There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states in Italy.
For the chief events of the ensuing campaigns see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.
There are also several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic era.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with an excellent bibliography, London, 1904); Correspondence of Napoleon with Joseph Bonaparte (2 vols., New York, 1856); Baron A.
The establishment of the Napoleonic dynasty at Madrid was the actual cause which brought about the disturbances which were to end in separation.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
He entered the Austrian army as an infantry officer in 1801, and saw much service in the Napoleonic wars.
In this manner the bee became associated with the Napoleonic legend just as the lilies were with the Bourbons.
Italy in the Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 27.5 E.
took place at Rimim, Brescia and Bologna; but they were sharply repressed, and most Italians came to acquiesce in the Napoleonic supremacy as inevitable and indeed beneficial.
That campaign marked the beginning of the end for the Napoleonic domination in Italy as else- Collapse where.
For the period of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars see F.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with full bibliography, London, i904); E.
The Napoleonic legislation re-established the appel comme d'abus ("Articles organiques," art.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
Military affairs in this period are dealt with under Napoleonic Campaigns; but it may be noted here that during the anxious days which Napoleon spent at the camp of Boulogne in the second and third weeks of August 1805, uncertain whether to risk all in an attack on England in case Villeneuve should arrive, or to turn the Grand Army against Austria, the only step which he took to avert a continental war was the despatch of General Duroc to Berlin to offer Hanover to Prussia on consideration of her framing a close alliance with France.
But it was on the banks of the Rhine that the Napoleonic system received its most signal developments.
Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
This disaster, the most serious suffered by the French since Rossbach, sent a thrill through the Napoleonic vassal states and aroused in Napoleon transports of anger against Dupont.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
The military events of the years1812-1814are described under Napoleonic Campaigns; and we need therefore note here only a few details personal to Napoleon or some considerations which influenced his policy.
On a lower level as regards credibility stands the Memorial de SainteHelene, compiled by Las Cases from Napoleon's conversations with the obvious aim of creating a Napoleonic legend.
(For the campaigns of 1796-1800, 1805-7, 1808-9, 1812-15, see French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Campaigns.) The chief works on civil, diplomatic and personal affairs in the life of Napoleon for the period1796-1799are: P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte et les republiques italiennes, 1796-1799 (Paris, 1895); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (3 vols., Turin, 1899 - (in progress)); E.
Fisher, Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany (Oxford, 1903); A.
Rose, Napoleonic Studies (London, 1904).
She preserved some of the Napoleonic laws and institutions; in 1817 she established the equality of women in heritage, and ordered the compilation of a civil code which was promulgated in January 1820.
Turkey was at this time the only neutral state in Europe; it was of vital im- Treaty of portance that she should not be absorbed into the Napoleonic system, as in that case Russia would have been exposed to a simultaneous attack from France, Austria, Turkey and Persia.
The era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars falls into two main divisions, the first of which (1792-1801) is dealt with under the heading French Revolutionary Wars.
Again arrangments were made for a Napoleonic battle; behind Murat's cavalry came the " general advanced guard " to attack and hold the enemy, whilst the main body and Davout were held available to swing in on his rear.
There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from the dungeon of Napoleonic Europe.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
drove them out, and brought Bologna once more under the papacy, under the sway of which it remained (except in the Napoleonic period between 1796 and 1815 and during the revolutions of 1821 and 1831) until in 1860 it became part of the kingdom of Italy.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.
The former, bred in the tradition of the Napoleonic battle, looked for the decision only from the employment of "masses"; the latter, trained with the breech-loader and without war experience, expected to decide battles by infantry fire only.
During the Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
From 1682 until the Napoleonic period, Bordighera was the capital of a small republic of the villages of the neighbouring valleys.
(The 'course of events which led to the action is described under Napoleonic Campaigns.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the allied Austrians and Russians from Olmiitz, bivouacked west of the Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of the roads from Olmiitz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of the Pratzen heights.
The overlordship thus established insensibly developed into actual possession; and except in the Napoleonic period (1 7971805 and 1809-1813) Trieste has since remained an integral part of the Austrian dominions.
His opportunity for territorial aggranddizement came during the Napoleonic wars.
Immediately to the south rises the fine cone of North Berwick Law (612 ft.), which was utilized as a signal point at the period of the Napoleonic scare.
Thenceforth it shared the fortunes of Milan, becoming in the Napoleonic period the chief town of the department of the Lario.
During the Napoleonic wars and the Crimean campaign the Grand Harbour was frequently overcrowded with shipping.
The principal provisions of the Napoleonic Code and some English enactments have been copied in a series of ordinances forming the Statute Law.
Dingli adapted a considerable portion of the Napoleonic Code in a series of Malta Ordinances, but stopped short at points likely to cause agitation.
It was conquered by France in 1795, and retained by that power until the end of the Napoleonic wars.
During the 17th and, 8th centuries and during the period of the Napoleonic wars the history of these lands was very similar to that of the other small estates of Germany.
The usual Napoleonic simplicity was wanting at Ligny, and he paid in full for the want.
It was a really Napoleonic battle.
In 1813, on the fall of the Napoleonic regime in Germany, Jerome retired to France, and in 1814 spent some time in Switzerland and at Trieste.
below) and finally became the heir to the fortunes of the Napoleonic dynasty.
Privately he professed himself the representative of the Napoleonic tradition in its democratic aspect, and associated mainly with men of advanced political opinions.
below), made him direct heir to the Napoleonic succession.
- Netherlands India was at this time regarded as a part of the Napoleonic Empire, with which Great Britain was at war.
His wise and thorough reorganization of the whole department contributed essentially to the victories of the Russians during the Napoleonic wars.
- Between the close of the Napoleonic wars of 1815 and the year 1860, the tariff system of Great Britain was changed from elaborate protection to practically complete free trade.
(1) During the first period the prohibitive legislation of the 18th century was retained, largely in consequence of the Napoleonic wars.
With the end of the Napoleonic wars, the opportunities for American commerce be- 1816-46.
As far back as 1839 Louis Blanc had vehemently opposed the idea of a Napoleonic restoration, predicting that it would be "despotism without glory," "the Empire without the Emperor."
He took a prominent part in opposing the Socialist movement, and in April 1870, having subscribed a large sum to the funds of a committee formed to combat the Napoleonic plebiscite, had to leave the country.
Long forward strides of the Napoleonic type were rarely attempted; "changes of base" were indeed made across country, and over considerable distances, as by Sherman in 1864, but ordinarily either the base and the objective were connected by rail or water, or else every forward step was, after the manner of Marlborough's time, organized as a separate campaign.
Few men of the Napoleonic empire have been more generally admired and respected than Daru.
Other European Societies.-The impluse which founded the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804 soon spread over Europe, and, notwithstanding the turmoils of the Napoleonic wars, kindred organizations on similar lines quickly sprang up, promoted and subsidized by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
The ancient duchy and the Napoleonic kingdom of the same name, neither of which was conterminous with the modern province, are dealt with in the historical part of this article.
He acquired his knowledge of the men and intrigues of the Napoleonic epoch from Talleyrand.
Although relatively unsuccessful in securing access to the British islands, the importance of the United States as a supplier of the other West Indies continually grew, and when the communication of the French and Spanish islands with their metropolises was practically cut off by the British during the Napoleonic wars, the dependence of these colonies upon the American carrying trade became absolute.
As general carriers American ships gained no importance until the Napoleonic wars; and this interest was greater in the West Indies than in Europe.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic time.
Although he had no share in drawing up the Napoleonic code, he did more than any other lawyer to fix its interpretation.
Two main considerations dominated the fortunes of Hanover during the period of the Napoleonic wars, the jealousy felt by Prussia at the increasing strength and prestige of the electorate, and its position as a vulnerable outpost of Great Britain.
Responsible of course to the elector, the Statthalter, aided by the privy council, conducted the internal affairs of the electorate, generally in a peaceful and satisfactory fashion, until the welter of the Napoleonic wars.
On the other hand, as regards military power, it seems sometimes forgotten in the discussion of the question of armaments, that the conditions of the present age differ entirely from those of the time of the Napoleonic wars.
The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (i) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization.
The supplementary Organic Articles of April 1802, however, centralized the administration of the Church in the hands of the First Consul; and some of these one-sided regulations were considered by Rome to be minute and oppressive; nevertheless, the Napoleonic arrangements remained in force, with but brief exceptions, till the year 1905.
To these regions the Napoleonic regime had given a certain measure of unity; but Metternich, dominant after 1815, held Italy to be merely a geographical term.
They were as follows: (I) The proclamation of the Infallibility of the Pope on the 18th of July 1870; (2) the fall of the Napoleonic empire and the establishment of the third French republic on the 4th of September 1870; (3) the occupation of Rome by the Italian forces on the 20th of September 1870, resulting in the incorporation of the remaining states of the Church in the kingdom of Italy; and (4) the foundation of the German Empire by the proclamation, on the 18th of January 1871, of the king of Prussia as hereditary German emperor.
The Napoleonic reverses of 1813 brought him back to politics, and in November he published at Hanover his De l'esprit de conquete et de l'usurpation dans leurs rapports avec la civilisation europeenne, directed against Napoleon.
During the Napoleonic wars it was partly occupied by French troops (1806-1813), and at the beginning of the War of Liberation it was the chief scene of operations between the French and the allied armies.
The Napoleonic form of the grand cross and ribbon is illustrated on Plate IV, fig.
(vi.) THE Legion oF Honour (France - Napoleonic).
At the close of that war it was handed over to Austria; and under Austria it remained till the Napoleonic campaign of 1796.
Montgelas' ambition was now to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate power, and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France - so long as it lasted - but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of the states of the confederation of the Rhine, into a mere French dependency.
(For Bavaria's share in the war see Napoleonic Campaigns.) Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to Austria Tirol and Vorarlberg; by the congress of 1 See Reces de la deputation de l'empire.
The landward defences of Copenhagen, it may be added, were left unprovided for after the Napoleonic wars until the patriotism of Danish women, who subscribed sufficient funds for the first fort, shamed parliament into granting the necessary money for others (1886-1895).
Belgium was regarded too much in the light of an annexed territory, handed over to Holland as compensation for the losses sustained by the Dutch in the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
In 1795, during the Napoleonic wars, the settlement was occupied by a British garrison.
Annexed to France during the Napoleonic wars, it passed in 1815 to the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Roads.The construction of good highways has been well attended to in Germany only since the Napoleonic wars.
It appeared a small compensation that Great Britain surrendered to Germany the island of Heligoland, which she had taken from the Danes in the Napoleonic wars.
Only during the Napoleonic wars did the republic regain its prosperity.
The events of the period that followed, in which Austria necessarily played a conspicuous part, are dealt with elsewhere of (see Europe, French Revolutionary Wars, Effects the Revol- Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns).
(See Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns, Europe.) It was a recognition of the decisive part played by Austria in these great events that Vienna was chosen as the scene of the great international congress summoned (September 1814) for the purpose of re-establishing the balance Congress 4) P P g of Vieana.
Further stimulus was also supplied by the high prices that obtained during the Napoleonic wars, and, in spite of periods of severe depression since then, the science of agriculture has continued to advance.
He remained an austere republican, refusing to take part in the Napoleonic regime.
The pieces which followed are: The Man of Destiny (written in 1895, played at Croydon in 1897 by Mr Murray Carson), a Napoleonic drama, which was revived at New York by Arnold Daly in 1904; You Never Can Tell (written in 1896, produced at the Strand Theatre in 1900), a farcical comedy; The Devil's Disciple (produced at New York by Richard Mansfield in 1897, and in London in 1899), the scene of which is laid in the War of American Independence, Caesar and Cleopatra (1898) and Captain Brassbound's Conversion (1898) - printed as Three Plays for Puritans (1900); The Admirable Bashville (Stage Society,' Imperial Theatre, 1903), a dramatization of Cashel Byron's Profession.
This grand feat of arms was marked by many points of interest, such as the capture of the Dutch ships, which were frozen in the Helder, by the French hussars, and the splendid discipline of the ragged battalions in Amsterdam, who, with the richest city of the continent to sack, yet behaved with a self-restraint which few revolutionary and Napoleonic armies attained.
The crown prince was also averse from a Napoleonic marriage, and preferred to marry (October 12, 1810) the Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854).
Europe had been shattered by the Napoleonic wars.
Even the Napoleonic regime of1806-1813disturbed but little his equanimity.
The idea - a very old one with Jefferson - was not entirely original; in essence it received other attempted applications in the Napoleonic period - and especially in the continental blockade.
Of Dutch statesmen during the Napoleonic period, Thorbecke admired Falck and Van Hogendorp most, whose principles he strove to emulate.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in South Italy (London, 1904), both based on documents.
defeated an allied army of Russians and Prussians (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
It was not until after the restoration of Goree to her at the close of the Napoleonic wars that France evinced any marked interest in this region.
In 1713 it was burnt by the Swedes, but rapidly recovered from this disaster, and despite the trials of the Napoleonic wars, gradually increased in prosperity.
The popes, as the phrase went, became Spanish chaplains, with a fixed territory guaranteed to them by Spanish arms; apart from the addition of Ferrara and one or two other petty principalities on the extinction of the reigning house, its boundaries remained unchanged till Napoleonic times.
In 1850 was passed the Loi Falloux, which broke down the Napoleonic idea of a state-monopoly of teaching, and allowed the opening of voluntary schools.
With the end of the Napoleonic wars in Europe the industries of the old world revived, and Americans began to feel their competition.
When the commerce of New England was interrupted as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars, the abundance of water power afforded by the rivers encouraged manufacturing, and the region rapidly acquired prominence in this industry, especially in the manufacture of textiles, of boots and shoes, and of paper and wood pulp; in 1905 the value of the textile products of New England (excluding flax, hemp and jute) alone was $522,821,440 (more than 45% of that of the entire country), the value of boots and shoes was $181,023,946 (more than 55% of the total for the entire country), the value of paper and wood pulp was $49,813,133 (more than one-quarter of that of the entire country), and the value of all factory products amounted to $2,025,998,437 (nearly one-seventh of the total for the entire country).
Mr. Fisher has published The Mediaeval Empire (1898); Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship (1903); A Political History of England (1906); Bonapartism (1908); Life of F.
Napoleonic Campaigns >>
Ldwenberg became a town in 1217 and has been the scene of much fighting, especially during the Napoleonic wars.
From 1808 to 1814 Balbo served in various capacities under the Napoleonic empire at Florence, Rome, Paris and in Illyria.
In more modern times Jena has been made famous by the defeat inflicted in the vicinity, on the 14th of October 1806, by Napoleon upon the Prussian army under the prince of Hohenlohe (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
Modlin was first fortified under the Napoleonic regime in 1807, and in the wars of 1813 and 1830-31 underwent several sieges.
During the long Napoleonic wars, in which the house of Habsburg was almost continuously engaged, Bohemia continued in its previous lethargic state.
Insular England was not affected by the disturbing influences of the Napoleonic period in any such degree as was continental Europe.
The Trippenhuis gallery consisted of the pictures brought from the Hague by Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, and belonging to the collection of the Orange family dispersed during the Napoleonic period.
The reasons are that with the tax at a low rate it has been found much less intolerable than during the Napoleonic War, when it was at the rate of 10 per cent., while the pressure of the tax has also been greatly mitigated by placing very high the minimum income subject to it, and giving abatements upon the lower taxable incomes.
It has two Roman Catholic Churches and a Lutheran Church, a fine medieval inspired town-hall, two interesting old gates, remains of its former environing walls and cloister, several public monuments, including one to the veterans of the Napoleonic wars, and a museum.
The Revolution had made war on princes and privilege, and the common people had in general gained wherever the Napoleonic rgime had been substituted for their effete despotisms; but the Continental System was felt as an oppression in every humble household, suddenly deprived of the little imported luxuries, such as sugar and coffee, which custom had made necessaries; and from this time date the beginnings of that popular revolt against Napoleon that was to culminate in the War of Liberation.
The political and military events on the continent of Europe do not, however, belong strictly to English history, though they profoundly affected its development, and they are dealt with elsewhere (see EUROPE: History; NAPOLEON; NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS; PENINSULAR WAR; WATERLOO CAMPAIGN).
Alexis Fedorovich Orlov, Prince (1787-1862), ' Russian statesman, the son of a natural son of Count Theodore Grigorievich Orlov, took part in all the Napoleonic wars from 1805 to the capture of Paris.
In 1805 it became the capital of the Napoleonic duchy of Berg; and in 1815 it passed with the duchy into Prussian possession.
The town was restored to Spain by the British at the close of the Napoleonic Wars.
At the age of twenty he was a "Liberal," an enemy of the Bourbons and of the treaties of 1815; but he was dominated by the cult of the emperor, and for him the liberal ideal was confused with the Napoleonic.
Since 1838 the Napoleonic propaganda had made enormous progress.
Not only did certain newspapers, such as the Capitole and the Journal du Commerce, and clubs, such as the Culottes de peau carry it on zealously; but the diplomatic humiliation of France in the affair of Mehemet Ali in 1840, with the outburst of patriotism which accompanied it, followed by the concessions made by the government to public opinion, such as, for example, the bringing back of the ashes of Napoleon I., all helped to revive revolutionary and Napoleonic memories.
Ina people politically decimated and wearied, he was able to develop freely all the Napoleonic ideals.
But a glorious peace was required; it must not be said that "France is bored," as Lamartine had said when the Napoleonic legend began to spread.
It was then that, strong in "the esteem and admiration with which he was surrounded," and "foreseeing a future full of hope for France," he dreamed of realizing the Napoleonic ideal in its entirety.
In more modern days its banks were the scenes of many bloody battles during the Napoleonic Wars.
The beginning of a return to prosperity came in 1816 when some British traders, obliged to leave Senegal on the restoration of that country to France after the Napoleonic wars, founded a settlement on St Mary's Isle.
In a second campaign he lestroyed at Jena both the army and the state of Frederick William III., who could not make up his mind between the Napoleonic treaty of SchOnbrunn and Russias counter-proposal at Potsdam (October 14, 1806).
between 1797 and 1857, despite the Napoleonic invasion and other disastrous wars.
Societies of a similar nature had existed in other countries and epochs, but the stories of the derivation of the Carbonari from mysterious brotherhoods of the middle ages are purely fantastic. The Carbonari were probably an offshoot of the Freemasons, from whom they differed in important particulars, and first began to assume importance in southern Italy during the Napoleonic wars.
Johnston's Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., London, 1904.), which contains a full bibliography; D.
On the downfall of the Napoleonic regime Eugene retired to Munich, where he continued to reside, with the title duke of Leuchtenberg and prince of Eichstadt.
This critical engagement in the Napoleonic wars made the admiral a national hero.
In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, France also ceded Tobago to Britain.
Southern Water is inviting the public to look inside its replica Napoleonic fort on Eastbourne seafront at Langley Point on Saturday June 19.
On Sunday, Diane Leek, Lord Mayor of Sheffield, toured the event and inspected an honor guard of Napoleonic redcoats.
She was the sister of Viscount Castlereagh, an eminent statesman at the time of the Napoleonic Wars who lived at North Cray.
There was mass unemployment at the end of the Napoleonic wars, in 1815.
In 1814, following the Napoleonic wars, France also ceded Tobago to Britain.
The campaign of 1796 which led to the awakening of the Italian people to a new consciousness of unity and strength is detailed in the article NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.
During the Napoleonic wars, indeed, and up to the time when the introduction of steam navigation rendered the Red Sea accessible at all seasons of the year, the political correspondence of the home and Indian governments usually passed by the Euphrates route.
During those three years Alexander was the chief antagonist of Napoleon, and it was largely due to his skill and persistency that the allies held together and freed Europe permanently from the Napoleonic domination.
Eugene, with Lauriston's, Macdonald's and Regnier's corps, on the lower Saale, Ney in front of Weimar, holding the defile of Kdsen; the Guard at Erfurt, Marmont at Gotha, Bertrand at Saalfeld, and Oudinot at Coburg, and during the next few days the whole were set in motion towards Merseburg and Leipzig, in the now stereotyped Napoleonic order, a strong advanced guard of all arms leading, the remainder - about twothirds of the whole - following as " masse de manoeuvre," this time, owing to the cover afforded by the Elbe on the left, to the right rear of the advanced guard.
After these had been de facto, though not de jure, in abeyance during the period of the Napoleonic wars, a commission of the various Elbe states met and drew up a scheme for their regulation, and the scheme, embodied in the Elbe Navigation Acts, came into force in 1822.
From this time forward he was engaged in a ceaseless polemic against every fresh advance of the Napoleonic power and pretensions; with matchless sarcasm he lashed "the nerveless policy of the courts, which suffer indignity with resignation"; he denounced the recognition of Napoleon's imperial title, and drew up a manifesto of Louis XVIII.
The processes used were at first very imperfect, but the extraordinary increase in the price of sugar on the Continent caused by the Napoleonic policy gave an impetus to the industry, 1 Lucan iii.
ASPERN - ESSLING, Battle Of (1809), a battle fought on the 21st and 22nd of May 1809 between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
" Nothing more clearly demonstrates the sterile paradox of the Napoleonic work," it wrote, " than the history of the grand-duchy.
Liitzen is famous also as the scene of a victory of Napoleon over the Russians and Prussians on the 2nd of May 1813 (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
A battle was fought here on the 10th and 21st of March 1814 between Napoleon and the Austro-Russian army under Schwarzenberg (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
Of later works a great many historians both of the Napoleonic era and of the 19th century include chapters on the congress; Sorel, L'Europe et la Revolution francaise, vol.
He detached a column under Vandamme to the mountains to interpose between Schwarzenberg and Prague (see Napoleonic Campaigns); the rest of the army pressed on by forced marches for Dresden, around which a position for the whole army had been chosen and fortified, though at the moment this was held by less than 20,000 men under Gouvion St Cyr, who retired thither from the mountains, leaving a garrison in Konigstein, and had repeatedly sent reports to the emperor as to the allied masses gathering to the southward.
His incessant opposition was attributed partly to his association with Madame de Stael, whose salon was a centre for those disaffected from the Napoleonic regime, and in 1803 he followed her into exile.
The nation in arms itself was the product of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, but it was in Prussia that was seen the systematization and the economical and effective application of the immense forces of which the revolutionary period had demonstrated the existence (see also ARMY; CONSCRIPTION; FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS, &c.).
In 1814 several actions between the French and the army of the allies took place at Bar-sur-Aube (see Napoleonic Wars).
Those, on the contrary, who think that the nation which was on the very eve of surrendering itself to the Napoleonic absolutism was not in a hopeful humour for peace and the European order, will believe that Burke's protests were as perspicacious as they were powerful, and that anything which chilled the energy of the war was as fatal as he declared it to be.
The largest of these was the French circle of the Napoleonic alliance, the circle of Count Rumyantsev and Caulaincourt.
He imagined all sorts of movements of the Napoleonic army as a whole or in sections--against Petersburg, or against him, or to outflank him.
The Napoleonic government and army are destroyed.
The Napoleonic wars still seem to us, though already questionably, to be the outcome of their heroes' will.
It was symbolic of Napoleon’s strength and the liberation his Napoleonic Code offered.
In a tradition that started during the Napoleonic Wars (1796-1815), the casket for a fallen marine is covered with the U.S. flag.
Their ceremonial uniforms are much fancier and include long cloaks and Napoleonic hats.
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