The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
Nansen and his companions also travelled along a part of this coast in 1888.8 A.
11 A part of this coast, about 67° N., had also been seen by Nansen in 1882.12 In 1899 Professor A.
Nansen; " Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse von Dr F.
Nansen Durchquerung von Gronland " (1888), Ergnzungsheft No.
Nansen with five companions in 1888 made the first complete crossing of the inland ice, working from the east coast to the west, about 64° 25' N., and reached a height of 8922 ft.
At Umivik, where Nansen began his journey across the inland ice, the highest peak projecting through the icecovering was Gamel's Nuna ak, 6440 ft., in 6 4° 34' N.
The surface of the inland ice forms in a transverse section from the west to the east coast an extremely regular curve, almost approaching an arc of a wide circle, which along Nansen's route has its highest ridge somewhat nearer the east than the west coast.
Nansen, " Die Ostkiiste Gronlands," Erganzungsheft No.
On Nansen's expedition temperatures of about - 49° F.
Nansen, " Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse," &c. Erganzungsheft No.
Nansen, Eskimo Life (London, 1893).
But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.
HellandHansen and Nansen traced a periodicity in the flow of Atlantic water along the W.
Helland-Hansen and Nansen showed later that it was improbable that variations in the northerly drift of Atlantic water could be traced directly to variations in the quantity of heat received by the sea from solar radiation.
On the 8th of August representatives from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great burgomaster Hans Nansen, protested their unshakable loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copenhagen to the uttermost.
But the government and the people displayed a memorable and exemplary energy, under the constant supervision of the king, the queen, and burgomaster Nansen.
HANS NANSEN (1598-1667), Danish statesman, son of the burgher Evert Nansen, was born at Flensburg on the 28th of November 1598.
At the meeting between the king and the citizens to arrange for the defence of the capital, Nansen urged the necessity of an obstinate defence.
These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.
Nansen used all the arts of the agitator with extraordinary energy and success.
How far Nansen was content with the result of the Revolution - absolute monarchy - it is impossible to say.
After the Revolution Nansen continued in high honour, but he chiefly occupied himself with commerce, and was less and less consulted in purely political matters.
During Nansen's expedition on the " Fram " in 1894-1895, Scott Hansen made observations with a Sterneck's half-seconds pendulum on the ice where the sea was more than 1600 fathoms deep and found only an insignificant deviation from the number of swings corresponding to a normal ellipsoid.
The time of touching bottom i studied by the Norwegian expedition on board the " VOringen " was judged by timing each loo-fathom mark and noting the in 1876-1878, and the north polar basin by Nansen and Sverdrup sudden increase in the time interval when the shot reached the in the " Fram " in 1893-1896, the Mediterranean by the Italians bottom.
It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
Nansen perfected the instrument, adapting it not only for enclosing a portion of water at any desired depth, but by a series of concentric divisions insulating in the central compartment water at the temperature it had at the moment of collection.
The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
Later apparatus, such as Pettersson's bifilar current-meter or his more recent electric-photographic apparatus, and Nansen and Ekman's propeller current-meter, measure both the direction and the velocity at any moderate depth from an anchored vessel.
The older theory of the origin of drift currents enunciated by Zoppritz in 1878 was modified as indicated above by Nansen in 1901, and Walfrid Ekman subsequently went further.
Nansen, The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896 (Christiania and London, 1900); R.
Griffenfeldt married Kitty Nansen, the granddaughter of the great Burgomaster Hans Nansen, who brought him half a million rix-dollars.
Thus the privileges of the bishops and of Copenhagen profoundly irritated the lower clergy and the unprivileged towns, and made a cordial understanding impossible, till Hans Svane, bishop of Copenhagen, and Hans Nansen the burgomaster, who now openly came forward as the leader of the reform movement, proposed that the privileges which divided the non-noble Estates should be abolished.
to Svane and Nansen, authorizing them to communicate the arrangements already made to reliable men, and act quickly, as " if the others gain time they may possibly gain more."
On the 8th of October the two burgomasters, Hans Nansen and Kristoffer Hansen, proposed that the realm of Denmark should be made over to the king as a hereditary kingdom, without prejudice to the privileges of the Estates; whereupon they proceeded to Brewer's Hall, and informed the Estate of burgesses there assembled of what had been done.
A fiery oration from Nansen dissolved some feeble opposition; and simultaneously Bishop Svane carried the clergy along with him.
Unfortunately everything had been left so vague, that it was an easy matter for ultra-royalists like Svane and Nansen to ignore the privileges of the Estates, and even the Estates themselves.
went up to Hans Nansen, drank with him and drew him aside.
Whether Nansen, intoxicated by wine and the royal favour, consented on this occasion to sacrifice the privileges of his order and his city, it is impossible to say; but it is significant that, from henceforth, we hear no more of the Recess which the more liberal of the leaders of the lower orders had hoped for when they released Frederick III.
Meanwhile Nansen, on his southward journey, had approached Franz Josef Land from the north-east, finding only sea at the north end of Wilczek Land, and seeing nothing of Payer's Rawlinson Sound, or of the north end of Austria Sound.
Nansen wintered near Cape Norway, only a few miles from the spot reached by Jackson in 1895.
On the 17th of June 1896 the dramatic meeting of Jackson and Nansen took place, and in the same year the "Windward" revisited "Elmwood" and brought Nansen home, the work of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition being continued for another year.
1910 with the avowed intention of carrying out oceanographical work in the South Atlantic and of proceeding round Cape Horn to Bering Strait, where he proposed to repeat Nansen's drift across the Arctic sea from a more easterly starting-place.
In March 1914 MacMillan and Green crossed Smith Sound on the ice, traversed Ellesmere Land, and, passing by Bay Fjord and Nansen Sound, reached Cape Thomas Hubbard.
In 1916 Ekblaw crossed Ellesmere Land from Cape Sabine to Bay Fjord and, passing by Nansen Sound, Greely Fjord and Lake Hazen, reached Fort Conger, Greely's former station on Robeson Channel.
Nansen, In Northern Mists (1911), throws new light on the early history of Arctic exploration.
Nansen, " Spitsbergen Waters," Videnskabs.
Into this same cloacal chamber open ventrally a pair of ciliated tubes communicating by funnels with the coelom (Nansen and Wheeler); these are possibly nephridia, and excretory in function.
It must be noted, however, that since 1895 the soundings of Nansen in the north polar area, of the " Valdivia," " Belgica," " Gauss " and " Scotia " in the Southern Ocean, and of various surveying ships in the North and South Pacific, have proved that the mean depth of the ocean is considerably greater than had been supposed, and mean-sphere level must therefore lie deeper than the calculations of 1895 show; possibly not far from the position deduced from the freer estimate of 1888.
The configuration of the continental slope has been treated in detail by Nansen in Scientific Results of Norwegian North Polar Expedition, vol.
11 A part of this coast, about 67Ã‚° N., had also been seen by Nansen in 1882.12 In 1899 Professor A.
Nansen with five companions in 1888 made the first complete crossing of the inland ice, working from the east coast to the west, about 64Ã‚° 25' N., and reached a height of 8922 ft.
At Umivik, where Nansen began his journey across the inland ice, the highest peak projecting through the icecovering was Gamel's Nuna ak, 6440 ft., in 6 4Ã‚° 34' N.
On Nansen's expedition temperatures of about - 49Ã‚° F.
Nansen, The First Crossing of Greenland (London, 1890), vol.
The soundings of Nansen and Sverdrup on the " Fram " expedition indicate that northward from the Siberian Shelf the great North Polar Basin has an area of about 4,000,000 sq.
Peter Nansen (b.
beyond Nansen's farthest, and 240 m.
lat., and Lakes Nansen, 18 sq.
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