The Chilean government has established its chief naval depot here.
The command in chief of all naval and military forces is vested in the king, but their control rests with the federal parliament.
The naval forces, consisting of a fisheries protection service, are under the minister of marine and fisheries, the land forces under the minister of militia and defence.
The chief executive authority is vested in the sovereign, as is the supreme command g p of the military and naval forces.
Near the north-east extremity of the island, and almost facing the entrance of the Gulf of Pagasae, is the promontory of Artemisium, celebrated for the great naval victory gained by the Greeks over the Persians, 480 B.C. Towards the centre, to the N.E.
Aquileia; it became a naval station and, probably, the seat of the correctorVenetiarum et Histriae; a mint was established here, the coins of which are very numerous, and the bishop obtained the rank of patriarch.
Sir Murray Maxwell (1775-1831), a naval officer, gained much fame by his conduct when his ship the "Alceste" was wrecked in Gaspar Strait in 1817.
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