As a piece of writing the vivid narratives are without an equal.
The existence of " high places " is presupposed in those two ancient codes and is also presumed in the narratives of the documents E and J which contain them.
This story is open to grave suspicion, as, apart from the miracles recorded, there are wide discrepancies between the secular Portuguese histories and the narratives written or inspired by Jesuit chroniclers of the 17th century.
(which Budde, Moore and other critics consider to belong to the two sources of the narratives in Judges, viz.
Opinion is at variance regarding the patriarchal narratives as a whole.
The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
He published much, and left many valuable papers at his death, most of which, together with many other narratives, were published in 1622 in the great work of the Rev. Samuel Purchas, entitled Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes.
The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
The works of Dampier are especially valuable, and the narratives of William Funnell and Lionel Wafer furnished the best accounts then extant of the Isthmus of Darien.
Deuteronomy, where the several sources of the narratives are described.
The narratives of the conquest of England use both the Norman and the French names to express the followers of William.
Although it is difficult to determine the true historical kernel, two features are most prominent in the narratives which the post-exilic compiler has incorporated: the revelation of Yahweh, and the movement into Palestine.
The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
To combine the heterogeneous narratives and isolated statements into a consecutive account is impossible; to ignore those which conflict with the now predominating views would be unmethodical.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
The oldest narratives are not in their original contexts, and they contain features which render it questionable whether a very trustworthy recollection of the period was retained.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
Many attempts have been made to present a satisfactory sketch of the early history and to do justice to (a) the patriarchal narratives, (b) the exodus from Egypt and the Israelite invasion, and (c) the rise of the monarchy.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
the results of excavation), and with any careful inspection of the narratives themselves.
The varied narratives, now due to Judaean editors, preserve distinct points of view, and it is extremely difficult to unravel the threads and to determine their relative position in the history.
Without sufficient external and independent evidence wherewith to interpret in the light of history the internal features of the intricate narratives, any reconstruction would naturally be hazardous, and all attempts must invariably be considered in the light of the biblical evidence itself, the date of the Israelite exodus, and the external conditions.
The most suggestive study of the pre-monarchical narratives is that of E.
But the history of (north) Israel had naturally its own independent political backgrounds and the literary sources contain the same internal features as the annals and prophetic narratives which are already met with in 1 Samuel.
Similarly the thread of the Judaean annals in Kings is also found in 2 Samuel, although the supplementary narratives in Kings are not so rich or varied as the more popular records in the preceding books.
The scanty details of these important events must naturally be contrasted with the comparatively full accounts of earlier Philistine wars and internal conflicts in narratives which date from this or even a later age.
1 A number of narratives illustrate the 1 See Jew.
In the present narratives, however, the stories in which he possesses influence with king and court are placed before the rise of Jehu, and some of them point to a state of hostility with Damascus before he foresees the atrocities which Hazael will perpetrate.
The bearing of this displacement upon the literary and historical criticism of the narratives has never been worked out.
The Judaean narratives do not allow us to fill the gap or to determine whether Judaean policy under the regent Jehoiada would be friendly or hostile to Israel, or whether Judaean nobles may have severed the earlier bond of union.
Several of the situations can be more vividly realized from the narratives of Syrian wars ascribed to the time of Omri's dynasty, even if these did not originally refer to the later period.
Syria must have resumed warfare with redoubled energy, and a state of affairs is presupposed which can be pictured with the help of narratives that deal with similar historical situations.
Their narratives can be partially supplemented from other sources (Haggai; Zechariah i.
3), all the facts cannot be gathered from the narratives.
Next, since there are three distinct sources, for (a) above, and for the work of Nehemiah and of Ezra, implicit reliance cannot be placed upon the present sequence of narratives.
Daniel, Esther, i Esdras, Josephus), the historical narratives are of the scantiest and vaguest until the time of Artaxerxes, when the account of a return (Ezra iv.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
Narratives (1905), p. 35 8 seq.
This hierarchical government, which can find no foundation in the Hebrew monarchy, is the forerunner of the Sanhedrin (q.v.); it is an institution which, however inaugurated, set its stamp upon the narratives which have survived.
The " priestly " traditions of the creation and of the patriarchs mark a very distinct advance upon the earlier narratives, and appear in a further developed form in the still later book of Jubilees, or " Little Genesis," where they are used to demonstrate the pre-Mosaic antiquity of the priestly or Levitical institutions.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
See Captain Cook's Voyages and other early narratives; Martin, Mariner's account of the Tonga Islands (Edinburgh, 1827); Vason, Four Years in Tongatabu (London, 1815); A.
Lemoine, La Gueronniere and extracts from Joseph Weber's memoirs; and Memoires de Marie Therese duchesse d'Angouleme, comprising extracts from the narratives of Charles Goret (Mon Temoignage, 1852), of C. F.
It even appears from a study of the Greek text that some copies of the books of Samuel incorporated narratives which other copies did not acknowledge.
The interest of the narratives is now directed away from the Philistines to the decaying fortunes of Saul's house.
In the preceding account the biblical narratives have been followed as closely as possible in the light of the critical results generally accepted.
That they have been affected by the growth of popular tradition is patent from the traces of duplicate narratives, from the difficulty caused, for example, by the story of Goliath, and from a closer study of the chapters.
There are gaps in the narratives, and the further back we proceed the more serious do their difficulties become.
Such at least is the impression which the narratives convey.
This same magnanimity towards the survivors of Saul's house has left its mark upon many of the narratives, and helps to a truer understanding of the stories of his early life.
3 Opinion will differ, however, as to the extent to which later ideals have influenced the narratives upon which the student of Hebrew history and religion is dependent, and how far the reigns of David and Solomon altered the face of Hebrew history.
" David "; and (on the romantic element in the narratives) Luther in Ed.
In his explanation of the Gospel narratives Paulus sought to remove what other interpreters regarded as miracles from the Bible by distinguishing between the fact related and the author's opinion of it, by seeking a naturalistic exegesis of a narrative, e.g.
In this Handbuch Paulus really contributed much to a true interpretation of the Gospel narratives.
Hitherto mention has chiefly been made of works on general ornithology, but it will be understood that these were largely aided by the enterprise of travellers, and as there were many of them who published their narratives in separate forms their contributions have to be considered.
G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.
The narratives of miracles are woven into the very texture of this representation.
The miracles recorded of Elijah and Elisha lie somewhat apart from the main currents of the history, the narratives themselves are distinct from the historical works in which they have been incorporated, and the character of some of the actions raises serious doubts and difficulties.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
- In dealing with the literature of the Crusades, it is perhaps better, though ideally less scientific, to begin with chronicles and narratives rather than with documents.
Chronicles and Narratives of the Crusades - (1) Collections.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
His book might almost be called the "Visions of Peter Bartholomew and others," and it is written in the plain matter-of-fact manner of Defoe's narratives.
Later religious practice was undoubtedly opposed to that of earlier times, and attempts were made to correct narratives containing views which had come to be regarded as contrary to the true worship of Yahweh.
There is little doubt that some redundant narratives in the Ring were of earlier conception than the four complete dramas, and that their survival is due partly to Wagner's natural affection for work on which he had spent pains, and partly to a dim notion that (like Browning's method in The Ring and the Book) they might serve to reveal the story afresh in the light of each character.
Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
" If the law simply consists of ordinary expressions and narratives, such as the words of Esau, Hagar, Laban, the ass of Balaam or Balaam himself, why should it be called the law of truth, the perfect law, the true witness of God ?
There appears to have been originally considerable variety in the mode of keeping the Passover, but the earliest mention in the historical narratives (Josh.
Of the many interesting and valuable narratives and descriptions of Minnesota.
The Biblical narratives reveal traces of a considerable development in the traditions regarding this sacred object, and those which furnish the most complete detail are of post-exilic date when the original ark had been lost.
Mark's narratives of the sepulture by Joseph of Arirathea and of the empty tomb are taken as posterior to St Paul; the narratives of the infancy in Matthew and Luke as later still.
The variations in the story of the defeat of Aliscans or the Archant, and the numerous inconsistencies of the narratives even when considered separately have occupied many critics.
In 1837 he founded the Panorama in imitation of the English Penny Magazine, and there and in Illustracdo he published the historical tales which were afterwards collected into Lendas e Narratives; in the same year he became royal librarian at the Ajuda Palace, which enabled him to continue his studies of the past.
The Arvizonyv or " Inundation Book," edited by Eotvos (1839-1841), is a collection of narratives and poems by the most celebrated authors of the time.
As his design took shape he expanded the supernatural element and made the narratives autobiographical.
p. 21 seq.) endeavours to claim a higher value for the narratives about Gurya, Shamona and Habbibh, on the ground that these have left more trace in the later literature; but it is to be feared that all five martyrdoms are turned out in the same legendary mould.
It has been hinted that Lamartine's personal narratives are doubtfully trustworthy; with regard to his Eastern travels some of the episodes were stigmatized as mere inventions.
Stow, Remarks on London and Westminster (1722); Robert Seymour (John Mottley), Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster (1 734, another edition 1753); William Maitland, History of London (1 739, other editions 1756, 1760, 1769, continued by John Entick 1775); John Entick, A New and Accurate History of London, Westminster, Southwark (1766); The City Remembrancer, Narratives of the Plague 1665, Fire 1666 and Great Storm 1703 (1769); A New and Compleat History and Survey, by a Society of Gentlemen (1770, revised by H.
He has, however, independent narratives of the visit of Jesus to Nazareth (iv.
Concordia discors pointed out the absurdity of the constant tendency to multiply oaths, while "remonstrances," "narratives," "queries," "prescriptions," "vindications," "declarations" and "statements" were scattered broadcast.
His narratives are detailed and often tinged with romance, and he is certainly much inferior to Wagidi in accuracy.
896), entitled The aong Narratives, has been edited by Girgas (1887).
Before her time there had been many monogatari (narratives), but all consisted merely of short stories, mythical or quasi-historical, whereas Murasaki no Shikibu did for Japan what Fielding and Richardson did for England.
This difference is probably explained by the fact that the idea of thus modifying the Kagura had its origin in musical recitations from the semi-romantic semi-historical narratives of the 14th century.
Gregory of Nyssa's untrustworthy panegyric represents him as having wrought miracles of a very startling description; but nothing related by him comes near the astounding narratives given in the Martyrologies, or even in the Breviarium Romanum, in connexion with his name.
An edition of Defoe's Romances and Narratives in sixteen volumes by G.
He still, however, held the accepted view, that the Elohistic narratives formed part of the Grundschrift and therefore belonged to the oldest portions of the Pentateuch.
The reasons urged against the contention that the priestly legislation and the Elohistic narratives were separated by a space of 500 years were so strong as to induce Graf, in an essay, "Die sogenannte Grundschrift des Pentateuchs," published shortly before his death, to regard the whole Grundschrift as post-exilic and as the latest portion of the Pentateuch.
A more discriminating light is thrown upon him by the New Testament narratives of the trial of Jesus.
His two extant works are more valuable as artistic studies of the rival parties in the state and of personal character than as trustworthy narratives of facts.
A certain animus against Joab's family thus seems to underlie some of the popular narratives of the life of David (q.v.).
Another tradition places the expulsion of Hagar after the birth of Isaac. It was thirteen years after the birth of Ishmael, according to the latest narratives, that God appeared unto Abram with a renewed promise that his posterity should inhabit the land.
The narratives, viewed dispassionately, represent him as an idealized sheikh (with one important exception, Gen.
The route along the banks of the Euphrates from south to north was so frequently taken by migrating tribes that the tradition has nothing improbable in itself, but the prominence given in the older narratives to the view that Haran was the home gives this the preference.
3 But it is important to remember that the narratives are not contemporary, and that the interesting discovery of the name Abi-ramu (Abram) on Babylonian contracts of about 2000 B.C. does not prove the Abram of the Old Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that there were "Amorites" in Babylonia at the same period does not make it certain that the patriarch was one of their number.
For a contemporary account of Simnel's imposture, see Polydore Vergil, Anglicae historiae, to which all the later narratives are indebted.
- The narratives of Burton, Livingstone, Cameron and Stanley; E.
On the characteristic narratives which appear to have originated in Ephraim (viz.
Though he usually abridges, he occasionally amplifies arbitrarily the narratives of his authorities.
12-26) 3; the character of the name-lists; the lengthy gaps in the history; the use made of two distinct sources, attributed to Ezra and Nehemiah respectively, and from the varying form in which the narratives are cast.
It should be noticed that the present order of the narratives involves the theory that some catastrophe ensued after Ezr.
Narratives, p. 379).
3 Nehemiah's attitude towards intermarriage is markedly moderate in contrast to the drastic measures of Ezra, whose mission and work the simpler and perhaps earlier narratives of Nehemiah originally ignored, and the relation between the two is complicated further by the literary character of the memoir of Ezra.
Thus other hands apart from the compiler of Chronicles may have helped to shape the narratives, either before their union with that book or after their separation.2 The present intricacy is also due partly to specific historical theories regarding the post-exilic period.
Narratives, pp. 32, 369.
Narratives of the various explorers mentioned: E.
This fluctuation, due partly to the different circles in which the biblical narratives took shape, and partly to definite reshaping of the traditions of the past, seriously complicates all attempts to combine the early history of Israel with the external evidence.
Dorsey, again, draws a distinction between lore narratives, which can be rehearsed without fasting or prayer, and rituals which require the most rigid preparation.
It need hardly be said that the exact accuracy of such narratives is not an essential part of the Christian faith; no such doctrine is laid down by the creeds and confessions.
The chief significance of the Balaam narratives for the history of the religion of Israel is the recognition by J and E of the genuine inspiration of a non-Hebrew prophet.
Taking the narratives as we now have them, Balaam is a companion figure to Jonah, the prophet who wanted to go where he was not sent, over against the prophet who ran away from the mission to which he was called.
In confirmation of this view, it may be noted that the authority of Herodotus for the circumstances of the great Persian war, and for all local and other details which come under his immediate notice, is accepted by even the most sceptical of modern historians, and forms the basis of their narratives.
It will then apply the tests thus gained to the narratives special to this Gospel; and point out the book's special difficulties and limits, and its abiding appeal and greatness.
Both narratives are doubtless based upon actual occurrences - the cures narrated in Mark ii., iii., viii., x.
The materials for the allegory will have been certain Old Testament narratives, but especially the Synoptic accounts of Jesus' raisings of Jairus's daughter and of the widow's son (Mark v.; (Luke vii.).
Thus Philo had, in his life of Moses, allegorized the Pentateuchal narratives so as to represent him as mediator, saviour, intercessor of his people, the one great organ of revelation, and the soul's guide from the false lower world into the upper true one.
Other firsthand narratives of importance are the American officers' reports (Reports of Military Observers, General Staff, U.S.A.); Major v.
Of detailed military histories the principal are the semi-official series of narratives and monographs produced by the Austrian military journal " Streffleur " (Einzelschriften fiber den russ.-japanischen Krieg); the volumes of lectures delivered at the Russian Staff College after the war, French translation (Conferences sur la guerre russo-japonaise faites it l'Academie Nicolas); British official History of the RussoJapanese War (1907-); German official Russisch japanischer Krieg (1906 -; English translation by K.
140, Mark, who was the follower and interpreter of Peter, recorded after the latter's decease the words of Christ and the narratives of His deeds which he had heard the Apostle deliver, but he could not arrange the matter "in order," because he had not himself been a personal follower of Jesus.
Moreover, a tendency to amplitude of language may be noticed here and there in some of the more concise narratives.
This is highly improbable, but he may have derived particular sayings from the Aramaic source itself of that document by independent translation; and may also have learned both sayings and narratives in other ways.
7); nor again merely in the prominence given to the miracles of Jesus and in particular to the casting out of devils, but also in many of the sayings recorded in it, as in the great series contained in the narratives in ch.
It was the opinion of Bertheau, Keil and others, that the parallelisms of Chronicles with Samuel and Kings are sufficiently explained by the ultimate common source from which both narratives drew.
In particular, Chronicles agrees with Kings in those short notes of the moral character of individual monarchs which can hardly be ascribed to an earlier hand than that of the redactor of the latter book.2 For the criticism of the book it is important to institute a careful comparison of Chronicles with the parallel narratives in Samuel-Kings.
That the lost source of the Chronicles was not independent of these works appears probable both from the nature of the case and from the close and often verbal parallelism between many sections of the two Biblical narratives.
In addition to such supplementary information, another tendency of the chronicler is the alteration of narratives that do not agree with the later doctrines of the uniformity of religious institutions before and after the exile.
is an excellent specimen of the redaction to which older narratives were submitted; cf.
Although in their present form the additional narratives are in the chronicler's style, it is not necessary to deny an older traditional element which may have been preserved in sources now lost to us.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Robertson Smith's article in the 9th ed.
These post-Deuteronomic narratives preserve older material, but with several traces of revision, so that 1 Kings i.
It is now generally recognized in histories of the Old Testament that a proper estimate of Solomon's reign cannot start from narratives which represent the views of Deuteronomic writers, although, in so far as late narratives may rest upon older material more in accordance with the circumstances of their age, attempts are made to present reconstructions from a combination of various elements.
There he was already revered as a saint, and whatever credit may be given to some portions of the narratives of his biographers, there can be no doubt as to the wonderful influence which he exercised, as to the holiness of his life, and as to the love which he uniformly manifested to God and to his neighbour.
These narratives are supplemented by the brief but most valuable notices given by the Venerable Bede.
It is more than a collection of narratives; it is a science, "the science of man in his political character."
- Ptolemy and other ancient geographers describe the Malay Archipelago, or part of it, in vague and inaccurate terms, and the traditions they preserved were supplemented in the middle ages by the narratives of a few famous travellers, such as Ibn Batuta, Marco Polo, Odoric of Pordenone and Niccolo Conti.
These poems, which are older, and in most cases considerably older, than the narratives in which they are now embedded, if they were collected into books, must have been fairly numerous, and we could wish that more examples of them had been preserved.
Sometimes, for instance, the excerpts from the older documents form long and complete narratives; in other cases (as in the account of the Flood) they consist of a number of short passages, taken alternately from two older narratives, and dovetailed together to make a continuous story; in the books of Judges and Kings the compiler has fitted together a series of older narratives in a framework supplied by himself; the Pentateuch and book of Joshua (which form a literary whole, and are now often spoken of together as the Hexateuch) have passed through more stages than the books just mentioned, and their literary structure is more complex.
For this purpose he selected extracts from the two narratives, " J " and " E," and combined them together into a single narrative, introducing in some places additions of his own.
Most of the bestknown narratives of the patriarchal and Mosaic ages belong to " JE."
From an historical point of view it is characteristic of these additions that they generalize Joshua's successes, and represent the conquest of Canaan, effected under his leadership, as far more complete than the earlier narratives allow us to suppose was the case.
The compiler will not have written before c. 600 B.C.; the narratives incorporated by him will in most cases have been considerably earlier.
They consist of a series of narratives, or groups of narratives, dealing with the lives of these three men, arranged by a compiler, who, however, unlike the compilers of Judges and Kings, rarely allows his own hand to appear.
Some of these narratives are to all appearance nearly contemporary with the events that they describe (e.g.
A number of narratives, evidently written by prophets, and in many of which also (as those relating to Elijah, Elisha and Isaiah) prophets play a prominent part, and a series of short statistical notices, relating to political events, and derived probably from the official annals of the two kingdoms (which are usually cited at the end of a king's reign), have been arranged together, and sometimes expanded at the same time, in a framework supplied by the compiler.
Some of the reports of Jeremiah's pro phecies, and especially the biographical narratives, also probably have Baruch for their author.
But the chronological disorder of the book, and other indications, show that Baruch could not have been the compiler of the book, but that the prophecies and narratives contained in it were collected together gradually, and that it reached its present form by a succession of stages, which were not finally completed till long after Israel's return from Babylon.
consist of narratives, constructed no doubt upon a traditional basis, of the experiences of Daniel at the Babylonian court, between 605 and 538 B.C., with the design of illustrating how God, in times of trouble, defends and succours His faithful servants.
For examples of narratives which are his composition see 1 Chr.
Hobbes, drew attention in particular to the confused mixture of law and narrative in the Pentateuch, the occurrence of duplicate narratives and chronological incongruities.
(ii.) There is a healthy tendency to lay stress on the historical value of narratives which proceed from eye-witnesses.
The characteristic of the rationalists was the attempt to explain away the New Testament miracles as coincidences or naturally occurring events, while at the same time they held as tenaciously as possible to the accuracy of the letter of the New Testament narratives.
2 Besides the Gospel of Mark these Evangelists made use of another document, now lost, which contained many sayings of Jesus and some narratives not found in Mark.
- For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).
Again, in the story of Micah's shrine and the removal of the sacred objects and the Levite priest by the Danites, parallel narratives have been used: the graven and molten images of Judg.
15) which are quoted for the lives of Solomon, Abijah and Jeroboam, are evidently quite distinct from the sources cited in the parallel portions of the earlier compilation, and the entire spirit of the narratives is different.
It is now recognized that the compiler of the former has used many novel narratives of a particular edifying and didactic stamp, and scholars are practically unanimous that these are subsequent to the age of the Israelite monarchy and present a picture of historical and religious conditions which (to judge from earlier sources) is untrustworthy.
The religious significance of the past is dominant, and the past is idealized from a later standpoint; and whether the narratives in Chronicles are expressly styled Midrash or not, they are the fruit of an age which sought to inculcate explicitly those lessons which, it conceived, were implied in the events of the past.
allied to Deut., especially the secondary portions); and there are many relatively early narratives in which the details have been modified, and the heroes of the past are the mouthpiece for the thought of a later writer or of his age.
Accordingly, when there are narratives which cannot be tested in this manner, should they show all the internal marks of didactic expansion and date from an age much later than the times with which they deal, their immediate value will not necessarily lie in the details which appear to be of historical interest, but in their contribution to later forms of tradition and phases of thought.
The rigid line between fact or fiction in religious literature, which readers often wish to draw, cannot be consistently justified, and in studying old Oriental religious narratives it is necessary to realize that the teaching was regarded as more essential than the method of presenting it.
3 But the enthusiastic bands of prophets are nowhere mentioned before the time of Samuel; and in the whole previous history the word prophet occurs very rarely, never in the very oldest narratives, and always in that sense which we know to be later than the age of Samuel, so that the use of the term is due to writers of the age of the kings, who spoke of ancient things in the language of their own day.
Clear indications of a primitive magical modus operandi appear as survivals in the narratives of the pre-exilian prophets.
As regards the effects of his subsequent remorse and the use to which his ill-gotten gains were put, the strikingly apparent discrepancies between the narratives of Matt.
Dietrich, iElfric's most competent biographer (Niedner's, Zeitschrift fiir historische Theologie, 1855-1856), looks upon the Pentateuch, Joshua and Judges as a continuation of his Lives of Saints, including as they do in a series of narratives the Old Testament saints.
It need mean no more (Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion, 172 seq.) than narratives of (or concerning) the Lord; on the other hand, the phrase is capable of a much more definite meaning, and there are many scholars who hold that it refers to a document which contained a collection of the sayings of Jesus.
These leading narratives are supplemented by Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, chap. 38 (247 Lappenberg) of book iv.
de Costa, Pre-Columbian Discovery of America by the Northmen (Albany, 1901); and Original Narratives of Early American History; The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, pp. 1 -66 (New York, 1906).
67, adds that the faithful both of town and country met for the rite on Sunday, that the prophets were read as well as the gospels, that the president after the reading delivered an exhortation to imitate in their lives the goodly narratives; and that each brought offerings to the president out of which he aided orphans and widows, the sick, the prisoners and strangers sojourning with them.
These narratives are full of much valuable evidence regarding marriage customs, pastoral life and duties, popular beliefs and traditions, and are evidently typical of what was currently retailed.
Consequently, it would appear that these extremely elevated and richly developed narratives of Jacob-Israel embody, among a number of other features, a recollection of two distinct traditions of migration which became fused among the Israelites.
Careful criticism of the narratives 3 has resulted in the separation of later accretions from the earliest records, and the tracing of the elaboration of older traditions under the influence of developing religious and social institutions.
The value of all such evidence will naturally depend largely upon the estimate formed of the biblical narratives, but it is necessary to observe that these have not yet found Egyptian testimony to support them.
Although the information which has been brought to bear upon Egyptian life and customs substantiates the general accuracy of the local colouring in some of the biblical narratives, the latter contain several inherent improbabilities, and whatever future research may yield, no definite trace of Egyptian influence has so far been found in Israelite institutions.
But although the evidence of the Amarna tablets might thus support the biblical tradition in its barest outlines, the view in question, if correct, would necessitate the rejection of a great mass of the biblical narratives as a whole.
Regarded simply as a journey from Egypt into Palestine it is the most probable of occurrences: the difficulty arises from the actual narratives.
But this list of forty names, corresponding to the years of wandering, is from a post-exilic source, and may be based merely upon a knowledge of caravan-routes; even if it be of older origin, it is of secondary value since it represents a tradition differing notably from that in the earlier narratives themselves, and these on inspection confirm Judg.
They are closely related, as regards subject matter, &c., to the narratives in Num.
The forty years of wandering in the wilderness is characteristic of the Deuteronomic and post-exilic narratives; in the earlier sources the fruitful oasis of Kadesh is the centre, and even after the tradition of a detour to Sinai-Horeb was developed, only a brief period is spent at the holy mountain.
Thus, whatever evidence may be supplied by archaeological research, the problem of the Exodus must always be studied in the light of the biblical narratives.
During the centuries in which the narratives were taking shape many profound changes occurred to affect the traditions.
His purpose was, as Otto Pfleiderer says, "to connect the metaphysical ideas, which had been arrived at by means of philosophical dialectic, directly with the persons and events of the Gospel narratives, thus raising these above the region of ordinary experience into that of the supernatural, and regarding the most absurd assertions as philosophically justified.
Even the position of the Solomon Islands was now in uncertainty, for the Spaniards, fearing lest they should lose the benefits expected to accrue from these discoveries, kept secret the narratives of Mendana and Quiros.
Absalom was now the eldest surviving son of David, and the present position of the narratives (xv.-xx.)- after the birth of Solomon and before the struggle between Solomon and Adonijah - may represent the view that the suspicion that he was not the destined heir of his father's throne excited the impulsive youth to rebellion.
On the narratives in 2 Sam.
This source has supplied the Synoptic Outline, and in the main also the narratives common to all three.
But some have maintained that the source in question also contained a good many narratives, and in order to avoid any premature assumption as to its contents and character several recent critics have named it " Q."
This history, while suffering from the limitations of all contemporaneous narratives, contains much that does not exist elsewhere, and is one of the best-known sources for the later histories of Napoleon's reign.
The chief literature of all the heretical sects throughout the ages has been that of apocryphal Biblical narratives, and the popes Jeremiah or Bogumil are directly mentioned as authors of such forbidden books "which no orthodox dare read."
Deists, though raising doubts regarding the historic narratives of the Christian faith, had never disputed the general fact that belief in one God was natural and primitive.
Giinsburg, Pressburg, 1842), in which he followed Moses Maimonides in explaining biblical narratives as visions.
The detailed narratives, however, give conflicting views of the exodus and the conquest of Palestine.
Icelandic literature consists mainly of the so-called "sagas," or prose narratives, and is rich in historical lore.
In the case of the Vinland sagas, however, there are two independent narratives of the same events, which clash in the record of details.
Modern investigators have been interested in establishing the superiority of one over the other of the two narratives.
(Reeves's Finding of Wineland contains fine photographs of all the vellum pages that give the various Vinland narratives.) According to Flatey Book saga, Biarni Heriulfsson, on a voyage from Iceland to Greenland in the early days of the Greenland colony, was driven out of his course and sighted new lands to the south-west.
Olson and others, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503 (New York, 1906), the first volume of Original Narratives of Early American History.
7); it views the stormy period before the institution of the kingship through the softening atmosphere of time, which imparts to the scene a gentle sweetness very different from the harsher colours of the old narratives of the book of Judges.
It is true that the language has some features which appear to link it with the narratives in Samuel and Kings, but it might fairly be assumed either that the book is the work of a late author well acquainted with the earlier literature, or that an old narrative had undergone some rewriting at a later age.
One does not look for absolute consistency in oriental narratives, and even this little book contains several internal intricacies which demand investigation.
According to the Old Testament narratives, however, Ahab with 7000 troops had previously overthrown Ben-hadad and his thirty-two kings, who had come to lay siege to Samaria, and in the following year obtained a remarkable victory over him at Aphek, probably in the plain of Sharon (1 Kings xx.).
The narratives are as entertaining as any novel.
The Gospel narratives are unanimous in describing Peter as one of the first disciples of Christ, and from the time of his call he seems to have been present at most of the chief incidents in the narrative.
- The consideration of this point brings one into touch with the two rival traditions as to the conduct of the disciples after the betrayal and crucifixion of the Lord - the Galilean and the Jerusalem narratives.
There is one incident which must in any case be accepted as it is found in both narratives.
Attempts to reconcile these two narratives seem to be found in Matthew and in John xxi.
From the mass of material comprised in the Koran - and the account we have given is far from exhaustive - we should select the histories of the ancient prophets and saints Narratives.
Other narratives are intended rather for amusement, although they are always well seasoned with edifying phrases.
But the deviations from the Biblical narratives are very marked.
To begin with what we are most competent to criticize, let us look at some of the more extended narratives.
Some are so sober and realistic as to make it doubtful whether they are not true biographies and narratives of actual events.
6), but the two narratives were probably combined by R P before they were transferred to their present position.
we have again two narratives of the sin of the people and of Moses' intercession, while in ch.
The confusion introduced into the legislation by later additions, with the consequent displacement of earlier material, has not been without effect on the narratives belonging to the different sources.
It is a plausible conjecture that the original narratives of J and E also contained directions for the construction of an ark,' as a substitute for the personal presence of Yahweh, and also for the erection of a "tent of meeting" outside the camp, and that these commands were omitted by R P in favour of the more elaborate instructions given in ch.
The Histoire de Charles VII by Jean Chartier, historiographer-royal from 1437, was included in the Grandes Chroniques de Saint-Denis, and was first printed under Chartier's name by Denis Godefroy, together with other contemporary narratives, in 1661.
See also the conciser narratives in C. de Franceschi's L'Istria, chap. 37 (Parenzo, 1879); and T.
suggest that fuller details of the events were once preserved, and the narratives in Jer.
The place which Elisha filled in contemporary history was one of great influence and importance, and several narratives testify to his great reputation in Israel.
During the forty-five years which the chronological scheme allows for the reigns of Jehu and Jehoahaz the narratives contain no notice of Elisha, but from the circumstances of his death (xiii.
On the narratives, see Kings.
12); and it is to this group of narratives that the ascension of Elijah forms the introduction" (Robertson Smith, Ency.
This twofold representation finds a parallel in the narratives of Samuel, whose history and the conditions reflected therein are analogous to the life and times of Elisha.
These narratives are said to be used by military students in Germany, and at least convince the non-military student that he can understand the story.
After the 4th century, monks and nuns begin to form no inconsiderable part of the pilgrimages - a fact which is especially manifest from the numerous notices to be found in Jerome, and the narratives of Theodoret in the Historia religiosa.
Pfleiderer says the errors of Reimarus were that he ignored historical and literary criticism, sources, date, origin, &c., of documents, and the narratives were said to be either purely divine or purely human.
Literary criticism has analysed the documents, and has already established some important results; and many questions are still in debate, the answers to which must affect our judgment of the historical value of the existing narratives.
Accordingly so much of St Mark's Gospel has been taken over word for word in the Gospels of St Luke and St Matthew that, if every copy of it had perished, we could still reconstruct large portions of it by carefully comparing their narratives.
We cannot say by our present method of determination, how this document closed; for in the narratives of the Passion and the Resurrection St Matthew and St Luke only coincide in passages which they have taken from St Mark.
There can be little doubt that much more of it is embedded in St Luke's Gospel, and something more also in St Matthew's; but in order to stand on firm ground we have considered thus far only those portions which both of these writers elected to use in composing their later narratives.
If these two narratives served the first needs of Christian believers, it is easy to see that they would presently stimulate further activity in the same direction.
The two narratives are in agreement as to the central fact of the Virgin-birth.
St John's narratives are in large part personal memories, and in more than one incident he himself figures as the unnamed disciple " whom Jesus loved."
It may have been a part of St John's purpose to give this explanation, and to make other supplements or corrections where earlier narratives appeared to him incomplete or misleading.
Moreover, in the light of these moves and countermoves one must interpret the isolated or incomplete narratives of Hebrew history.
It reveals itself in the days of the Patriarchs, before the " Amarna " age - or rather in the narratives relating to these remote ancestors.
The scanty political data in the annalistic notices of the north kingdom are supplemented by more detailed narratives of a few years leading up to the rise of the last dynasty, that of Jehu.
Old tradition suggests the " schools of the prophets " at Jericho, Gilgal and Bethel, and in fact the proximity of these places, especially Bethel, to Judaean soil may be connected with the friendly and sometimes markedly favourable attitude to Judah in these narratives.
The interest of the narratives clings around north Judah and Benjamin, and more attention is given to the rise of the Judaean dynasty, the hostility of Saul, and the romantic friendship between his son Jonathan and the young David of Bethlehem.
6-xvi.); and (3) an appendix containing two narratives of the period.
From this point of view the parts of the book are by no means all of equal value; critical analysis shows that often parallel or distinct narratives have been fused together, and that, whilst the older stories gave more prominence to ordinary human motives and combinations, 1 This is confirmed by the circumstance that in Judg.
The intimate relation between it and the separate narratives (Josh.
The narratives of the monarchy which are preserved only in Chronicles, on the other hand, illustrate the manner in which tradition was reshaped and rewritten under the influence of a later religious standpoint.
Grouped among these narratives are the five so-called "minor judges" (x.
2-14, 1 It may be conjectured that the introduction originally formed the prelude to the rise of Saul: the intervening narratives, though not necessarily of late origin themselves, having been subsequently inserted.
Historical Value.-The book of Judges consists of a number of narratives collected by Deuteronomic editors; to the same circles are due accounts of the invasions of Palestine and settlement in Joshua, and of the foundation of the monarchy in I Samuel.
This prejudice, establishing itself in familiar speech, has descended from antiquity to modern times, colouring, when it does not distort, the narratives of biographers and the criticisms of commentators.
India to the east of the Indus was first made known in Europe by the historians' and men of science who accompanied Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. Their narratives, although now lost, are condensed in Strabo, Pliny and Arrian.
Her torture, disputed by Jardine, Lingard and others, is substantiated not only by her own narrative, but by two contemporary chronicles, and by a contemporary letter (ibid.; Narratives of the Reformation, p. 305; Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Ser.
155, 167-169; Narratives of the Reformation, passim; Gough's Index to Parker Soc. Publications; Burnet's Hist.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.