How to use Naples in a sentence
This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.
Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science.
Vico founded no school, and though during his lifetime and for a while after his death he had many admirers both in Naples and the northern cities, his fame and name were soon obscured, especially as the Kantian system dominated the world of thought.
He sought refuge in Naples, but soon he left that city and spent over two years in an Italian mountain monastery.
In 1798, when the French occupied Rome, Consalvi was imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, together with other papal officials, in retaliation for the murder of General Duphot; a proposal to whip him through the streets was defeated by the French general in command, but, after three months' confinement, he was deported with a crowd of galley slaves to Naples, and his property was confiscated as that of "an enemy of the Roman republic."Advertisement
When Henry, however, came into conflict with Robert of Naples, Clement supported Robert and threatened the emperor with ban and interdict.
Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crown him emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice.
The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy.
After the fall of Rome he left the city at the head of 4000 volunteers, with the idea of joining the defenders of Venice, and started on that wonderful retreat through central Italy pursued by the armies of France, Austria, Spain and Naples.
Once established at Palermo, Garibaldi organized an army to liberate Naples and march upon Rome, a plan opposed by the emissaries of Cavour, who desired the immediate annexation of Sicily to the Italian kingdom.Advertisement
The march upon Naples became a triumphal progress, which the wiles of Francesco II.
On the 7th of September Garibaldi entered Naples, while Francesco fled to Gaeta.
On the 7th of November Garibaldi accompanied Victor Emmanuel during his solemn entry into Naples, and on the morrow returned to Caprera, after disbanding his volunteers and recommending their enrolment in the regular army.
In 1880 he went to Milan for the inauguration of the Mentana monument, and in 1882 visited Naples and Palermo, but was prevented by illness from being present at the 600th anniversary of the Sicilian Vespers.
Rather than face this ordeal Alexius fled to Vienna and placed himself under the protection of his brother-in-law, the emperor Charles VI., who sent him for safety first to the Tirolean fortress of Ahrenberg, and finally to the castle of San Elmo at Naples.Advertisement
There is daily steam communication (often interrupted in bad weather) with Civitavecchia from Golfo degli Aranci (the mail route), and weekly steamers run from Cagliari to Naples, Genoa (via the east coast of the island), Palermo and Tunis, and from Porto Torres to Genoa (calling at Bastia in Corsica and Leghorn) and Leghorn direct.
For the Two Sicilies, completed in 1834; lasted until the invasion of the kingdom of Naples by Piedmont.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
At Naples there grew up a Cartesian school, of which the best known members are Michel Angelo Fardella (1650-1708) and Cardinal Gerdil (1718-1802), both of whom, however, attached themselves to the characteristic views of Malebranche.
He was born in 1225 or 1227, at Roccasecca, the castle of his father Landulf, count of Aquino, in the territories of Naples.Advertisement
Having received his elementary education at the monastery of Monte Cassino, he studied for six years at the university of Naples, leaving it in his-sixteenth year.
In 1272 the commands of the chief of his order and the request of King Charles brought him back to the professor's chair at Naples.
He refused the archbishopric of Naples and the abbacy of Monte Cassino.
In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St Januarius, is still shown a cell in which he is said to have lived.
Innocent excommunicated and deposed Ferdinand, king of Naples, by bull of the 11th of September 1489, for refusal to pay the papal dues, and gave his kingdom to Charles VIII.Advertisement
The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593 and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491.
From him he obtained introductions to the great houses of Rome and Naples, whither he now hastened.
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
He studied law, first at Bologna and later at Pisa, and after graduating in utroque jure, practised as a lawyer in Naples.
From this town we have a very interesting though brief inscription dating probably from early in the 3rd century B.C.; it is cut upon a small bronze plate (now in the Naples Museum), which must have once been fixed to some votive object, dedicated to the god Declunus (or the goddess Decluna).
Later on it came into the possession of Naples, but passed into Roman hands in 326, when Naples herself lost her independence.
Augustus gave it back to Naples in exchange for Capri.
There is regular communication with Naples, both by steamer direct, and also by steamer to Torregaveta, 2 m.
Benevento is a station on the railway from Naples to Foggia, and has branch lines to Campobasso and to Avellino.
Having married Constance, daughter of Manfred of Beneventum, he came forward as the representative of the claims of the Hohenstaufen in Naples and Sicily against Charles, duke of Anjou.
Assisted by the duke of Ossuna, viceroy of Naples, he formed a plan to bring the city into the power of Spain, and the scheme was to be carried out on Ascension Day 1618.
Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples, wishing to avoid a rupture, yielded; but Venice resisted.
Of these Ischia and Procida, close to the northern headland of the Bay of Naples, are of volcanic origin, as is the case also with the more distant group of the Ponza Islands.
The island of Capri, on the other hand, opposite the southern promontory of the Bay of Naples, is a precipitous limestone rock.
Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.
In the same way, whilst in the plains and hills round Naples snow is rarely seen, and never remains long, and the thermometer seldom descends to the freezing-point, 20 m.
It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto del Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ioian Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples.
Rome is an exception to the former rule and imports garden produce largely from the neighborhood of Naples and from Sardinia.
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Cosenza, Lecce, Salerno, Naples and Caserta are the continental provinces which come next after Sicily.
In the province of Naples, Caserta, &c., the method of fallows is widely adopted, the ground often being left in this state for fifteen or twenty years; and in some parts of Sicily there is a regular interchange of fallow and crop year by year.
The fishing is largely carried on by boats from Tone del Greco, in the Gulf of Naples, where the best coral beds are now exhausted.
Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
A government weaving school was established in Naples in r9o6.
Campania holds the first place in the south, most of the savings of that region being deposited in the provident institutions of Naples.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
Lombardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; next come Venetia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples.
The size of parishes varies from province to province, Sicily having larger parishes in virtue of the old Sicilian church laws, and Naples, and some parts of central Italy, having the smallest.
The largest sees exist in Venetia and Lombardy, and the smallest in the provinces of Naples, Leghorn, Forli, Ancona, Pesaro, Urbino, Caserta, Avellino and Ascoli.
Italy has courts of cassation at Rome, Naples, Palermo, Ttirin, Florence, 20 appeal court districts, I62 tribunal districts and 1535 mandamenti, each with its own magistracy (pretura).
In Naples, the Camorra and in Sicily, the Mafia are secret societies whose power of resistance to authority is still not inconsiderable.
For purposes of naval organization the Italian coast is divided into three maritime departments, with headquarters at Spezia, Naples and Venice; and into two comandi militari, with headquarters at Taranto and at the island of Maddalena.
In 1893 the Roman Bank was put into liquidation, and the other three limited companies were fused, so as to create the Bank of Italy, the privilege of issuing bank notes being thenceforward confined to the Bank of Italy, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
The cities of Gaeta and Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombardy in South Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
Less lucky than his uncle, Conradin escaped with his life, to die upon a scaffold at Naples.
Civil Wan He lost the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and of Gue!phs thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of anj Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and Ghibelline, in the other French and Guelph.
In I309 Robert, grandson of Charles, the first Angevine sovereign, succeeded to the throne of Naples, and became the leader of the Guelphs in Italy.
These five powers were the kingdom of Naples, the duchy of Milan, the republic of Florence, the republic of Venice and the papacy.
Dying in 1387, he transmitted Naples to his son Ladislaus, who had no children, and was followed in 1414 by his sister Joan II.
Alfonso reigned alone and undisturbed in Lower Italy, combining for the first time since the year 1282 the crowns of Sicily and Naples.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
Instead of opposing Francesco Sforza in Milan, he lent him his prestige and influence, foreseeing that the dynastic future of his own family and the pacification of Italy might be secured by a balance of power in which Florence should rank on equal terms with Milan and Naples.
The king of Naples was his natural enemy, and he had cause to suspect that Piero de Medici might abandon his alliance.
He crossed the Alps in 1495, passed through Lombardy, entered Tuscany, freed Pisa from the yoke of Florence, witnessed the expulsion of the Medici, marched to Naples and was crowned tliereall this without striking a blow.
Charles hurried back from Naples, and narrowly escaped destruction at Fornovo in the passes of the Apennines.
The princes of the house of Aragon, now represented by Frederick, a son of Ferdinand I., returned to Naples.
A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the policy dictated to them from Madfid, were sufficient to preserve the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude.
He encouraged the duke of Guise to undertake the conquest of Naples, as Charles of Anjou had been summoned by his predecessors.
The revolt of Masaniello in Naples (1647), followed by rebellions at Palermo and Messina, which placed Sicily for a while in the hands of Louis XIV.
Charles of Austria, now emperor, took Milan, Mantua, Naples and Sardinia for his portion of the Italian spoil.
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
Two months later Ferdinand of Naples sought for an armistice, the central duchies were easily overrun, and, early in 1797, Pope Pius VI.
These events brought revolution to the gates of the kingdom of Naples, the worst-governed part of Italy, where the boorish king, Ferdinand IV.
A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
The Neapolitan troops at first occupied Rome, but, being badly handled by their leader, the Austrian general, Mack, they were soon scattered in flight; and the Republican troops under General The Championnet, after crushing the stubborn resistance Parthenoof the lazzaroni, made their way into Naples and paean proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic (January 23, Republic. 1799).
The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some secondary states of Germany took part.
There he awaited the arrival of Macdonald with the an y of Naples.
That general, Championnets successor, had been compelled by these reverses and by the threatening pressure of Nelsons fleet to evacuate Naples and central Italy.
The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.
For the events which then occurred at Naples, so compromising to the reputation of Nelson, see NELSON and NAPLES.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
The third coalition was formed between Great Britain, Russia and Austria, Naples soon joining its ranks.
While Massna pursued the Austrians into their own lands at the close of I8o5, Italian forces under Eugene and Gouvion St Cyr (q.v.) held their ground against allied forces landed at Naples.
Napoleon then turned fiercely against Maria Carolina of Naples upbraiding her with her perfidy.
He sent Joseph Bonaparte and Massna southwards with a strong column, compelled the Anglo-Russian forces to evacuati Naples, and occupied the south of the peninsula with littli opposition except at the fortress of Gaeta.
Capri, however, fell to the French on the 18th of October 1808, shortly after the arrival at Naples of the new king, Murat.
This ambitious marshal, brother-in-law of Napoleon, foiled in his hope of gaining the crown of Spain, received that of Naples in the summer of 1808, Joseph Bonaparte being moved M
This arrangement pleased King of neither of the relatives of the emperor; but his will Naples, now was law on the continent.
Joseph left Naples on the 23rd of May 18o8; but it was not until the 6th of September that Joachim Murat made his entry.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
Austria also concluded offensive and defensive alliancqs with Sardinia Tuscany and Naples; and Metternichs ambition was to make Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with CarbonarQevolu- ism, to which many noblemen and officers were tiot, if, affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecuNaples, tions and organized the counter-movement of the 1820.
The events that followed are described in the article on the history of Naples (q.v.).
The disorders in Naples and Sicily in 1837 had no connection with Mazzini, but the forlorn hope of the brothers Bandiera, who in 1844 landed on the Calabrian coast, was the work of the Giovane Italia.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
The Neapolitans reached Bologna on the 17th of May, but in the meantime a dispute had broken out at Naples between the king and parliament as to the nature of the royal oath; a cry of treason was raised by a group of factious youngsters, barricades were erected and street fighting ensued (May Is).
Stefano; on the 8th of February 1849 the republic was proclaimed, and on the 2 1st, at the pressing request of the pope and the king of Naples, Leopold went to Gaeta.
Ferdinand at once re-established autocracy in Naples; though the struggle in Sicily did not end until May, when Palermo, after a splendid resistance, capitulated.
At Naples a trifling disturbance in September 1849, led to the lion oi arrest of a large number of persons connected with the Liberals Unitd Italiana, a society somewhat similar to the in Naples.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
I on the 7th of November they entered Naples together.
Garibaldi, elected member for Naples, ouficed Cavour in unmeasured terms for his treatment of the inteers and for the cession of Nic,e, accusing him of leading country to civil war.
The movement was strongly supported by King Humbert, whose intrepidity in visiting the most dangerous spots at Busca and Naples while the epidemic was at its height, reassuring the panic-stricken inhabitants by his presence, excited the enthusiasm of his people and the admiration of Europe.
In order to diminish the gold premium, which under Giolitti had risen to 16%, forced currency was given to the existing notes of the banks of Italy, Naples and Sicily, while special state notes were issued to meet immediate currency needs.
He threw all the influence of the government against Crispi, who was charged with complicity in embezzlements perpetrated by Favilla, managing director of the Bologna branch of the Bank of Naples.
The corn duty was reduced to meet the emergency, but the disturbed area extended to Naples, Foggia, Ban, MinervinoRiots of Murge, Molfetta and thence along the line of railway 1898.
Riots broke out also in Naples, Florence, Rome and Bologna.
The latter accepted the task, and the new administration included Signor Tittoni, late prefect of Naples, as foreign minister, Signor Luigi Luzzatti, the eminent financier, at the treasury, General Pedotti at the war office, and Admiral Mirabello as minister of marine.
The town lies on the right bank of the Agno, which divides the province of Naples from that of Caserta, 90 ft.
In July 1497 Cesare went to Naples as papal legate and crowned Frederick of Aragon king.
Cesare wished to marry Carlotta, the daughter of the king of Naples, but both she and her father resolutely refused an alliance with "a priest, the bastard of a priest."
After taking Castel Bolognese he returned to Rome in June, to take part in the Franco-Spanish intrigues for the partition of Naples.
Finally, it was agreed that if Cesare were set at liberty he would surrender the castles; this having been accomplished, he departed for Naples, where the Spaniards were in possession.
He was of good family, and after studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and was for many years employed in the office of the administration of finances.
At the age of sixty, having become widely known by his writings on philosophy, he was called to the chair of logic and metaphysics in the university of Naples, which he held till his death in November 1846.
He died at Naples before July 1614.
He afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu and Monopoli, and in 1503 removed to Venice, where he held office as a minister of state till his death in 1508.
Sulphur containing selenium, such as occurs in the isle of Vulcano in the Lipari Isles, may be orange-red; and a similar colour is seen in sulphur which contains arsenic sulphide, such as that from La Solfatara near Naples.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
His father, Don Francisco de Valenzuela, a gentleman of Ronda, had been compelled to flee from Spain in consequence of a brawl, and had enlisted as a soldier in Naples, where he married Dona Leonora de Encisa.
In the same year he became viceroy of Naples, a post of some difficulty and danger, which for five years he occupied with ability and success.
He also read largely, though somewhat indiscriminately, in French literature, and appears to have been particularly struck with Pascal's Provincial Letters, which he tells us he reperused almost every year of his subsequent life with new pleasure, and which he particularly mentions as having been, along with Bleterie's Life of Julian and Giannone's History of Naples, a book which probably contributed in a special sense to form the historian of the Roman empire.
He tried Queen Joanna of Naples for the murder of her husband and acquitted her.
The most celebrated captains of these wars were present on either side - under Gaston de Foix were Bayard, Yves d'Allegre, La Palisse; and under Cardona the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Pedro Navarro the great engineer, and Pescara the originator of the Spanish tactical system.
In the following year he was transferred to Naples as professor of philosophy in the university there.
He held this post till his death, which took place at Naples on the 13th of July 1885.
Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
There is regular communication with Naples by steamer, and in summer with Anzio.
He gathered a large army consisting partly of Germans and Saracens, but was totally defeated by Charles at Tagliacozzo (23rd of August 1268); taken prisoner, he was tried as a rebel and executed at Naples.
In the meanwhile Ruggiero di Lauria appeared before Naples and destroyed another Angevin fleet commanded by Charles's son, who was taken prisoner (May 1284).
Charles came to Naples with a new fleet from Provence, and was preparing to invade Sicily again, when he contracted a fever and died at Foggia on the 7th of January 1285.
In 1860 he went to Italy, took part in Garibaldi's expedition to Aspromonte (1862), and was interned as a prisoner of war in Naples.
It is Adriatic well marked throughout southern Italy from Taranto and to Naples.
But the prosperity of the island depends mainly upon foreign visitors (some 30,000 annually), who are attracted by the remarkable beauty of the scenery (that of the coast being especially fine), the views of the sea and of the Bay of Naples, and the purity of the air.
The sack of Rome in 1527 and the defeat of the French before Naples in 1528 confirmed Charles V.'s supremacy.
At first this seemed not improbable; French armies marched south on Naples, and the pope sent Campeggio with full powers to pronounce the divorce in England.
Finding law as distasteful as theology, he devoted himself entirely to philosophy, of which he was appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Naples.
As pope, he concluded a treaty with his rival at Marseilles, by which a general council was to be held at Savona in September, 1408, but King Ladislaus of Naples, who opposed the plan from policy, seized Rome and brought the negotiations to nought.
Gregory, still supported by Naples, Hungary, Bavaria, and by Rupert, king of the Romans, found protection with Ladislaus, and in a synod at Cividale del Friuli banned Benedict and Alexander as schismatical, perjured and scandalous.
John XXIII., having succeeded to the claims of Alexander in 1410, concluded a treaty with Ladislaus, by which Gregory was banished from Naples on the 31st of October 1411.
There are two forms which are very common in the Gulf of Naples.
The British government inclined to the belief that it was destined either for Ireland or for Naples.
Disregarding the neutrality of the Germanic System, Napoleon sent a strong French corps to overrun Hanover, while he despatched General Gouvion St Cyr to occupy Taranto and other dominating positions in the south-east of the kingdom of Naples.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
The Bourbons of Naples had broken their treaty engagements with Napoleon, though in this matter they were perhaps as much sinned against as sinning.
Joseph Bonaparte was now advised to take the throne of Naples, and without any undue haggling as to terms, for "those who will not rise with me shall no longer be of my family.
On Louis declining the honour, it devolved on Joseph, king of Naples, who vacated that throne for the benefit of Murat - a source of disappointment and annoyance to both.
Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the socalled Historia de Preliis.
Two bravos were hired (one of them named Olimpio, according to Bertolotti, was probably Beatrice's lover), and Francesco was assassinated while asleep in his castle of Petrella in the kingdom of Naples (1598).
Members of this family sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442.
In 1308 Charles Robert of Anjou was elected king of Hungary, his claim being based on the marriage of his grandfather Charles II., king of Naples and count of Anjou, with Maria, daughter of Stephen V., king of Hungary.
Nerio, who received the title of duke from the king of Naples, founded a new dynasty.
Ignacio de Loyola (Madrid, 1594), based on an early Latin work (Naples, 1572).
Cesare, then a youth of sixteen and a student at Pisa, was made archbishop of Valencia, his nephew Giovanni received a cardinal's hat, and for the duke of Gandia and Giuffre the pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the kingdom of Naples.
Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante).
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the pope's son Giuffre and Dona Sancha, Ferdinand's grand-daughter.
Charles of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander drew him to his side and authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Turks, without mentioning Naples.
Alexander now feared that the king might depose him for simony and summon a council, but he won over the bishop of St Malo, who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat, and agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Jem to Charles and to give him Civitavecchia (January 16, 1495).
On the 28th Charles departed for Naples with Jem and Cesare, but the latter escaped to Spoleto.
Charles had himself crowned king of Naples on the 12th of May, but a few days later began his retreat northward.
Virginio Orsini, who had been captured by the Spaniards, died a prisoner at Naples, and the pope confiscated his property.
The French army proceeded to invade Naples, and Alexander took the opportunity, with the help of the Orsini, to reduce the Colonna to obedience.
As France and Spain were quarrelling over the division of Naples and the Campagna barons were quiet, Cesare set out once more in search of conquests.
The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and Alexander was ever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised at the moment most advantageous terms. He offered to help Louis on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna.
It is served by the local railway from Naples to Baiano, and is 22 m.
Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.
Maret (afterwards duc de Bassano) for Italy where they had missions to Florence and Naples respectively, when the two envoys were kidnapped by Austrian orders in the Valtelline.
Before its incorporation with the domains of the crown of Naples Sarno gave its name to a countship held in succession by the Orsini, Cappola, Suttavilla and Colonna families.
After the death of Frederick the Great, his presence was competed for by the courts of France, Spain and Naples, and a residence in Berlin having ceased to possess any attraction for him, he removed to Paris in 1787.
After a space, in which he held no diplomatic post, he became ambassador of the French Republic at Naples; but, while repairing thither with De Semonville he was captured by the Austrians and was kept in durance by them for some thirty months, until, at the close of 1795, the two were set free in return for the liberation of the daughter of Louis XVI.
In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.
The conspiracy of the Pazzi in 1478 led to a war in which Florence and Milan were opposed to the pope and the king of Naples, and which was put an end to by the peace of 13th March 1480.
Avezzano is on the main line from Rome to Castellammare Adriatico; a branch railway diverges to Roccasecca, on the line from Naples to Rome.
Outside the north gate is a street of tombs, in some of which were found arms, vases and fine mural paintings (now in the Naples Museum).
He died at Naples on the 23rd of December 1809 - it has been alleged by poison.
The Vocabula Hungarica of Bernardino Baldi (1583), the original MS. of which is in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples, contains 2899 Hungarian words with renderings in Latin or Italian.
In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save the bank of Naples from failure.
Exiled from Naples in consequence of the movement of 1848, he took refuge in Tuscany, whence he was compelled to flee to Turin on account of a pungent article against the Bourbons.
In 1860, with the Cavour party, he opposed the work of Garibaldi, Crispi and Bertani at Naples, and became secretary of Luigi Carlo Farini during the latter's lieutenancy, but in 1865 assumed contemporaneously the editorship of the Perseveranza of Milan and the chair of Latin literature at Florence.
Appointed minister for public instruction in 1873, he, with feverish activity, reformed the Italian educational system, suppressed the privileges of the university of Naples, founded the Vittorio Emanuele library in Rome, and prevented the establishment of a Catholic university in the capital.
The prince, who had lived on excellent terms with Alexander, died at Naples in February 1495, possibly as the result of excesses in which he had been deliberately encouraged by the pope.
Of his astronomical studies he left a proof in the "heliotropion," a cave at Syros which served to determine the annual turning-point of the sun, like the grotto of Posillipo (Posilipo, Posilippo) at Naples, and was one of the sights of the island.
At Naples he was tried as a traitor, and on the 29th of October was beheaded with his friend and companion Frederick of Baden, titular duke of Austria.
His remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, still rest in the church of the monastery of Santa Maria del Carmine at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul; and here in 1847 a marble statue, by Thorwaldsen, was erected to his memory by Maximilian, crown prince of Bavaria.
In 1846 he established himself as advocate at Naples.
Appointed secretary to Garibaldi, Crispi secured the resignation of Depretis, whom Garibaldi had appointed pro-dictator, and would have continued his fierce opposition to Cavour at Naples, where he had been placed by Garibaldi in the foreign office, had not the advent of the Italian regular troops and the annexation of the Two Sicilies to Italy brought about Garibaldi's withdrawal to Caprera and Crispi's own resignation.
Soon afterwards, however, his health began to give way permanently, and he died at Naples on the 12th of August 1901.
Charles spent his last years quietly in Naples, which city he improved and embellished.
Deputazione di Storia Patria Toscana has recently published a Codice diplomatico delle relazioni di Carlo d'Angib con la Toscana; the contents of the Angevin archives at Naples have been published by Durrien, Archives angevines de Naples (Toulouse, 1866-1867).
He had left the army for some time; he now entered the diplomatic service and was appointed secretary to the embassy at Naples.
The foundation of the university of Naples, and the rise of Montpellier, also contributed to its decline.
His account of the aluminous district of Tolfa and adjacent hills, published in 1786, gained for him the notice of the king of Naples, who invited him to inspect the mines and similar works in that kingdom, and appointed him professor of mineralogy to the royal artillery.
The two other most remarkable examples of this cameo glass are an amphora at Naples and the Auldjo vase.
It was found in a house in the Street of Tombs at Pompeii in the year 1839, and is now in the Royal Museum at Naples.
In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of Florence on the contrary opposed New both him and the pope as dangerous to their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission.
A brave general Uguccione and an ambitious man, he captured Lucca and defeated the Florentines and their allies from Naples at Montecatini in 1315, but the following year he lost both Pisa and Lucca and had to fly from Tuscany.
Between 1320 and 1323 he harried the Florentines and defeated them several times, captured Pistoia, devastated their territory up to the walls of the city in spite of assistance from Naples under Raymundo de Cardona and the duke of Calabria (King Robert's son); never before had Florence been so humiliated, but while Castruccio was preparing to attack Florence he died in 1328.
Yet in spite of these disasters the republic was by no means crushed; it soon regained the suzerainty of many cities which had broken off all connexion with it after the expulsion of the duke of Athens, and purchased the overlordship of Prato from Queen Joanna of Naples, who had inherited it from the duke of Calabria.
A fresh danger threatened the republic in 1367 when Charles IV., who had allied himself with Pope Urban V., Queen Joanna of Naples, and various north Italian despots to humble the Visconti, demanded that the Florentines should join the league.
This nearly led to war with King Ladislas of Naples, because he had seized Rome, which he could only hold so long as the church was divided.
He was excommunicated by Sixtus, who, together with King Ferdinand of Naples, waged war against him; no great successes were registered on either side at first, but eventually the Florentines were defeated at Poggio Imperiale (near Poggibonsi) and the city itself was in danger.
Lorenzo's position was critical, but by his boldness in going to Naples he succeeded in concluding a peace with the king, which led to a reconciliation with the pope (1479-1480).
The king, realizing what street fighting in Florence would mean, at once came to terms; he contented himself with 120,000 florins, agreeing to assume the title of "Protector and Restorer of the liberty of Florence," and to give up the fortresses he had taken within two years, unless his expedition to Naples should be concluded sooner; the Medici were to remain banished, but the price on their heads was withdrawn.
From the remote township of his birth, however, the branch of the family to which the philosopher belonged transferred itself soon afterwards to Naples, so that, like his predecessor Vico, Benedetto Croce may be correctly described as a Neapolitan.
He studied at Rome and in Naples, afterwards adopting the life of an independent student and occupying himself especially with literary and with Neapolitan history.
His writings on this subject have been collected in a volume entitled Pagine sulla guerra (Naples, 1919).
Having gained another victory in 542, this time in the valley of Mugello, he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city and then received the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apulia and Calabria.
He returned to Naples as captain on Massena's staff to fight the Bourbons and the Austrians in 1806, and subsequently went to Spain, where he followed Jerome Bonaparte in his retreat from Madrid.
In consequence of a fatal duel he was sent back to Naples; there he served under Joachim Murat with the rank of general, and fought against the AngloSicilian forces in Calabria and at Messina.
In May 1860, Francis at last promulgated the constitution, but it was too late, for Garibaldi was in Sicily and Naples was seething with rebellion.
On the advice of Liborio Romano, the new prefect of police, Filangieri was ordered to leave Naples.
Although he adhered to the new government he refused to accept any dignity at its hands, and died at his villa of San Giorgio a Cremano near Naples on the 9th of October 1867.
Finocchiaro, La Rivoluzione siciliana del 1848-49 (Catania, 1906, with bibliography), in which Filangieri is bitterly attacked; see also under NAPLES; FERDINAND IV.; FRANCIS I.; FERDINAND II.; FRANCIS II.
It is the terminus of the railways from Naples along the west coast, and from Metaponto along the east coast of Calabria.
On the 17th of July Innocent formally renewed the sentence of excommunication on the emperor, and declared him deposed from the imperial throne and that of Naples.
In Naples he fomented a conspiracy among the feudal lords, who were discontented with the centralized government established under the auspices of Frederick's chancellor, Piero della Vigna.
Even after Conrad's capture of Naples Innocent remained inexorable; for he feared that Rome itself might fall into the hands of the German king.
He entered Naples on the 27th; but meanwhile Manfred had fled and had raised a considerable force; and the news of his initial successes against the papal troops reached Innocent as he lay sick and hastened his end.
At one time a captain of the coast-guard, at another the protege of Benavente, viceroy of Naples, who appointed him governor of Scigliano, patronized by Osuna and Olivares, Castro was nominated a knight of the order of Santiago in 1623.
They aided in the vigorous defence of the city of Naples, and twice attacked and pillaged Amalfi, in 1135 and 1137, with such effect that the town never regained its prosperity.
In Naples, in Palermo, in all parts of Italy, Switzerland and the south of France, we still find the names of Pisan families who quitted their beloved home at that time.
In the marshy lake near Mater (north Tunisia), round the mountain island of Jebel Ashkel, is a herd of over 50 buffaloes; these are said to resemble the domestic (Indian) buffalo of the Levant and Italy, and to have their origin in a gift of domestic buffaloes from a former king of Naples to a bey or dey of Tunis.
Its walls were completed in 1316; and it maintained itself as an almost independent republic until it was subdued in 1521 by the Spaniards, who had become masters of the kingdom of Naples in 1503.
On the entry of the French into Naples and the establishment of the Parthenopean republic (1799) he adhered to the new government, and when the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.
Turned out of the army he became a civil engineer, but when the Bourbons were expelled a second time in 1806 and Joseph Bonaparte seized the throne of Naples, he was reinstated in his rank and served in the expedition against the brigands and rebels of Calabria.
The foot of the tone reached from Naples by electric railway, and thence a wirepc railway (opened in 1880) carries visitors to within I5o yds.
During the Naples expedition he was in charge of the dauphin, Charles Orland, who died in 1495.
He treated with Maximilian of Austria to prevent him from entering Picardy during the war with Naples, and then proceeded to Castile to claim promised support.
The publication of this letter caused a wide sensation in England and abroad, and profoundly agitated the court of Naples.
In 1530 he was elected abbot of the Augustinian monastery at Spoleto, and in 1533 prior of the convent of St Peter ad Aram at Naples.
He was accused of erroneous doctrine, and the Spanish viceroy of Naples prohibited his preaching.
During the revolution of 1848 against the Bourbons of Naples, Messina was bombarded for three consecutive days.
In the 14th century Robert, and afterwards Joanna, of Naples managed to keep possession of Rieti for many years, but it returned to the States of the Church under Gregory IX.
The next that deserve mention are the Giornale enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, followed by the Progresso delle scienze (1833-1848) and the Museo di scienze e letteratura of the same city, and the Giornale arcadico (1819) of Rome.
From Naples, after visiting Pompeii, he returned to Paris, his mind fermenting with poetical images and projects, few of which he was destined to realize.
From the early days of the conquest they spread to the south, and established the duchies of Spoletum and Beneventum in the modern kingdom of Naples.
At the end of the 6th century the exarchate included Istria; the maritime part of Venetia as distinct from the interior which was in the hands of the Lombard kings at Pavia; the exarchate proper, or territory around Ravenna on the eastern side of the Apennines, to which was added Calabria, which at that period meant the heel and not the toe of the boot; the Pentapolis, or coast from Rimini to Ancona with the interior as far as the mountains; the duchy of Rome, or belt of territory connecting the Pentapolis with the western coast, the coast of Naples, w i th Bruttium the toe of the boot, the modern Calabria, and Liguria, or the Riviera of Genoa.
The Piedmont, Lombardy, mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards.
About 740 it consisted of Istria, Venetia (the maritime portion of which was ceasing to be a province and was becoming a protected state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), Pentapolis, Perusia, Rome, the coast of Naples and Calabria (in the sense of the toe and not the heel of the boot) which was being overrun by the Lombards of the duchy of Beneventum, which with Spoletum held the interior.
It disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the "patricius" of Sicily, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the Toth century were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia.
The king retired to Naples, abdicated once The more (1802), and entered the Society of Jesus; he d i ed in Rome in 1819.
He was succeeded by his only son, Victor Emmanuel III., bornborn in 1869, who during his father's lifetime had ul borne the title of prince of Naples.
He settled at Naples in November, and lived there considerably over a year.
Naples, in writing the little treatise (afterwards included in the Characteristics) entitled A Notion of the Historical Draught or Tablature of the Judgment of Hercules, and the letter concerning Design.
He feebly asked Austria if he might maintain the constitution, and the Austrian premier, Prince Schwarzenberg, advised him to consult the pope, the king of Naples and the dukes of Parma and Modena.
In 1832 he was a Minister of State without portfolio, next year ambassador at Naples, and from 1835 to 1840 was ambassador to Great Britain.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
Our only authority, a passage in the Liber Pontificalis, describes the gift as including the whole of Italy and Corsica, except the lands north of the Po, Calabria and the city of Naples.
Next morning, having sold his horse, he walked into Geneva, put up at " the Rose," and asked for a boat to take him towards Zurich on his way to Naples.
The observations of Aime in 1845 and of Semmola in the Gulf of Naples in 1881 show that the surface water in winter cools until the whole mass of water from the surface to the bottom, in 1600 fathoms or more, assumes the same temperature.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of the Dominicans at Naples, and is said to have composed a treatise on the ark of Noah.
He, however, failed to capture Naples in August and retired north, leaving garrisons along the frontiers of the Regno.
His wife Sibilla indeed maintained a regency for her second son William III., but on Henry's final descent, Naples surrendered almost without a blow in May 1194, and the rest of the Regno followed.
He became professor of theology at Naples in 1740, and, entering the religious body of the Celestines, rose to be general of the order.
The important archives have been transported to Naples.
The struggle, however, entered on a new phase with the appearance at Prague in May 141 2 of the papal emissary charged with the proclamation of the papal bulls by which a religious war was decreed against the excommunicated King Ladislaus of Naples, and indulgence was promised to all who should take part in it, on terms similar to those which had been enjoyed by the earlier crusaders to the Holy Land.
He spent the greater part of his life at Rome, and died, according to Jerome, at Naples.
These new fables were first published at Naples by Cassitto in 1808, and afterwards (much more correctly) by Jannelli in 1809.
Tommaso Tittoni was educated first at Naples, and subsequently at Oxford and Liege.
He began his parliamentary career as deputy for Civitavecchia in 1886, sitting on the Right, but he resigned his seat in 1897, having been appointed prefect of Perugia; three years later he went to Naples in a similar capacity, and in 1902 he was raised to the Senate.
Louis III., who also succeeded his father as king of Naples, died on the 15th of November 1434, leaving no children.
It joined with Naples to erect one of the finest porticoes of Constantinople at the time of its construction.
Puteoli was preferred to Naples, (a) as being in Roman territory, (b) because the customs duty was only leviable once, not twice as it would have been at Naples - once by the local authorities, and once by the Roman authorities on entrance into Roman territory.'
The streets of the old town probably, as at Naples, preserve the ancient alignment.
But when Oddo Colonna was elected pope as Martin V., he allied himself with Joanna, who promised to give up Rome, while Sforza returned to Naples.
After much fighting by land and sea, Alphonso entered Naples, and in 1422 peace was made.
Her perpetual intrigues and her political incapacity made Naples a prey to anarchy and foreign invasions, destroying all sense of patriotism and loyalty both in the barons and the people.
Driven from Subiaco by the jealousy and molestations of a neighbouring priest, but leaving behind him communities in his twelve monasteries, he himself, accompanied by a small band of disciples, journeyed south until he came to Cassino, a town halfway between Rome and Naples.
To the latter date also belongs a large baptistery decorated with mosaics at Naples.
Louis's younger brother Andrew had wedded Joanna, grand-daughter and heiress of old King Robert of Naples, on whose death, in 1343, she reigned in her own right, refused her consort any share in the government, and is very strongly suspected of having secured his removal by assassination on the night of the 19th of September 1345.
In 1347, and again in 1350, Louis occupied Naples and craved permission to be crowned king, but the papal see was inexorable and he was compelled to withdraw.
Revolutions broke out in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, Naples, Venice, Munich, Dresden and Budapest.
In 1716 an Italian edition appeared at Naples; in 1750 a Dutch translation followed; and in 1755 a French version, from Shaw's edition, came out at Paris.
Early in 1806 he proceeded to Naples with a French force in order to expel the Bourbon dynasty from southern Italy, Napoleon adding the promise that the Neapolitan crown would be for Joseph if he chose to accept it.
By the decree of the 30th of March 1806 Napoleon proclaimed Joseph king of Naples, brt allowed him to keep intact his claims to the throne of France.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
He became governor of Paris, marshal of France (1804), grand duke of Berg and of Cleves (1806), lieutenant of the emperor in Spain (1808), and early in the summer of that year king of Naples.
On reaching Italy Czartoryski found that the monarch to whom he was accredited was a king without a kingdom, so that the outcome of his first diplomatic mission was a pleasant tour through Italy to Naples, the acquisition of the Italian language, and a careful exploration of the antiquities of Rome.
He filled various minor administrative offices, and in 1806 became an official at Naples in Murat's government.
The pope's recognition of the claims to Naples of King Alphonso of Aragon withdrew the last important support from the council of Basel, and enabled him to make a victorious entry into Rome on the 28th of September 1443, after an exile of nearly ten years.
Its position as a frontier town between the papal states and the kingdom of Naples, just in the territory of the latter - the Via Appia can easily be blocked either N.W.
Assuming the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily, he raised an army by pledging his Swabian estates and marched to Italy in 1251, where with the help of his illegitimate half-brother, Manfred, he overran Apulia and took Capua and Naples.
It is a regular constituent of the atmosphere, and is found in many spring waters and in volcanic gases; it also occurs in the uncombined condition at the Grotto del Cane (Naples) and in the Poison Valley (Java).
In 1313 the town acknowledged the authority of Robert, king of Naples, and in 1350 Niccola Acciajoli, seneschal of Joanna, sold it to the Florentines for 17,500 florins of gold.
Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.
Alfonso Salmeron and Pasquier-Brouet, as papal delegates, were sent on a secret mission to Ireland to encourage the native clergy and people to resist the religious changes introduced by Henry VIII.; Nicholas Bobadilla went to Naples; Faber, first to the diet of Worms and then to Spain; Laynez and Claude le Jay to Germany, while Ignatius busied himself at Rome in good works and in drawing up the constitutions and completing the Spiritual Exercises.
The Bourbon courts of Naples and Parma followed the example of France and Spain; Clement XIII.
In 1290 Charles married Margaret, daughter of Charles II., king of Naples, and renounced his pretensions to Aragon.
In 1799 he entered the Society of Jesus, and in 1804 he became a teacher of classics in the college of Naples.
When the kingdom of Naples was overrun by the French and the Parthenopaean Republic established (1799), Cardinal Ruffo, acting on behalf of the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV., who had fled to Sicily, undertook the reconquest of the country, and for this purpose he raised bands of peasants, gaol-birds, brigands, &c., under the name of Sanfedisti or bande della Santa Fede (" bands of the Holy Faith").
Owing to his unrivalled knowledge of the country, he succeeded in interrupting the enemy's communications between Rome and Naples.
When Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Naples, extraordinary tribunals were established to suppress brigandage, and a price was put on Fra Diavolo's head.
At Naples, where he studied law and displayed great literary activity, he rapidly acquired a prominent position, and in 1848 was instrumental in persuading Ferdinand II.
In 1860 he prepared the legislative unification of Italy, opposed the idea of an alliance between Piedmont and Naples, and, after the fall of the Bourbons, was sent to Naples as administrator of justice, in which capacity he suppressed the religious orders, revoked the Concordat, proclaimed the right of the state to Church property, and unified civil and commercial jurisprudence.
His great work, Le Istorie del regno di Napoli dal 1250 fino al 1498, first appeared at Naples in 1572, and was the fruit of thirty or forty years' labour; but nine more years were devoted to the task before it was issued in its final form at Aquila (1581).
It is still one of the best histories of Naples, and the style is distinguished by clearness, simplicity and elegance.
The most famous member of the family was Andrea Doria, perpetual censor of Genoa in 1528 and admiral to the emperor Charles V., who was created prince of Melfi (1531) and marquis of Tursi (in the kingdom of Naples) in 1555.
From Naples Armfelt communicated with Catherine II., urging her to bring about by means of a military demonstration a change in the Swedish government in favour of the Gustavians.
The plot was discovered by the regent's spies, and Armfelt only escaped from the man-of-war sent to Naples to seize him, with the assistance of Queen Caroline.
In Stanzas written in Dejection near Naples the two lines 4, 5, "The purple noon's transparent might, I The breath of the moist earth is light," were printed in the 1st edition, "` The purple noon's transparent light," owing to the homoeographon " might" "light."
The Author Of The System Adopted By Gregory Was Aloysius Lilius, Or Luigi Lilioghiraldi, A Learned Astronomer And Physician Of Naples, Who Died, However, Before Its Introduction; But The Individual Who Most Contributed To Give The Ecclesiastical Calendar Its Present Form, And Who Was Charged With All The Calculations Necessary For Its Verification, Was Clavius, By Whom It Was Completely Developed And Explained In A Great Folio Treatise Of 800 Pages, Published In 1603, The Title Of Which Is Given At The End Of This Article.
In February 1798, at the approach of the invading French forces, Henry was forced to fly from Frascati to Naples, whence at the close of the same year he sailed to Messina.
The naval academy, formerly established partly at Naples and partly at Genoa, has been transferred to Leghorn.
When a prisoner in the hands of Filipo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, in 1435, Alphonso persuaded his ferocious and crafty captor to let him go by making it plain that it was the interest of Milan not to prevent the victory of the Aragonese party in Naples.
Alphonso founded nothing, and after his conquest of Naples in 1442 ruled by his mercenary soldiers, and no less mercenary men of letters.
Returning in 1837, he joined the moderate party, became prime minister, and was subsequently ambassador at Paris and Naples.
The villages west of the Plauen ravine and even Lobda were occupied in the early morning by General Metzko with the leading division of Klenau's corps from Freiberg, and upon Metzko Napoleon intended first to throw the weight of his attack, giving to Victor's infantry and the cavalry of Murat, king of Naples, the task of overwhelming the isolated Austrians.
He claimed the Hungarian crown, as the grandson of Stephen V., under the banner of the pope, and in August 1300 proceeded from Naples to Dalmatia to make good his claim.
Charles's desire to unite the kingdoms of Hungary and Naples under the eldest son Louis was frustrated by Venice and the pope, from fear lest Hungary might become the dominant 1 This, at any rate, represents the general verdict of history.
He took refuge in Switzerland, whence he afterwards fled to Naples.
His great reputation and his diplomatic experience gave a special weight to the attacks which he published on the policy of the continental allies, two of his works attracting special attention, Du Congres de Troppau ou Examen des pretentions des monarchies absolues a l'egard de la monarchie constitutionelle de Naples (Paris, 1821), and Les Cabinets et les peuples depuis 1815 jusqu'd la fin de 1822 (Paris, 1822).
The Norman adventurers in possession of Palermo and Naples perpetually tended to look for their aggrandizement to the Byzantine Empire.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
A Frenchman before everything, he abased the papal power to such an extent as to excite the indignation of his contemporaries, often slavishly subordinating it to the exigencies of the domestic and foreign policy of the Angevins at Naples and the reigning house at Paris.
In this case, too, the Sicilian Vespers was the rock on which the hopes and pretensions of the sovereign of Naples suffered shipwreck.
This revolution could already be foreseen with tolerable certainty, when Urban embroiled himself even with his political friends - the queen of Naples and her husband, Duke Otto of Brunswick.
The struggle against his powerful neighbour on the frontier, Queen Joanna of Naples, rapidly became his one guiding motive; and thus he was led into a perfect labyrinth of blunders.
He excommunicated the queen as a stiff-necked adherent of the French anti-pope, and in 1381 conferred Naples on the ambitious Charles .of Durazzo, with whom he was soon inextricably embroiled; while, a little later, he fell out with his new College of Cardinals.
This was especially the case in his treatment of Naples.
By these means, the schism was averted from Italy, and Naples won for the Roman obedience.
The capture of Rome by King Ladislaus of Naples had compelled John XXIII.