VARUNA, in early Hindu mythology, the greatest, with Indra, of the gods of the Rig Veda.
It precedes the green and flowery spring, as mythology precedes regular poetry.
Ultimately in post-Vedic mythology he becomes the Hindu Neptune.
HESPERIDES, in Greek mythology, maidens who guarded the golden apples which Earth gave Hera on her marriage to Zeus.
But in the Syrian mythology foreign influences frequently betray themselves.
GOLDEN FLEECE, in Greek mythology, the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle escaped, for which see Argonauts.
HANUMAN, in Hindu mythology, a monkey-god, who forms a central figure in the Ramayana.
TYPHON (TYPHAON, TYPHOEUS), in Greek mythology, youngest son of Gaea and Tartarus.
But passing from this region of pure mythology to the semi-mythic or heroic age, we find almost all the early legends and traditions of the island grouped around the name of Minos.
ALCMENE, in ancient Greek mythology, the daughter of Electryon, king of Mycenae, and wife of Amphitryon.
ORION (or OARION), in Greek mythology, son of Hyrieus (Eponymus of Hyria in Boeotia), or of Poseidon, a mighty hunter of great beauty and gigantic strength, perhaps corresponding to the "wild huntsman" of Teutonic mythology.
It was famous in Greek mythology, and is frequently mentioned by the great poets, especially by Sophocles.
ANTAEUS, in Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of Poseidon and Gaea.
In Greek mythology Demeter and Proserpine were closely associated, being known together as the two goddesses, the venerable or august goddesses, sometimes as the great goddesses.
NIOBE, in Greek mythology, daughter of Tantalus and Dione, wife of Amphion, king of Thebes.
204), and he belongs rather to mythology than to history.
GR.) From the somewhat conflicting evidence of mythology it may be gathered that in prehistoric days Megara had maritime intercourse with the southern Aegean.
History, Poetry, Mythology!--I know of no reading of another's experience so startling and informing as this would be.
MARSYAS, in Greek mythology, a Phrygian god or Silenus, son of Hyagnis.
HECTOR, in Greek mythology, son of Priam and Hecuba, the husband of Andromache.
Harrison, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens (London, 1890); E.
NEREUS, in Greek mythology, the eldest son of Pontus and Gaea, and father of the fifty Nereids.
There we worked, revising mythology, rounding a fable here and there, and building castles in the air for which earth offered no worthy foundation.
An elderly dame, too, dwells in my neighborhood, invisible to most persons, in whose odorous herb garden I love to stroll sometimes, gathering simples and listening to her fables; for she has a genius of unequalled fertility, and her memory runs back farther than mythology, and she can tell me the original of every fable, and on what fact every one is founded, for the incidents occurred when she was young.
The overwhelming numerical superiority of the Sla y s, and the very great differences in ethnical type, belief and mythology between the IndoEuropean and the Ural-Altaic races, may have contributed to the same end.
ARETHUSA, in Greek mythology, a nymph who gave her name to a spring in Elis and to another in the island of Ortygia near Syracuse.
Other features are borrowed by the Mandaean mythology under this head from the well-known epos of Istar's descensus ad inferos.
Mtvciravpos, from Mivws, and Taupos, bull), in Greek mythology, a fabulous Cretan monster with the body of a man and the head of a bull.
Into these regions descended Hibil the brilliant, in the power of Mana rabba, just as in the Manichaean mythology the "primal man," armed with the elements of the king of light, descends to a contest with the primal devil.
By the time of the ninth edition (1875) precise details are no longer considered worthy of inclusion; and the age of scientific comparative mythology has been reached.
ARIADNE (in Greek mythology), was the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and Pasiphae, the daughter of Helios the Sun-god.
FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later identified with the Greek Chloris.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
Xenophanes in the middle of the 6th century had made the first great attack on the crude mythology of early Greece, including in his onslaught the whole anthropomorphic system enshrined in the poems of Homer and Hesiod.
He gives a faithful sketch of the doctrines, mythology and dualistic system of the Magian Zoroaster.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897).
Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
MEMNON, in Greek mythology, son of Tithonus and Eos (Dawn), king of the Aethiopians.
EREBUS, in Greek mythology, son (according to Hesiod, Theog.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology and Maori Legends (Wellington, 1885); A.
ELYSIUM, in Greek mythology, the Elysian fields, the abode of the righteous after their removal from earth.
GANDHARVA, in Hindu mythology, the term used to denote (I) in the Rig-Veda usually a minor deity; (2) in later writings a class of divine beings.
The dictionary of mythology entitled 'Iwvca ("Collection of Violets"), which formerly used to be ascribed to her, was not composed till 1543 (Constantine Palaeokappa).
The swan played a part in classical mythology as the bird of Apollo, and in Scandinavian lore the swan maidens, who have the gift of prophecy and are sometimes confused with the Valkyries, reappear again and again.
Cox, Mythology and Folklore, p. 267).
VALKYRIES (Old Norse valkyriur, "choosers of the slain"), figures of Northern mythology, generally represented as divine (less frequently human) maidens who ride through the air on Odin's service.
DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life.
TERMINUS, in Roman mythology, the god of boundaries, the protector of the limits both of private property and of the public territory of Rome.
BOREAS, in Greek mythology, a personification of the north wind.
LETHE (" Oblivion"), in Greek mythology, the daughter of Eris (Hesiod, Theog.
MOMUS, in Greek mythology, the son of Nu (Night), the personification of censoriousness.
Az in the Avestan mythology was the demon serpent who murders Gayomert in the old Persian legend, and an ally of Ahriman, as also are the Pairikas or Penis.
According to northern mythology, Forseti, a son of Balder and Nanna, the god of justice, had a temple on the island, which was subsequently destroyed by St Ludger.
17) that Phoenicia was formerly called X v a name which Philo of Byblus adopts into his mythology by making " Chna who was afterwards called Phoinix " the eponym of the Phoenicians (Fr.
For Sanchuniathon is a mere literary fiction; and Philo's treatment is vitiated by an obvious attempt to explain the whole system of religion on the principles of Euhemerus, an agnostic who taught the traditional mythology as primitive history, and turned all the gods and goddesses into men and women; and further by a patriotic desire to prove that Phoenicia could outdo Greece in the venerable character of its traditions, that in fact Greek mythology was simply a feeble and distorted version of the Phoenician.'
contain a violent attack on the heathen mythology, in which he narrates with powerful sarcasm the scandalous chronicles of the gods, and contrasts with their grossness and immorality the pure and holy worship of the Christian.
Their mythology so far as we know it, has a melancholy and mystic tone, and their religion partakes of the same character.
Other destructive agencies were epidemics, such especially as measles and small-pox, which swept away 30,000 Fijians in 1875; the introduction of strong drinks, including, besides vile spirits, a most pernicious concoction brewed in Tahiti from oranges; Maori Religion and Mythology, p. 26.
AGATHODAEMON, in Greek mythology, the "good spirit" of cornfields and vineyards.
hora, hour), the Hours, in Greek mythology Opal., originally the personification of a series of natural phenomena.
SALUS, in Roman mythology the personification of health and prosperity.
ATROPOS, in Greek mythology, the eldest of the three Fates (see Fate).
DRYADES, or Hamadryades, in Greek mythology, nymphs of trees and woods.
This view, however, has not met with general acceptance, on the ground that, in Semitic mythology, the moon is always a male divinity; and that the full moon and crescent, found as attributes of Astarte, are due to a misinterpretation of the sun's disk and cow's horns of Isis, the result of the dependence of Syrian religious art upon Egypt.
Various attempts have been made, with little success, to identify fragments of unknown languages in cuneiform inscriptions with members of this group. The investigation has entered a new and more favourable stage as the result of the discoveries made by German excavators at Boghaz Keui (said to be identical with Herodotus' Pteria in Cappadocia), where treaties between the king of the Hittites and the king of Mitanni, in the beginning of the 14th century B.C., seem almost certainly to contain the names of the gods Mitra, Varuna and Indra, which belong to the early Aryan mythology (H.
Narcissus, representing the early spring-flower, which for a brief space beholds itself mirrored in the water and then fades, is one of the many youths whose premature death is recorded in Greek mythology (cf.
To perform their task adequately required from the critics a wide circle of knowledge; and from this requirement sprang the sciences of grammar, prosody, lexicography, mythology and archaeology.
124-125) of 1822 express the same in a pointed fashion, and Schelling had already begun the treatment of mythology and religion which in his view constituted the true positive complement to the negative of logical or speculative philosophy.
ATE, in Greek mythology, the personification of criminal folly, the daughter of Zeus and Eris (Strife).
PIETAS, in Roman mythology, the personification of the sense of duty towards God and man and the fatherland.
In the middle ages the Germans of Westphalia made the ass the symbol of St Thomas, the incredulous apostle; the boy who was last to enter school on St Thomas' day was called the "Ass Thomas" (Gubernatis's Zoological Mythology, i.
This Plato expressed in the myth of the Sun, but the garment of mythology in which Plato clothed his idealism, beautiful as it is in itself and full of suggestion, covered an essential weakness.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about people from Greek mythology.
3 It is, however, best to restrict the term "consecration" to cases where the spirit falls on a person, not automatically or unexpectedly, but by invitation, in response to prayer, through layingon of hands and greasing, after a formal fast, continence, ritual 2 "Vedic Mythology," by A.
(1870) was on the Vedic mythology.
CERBERUS, in Greek mythology, the dog who guarded the entrance to the lower world.
The Dene (Tinneh) myths resembled those of the Eskimo, and all the hunting tribes of eastern Canada and United States and the Mississippi valley have a mythology based upon their zootechny and their totemism.
AMPHIARAUS, in Greek mythology, a celebrated seer and prince of Argos, son of Oicles (or Apollo) and Hypermestra, and through his father descended from the prophet Melampus (Odyssey, xv.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology and Maori Legends (New Zealand, 1885); Edward Tregear, The Maori Race (New Zealand, 1704); S.
The latter have been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels 25, parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, but the connexion is doubtful.
ZEPHYRUS, in Greek mythology, the west wind (whence the English "zephyr," a light breeze), brother of Boreas, the north wind, and son of the Titan Astraeus and Eos, the dawn.
'SZKEavos), in Greek mythology, the greatest of rivers and at the same time a divine personification.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
This system spread widely, and the early Christians especially appealed to it as a confirmation of their belief that ancient mythology was merely an aggregate of fables of human invention.
(Leipzig, 1891); and works on comparative religion and mythology.
The serpent, too, in mythology is a regular symbol of water.
Possibly the narrator, or redactor, desired to tone down the traces of mythology.
Is he a pale form of the Babylonian chaos-dragon, or of the serpent of Iranian mythology who sprang from heaven to earth to blight the" good creation "?
Hence in later times he is often represented in art and mythology as a herald.
PANDORA (the "All-giving") in Greek mythology, according to Hesiod (Theog.
SOMA (Sanskrit for "pressed juice," from the root su, to press), in Hindu mythology the god who is a personification of the soma plant (Asclepias acida), from which an intoxicating milky juice is squeezed.
KARTIKEYA, in Hindu mythology, the god of war.
AMPHION and Zethus, in ancient Greek mythology, the twin sons of Zeus by Antiope.
Colchis was celebrated in Greek mythology as the destination of the Argonauts, the home of Medea and the special domain of sorcery.
Elam, "the land of the cedar-forest," with its enchanted trees, figured largely in Babylonian mythology, and one of the adventures of the hero Gilgamesh was the destruction of the tyrant Khumbaba who dwelt in the midst of it.
Among numerous early writings on Stonehenge may be mentioned Stonehenge and Abury, by Dr William Stukely (1740; reprinted in 1840); Davies, Celtic Researches (1804), and Mythology of the Druids (1809) Hoare, Ancient Wiltshire (1812), vol.
Our theory is, therefore, that the savage and senseless element in mythology is, for the most part, a legacy from ancestors of the civilized races who were in an intellectual state not higher than that of Australians, Bushmen, Red Indians, the lower races of South America, Mincopies, and other worse than barbaric peoples.
He is conceived as controlling or overcoming the forces of nature; and though an earlier mythology has supplied some of the ideas, yet, as with the opening chapters of Genesis, they are transfigured by the moral purpose which animates them, the purpose to subdue all things that could frustrate the destiny of God's anointed (v.
His published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology.
In his cosmogonic treatise on nature and the gods, called Hevr4tvxo (Preller's correction of Suidas, who has E7rTaµuXos) from the five elementary or original principles (aether, fire, air, water, earth; Gomperz substitutes smoke and darkness for aether and earth), he enunciated a system in which science, allegory and mythology were blended.
He was controverted by Ctesias, who, however, has mistaken mythology for history, and Greek romance owed to him its Ninus and Semiramis, its Ninyas and Sardanapalus.
PLUTUS, in Greek mythology, son of Iasion and Demeter, the personification of wealth.
The central portion of Muttra district forms one of the most sacred spots in Hindu mythology.
PROTEUS, in Greek mythology, a prophetic old man of the sea.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
Best, The Irish Mythological Cycle and Celtic Mythology (1903); L.
Moyen age (1896); C. Squire, The Mythology of the British Isles: an Introduction to Celtic Myth and Romance (1905); J.
DURGA, or Devi (Sanskrit for inaccessible), in Hindu mythology, the wife of Siva and daughter of Himavat (the Himalayas).
SIVA, in Hindu mythology, a god who forms the supreme trinity with Brahma and Vishnu.
Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his somewhat crude philological speculations.
He thus intimately associated religion with mythology and primitive poetry.
YAMA (Sanskrit "twin," in allusion to his being twin with his sister Yami, traditionally the first human pair), in Hindu mythology, judge of men and king of the unseen world.
Gnosticism was the result of the attempt to blend with Christianity the religious notions of pagan mythology, mysterology, theosophy and philosophy" (p. 98).
YGGDRASIL, in Scandinavian mythology, the mystical ash tree which symbolizes existence, and binds together earth, heaven and hell.
Polynesia, that classic land of mythology, is specially rich in myths of creation.
- India, however, is the natural home of a mythology recast by speculation.
229-302; Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific; Schirren, Wandersagen der Neuseelander; also an older work (Sir George) Grey's Polynesian Mythology.
NINUS, in Greek mythology, the eponymous founder of Nineveh, and thus the city itself personified.
The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson.
He anticipated Ovid in recalling the stories of Greek mythology to a second poetical life.
NISUS, in Greek mythology, king of Megara, brother of Aegeus, king of Athens.
His Morte d'Arthur, printed by Caxton in 1485, epitomizes the rich mythology which Geoffrey's work had first called into life, and gave the Arthurian story a lasting place in the English imagination.
to one another: hence there is no Roman mythology.
The knowledge of Greek mythology, to which they were thus introduced, set poets and antiquarians at work in a field wholly foreign to the Roman religious spirit, the task of creating a Roman anthropomorphic mythology.
ARGUS, in ancient Greek mythology, the son of Inachus, Agenor or Arestor, or, according to others, an earth-born hero (autochthon).
AMPHITRYON, in Greek mythology, son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis.
- In mythology, Corinth (originally named Ephyre) appears as the home of Medea, Sisyphus and Bellerophon, and already has over-sea connexions which illustrate its primitive commercial activity.
AGNI, the Hindu God of Fire, second only to Indra in the power and importance attributed to him in Vedic mythology.
Wilkins, Hindu Mythology (London, 1900); A.
Lastly, the restriction to aniconic worship saved them from much superstition, for there is nothing which so much stimulates the growth of a mythology as the manufacture of idols.
Farnell, The Evolution of Religion (London, 1905); Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, translation by J.
The only certainly genuine work of Hecataeus was the FuenNo-yiac or `IcrTopiat, a systematic account of the traditions and mythology of the Greeks.
NECTAR, in ancient mythology generally coupled with ambrosia, the nourishment of the gods in Homer and in Greek literature generally.
Grimm, Teutonic Mythology (Eng.
The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.
But Gunkel's explanation is an attempt to account for one ignotum per ignotius; for hitherto no trace of the myth of the sun-god's birth and persecution and the flight into the wilderness has been found in Babylonian mythology.
Yet another explanation from Egyptian mythology is given by Bousset (Offenbarung Johannis, 2nd ed., pp. 354, 355) in the birth of the sun-god Horus.
661), Spitta and Erbes, have contended that 616 was the original reading (I'aios Kaivap= 6r6) and that ' On the possibility of other points of contact between the Apocalypse and Egyptian mythology, see Mrs Grenfell's article, "Egyptian Mythology and the Bible," in the Monist (1906), pp. 169 - zoo.
OANNES, in Babylonian mythology, the name given by Berossus to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom.
The first of the three dialogues contains the substance of the allegory, which, under the disguise of an assault on heathen mythology, is a direct attack on all forms of anthropomorphic religion.
Dam(Habonde, Notre Dame d'Abondance), whose name often occurs in poems of the Middle Ages, a beneficent fairy, who brought plenty to those whom she visited (Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, tr.
For attempts to find a mythological interpretation of Isaac's life, see Goldziher, Mythology of the Hebrews; Winckler, Gesch.
Philochorus also wrote on oracles, divination and sacrifices; the mythology and religious observances of the tetrapolis of Attica; the myths of Sophocles; the lives of Euripides and Pythagoras; the foundation of Salamis.
His work shows little or no originality; he simply versified in iambic trimeters the fables current in his day under the name of "Aesop," interspersing them with anecdotes drawn from daily life, history and mythology.
They studied criticism, grammar, prosody and metre, antiquities and mythology.
It is largely owing to the peculiar character of this god and the prominent position which he occupies that the mythology of the north presents so striking a contrast to that of Greece.
EURYDICE (Evpvbucn), in Greek mythology, the wife of Orpheus.
APSARAS, in Hindu mythology, a female spirit of the clouds and waters.
ARES, in ancient Greek mythology, the god of war, or rather of battle, son of Zeus and Hera.
The figure of Ares appears in various stories of ancient mythology.
Adonis (Mythology) >>
AEOLUS, in Greek mythology, according to Homer the son of Hippotes, god and father of the winds, and ruler of the island of Aeolia.
SALMONEUS, in Greek mythology, son of Aeolus (king of Magnesia in Thessaly, the mythic ancestor of the Aeolian race), grandson of Hellen and brother of Sisyphus.
KUBERA (or Kuvera), in Hindu mythology, the god of wealth.
`EMv), in Greek mythology, daughter of Zeus by Leda (wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta), sister of Castor, Pollux and Clytaemnestra, and wife of Menelaus.
PHORCYS (PHORCUS, PHORCYN), in Greek mythology, son of Pontus (Sea) and Gaea (Earth), father of the Graeae, the Gorgons, Scylla, and Ladon (the dragon that guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides).
Furtwangler; mythology (with cognate subjects) by G.
in AMBROSIA ancient mythology, sometimes the food, sometimes the drink of the gods.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology (London, 1855); W.
This derivation is, however, fanciful; the name bucentaurus is unknown in ancient mythology, and the figurehead of the bucentaurs, of which representations have come down to us, is the lion of St Mark.
SISYPHUS, in Greek mythology, son of Aeolus and Enarete, and king of Ephyra (Corinth).
In 1873 Dr Murray published a Manual of Mythology, and in the following year contributed to the Contemporary Review two articles - one on the Homeric question - which led to a friendship with Mr Gladstone, the other on Greek painters.
AMPHITRITE, in ancient Greek mythology, a sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus (or Oceanus) and wife of Poseidon.
In other words, thought, which will 'not stop, takes to mythology; and in the place of reason we have superstition.
Moreover, in the unbridled exercise of speculation, the number of divine beings was increased indefinitely; and these fantastic accessions to l Olympus in the system of Iamblichus show that Greek philosophy 'is returning to mythology, and that nature-religion is still a power in the world.
FENRIR, or Fenris, in Scandinavian mythology, a waterdemon in the shape of a huge wolf.
Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology (1856); ii.
Philosophy of Mythology (1857); iii.
This conception of a difference, of an internal structure in the absolute, finds other and not less obscure expressions in the mystical contributions of the Menschliche Freiheit and in the scholastic speculations of the Berlin lectures on mythology.
America; and all over that region it is the chief figure in a group of myths, fulfilling the office of a culture hero who brings the light, gives fire to mankind, &c. Together with the eaglehawk the crow plays a great part in the mythology of S.E.
==Mantis== Cagn is a prominent figure in Bushman mythology; the mantis and the caterpillar, Ngo, are his incarnations.
But little need be said on the relation of animism and mythology.
While a large part of mythology has an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, e.g.
in a sky world, peopled by corporeal beings, as well as by spirits of the dead; the latter may even be entirely absent; the mythology of the Australians relates largely to corporeal, non-spiritual beings; stories of transformation, deluge and doom myths, or myths of the origin of death, have not necessarily any animistic basis.
At the same time, with the rise of ideas as to a future life and spiritual beings, this field of mythology is immensely widened, though it cannot be said that a rich mythology is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with belief in many spiritual beings.
URANUS (Heaven), in Greek mythology, the husband of Gaea (Earth), and father of Cronus (Saturn) and other deities.
Of all the minor creatures of mythology the fairies are the most beautiful, the most numerous, the most memorable in literature.
Keightley's Fairy Mythology is full of interesting matter; Rhys's Celtic Mythology is especially copious about Welsh fairies, which are practically identical with those of Ireland and Scotland.
The cumbrous mythology and cosmogony of Mithraism at last weakened its hold upon men's minds, and it disappeared during the 4th century before a victorious Catholicism, yet not until another faith, equally Iranian in its mythology mad cosmological beliefs, had taken its place.
He certainly shows that the old Assyrian mythology influenced Mani, but not that this element did not reach him through Persian channels.
What gave it strength was that it united an ancient mythology and a thorough-going materialistic dualism with an exceedingly simple spiritual worship and a strict morality.
The only part of the Manichaean mythology that became popular was the crude, physical dualism.
ELECTRA ('HMKTpa), "the bright one," in Greek mythology.
HEPHAESTUS, in Greek mythology, the god of fire, analogous to, and by the ancients often confused with, the Roman god Vulcan; the derivation of the name is uncertain, but it may well be of Greek origin.
HERMAPHRODITUS, in Greek mythology, a being, partly male, partly female, originally worshipped as a divinity.
Norse, Nornir), in Northern mythology, the female divinities of fate, somewhat similar to the Gr.
BRIAREUS, or Aegaeon, in Greek mythology, one of the three hundred-armed, fifty-headed Hecatoncheires, brother of Cottus and Gyges (or Gyes).
GLADSHEIM (Old Norse Gladsheimr), in Scandinavian mythology, the region of joy and home of Odin.
Though less superstitious than the Tahitians, the idolatry of the Sandwich Islanders was equally barbarous and sanguinary, as, in addition to the chief objects of worship included in the mythology of the other islands, the supernatural beings supposed to reside in the volcanoes and direct the action of subterranean fires rendered the gods objects of peculiar terror.
MARUTS, in Hindu mythology, storm-gods.
Besides the anthropomorphic " giants, " mentioned above, Northern mythology speaks also of theriomorphic demons, the chief of which were Midgar6sormr, the " worldserpent," and Fenrisulfr, a monster wolf, the enemies of Thor and Odin respectively.
One of the most striking conceptions of Northern mythology is that of the " world-tree," Yggdrasil's Ash, which sheltered all living beings (see Yggdrasil).
Beside this belief, however, we find another which seems hardly to be compatible with it, viz., that the souls of the dead passed to the realm of Hel, who in Northern mythology is represented as the daughter of Loki.
Some scholars hold that they were peculiar to the mythology of Norway and Iceland and that they arose at a late period, largely through Christian influence.
To these must be added a large number of Old Norse writings including the older Edda and the prose Edda (the chief authorities for Northern mythology), Islands Landnamabok and many sagas dealing with the history of families in Iceland (such as Eyrbyggia Saga) or with the lives of Norwegian and other kings, both historical and legendary (in Heimskringla, Fornmanna Sogur and Rafn's Fornaldar Sogur Norr landa).
Berlin, 1878); Teutonic Mythology (trans.
This mountainous character and the absence of any tolerable harbour - Pliny, in enumerating the islands of the Aegean, calls it "importuosissima omnium" - prevented it from ever attaining to any political importance, but it enjoyed great celebrity from its connexion with the worship of the Cabeiri, a mysterious triad of divinities, concerning whom very little is known, but who appear, like all the similar deities venerated in different parts of Greece, to have been a remnant of a previously existing Pelasgic mythology.
IRMIN, or Irminus, in Teutonic mythology, a deified eponymic hero of the Herminones.
ATLAS, in Greek mythology, the "endurer," a son of the Titan Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia), brother of Prometheus.
In the Apology, after contrasting the judicial treatment of Christians with that of other accused persons, he refutes the accusations brought against the Christians of atheism, eating human flesh and licentiousness, and in doing so takes occasion to make a vigorous and skilful attack on pagan polytheism and mythology.
CHARON, in Greek mythology, the son of E r ebus and Nyx (Night).
The locality was associated with a number of the most interesting legends of Greek mythology,.
His views on the connexion between magic and mythology are explained in 19.133 and 17.305; those on folklore are described in 10.601.
HERTHA, or NERTxvs, in Teutonic mythology, the goddess of fertility, "Mother Ear:h."
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to religion and mythology.
TRIPTOLEMUS, in Greek mythology, the inventor of agriculture, first priest of Demeter, and founder of the Eleusinian mysteries.
Thus, if Epicurus objects to the doctrine of mythology, he objects no less to the doctrine of an inevitable fate, a necessary order of things unchangeable and supreme over the human will.
In mythology Oeta is chiefly celebrated as the scene of the funeral pyre on which Heracles burnt himself before his admission to Olympus.
Its importance for the history of religion and mythology is, in truth, very considerable, a fact which it is the great merit of Emin 7 and Dulaurier S to have first pointed out.
CYCLOPES (KbKAw?res, the round-eyed, plural of Cyclops), a type of beings variously described in Greek mythology.
ALASTOR, in Greek mythology, the spirit of revenge, which prompts the members of a family to commit fresh crimes to obtain satisfaction.
BHIMA (Sanskrit, "The Terrible"), in Hindu mythology, a hero, one of the Pandava princes who figure in the Mahabharata.
ATHAMAS, in Greek mythology, king of the Minyae in Boeotian Orchomenus, son of Aeolus, king of Thessaly, or of lblinyas.
ERIPHYLE, in Greek mythology, sister of Adrastus and wife of Amphiaraus.
It is no wonder that the godless Korrishites thought these stories of the Koran not nearly so entertaining as those of Rostam and Ispandiar, related by Nadr the son of Harith, who had learned in the course of his trade journeys on the Euphrates the heroic mythology of the Persians.
HERA, in Greek mythology, the sister and wife of Zeus and queen of the Olympian gods; she was identified by the Romans with Juno.
The cow was the animal specially sacred to Hera both in ritual and in mythology.
They deal for the most part with the hearing of diseases, the bites of snakes and scorpions, &c., but incidentally cast many sidelights on the mythology and superstitious beliefs.
Tradition, mythology and later customs make it possible to recover a scrap of the political history of that far-off time.
Thrusting aside all the multitudinous deities of Egypt and all the mythology even of Heliopolis, he devoted himself to the cult of the visible sun-disk, applying to it as its chief name the hitherto rare word Aton, meaning sun; the traditional divine name Harakht (Horus of the horizon), given to the hawk-headed sun-god of Heliopolis, was however allowed to subsist and a temple was built at Karnak to this god.
Some of the subjects are borrowed in altered form from the old mythology, while a few derive from Christian legend, and many deal with national history.
The old Scandinavian mythology lived in the hands of Ohlenschldger exactly as the classical Greek religion was born again in Keats.
His statements concerning Greek and Roman mythology are based respectively on the Protrepticus of Clement of Alexandria, and on Antistius Labeo, who belonged to the preceding generation and attempted to restore Neoplatonism.
The earliest of these works was Custom and Myth (1884); in Myth, Literature and Religion (2 vols., 1887, French trans., 1896) he explained the irrational elements of mythology as survivals from earlier savagery; in The Making of Religion (an idealization of savage animism) he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among savage races, and instituted comparisons between savage practices and the occult phenomena among civilized races; he dealt with the origins of totemism in Social Origins, printed (1903) together with J.
A mythology reminiscent of Italy is the "Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds" in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, founded directly upon the "Hercules and Centaur Nessus" of Pollaiuolo, now at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. Of portraits, besides that of his father already mentioned as done in 1497, there is his own of 1498 at Madrid.
Calais (Mythology) >>
The same peculiarity appears in the list of the ancient kings of Rome, but these are entangled in mythology.
SEMELE, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, and mother of Dionysus by Zeus.
The Phrygian mythology, so far as we know it, has a melancholy and mystic tone, and their religion partakes of the same character.
Harrison, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens (1890); "Der Theseische Synoikismos" in C. F.
Gill's Myths and Songs from the South Pacific; Dr Turner's Samoa; and Mr Shortland's Maori Religion and Mythology; Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology.
Le Grand, Au pays des Canaques (Paris, 1893); Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology (London, 1855); T.
The Danes were specially renowned for their axes; but about the sword the most of northern poetry and mythology clings.
HARISCHANDRA, in Hindu mythology, the 28th king of the Solar race.
But, although not a critical scholar, he was the first to attempt a scientific treatment of Greek mythology, and he gave an undoubted impulse to philological studies.
POSEIDON, in Greek mythology, god of the sea and of water generally, son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother of Zeus and Pluto.
GANYMEDE, in Greek mythology, son of Tros, king of Dardania, and Callirrhoe.
His first work (1804) was an attempt to show by means of their names that the giants of the Bible and of Greek mythology were personifications of natural phenomena.
The Old Testament preserves traces of forgotten history and legend, of strange Oriental mythology, and the remains of a semi-heathenish past.
They are sunk in a paganism which seems to embrace some faint reflexion of Greek mythology, Zoroastrian principles and the tenets of Buddhism, originally gathered, no doubt, from the varied elements of their mixed extraction.
high, in which are images representing Ganga, Bhagirathi and other figures of mythology.
The sophist of whom the Platonic Protagoras is here thinking was Hippias of Elis, who gave popular lectures, not only upon the four subjects just mentioned, but also upon grammar, mythology, family history, archaeology, Homerology and the education of youth.
King, Babylonian Religion and Mythology (London, 1899); T.
The possibility that Hebrew traditions were subject to Babylonian influence from the period of the Canaanite conquest has long been recognized, and to the Exilic and post-Exilic Jew the mythology of Babylon may well have presented many familiar features.
His earlier publications here treated of mythology and the history of dogma.
The former, owing to the development of comparative mythology, is now of little authority, and portions of part ii.
ACHERON, in Greek mythology, the son of Gaea or Demeter.
The name appears in cult and in mythology as that of the typical river-god; a familiar legend is that of his.
He is not a prominent figure in Northern mythology, for even in this special capacity he is overshadowed by Odin, and there are hardly any traces of worship being paid to him.
Iris (Mythology) >>
HESTIA, in Greek mythology, the "fire-goddess," daughter of Cronus and Rhea, the goddess of hearth and home.
SERPENT - WORSHIP. From all parts of the world there is a very considerable body of evidence for the prominence of the serpent in religion, mythology and folk-lore.
a See the elaborately illustrated work of James Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, or Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India (2nd ed., London, 1873); also M.
Grimm, Teutonic Mythology (1888), iv.
The Old Testament, allegorically explained, became the substitute for the outgrown mythology; intellectual activity revived; the new facts gained predominant influence in philosophy, and in turn were shaped according to its canons.
Some critics, however, think that the key of symbolism needs to be supplemented by that of mythology.
It is famous in Greek mythology; the giants are said to have piled it on Ossa in order to scale Olympus, the abode of the gods; it was the home of the centaurs, especially of Chiron, who had a cave near its summit, and educated many youthful heroes; the ship "Argo" was built from its pine-woods.
XetpijvES), in Greek mythology, the daughters of Phorcys the sea-god, or, in later legend, of the river-god Acheloiis and one of the nymphs.
Harrison, Myths of the Odyssey (1882), Mythology and Monuments of Athens (1890) and Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1908); J.
These exploits belong to the domain of pure mythology.
The position of Sceldwea and Beaw (in Malmesbury's Latin called Sceldius and Beowius) in the genealogy as anterior to Woden would not of itself prove that they belong to divine mythology and not to heroic legend.
BRIHASPATI, or Brahmanaspati ("god of strength"), a deity of importance in early Hindu mythology.
The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.).
The great Alexandrian grammarians had become figures in a new mythology.
In the later Saiva mythology this theory finds its artistic representation in Siva's androgynous form of Ardha-narisa, or "halfwoman-lord," typifying the union of the male and female energies; the male half in this form of the deity occupying the right-hand, and the female the left-hand side.
FAUNA, the name, in Roman mythology, of a country goddess of the fields and cattle, known sometimes as the sister, sometimes as the wife of the god Faunus; hence the term is used collectively for all the animals in any given geographical area or geological period, or for an enumeration of the same.
BRAGI, in Scandinavian mythology, the son of Odin, and god of wisdom, poetry and eloquence.
Boiardo occupies a similar position by the fusion of classic mythology with chivalrous romance in his Orlando Innamorato.
Its touch on classical mythology is original, rarely imitative or pedantic. The art of the Renaissance was an apocalypse of the beauty of the world and man in unaffected spontaneity, without side thoughts for piety or erudition, inspired by pure delight in loveliness and harmony for their own sakes.
One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institutions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numismatics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars with hints for further exploration; and a certain tradition of treating antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in Europe.
Their mythology consisted in the deification of the forces of nature, as " Ukko," the god of the air, " Tapio," god of the forests, " Ahti," the god of water, &c. These early Finlanders seem to have been both brave and troublesome to their neighbours, and their repeated attacks on the coast of Sweden drew the attention of the kings of that country.
AMALTHEIA, in Greek mythology, the foster-mother of Zeus.
According to ancient mythology, the owners of the horn were many and various.
In later mythology, under Alexandrian influence, the Horae become the four seasons, daughters of Helios and Selene, each represented with the conventional attributes.
Hegel, before the anthropological stage, found it in magic. Max Muller, building on philosophy and mythology, affirmed that " Religion consists in the perception of the infinite under such manifestations as are able to influence the moral character of man " (Natural Religion, 18 99, p. 188).
M.) THE Higher Religions Various phenomena associated with the religions of the lower culture will be found discussed in the articles on Animism; Fetishism; Magic; Mythology; Prayer; Ritual; Sacrifice; and Totemism.
4 Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology (1855), pp. 1-4.
The spirit-land of the Ibo on the Lower Niger had its rivers, forests or hills, its towns and roads, as upon earth: 1 the spirits of the Mordvinian mythology, created by Chkai, not only resembled men, they even possessed the faculty of reproduction by multiplication.
On Mythology and Religion English study was chiefly influenced by F.
Lang, Modern Mythology (1897).
AVALON (also written Avallon, Avollon, Avilion and Avelion), in Welsh mythology the kingdom of the dead, afterwards an earthly paradise in the western seas, and finally, in the Arthurian romances, the abode of heroes to which King Arthur was conveyed after his last battle.
Furiae), in Greek mythology, the avenging deities, properly the angry goddesses or goddesses of the curse pronounced upon evil-doers.
ERIS, in Greek mythology, a sister of the war-god Ares (Homer, Iliad, iv.
LYCAON, in Greek mythology, son of Pelasgus, the mythical first king of Arcadia.
THETIS, in Greek mythology, daughter of Nereus, wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles.
Owing to the very small amount of information which has come down to us regarding the gods of ancient England and Germany, it cannot be determined how far the character and adventures attributed to Odin in Scandinavian mythology were known to other Teutonic peoples.
4 But he was a patient antiquary, and advanced the knowledge of ancient Scandinavian mythology and language very considerably.
INDRA, in early Hindu mythology, god of the clear sky and greatest of the Vedic deities.
Closely connected as are the Mythology and Religion of Indian and Iranian, no less clearly marked is the fundamental difference of intellectual and moral standpoint, Diff~ne~ which has led the two nations into opposite paths between the of history and culture.
TARTARUS, in Greek mythology, the son of Aether and Gaea, father of Typhoeus and the giants.
The name is also applied in Greek mythology to a tributary of the Acheron or of the Styx, a river in Hades.
Rhadamanthys), in Greek mythology, son of Zeus and Europa and brother of Minos, king of Crete.
While the fables of mythology are often treated contemptuously or humorously by him, other passages in the satires clearly imply a conformity to, and even a respect for, the observances of the national religion.
BERSERKER (from the "Sark" or shirt of the "bear," or other animal-skins worn by them), in Scandinavian mythology, the name of the twelve sons of the hero Berserk, grandson of the eight-handed Starkadder and Alfhilde.
There is extant under his name a treatise on the gods and the heroic age, entitled Bc(3XtoOiJKn, a valuable authority on ancient mythology.
FATE, in Roman mythology, the spoken word (fatum) of Jupiter, the unalterable will of heaven.
The belief in them probably arose out of the doctrine of the older school, which did not deny the existence of the various creations of previous mythology and speculation, but allowed of their actual existence as spiritual beings, and only deprived them of all power over the lives of men, and declared them to be temporary beings liable, like men, to sin and ignorance, and requiring, like men, the salvation of Arahatship. Among them the later Buddhists seem to have placed their numerous Bodhisats; and to have paid especial reverence to Manju-sri as the personification of wisdom, and to Avalokiteswara as the personification of overruling love.
Theoretically, therefore, the former, as the spiritual successor of the great teacher and also of Amitabha, who occupies the higher place in the mythology of the Great Vehicle, would be superior to the latter, as the spiritual representative of Avalokitesvara.
Like the Great Lamas, they bear the title of Rinpotshe or Glorious, and are looked upon as incarnations of one or other of the celestial Bodhisats of the Great Vehicle mythology.
Annalistik, Berlin, 1873) reveals in the first place a marked difference between the kingly period and that which followed the establishment of the republic. The history of the former stretches back into the regions of pure mythology.
Brown, Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology (1898).
GLAUCUS (" bright"), the name of several figures in Greek mythology, the most important of which are the following: 1.
annul, year), in Roman mythology, the personification of the produce of the year.
PICUS, in Roman mythology, originally the woodpecker, the favourite bird and symbol of Mars as the god of both nature and war.
BELLONA (originally Duellona), in Roman mythology, the goddess of war (bellum, i.e.
Herodotus of Heraclea struggled to rationalize mythology, and established chronology on a solid basis.
`EuaT17, "she who works from afar" 1), a goddess in Greek mythology.
ARACHNE, in Greek mythology, the daughter of Idmon of Colophon in Lydia, a dyer in purple.
AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning "descent," specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose.
They are a rich source of mythology and legendary history.
Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology of the world has hardly a more universal theme.
GANESA, or Ganesh, in Hindu mythology, the god of wisdom and prudence, always represented with an elephant's head possibly to indicate his sagacity.
AMPHISBAENA (a Greek word, from aborgs, both ways, and /aivECv, to go), a serpent in ancient mythology, beginning or ending at both head and tail alike.
Oppert was a voluminous writer upon Assyrian mythology and jurisprudence, and other subjects connected with the ancient civilizations of the East.
It was of cedar-wood, gold and ivory, and on it were represented the chief incidents in Greek (especially Corinthian) mythology and legend.
COMUS (from KWµos, revel, or a company of revellers), in the later mythology of the Greeks, the god of festive mirth.
In classic mythology the personification does not exist; but Comus appears in the EIKOvES, or Descriptions of Pictures, of Philostratus, a writer of the 3rd century A.D.
DIONYSUS (probably = " son of Zeus," from Otos and vvvos, a Thracian word for " son "), in Greek mythology, originally a nature god of fruitfulness and vegetation, especially of the vine; hence, distinctively, the god of wine.
ADONIS, in classical mythology, a youth of remarkable beauty, the favourite of Aphrodite.
'Air6X X uw,'AirEX X wv), in Greek mythology, one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian divinities.
The derivation of all the functions assigned to him from the idea of a single original lightor sun-god, worked out in his Lexikon der Mythologie by Roscher, who regards it as "one of the most certain facts in mythology," has not found general acceptance, although no doubt some features of his character can be readily explained on this assumption.
The first part of the Instructiones is addressed to the heathens and Jews, and ridicules the divinities of classical mythology; the second contains reflections on Antichrist, the end of the world, the Resurrection, and advice to Christians, penitents and the clergy.
RHEA, a goddess of the Greeks known in mythology as the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the sister and consort of Kronos, and the mother of Zeus.
HYGIEIA, in Greek mythology, the goddess of health.
This fiction has involved the superinduction of a new mythology over the old heathen ritual, which remains practically unchanged.
The similarity of the name Japheth to the Titan Iapetos of Greek mythology is probably a mere accident.
An entire mythology soon grew up around the idea of re-birth.
Furiae, also called Dirae), in Roman mythology an adaptation of the Greek Erinyes, with whom they are generally identical.
Add to this, that, according to Jensen, Ishtar in mythology was the cousin of Marduk, just as the legend represents Esther as the cousin of Mordecai.4 The same scholar also accounts for Esther's other name Hadassah (Esth.
LIBER and Libera, in Roman mythology, deities, male and female, identified with the Greek Dionysus and Persephone.
JUVENTAS (Latin for "youth": later Juventus), in Roman mythology, the tutelar goddess of young men.
ARTEMIS, one of the principal goddesses in Greek mythology, the counterpart of the Roman Diana.
ASVINS, in Hindu mythology, twin deities of light.
It has been suggested that the fact of the conquest of the Amazons being assigned to the two famous heroes of Greek mythology, Heracles and Theseus - who in the tasks assigned to them were generally opposed to monsters and beings impossible in themselves, but possible as illustrations of permanent danger and damage, - shows that they were mythical illustrations of the dangers which beset the Greeks on the coasts of Asia Minor; rather perhaps, it may be intended to represent the conflict between the Greek culture of the colonies on the Euxine and the barbarism of the native inhabitants.
In Greek mythology the term was specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus (who feared misfortune from his own children) in mistake for his infant son Zeus, for whom it had been substituted by Uranus and Gaea, his wife's parents (Etymologicum Magnum, s.v.).
In Phoenician mythology, one of the sons of Uranus is named Baetylus.
The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology, language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay (i.e.
The first part, an exquisite sketch of northern mythology, Gylfa-ginning, was probably prefixed to the whole later.
The stories which contain the last lees of the old mythology and pre-history seem to be also non-Icelandic, but amplified by Icelandic editors, who probably got the plots from the Western Islands.
Fopycc, FopyOves, the "terrible," or, according to some, the "loud-roaring"), a figure or figures in Greek mythology.
ALCYONE, or Halcyone, in Greek mythology, daughter of Aeolus and wife of Ceyx.
FRIGG, the wife of the god Odin (Woden) in northern mythology.
Names borrowed from geography and classical mythology are assigned to the regions and features.
NARCISSUS, in Greek mythology, son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Leiriope, distinguished for his beauty.
VISHNU (Sanskrit, "the worker," from root vish, "to work"), a solar deity, in later Hindu mythology a god of the first importance, one of the supreme trinity with Brahma and Siva, but in the Rig Veda only a minor deity.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir W.
The former, for instance, has three instead of two toes on each foot, it has no apparent tail, its wings are far better developed, and when folded cover the body, and its head and neck are clothed with feathers, while internal distinctions of still deeper significance have since been 1 What prompted his bestowal of this name, so well known in classical mythology, is not apparent.
In Greek mythology the most famous sphinx was that of Thebes in Boeotia, first mentioned by Hesiod (Theog.
On the whole his figure is somewhat secondary in the mythology to that of Odin, who is represented as his father.
for a laurel tree), in Greek mythology, the daughter of the Arcadian river-god Ladon or the Thessalian Peneus, or of the Laconian Amyclas.
Mythology is also used as a term for these legends themselves.
Thus when we speak of " the mythology of Greece " we mean the whole body of Greek divine and heroic and cosmogonic legends.
When we speak of the " science of mythology " we refer to the various attempts which have been made to explain these ancient narratives.
It is this irrational and unnatural element - .as Max Muller says, " the silly, savage and senseless element " - that makes mythology the puzzle which men have so long found it.
The earliest attempts at a crude science of mythology were efforts to reconcile the legends of the gods and heroes with the religious sentiment which recognized in these beings objects of worship and respect.
67, 4 was the author of a very ancient system of mythology.
When Christians approached the problem of heathen mythology, they sometimes held, with St Augustine, a form of the doctrine of Euemerus?
3 Bryant published (1774) A New System, or an Analysis of Ancient Mythology, wherein an Attempt is made to divest Tradition of Fable, in which he talked very learnedly of " that wonderful people, the descendants of Cush," and saw everywhere symbols of the ark and traces of the Noachian deluge.
that Lafitau, a Jesuit missionary in North America, while inclined to take a mystical view of the secrets concealed by Iroquois myths, had also pointed out the savage element surviving in Greek mythology.5 Recent Mythological Systems. - Up to a very recent date students of mythology were hampered by orthodox traditions, and still more by ignorance of the ancient languages and of the natural history of man.
The new theories of mythology are based on the belief that " it is man, it is human thought and human language combined, which naturally and necessarily produced the strange conglomerate of ancient fable."' But, while there is now universal agreement so far, modern mythologists differed essentially on one point.
Another school (also somewhat divided against itself) believes that misunderstood language played but a very slight part in the evolution of mythology, and that the irrational element in myths is merely the survival from a condition of thought which was once common, if not universal, but is now found chiefly among savages, and to a certain extent among children.
The problem was to explain what he calls " the silly, savage and senseless element " in mythology (Sel.
Max Muller refers the beginning of his system of mythology to the discovery of the connexion of the Indo-European or, as they are called, " Aryan " languages.
We have stated and criticized the more prominent modern theories of mythology.
The difficulty of mythology is to account for the following among other apparently irrational elements in myths: the wild and senseless stories of the beginnings of things, of the origin of men, sun, stars, animals, death, and the world in general; the infamous and absurd adventures of the gods; why divine beings are regarded as incestuous, adulterous, murderous, thievish, cruel, cannibals, and addicted to wearing the shapes of animals, and subject to death in some stories; the myths of metamorphosis into plants, beasts and stars; the repulsive stories of the state of the dead; the descents of the gods into the place of the dead, and their return thence.
Now let us apply this system to mythology.
If this view of mythology can be proved, much will have been done to explain a problem which we have not yet touched, namely, the distribution of myths.
The science of mythology has to account, if it can, not only for the existence of certain stories in the legends of certain races, but also for the presence of stories practically the same among almost all races.
In a developed treatise on the subject of mythology it would be necessary to criticize, with a minuteness which is impossible here, our evidence for the very peculiar mental condition of the lower races.
Savage mythology, which is also savage science, has a reply to all these and all similar questions, and that reply is always found in the shape of a story.
We have now shown how savages come to have a mythology.
3 This opinion we may name personalism, and it is the necessary condition of savage (and, as will be seen, of civilized) mythology.
Metamorphoses into stones are as common among Red Indians and Australians as in Greek mythology.
Whatever may be said, Frazer has certainly made the most important of recent contributions to the study of mythology.
And such are the gods of mythology.
The chief being among the supernatural characters of Bushman mythology is the insect called the Mantis.'
Concerning the mythology of the Hottentots and Namas, we have a great deal of information in a book named Tsuni-Goam, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi (1881), by Dr T.
As usual, religion is more advanced than mythology.
The mythology of the Zulus as reported by H.
Night is a person in Greek mythology, and in the fourteenth book of the Iliad we read that Zeus abstained from punishing Sleep " because he feared to offend swift Night."
Among these the Maoris of New Zealand, and the Polynesian people generally, are remarkable for a mythology largely intermixed with early attempts at more philosophical speculation.
In Maori mythology it is more than usually difficult to keep apart the origin of the world and the origin and nature of the gods.
Maui in some respects answers to the chief of the Adityas in Vedic mythology; in others he answers to Qat, Quawteaht, and other savage divine personages.
The whole system, as far as it can be called a system, of Maori mythology is obviously based on the savage conceptions of the world which have already been explained.
Their religion had its fine lucid intervals, but their mythology and ritual were little better than savage ideas, elaborately worked up by the imagination of a cruel and superstitious priesthood.
The divine myths of the two nations had points in common, but there are few topics more obscure than Egyptian mythology.
As in the case of the Vedas, hymns are poor sources for the study of mythology, just as the hymns of the Church would throw little light on the incidents of the gospel story or of the Old Testament.
But we have to turn to the very late authority of Plutarch (De Iside et Osiride) for an account, confessedly incomplete and expurgated, of what mythology had to tell about the great Egyptian " culture-hero," " daemon," and god.
But this aspect of the Vedic deities is essentially matter for the science of religion rather than of mythology, which is concerned with the stories told about the gods.
This serpent was a universal devourer of everything and everybody, like Kwai Hemm, the all-devourer in Bushman mythology.
Yet in the mythology and religion of Greece we find abundant survivals of savage manners and of savage myths.
The survivals of rites, objects of worship, and sacrifices like these prove that religious conservatism in Greece retained much of savage practice, and the Greek mythology is not less full of ideas familiar to the lowest races.
The authorities for Greek mythology are numerous and various in character.
This idea recurs in Maori, Vedic and Chinese mythology.
Their relations are, on the whole, much more amicable than those of the Asuras and Devas in Indian mythology.
The constant enemies of the gods, the giants, could also assume animal forms. Thus in Thiodolf's Haust-long (composed after the settlement of Iceland) we read about a shield on which events from mythology were painted; among these was the flight of " giant Thiazzi in an ancient eagle's feathers."
Keary's Mythology of the Eddas (1882); Pigott's Manual of Scandinavian Mythology (1838); and Laing's Early Kings of Norway may be consulted by English students.
The hymns may be read in Sir George Grey's Polynesian Mythology, and in Taylor's New Zealand.
In this sketch of mythology that of Rome is not included, because its most picturesque parts are borrowed from or adapted into harmony with the mythology of Greece.
Greece, India and Scandinavia will supply a fair example of Aryan mythology (without entering on the difficult Slavonic and Celtic fields).
POLYPHEMUS, in Greek mythology, the most famous of the Cyclopes, son of Poseidon and the nymph Thobsa.
CABEIRI, in Greek mythology, a group of minor deities, of whose character and worship nothing certain is known.
Kopbfiavmr), in Greek mythology, half divine, half demonic beings, bearing the same relation to the Asiatic Great Mother of the Gods that the Curetes bear to Rhea.
The main argument employed is an exposition of the con tradictions, absurdities and immoralities of Greek mythology.
Tatian does not deny the stories of the Greek mythology - indeed he protests against any attempt to allegorize it - but he insists that these stories are the record of the deeds of demons and have no religious value.
OGYGES, or Ogygus, in Greek mythology, the first king of Thebes.
ARJUNA, in Hindu mythology, a semi-divine hero of the lf7ahabharata.
CENTAURS, in Greek mythology, a race of beings part horse part man, dwelling in the mountains of Thessaly and Arcadia.
In this article we are concerned with the primary sense of the word, as used in mythology and religion.
In Babylonian mythology "the old serpent goddess ` the lady Nina' was transformed into the embodiment of all that was hostile to the powers of heaven" (Sayce's Hibbert Lectures, p. 283), and was confounded with the dragon Tiamat, "a terrible monster, reappearing in the Old Testament writings as Rahab and Leviathan, the principle of chaos, the enemy of God and man" (Tennant's The Fall and Original Sin, p. 43), and according to Gunkel (Schopfung and Chaos, p. 383) "the original of the ` old serpent ' of Rev. xii.
In Egyptian mythology the serpent Apap with an army of monsters strives daily to arrest the course of the boat of the luminous gods.
While the Greek mythology described the Titans as "enchained once for all in their dark dungeons" yet Prometheus' threat remained to disturb the tranquillity of the Olympian Zeus.
In the German mythology the army of darkness is led by Hel, the personification of twilight, sunk to the goddess who enchains the dead and terrifies the living, and Loki, originally the god of fire, but afterwards "looked upon as the father of the evil powers, who strips the goddess of earth of her adornments, who robs Thor of his fertilizing hammer, and causes the death of Balder the beneficent sun."
In Hindu mythology the Maruts, Indra, Agni and Vishnu wage war with the serpent Ahi to deliver the celestial cows or spouses, the waters held captive in the caverns of the clouds.
VERTUMNUS (or Vortumnus, "turning," "changing"), in Roman mythology, the god of the changing year with its seasons, flowers and fruits, probably of Italian origin.
It is a manual of "popular mythology as expounded in the etymological and symbolical interpretations of the Stoics" (Sandys), and although marred by many absurd etymologies, abounds in beautiful thoughts (ed.
In 1875 he published a thesis on the mythology of the Zend Avesta, and in 1877 became teacher of Zend at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
GERYON (GERYONES, GERYONEUS), in Greek mythology, the son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, daughter of Oceanus, and king of the island of Erytheia.
RUDRA (probably from the root rud, " to howl," hence "the howler"), in Hindu Vedic mythology, a storm god, and father of the Maruts who are frequently called Rudriyas.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir William Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.
The Guigemar of Marie de France presents marked analogies with the ordinary Oriental romance of escape from a harem, for instance, with details superadded from classical mythology.
Later she commonly wore the horns of a cow, and the cow was sacred to her; it is doubtful, however, whether she had any animal representation in early times, nor had she possession of any considerable locality until a late period, when Philae, Behbet and other large temples were dedicated to her worship. Yet she was of great importance in mythology, religion and magic, appearing constantly in the very ancient Pyramid texts as the devoted sister-wife of Osiris and mother of Horus.
Under the name of Hyginus two school treatises on mythology are extant: (I) Fabularum Liber, some 300 mythological legends and celestial genealogies, valuable for the use made by the author of the works of Greek tragedians now lost; (2) De Astronomia, usually called Poetica Astronomica, containing an elementary treatise on astronomy and the myths connected with the stars, chiefly based on the Ka-raa-repu s of of Eratosthenes.
It is suggested that these treatises are an abridgment (made in the latter half of the 2nd century) of the Genealogiae of Hyginus by an unknown grammarian, who added a complete treatise on mythology.
BIFROST, in Old Norse mythology, the rainbow, which was supposed to form the bridge by which the gods passed between heaven and earth.
The story is full of picturesque detail and stirring incident, full also of interesting problems in folk-lore and mythology; and throughout it is dominated by the figure of the grim Hagen, who, twitted with cowardice and his advice spurned, is determined that there shall be no turning back and that they shall go through with it to the bitter end.
EUMOLPUS ("sweet singer"), in Greek mythology, son of Poseidon and Chione, the daughter of Boreas, legendary priest, poet and warrior.
In contrast with these, it is considered one of the glories of the Olympian mythology of Greece that it believed in happy manlike beings (though exempt from death, and using special rarefied foods, &c.), and celebrated them in statues of the most exquisite art.
EROS, in Greek mythology, the god of love.
52-56, and Kuhn's Herabkunft; and see the essays by Steinthal in appendix to English version of Goldziher's Mythology among the Hebrews.
Other spiders weave these beautiful, symmetrical, ethereal webs whose designs have been the inspiration for art and mythology for as long as there were spiders, he explained.
Her recent research focuses on the reception of Greek athletics in the Roman empire and the representation of Greek mythology in Roman art.
Nibiru The other aspect of Sumerian mythology covers cosmology.
Maori mythology has also interwoven itself into my own poetical cosmos.