Muscular sentence example
The warmth of his muscular chest was like a magnet.
She ran her fingers along his muscular forearm.
Lana wrapped her arms around his muscular frame, breathing in his familiar scent.
He didn't wear a coat today and his shirtsleeves were rolled up to reveal brown muscular forearms.
She ran a hand along his sleek neck and patted the muscular shoulder.Advertisement
Brady stretched a muscular arm across the table beside him to tug the box out of his other uniform.
She clung to his muscular shoulders, returning his ardent embrace.
The man was in his prime with silver hair and dark eyes, a handsome face, and a body as muscular as Talon's.
In my account of Helen last year, I mentioned several instances where she seemed to have called into use an inexplicable mental faculty; but it now seems to me, after carefully considering the matter, that this power may be explained by her perfect familiarity with the muscular variations of those with whom she comes into contact, caused by their emotions.
The mesogloea in the hydropolyp is a thin elastic layer, in which may be lodged the muscular fibres and ganglion cells mentioned above, but which never contains any connective tissue or skeletogenous cells or any other kind of special mesogloeal corpuscles.Advertisement
The ectoderm furnishes the general epithelial covering of the body, and the muscular tissue, nervous system and sense-organs.
The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.
The uppermost is a purely muscular cell from the sub-umbrella; the two lower are epidermo-muscular cells from the base of a tentacle; the upstanding nucleated portion forms part of the epidermal mosaic on the free surface of the body.
The active contraction of muscular tissue has no counterpart in the plant.
The extent of the area affected and of the variation in the turgor depends upon many circumstances, but we have no doubt that in the process of modifying its own permeability by some molecular change we have the counterpart of muscular contractibility.Advertisement
The whole wing is a unique modification, deeply affecting the skeletal, muscular and tegumentary structures, but fluttering, skimming, sailing, soaring are motions much more akin to one another than climbing and grasping, running, scratching, paddling and wading.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
Here, alone, at the distal portion of the tendon, occur muscular fibres, but these are unstriped, belonging to the category of cutaneous muscles.
Owing to the elasticity of the humerocarpal band the wing remains closed without any special muscular exertion, while, when the wing is extended, this band assists in keeping it taut.
Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.Advertisement
It is, however, fair to state that his system was not built entirely upon these muscular variations, but rather upon a more laborious combination of anatomical characters, which were so selected that they presumably could not stand in direct correlation with each other, notably the oil-gland, caeca, carotids, nasal bones and above all, the muscles of the thigh.
The atria are comparatively small, the walls being thin, especially those of the right, which possesses numerous muscular ridges projecting into the cavity presenting a honeycombed appearance.
The communication with the atrium is guarded by a valvula cardiaca dextra, which only in function represents the mammalian tricuspid; it consists of an oblique reduplication of the muscular fibres together with the endocardiac lining of the right ventricle, while the opposite wall is convex and forms neither a velum nor papillary muscles, nor chordae tendineae.
On the other hand, the diacromyodian type can have been developed only from a strong muscular basis which could split into a dorsal and a ventral mass; moreover, no Passeres are known to be intermediate between those that are diacromyodian and those that are not.
Figures slim, muscular and bony, action impetuous but of arrested energy, tawny landscape, gritty with littering pebbles, mark the athletic hauteur of his style.Advertisement
The natives of Bali, though of the same stock as the Javanese, and resembling them in general appearance, exceed them in stature and muscular power, as well as in activity and enterprise.
The investigation of Carpenter on unconscious cerebration and of Faraday on unconscious muscular action showed early in the movement that it was not necessary to look outside the medium's own personality for the explanation of even intelligent communications unconsciously conveyed through table-tilting, automatic writing and trance-speaking - provided the matter communicated was not beyond the range of the medium's own knowledge or powers.
One of the possibilities to be allowed for is that of exceptional muscular endowment or anatomical peculiarity in the medium.
Usually they do not extend outwards of the muscular layers of the body wall.
The muscular layers are thinner in the aquatic forms, which possess only a single row of longitudinal fibres, or (Enchytraeidae) two layers.Advertisement
This may be associated with mud-eating habits; but it is not wholly certain that this is the case; for in Chaetogaster and Agriodrilus, which are predaceous worms, there is no protrusible pharynx, though in the latter the oesophagus is thickened through its extent with muscular fibres.
The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt.
Muscular substance forming the root of the foot.
The odontophore is powerfully developed; the radular sac is extraordinarily long, lying coiled in a space between the mass of the liver and the muscular foot.
As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.Advertisement
The vascular system is not extensive, the arteries soon ending in the well-marked spongy tissue which builds up the muscular foot, parapodia, and dorsal body-wall.
The male duct vd becomes fleshy and muscular near its termination at the genital pore, forming the penis p. Attached to it is a diverticulum fl, in which the spermatozoa which have descended from the ovo-testis are stored and modelled into sperm ropes or spermatophores.
The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are traced partly to two symmetrically disposed " mesoblasts," which bud off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long processes with the invaginated endoderm.
One of them is said to be " irritability," and, though this is explained to mean, not " muscular strength alone, but vivacity and activity generally," ' it does not seem to form a character that can be easily appreciated either as to quantity or quality; in fact, most persons would deem it quite immeasurable, and, as such, removed from practical consideration.
The recognition of these, minute and fragmentary as many were, and the referring them to their proper place, rendered necessary an attentive study of the comparative osteology and myology of birds in general, that of the " long bones," whose sole characters were often a few muscular ridges or depressions, being especially obligatory.Advertisement
Therefore the flesh, especially of the larger kinds, is of a red colour; and the energy of their muscular action causes the temperature of their blood to be several degrees higher than in other fishes.
The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.
It is worthy of notice that in those Nemertines which make a very free use of their proboscis, and in which it is seen to be continually protruded and retracted, the walls of the proboscidian sheath are enormously muscular.
The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.
At the circular insertion of the proboscis in front of the brain the muscular fibres belonging to the anterior extremity of the body and those connected with the proboscis are very intimately interwoven, forming a strong attachment.Advertisement
Internally the muscular layers are lined by an epithelium.
Superiorly the sheath either closely adheres to the muscular bodywall, with which it may even be partly interwoven, or it hangs freely in the connective tissue which fills the space between the intestine and the muscular body-wall.
The passage from this tegumentary layer to the subjacent longitudinal muscular one is gradual, no membrane separating them.
The muscular layers by which the body-wall is constituted have been very differently and to some extent confusingly described by the successive authors on Nemertean anatomy.
The fact is that not only have the larger subdivisions a different arrangement and even number of the muscular layers, but even within the same genus, nay, in the same species, well-marked differences occur.Advertisement
The situation of the lateral nervestems in the different genera with respect to the muscular layers lends definite support to the interpretation of their homologies here given and forms the basis of Burger's classification.
In Carinella, Cephalothrix and Polia, as well as in all Metanemertines, the basement membrane of the skin already alluded to is particularly strong and immediately applied upon the muscular layers.
The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.
It can then at the same time be observed, too, that the compact mass of connective tissue (" reticulum," Barrois) which lies between the muscular bodywall and the intestine is directly continuous with that in which the muscular layers are embedded.
In Polia the connective tissue enclosed in the external muscular layer is eminently vacuolar - all the intermediate stages between such cells in which the vacuole predominates and the nucleus is peripheral and those in which the granular protoplasm still entirely fills them being moreover present.
In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.
In Carinella, where the longitudinal nerve-stems are situated exteriorly to the muscular layers, this plexus, although present, is much less dense, and can more fitly be compared to a network with wide meshes.
In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.
The oesophagus is the anterior portion of the digestive canal; its walls are folded longitudinally, comparatively thick and provided with longitudinal muscular fibres.
In certain cases, however, the walls of the oesophagus appear to be very closely applied to the muscular body-wall and this vascular space thereby considerably reduced.
Anteriorly it finally communicates with the lacunae just mentioned, which surround the oesophagus, bathe the posterior lobes of the brain, pass through the nerve ring together with the proboscidian sheath, and are generally continued in front of the brain as a lacunar space in the muscular tissue, one on each side.
The blood fluid does not flow in any definite direction; its movements are largely influenced by those of the muscular body-wall.
In transverse sections the nephridia can be shown to be generally situated in the region limited by (I) the proboscidian sheath, (2) the upper wall of the intestine, (3) the muscular body-wall.
The people themselves are described as of " middle height, broadchested and muscular, with remarkably large hands and feet, the eyes large, the forehead round, and not narrow or receding in many instances, the nose broad, the mouth large and disfigured with betel."
In their minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of Nematodes.
Each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty muscular coat.
The men are taller and more muscular than the Siamese and Annamese, while the women are small and inclined to stoutness.
The name has reference to the tongue-shaped muscular proboscis by which the animal works its way through the sand.
The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut.
Interior of dorsal valve, showing muscular impressions and labial appendages.
On the inner surface of both valves several well-defined muscular, vascular and ovarian impressions are observable; they form either indentations of greater or less size and depth, or occur as variously shaped projections.
In Discinisca they are provided with a muscular valve placed at their point of origin.
The symptoms of acute poisoning are pain and diarrhoea, owing to the setting up of an active gastro-enteritis, the foeces being black (due to the formation of a sulphide of lead), thirst, cramps in the legs and muscular twitchings, with torpor, collapse, convulsions and coma.
The action of aconitine on the circulation is due to an initial stimulation of the cardio-inhibitory centre in the medulla oblongata (at the root of the vagus nerves), and later to a directly toxic influence on the nerve-ganglia and muscular fibres of the heart itself.
Muscular fibres connected with the suctorial pharynx are in Limulus inserted into the entosternite, and the activity of the two organs may be correlated.
In both animals the wall of the pericardial sinus is connected by vertical muscular bands to the wall of the ventral venous sinus (its lateral expansions around the lung-books in Scorpio) in each somite through which the pericardium passes.
Those of Limulus were described and figured by Alphonse Milne-Edwards, but he called them merely " transparent ligaments," and did not discover their muscular structure.
They are figured and their importance for the first time recognized in the memoir on the muscular and skeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio by Lankester, Beck and Bourne (4).
Concentration of the organ-systems by fusion of neighbouring regions (prosoma, mesosoma, metasoma), pre viously distinct, has frequently occurred, together with obliteration of the muscular and chitinous structures indicative of distinct somites.
True hypertrophy is commonly found in the hollow muscular organs such as the heart, bladder and alimentary canal.
As a result of these various degenerations the functions of the body deteriorate, the faculties become blunted, and the muscular energy of the body is below what it was in earlier life, while the secreting glands in certain instances become functionally obsolescent.
Haller's definition of irritability as a property of muscular tissue, and its distinction from sensibility as a property of nerves, struck at the root of the prevailing hypothesis respecting animal activity.
No aid to the trained eye was necessary for such observations, and for many other such; yet, if we take Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882) as a modern Sydenham, we may find in his lectures no suspicion that there may be a palsy of muscular co-ordination apart from deprivation of strength.
Indeed, it does not seem to have occurred to any one to compare the muscular strength in the various kinds of paraplegia.
A well-developed cellular parenchyma forms a matrix in which the muscular, excretory and generative organs are imbedded.
The scolex is usually a conical muscular structure.
The sheath terminates in an elongated muscular bulb.
The mass of the body consists of richly branched stellate cells - the mesenchyma - and imbedded in this plasmic tissue are the nervous, excretory, muscular and generative organs.
The thicker portion develops a terminal muscular rostellum and two or four suckers, the thinner end (" tail ") is vesicular, more or less elongated, and contains the six embryonic hooks.
The Nilotic Nubians are on the whole a strong muscular people, essentially agricultural, more warlike and energetic than the Egyptians.
Jalap is a typical hydragogue purgative, causing the excretion of more fluid than scammony, but producing less stimulation of the muscular wall of the bowel.
Thus in the recently discovered arctic genus Prosorhynchus the muscular and glandular extremity is protrusible, but in the allied Gasterostomum this organ is represented by a sucker with fimbriated or tentacular margins.
The excretory system is highly developed and opens at the posterior extremity by a paired muscular bladder.
The tail may be a simple hollow muscular process or provided with stiff bristles set in transverse rows, or divided into two equally long processes, or finally it may form a large vesicular structure.
Prisms are of great value in cases of double vision due to a slight tendency to squinting, caused by weakness or over-action of the muscular apparatus of the eyeball.
Even the ectoderm can rarely be recognized as an obvious epithelium except in regions where budding is taking place, while muscular layers are always absent and a coelomic epithelium can seldom be observed.
Thus in the Phylactolaemata the contraction of the muscular body-wall exerts a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity and is the cause of the protrusion of the polypide.
The head of the insect contains a muscular pharynx by means of which the blood from the wound inflicted by the proboscis (labium) is pumped into the alimentary canal and the so-called sucking-stomach.
Reiun sculptured simply a man poised on the toes of one foot, the other foot raised, the ar-rn extended, and the body straining forward in strong yet elastic muscular effort.
In short, the little chisel becomes in his fingers a painters brush, and when it is remembered that, the basis upon which he works being simply a thread of silk, his hand must be trained to such delicacy of muscular effort as to be capable of arresting the edge of the knile at varying depths within the diameter of the tiny filament, the difficulty of the achievement will be understood.
Many alcoholic liniments are therefore employed for the relief of pain, especially muscular pains, as in lumbago and other forms of so-called "muscular rheumatism."
Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.
It hardly affects the small intestine, but markedly stimulates the muscular coat of the large intestine, causing purging in about fifteen hours.
Behind this point there is a muscular pharynx or gizzard, which communicates with the wide intestinal tract.
It was said to exceed all other American mammals in ferocity of disposition and muscular strength.
The body-wall is highly muscular and, except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses chitinous spines, the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm and are embedded in pits of the skin.
By means of this muscular foot the cockle burrows rapidly in the muddy sand of the sea-shore, and it can also when it is not buried perform considerable leaps by suddenly bending the foot.
The severed part retains its muscular irritability for a short time, wriggling as if it were a living creature.
The stomach is generally large; its wall consists of a layer of very large ciliated cells, which often contain fat globules and yellowish-green or brown particles, and outside these a connective tissue membrane; muscular fibrillae have also been described.
Each pair has a single insertion on the inner wall - the one pair near the free extremity of the limb, the other near its attachment; the bands run up, one of each pair on each side, and run right round the body forming an incomplete muscular girdle, the ends approximating in the median line.
It presents a single pair of muscles attached along its inner wall which run up and form a muscular girdle round the body in its posterior third.
Moreover, the body cavity of the rotifers is a primitive archicoele; the persistent or accrescent cleft between epiblast and hypoblast, traversed by mesenchymal muscular bands.
In appearance the various Guatemalan tribes differ very little; in almost all the characteristic type of Indian is short but muscular, with low forehead, prominent cheek-bones and straight black hair.
The distress is due to spasmodic muscular contraction, and it comes on at intervals, each attack increasing the patient's misery.
The valves of the shell have been removed by severing their adhesions to the muscular areae h, i, k, 1, m, u.
In removing the valves of the shell from an Anodonta, it is necessary not only to cut through the muscular attachment of the body-wall 4 ?"
The foot thus exposed in Anodonta is a simple muscular tongue-like organ.
The mesoblast multiplies its cells, which become partly muscular and partly skeleto-trophic. Centro-dorsally now appears the embyronic shell-gland.
In addition to the characters given above, it may be noted that the mantle is provided with a hypobranchial gland on the outer side of each gill, the auricles are muscular, the kidneys are glandular through their whole length, the sexes are separate.
Septibranchia Gills have lost their respiratory function, and are transformed into a muscular septum on each side between mantle and foot.
The uterus or womb is a pear-shaped, very thick-walled, muscular bag, lying in the pelvis between the bladder and rectum.
The vagina is a dilatable muscular passage, lined with mucous membrane, which leads from the uterus to the external generative organs; its direction is, from the uterus, downward and forward, and its anterior and posterior walls are in contact, so that in a horizontal section it appears as a transverse slit.
The mucous membrane is raised into a series of transverse folds or rugae, and between it and the muscular wall are plexuses of veins forming erectile tissue.
The vesiculae seminales are muscular sacs with a mucous lining which is thrown into a series of delicate net-like folds.
The prostate is partly a muscular and partly a glandular structure, situated just below the bladder and traversed by the urethra; it is of a somewhat conical form with the base upward in contact with the bladder.
The mode of blowing is peculiar, and requires some practice; an uninterrupted blast is kept up by the muscular action of the cheeks, while the ordinary respiration goes on through the nostrils.
At the anterior end the head is differentiated; it bears the sense-organs, and contains the muscular pharynx within which is the radular apparatus.
The foot is a muscular mass without cuticle or skeleton, excepting certain cuticular structures such as the byssus of Lamellibranchs and the operculum of Gastropods, which do not aid in locomotion.
The muscular tissue of the dorsal body-wall is much reduced and the integument here is thin and FIG.
The branchial current is maintained by the cilia which cover the surface of the ctenidia, except in Cephalopoda, in which cilia are absent and the current is due to muscular action.
It consists of a median ventricle with muscular walls and a cavity traversed by muscular strands.
In the Gastropoda the muscular tissue of the buccal mass is coloured red by haemoglobin.
It is also necessary, he inferred, for all muscular movements, and he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other combustible (salino-sulphureous) particles in the body; hence the heart, being a muscle, ceases to beat when respiration is stopped.
In effect, therefore, Mayow - who also gives a remarkably correct anatomical description of the mechanism of respiration - preceded Priestley and Lavoisier by a century in recognizing the existence of oxygen, under the guise of his spiritus nitro-aereus, as a separate entity distinct from the general mass of the air; he perceived the part it plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces of metals as compared with metals themselves; and, rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart, or merely to agitate it, he saw in inspiration a mechanism for introducing oxygen into the body, where it is consumed for the production of heat and muscular activity, and even vaguely conceived of expiration as an excretory process.
The body is not metamerically segmented and is composed of a muscular tunic covered externally by a more or less modified cellular layer.
Within this muscular tube lies a parenchymatous tissue which may be uniform (Cestodes) or differentiated into a central or digestive, and a peripheral portion (some Turbellaria), or finally the central portion becomes tubular and forms the digestive sac (Trematodes), while the peripheral portion is separated from it by a space lined in some forms by a flattened epithelium (most Planarians).
From this junction there proceeds an oviduct or " uterus " (paired or single) which before opening to the exterior expands to form a muscular protrusible pouch - the bursa copulatrix.
From such beginnings the evolution of the Turbellaria leads first through the Acoelous forms in which the central syncytium is partly differentiated into digestive, muscular and skeletotrophic tissue, then to the more specialized Rhabdocoela, and so through the Alloeocoela to the Triclads and finally to the Polyclads.
The careful study of the development of one Acoelous form and of certain Rhabdocoels has strengthened this hypothesis by showing that no definite enteron or gut is at first laid down, but that certain embryonic syncytial tracts become digestive tracts, others excretory, others again muscular.
There is also felt a sense of constriction in the pharynx, due to the action of the drug on its muscular fibres.
Physostigmine, indeed, stimulates nearly all the non-striped muscles in the body, and this action upon the muscular coats of the arteries, and especially of the arterioles, causes a great rise in blood-pressure shortly after its absorption, which is very rapid.
The final arrest is due to paralysis of the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata, hastened by a quasi-asthmatic contraction of the non-striped muscular tissue in the bronchial tubes, and by a "water-logging" of the lungs due to an increase in the amount of bronchial secretion.
It has been recommended in cases of chronic constipation, and of want of tone in the muscular wall of the urinary bladder.
Internally strychnine acts as a bitter, increasing the secretion of gastric juice and the intestinal peristalsis, being a direct stimulant to the muscular coat; in this manner it has a purgative action.
Fine caeca of the nephridium, which are seen ramifying transversely over the whole inner surface of the pedal muscular mass.
The mouth opens into a muscular pharynx lined by a thick cuticle.
The badger does not usually seek to attack, but, when driven to bay, its great muscular power and tough hide render it a formidable antagonist.
The claws are large, strongly compressed, sharp, and exhibit the retractile condition in the highest degree, being drawn backwards and upwards into a sheath by the action of an elastic ligament so long as the foot is in a state of repose, but exerted by muscular action when the animal strikes its prey.
He published over fifty volumes containing his researches on muscular and nervous diseases, and on the applications of electricity both for diagnostic purposes and for treatment.
His name is especially connected with the first description of locomotor ataxy, progressive muscular atrophy, pseudo-hypertrophic paralysis, glosso-labio laryngeal paralysis and other nervous troubles.
Polygordius differs from Protodrilus and Saccocirrus in the absence of a distinct suboesophageal muscular pouch, and in the absence of a peculiar closed cavity in the head region, which is especially well developed in Saccocirrus, and probably represents the specialized coelom of the first segment.
Their conclusion rested on the supposed elimination of all known physical causes for the movements; but it is doubtful from the description of the experiments whether the precautions taken were sufficient to exclude unconscious muscular action or even deliberate fraud.
And Faraday devised some simple apparatus which conclusively demonstrated that the movements were due to unconscious muscular action.
The stomach is globular, rather muscular, with a pair of tendinous centres like those of birds; its size is comparatively small, but the digestion is so rapid and powerful that every bone of the creature's prey is dissolved whilst still being stowed away in the wide and long gullet.
The muscular detail is full, but yet kept in harmony with the massive style of the figure.
From remains of the age of the IVth Dynasty he is able to define to some extent the type of the population of Lower Egypt as having a better cranial and muscular development than that of Upper Egypt, probably through immigration from Syria.
Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.
This is manifested by the muscular walls of the hollow viscera and of the heart, where it is the expression of a continuous liberation of energy in process in the muscular tissue, the outcome of the latter's own intrinsic life, and largely independent of any connexion with the nervous system.
The muscular wall of the blood-vessels also exhibits tonic contraction, which, however, seems to be mainly traceable to a continual excitation of the muscle cells by nervous influence conveyed to them along their nerves, and originating in the great vaso motor centre in the bulb.
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
In the case of the heart muscle this threshold stimulus evokes a beat as extensive as does the strongest stimulus; that is, the intensity of the stimulus, so long as it is above threshold value, is not a function of the amount of the muscular response.
But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.
It is not surprising that the chemical substances produced in it by the decomposition of its living material should not be of a nature indifferent for muscular life.
This decline is said to be due to muscular fatigue.
The alkaloid curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre.
It is a muscular tonus of central source consequent on the continual glow of excitement in the spinal motor neuron, whose outgoing end plays upon the muscle cells, whose ingoing Yet when the muscular contraction is taken as index ology.
The distinction, therefore, between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, elicited from the cortex in the region of the central sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the nature of their reactions; the difference is only a difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being an appanage of the sensual.
In the dog it has been proved that after removal from the animal of every vestige of its cortex cerebri, it still executes habitual acts of great motor complexity requiring extraordinarily delicate adjustment of muscular contraction.
Not a hundredth part of the cerebellum has remained, and yet there has existed ability to stand, to walk, to handle and lift objects in a fairly normal way, without any trace of impairment of cutaneous or muscular sensitivity.
The tactual organs of the soles, and the muscular sense organs of limbs and trunk, are originating perceptions that indicate that the self is standing on the solid earth, yet the eyes are at the same time originating perceptions that indicate that the solid earth is far away below the standing self.
In the physiological basis of sense exist many impressions which, apart from and devoid of psychical accompaniment, reflexly influence motor (muscular) innervation.
It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.
Akin to this condition is that in which the power of maintaining muscular effort is increased; the individual may lie stiff with merely head and feet supported on two chairs; the limbs can be held outstretched for hours at a time.
Their beards are sometimes thick; their limbs are muscular; the colour of their skins is cinnamon brown.
The secretion of mucus by the bronchi and trachea is greatly reduced and their muscular tissue is paralysed - a fact of which much use is made in practical medicine.
In cases of whooping-cough or any other condition in which there is spasmodic action of the muscular fibre in the bronchia definition which includes nearly every form of asthma and many cases of bronchitis - atropine is an almost invaluable drug.
Thus the "Nemesis," belonging probably to 1503, is a marvellously wrought piece of quite unflinching realism in the rendering of a common type of mature, muscular, unshapely German womanhood.
Both first and second compartments are remarkable for the presence of a number of pouches or cells in their walls, with muscular partitions, and a sphincter-like arrangement of their orifices, by which they can be shut off from the rest of the cavity, and into which the fluid portion only of the contents of the stomach is allowed to enter.
The most important data bearing upon the first great period are given elsewhere in this work, and it is proposed to offer here a more general survey.5 To the prehistoric ages belong the palaeolithic and neolithic flints, from the distribution of which an attempt might be made to give a synthetic sketch of early Palestinian man.6 A burial cave at Gezer has revealed the existence of a race of slight build and stature, muscular, with elongated crania, and thick and heavy skull-bones.
These are suspended to the muscular bodywall by a double membrane, called the ligamentum denticulatum, which forms at once the roof of the atrial chamber and the floor of a persistent portion of the original body-cavity or coelom (the dorsal coelomic canal on each side of the pharynx).
Man differs from them in the absence of a hairy coat; in the development of a large lobule to the external ear; in his fully erect attitude; in his flattened foot with the non-opposable great toe; in the straight limb-bones; in the wider pelvis; in the marked sigmoid flexure of his spine; in the perfection of the muscular movements of the arm; in the delicacy of hand; in the smallness of the canine teeth and other dental peculiarities; in the development of a chin; and in the small size of his jaws compared to the relatively great size of the cranium.
Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).
He studied the nature of muscular contraction, causing a muscle to record its movements on a smoked glass plate, and he worked out the problem of the velocity of the nervous impulse both in the motor nerves of the frog and in the sensory nerves of man.
The muscular projection of the ventral surface called the foot, whose various modifications characterize the different classes of Mollusca, is almost entirely aborted.
The thyroid gland, which is situated in front of the neck, yields a secretion which passes into the blood and there tends to maintain a state of moderate dilatation in the blood-vessels and of oxidization in the tissues, so that the circulation remains good and the body-heat and muscular activity remain well maintained.
Every one has noticed after prolonged fever how thin and weak the patient is, and both the muscular and nervous power throughout the whole body are sadly in want of repair.
The whole system of methodical exercises was started by Ling in Sweden, but it has been developed to a large extent for the purpose of increasing muscular strength by the professional athlete Sandow.
The stomach is large and very complex, its walls being puckered by longitudinal muscular bands into a number of folds.
Oxen are employed for all field-work; those of the commonest breed are tawny, of great muscular power, very docile, and with horns measuring 5 or 6 ft.
The endoderm is generally also an epithelium one cell in thickness, the cells being digestive, secretory and sometimes muscular.
The mesogloea is in itself an inert non-cellular secretion, but the immigration of muscular and other cells into its substance, from both ectoderm and endoderm, gives it in many cases a strong resemblance to the mesoderm of Triploblastica, - a resemblance which, while probably superficial, may yet serve to indicate the path of evolution of the mesoderm.
The medusoids have a muscular velum of ectoderm and mesogloea only.
The muscular system of the Scyphomedusae is developed on the subumbral surface as a system of circularly disposed fibres which by their contraction make the umbrella more concave and diminish its FIG.
Endodermal muscles are found in the phacellae, and in such forms as Lucernaria, longitudinal (vertical) muscular tracts or bands are found in the taeniolae, which, according to some authorities, are xxiv.
Each nerve-centre controls its own antimere or segment of the body, receiving sensory impressions from the tentaculocyst and innervating its special subdivision of the muscular system.
The whole length of the alimentary canal is provided, as a rule, with muscular fibres, both circular and longitudinal, running in its walls, and, in addition, there may be muscle-bands running between the gut and the body-wall.
The its muscular coat; g, g, the heart is of the usual Arthro lateral teeth, which when podous type, lying in a more or in use are brought in conless well-defined pericardial blood tact with the sides of the sinus, with which it communi median tooth m; c, c, the cates by valvular openings or muscular coat.
The edge of the mantle at the anterior aperture is very thick and muscular; at the posterior aperture also there is a circular muscle, and here the edge is interrupted by a ventral sinus and is provided internally with a dorsal and ventral valve which can be applied to each other so as to close the aperture.
They are also conical on section from within outwards and from before backwards, this shape converting the pinionsinto delicately graduated instruments balanced with the utmost nicety to satisfy the requirements of the muscular system on the one hand and the resistance and resiliency of the air on the other.
Those apparent inconsistencies in the dimensions of the body and wings are readily explained by the greater muscular development of the heavy-bodied, small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the increased power and rapidity with which the wings in them are made to oscillate.
This induces a reflex secretion from the salivary and gastric glands, which is followed or accompanied by increased vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and by some degree of activity on the part of the muscular wall of the stomach.
The laws of light and shade, the laws of "perspective," including optics and the physiology of the eye, the laws of human and animal anatomy and muscular movement, those of the growth and structure of plants and of the powers and properties of water, all these and much more furnished food almost from the beginning to his insatiable spirit of inquiry.
They are of a light copper colour, with black straight hair, and remarkably muscular.
By means of the stinging nettle-cells or nematocysts with which the tentacles are thickly covered, living organisms of various kinds are firmly held and at the same time paralysed or killed, and by means of longitudinal muscular fibrils formed from the cells of the ectoderm the tentacles are contracted and convey the food to the mouth.
By means of circularly disposed muscular fibrils formed from the endoderm the tentacles can be protracted or thrust out after contraction.
The external layer, or ectoderm, is made up of cells, and contains also muscular and ner vous elements.
The inner layer or endoderm is also a cellular layer, and is chiefly made up of columnar cells, each bearing a cilium at its free extremity and terminating internally in a long muscular fibre.
Such cells, made up of epithelial and muscular components, are known as epithelio-muscular or myo-epithelial cells.
This is mainly due to a direct action on the muscular coats of the vessels, but is also partly of central origin, since the drug also stimulates the vasomotor centre in the medulla oblongata.
At least four of its constituents act directly on the muscular fibre of the uterus, whilst the cornutine acts through the nerves.
The injection should be intra-muscular, the needle being boldly plunged into a muscular mass, such as that of the deltoid or the gluteal region.
The object of this treatise was to describe the arrangements by which the influence of the mind is propagated to the muscular frame, and to give a rational explanation of the muscular movements which usually accompany the various emotions and passions.
The roof of the mouth is formed by the palate, terminating behind by a muscular, contractile arch, having in man and a few other species a median projection called the uvula, beneath which the mouth communicates with the pharynx.
In the floor of the mouth, between the two branches of the lower jaw, and supported behind by the hyoid apparatus, lies the tongue, an organ the free surface of which, especially in its posterior part, is devoted to the sense of taste, but which by reason of its great mobility (being composed almost entirely of muscular fibres) performs important mechanical functions connected with masticating and procuring food.
The Rotifera are characterized by the retention of what appears in Molluscs and Chaetopods as an embryonic organ, the velum or ciliated prae-oral girdle, as a locomotor and foodseizing apparatus, and by the reduction of the muscular parapodia to a rudimentary or non-existent condition in all present surviving forms except Pedalion.
Probably the chaetae preceded the development of parapodia, and by their concentration and that of the muscular bundles connected with them at the sides of each segment, led directly to the evolution of the parapodia.
The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.
The muscular system is usually well developed, but there is deficiency of fatty tissue, which affects the features (particularly by giving relative prominence to the eyes) and the general character of the skin.
Galvani, whose treatise on muscular electricity he edited with notes in 1791.
They occupy the extreme east limits of Papuan territory and are usually classified as Melanesians; but they are physically superior to the pure examples of that race, combining their dark colour, harsh hirsute skin, crisp hair, which is bleached with lime and worn in an elaborately trained mop, and muscular limbs, with the handsome features and well proportioned bodies of the Polynesians.
The oesophageal orifice is small, and guarded by a strong crescentic or horseshoe-like band of muscular fibres, supposed to be the cause of the difficulty of vomiting in the horse.
The head should be light and lean, and well set on; the ears small and pricked, but not too short; the eyes full; the forehead broad and flat; the nostrils large and dilating; the muzzle fine; the neck moderate in length, wide, muscular, and yet light; the throat clean; the windpipe spacious and loosely attached to the neck; the crest thin, not coarse and arched.
The withers may be moderately high and thin; the chest well developed, but not too wide or deep; the shoulder should lie well on the chest, and be oblique and well covered with muscle, so as to reduce concussion in galloping; the upper and lower arms should be long and muscular; the knees broad and strong; legs short, flat and broad; fetlock joints large; pasterns strong and of moderate length; the feet should be moderately large, with the heels open and frogs sound - with no signs of contraction.
The chest is wide, full and deep, the back short and straight, the ribs are round and deep, the hind quarters long, level and well let down into the muscular thighs.
When irritated they eject with considerable force the contents of their slime reservoirs by means of the sudden contraction of the muscular body-wall.
They are short, stumplike, muscular structures, armed at their free extremities by a pair of cutting blades or claws, and are placed one on each side of the mouth.
The muscular pharynx, extending back into the space between the first and second pairs of legs, is followed by a short tubular oesophagus.
Beneath the epidermis is a thin cutis, which is followed by the muscular layers (external circular and internal longitudinal).
The muscular fibres of the jaws are transversely striated, the other muscles are unstriated.
When we come to consider more in detail the results of these actions we find that the various secretions of the body, such as the sweat, gastric juice, bile, milk, urine, &c., may be increased or diminished; that the heart may have its muscular or nervous apparatus stimulated or depressed; that the nerve-centres in the brain, medulla and spinal cord may be rendered more sensitive or the reverse; and that the general metabolism of the body may be altered in various ways.
A physiological classification according to an action on the brain, heart, kidney or other important organ becomes still more bewildering, as many substances produce the same effects by different agencies, as, for instance, the kidneys may be acted upon directly or through the circulation, while the heart may be affected either through its muscular substance or its nervous apparatus.
Lead poisons the muscular and nervous systems, and gives rise to paralysis, wasting, colic and other symptoms, while in the case of mercury, tremors, salivation, anaemia and very marked cachexia are induced.
Some of them cause so much irritation that the discharge is very watery (hydragogue cathartics), while others, for example aloes, by acting gently on the lower part of the bowel and on its muscular coat, produce simply a laxative effect.
They all act as local irritants in the alimentary canal, and after absorption are more or less depressing to the muscular and nervous systems. They produce slight nausea and increased secretion of mucus.
Expectorants increase the bronchial secretions; antispasmodics relax the spasm of the muscular coat of the bronchial tubes, e.g.
Tonics are drugs which increase the muscular tone of the body by acting either on the stomach, heart, spinal cord, &c.
The Macassars are well-built and muscular, and have in general a dark-brown complexion, a broad and expressive face, black and sparkling eyes, a high forehead, a flattish nose, a large mouth and long black soft hair.
This time her hands felt their way up his smooth muscular chest - up to his shoulders and then up the back of his neck.
He laced his fingers behind his neck and stretched in a way that made his upper torso ripple with muscular activity.
Brandon towered over her - the living room light forming a halo around his tall muscular frame.
She put her hand on his chest with the intention of pushing him away, but the warmth of his muscular chest on her palm was exciting.
While Howie witnessed the sleeping child rendered unconscious and taken from her room, he was only able to give a general description of the responsible figure; a man perhaps five nine or ten, heavy set or muscular.
His hands were clasped behind his back, his muscular chest and flat abs drawing her gaze.
Never mind she felt awed by how sexy he was lying in bed beside her, his muscular chest inches from her and his large hand resting possessively on her stomach.
The attractive Guardian was toned and muscular, her dark hair kept in a pixie cut and her eyes large and dark.
She marveled at his muscular body and the perfectly sculptured chest, shoulders, ridged abdomen, and biceps too large to wrap her hands around.
The sight of his muscular, bare torso made her heart flop in her chest.
He was built from the same moldâ€”large and muscular, the kind of man more fitted to military special forces or UFC prizefighting than financial planning.
The silver-eyed half-demon was tall and muscular, the air around him rippling with power.
Gabe shifted in time to see the portal close behind the half-demon, Rhyn, whose muscular form, crackling aura and cunning, liquid silver eyes sent most people running the opposite direction.
Lounging in a pillowed corner of the room, Tamer resembled a cross between a lion at rest and a desert Bedouin with his muscular form and loose garb.
The t-shirt he wore was tight around large biceps and snug across his muscular shoulders and thick chest.
In modest shorts, her legs were smooth â€“ shapely, without the sharp angles of a muscular build.
The dark-skinned Guardian was covered in tattoos and muscular, smaller than Xander but still a worthy adversary.
For stiffness, a soak in the bath and some creams for muscular aches are useful.
How does the structure of the tunica adventitia differ from that of the muscular artery?
The mice also showed symptoms of defective muscular coordination called ataxia, which has been linked to oxidative stress.
Progressive muscular atrophy is a less common form of MND.
Heart The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood around the body.
A muscular body should have a level back and a deep broad chest with a prominent breastbone.
In your ear there are the semicircular canals which are linked to muscular co-ordination.
Excellent for treating cellulite, arthritis and general muscular and joint aches and pains.
I love a guy with a hairy, muscular chest.
The title, AtaXia, comes from Greek and indicates a medical condition interfering with muscular coordination.
Calcium deficiency has long been linked to muscular cramps.
The tortoise also lacks a muscular diaphragm, having only a thin membrane to separate the lungs from the rest of the body cavity.
Common features include dystonia (an abnormality in muscle tone ), muscular rigidity, and sudden involuntary muscle spasms (spasticity ).
The work will develop fibers with optimal dimensions and solubility for cell growth do deliver genetically modified muscle cells to treat muscular dystrophy.
The mdx mouse is supposed to represent muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate with no treatment.
Peter French, who suffers from muscular dystrophy, was looking forward to starting at Luton Sixth Form College last month.
The symptoms of peripheral fatigue are decreased muscular endurance and muscle fatigability.
Such is the natural result of defect of muscular exertion.
Symptoms of insufficient salt range from muscular cramps to heat exhaustion.
The muscular sling that holds the forelimb onto the body serves as a shock absorber during locomotion.
Hind Legs The thighs should be strong and muscular with well shaped, strong hocks, neither hooky nor too straight.
Muscular and powerful hindlegs should have low hocks that are perpendicular to the ground.
The investigation was prompted by varying opinions on the optimal resistance exercise to induce muscular hypertrophy in the quadriceps of body builders.
In fact training with very heavy weights in the 1-5 rep range has been shown to contribute little to muscular hypertrophy.
Both styles will help you to correct muscular imbalances, promote optimal alignment.
Somehow a man in his sixties might appear incongruous mixing with strong muscular players of a different generation!
ParkerÃs supple bass grounds the ensemble, occasionally surfacing to make some muscular interjections.
Bond features on the cover of this issue, and looks a lot more muscular than in the main strip.
A very muscular person can have a high BMI without the health risks usually associated with this.
The limbs are not muscular enough to be used for standing upright; bats instead rest hanging upside down.
Mrs Z suffered from osteoarthritis, so muscular pain was not unusual.
They are a jovial lot, get about by Wickham Trolley, and tend to be fairly muscular.
I am a fit guy and quite muscular, but I must have twisted myself while digging and it really hurt.
Nicky, who placed third (same girl who won Pendle Valley last week) was too muscular for this category IMO.
The boy can be made to look more muscular.
They sound muscular without being over-bearing, strung out without losing form.
We both felt that Jessica could not possibly have muscular dystrophy.
It is reported to be due to congenital muscular dystrophy.
Eggs are expelled to the exterior through a muscular vagina, ending in the small orifice of the vulva.
The Saturn Aura's profile is intended to convey a muscular stance with the wheels pushed to the corners creating short overhangs.
No hands on physical therapy is given to people with chronic muscular skeletal pain, this is policy.
He diagnosed muscular pain, took a blood sample, and prescribed painkillers, which he supplied from his bag.
The authors ' ambition seems to be to offer lean and muscular, but not parsimonious, explanations.
A case of progressive muscular atrophy occurring in a man who had acute poliomyelitis nineteen years previously.
He did 3000 press-ups each morning whilst throwing a medicine ball into a hoop using his muscular backside.
Using it can improve mental focus and to relieve muscular tension.
The clinical signs of lactation tetany are muscular spasms and convulsions, and death due to respiratory failure.
The back legs should again be heavy in bone with muscular thighs.
A thin muscular sheet separating the thorax from the abdomen.
Now, when you got Holden's kit off, was her muscular torso a sure sign that she worked out a lot?
It causes muscular tremors, rigidity, and slowing of movement.
If you feel fatigued or overly sluggish, or if you notice twinges of muscular pain, ease up on your training.
The tentacles are based on a muscular band called the velum.
The muscular tissue of the Hydromedusae is entirely ectodermal.
The tail consists of a fleshy muscular portion bordered above and below by membranous expansions, termed respectively the upper and lower crest, the former sometimes extending along the body.
It served originally for the origin of the ambiens muscle (see Muscular System below); shifting or disappearance of this muscle, of course, influences the process.
To the right of the head is seen the muscular penis p, close to the termination of the vas deferens (spermatic duct) vd.
At its termination by the side of the head is the muscular introverted penis.
The inner surface of the intestinal caeca is ciliated, the caeca themselves are some times - especially in the UT hindermost portion of the body - of a considerably smaller lumen than the intermediate genital spaces; sometimes, however, the reverse is the case, and in both cases it is the smaller lumen that appears enclosed between and suspended by the transverse fibres constituting the muscular dissepiments above mentioned.
Diagram showing the muscular system.
They are taller, more muscular, and more supple than the Annamese.
The state of closure of the valves of the shell is not, therefore, one of rest; when it is at rest - that is, when there is no muscular effort - the valves of a Lamellibranch are slightly gaping, and are closed by the action of the adductors when the animal is disturbed.
In Teredo a similar tube is formed as the animal elongates (boring in wood), the original shell-valves not adhering to it but remaining movable and provided with a special muscular apparatus in place of a ligament.
It may here be stated that the non-striped muscular tissue of the bladder, the uterus and the spleen is also stimulated, as well as that of the iris (see below).
In 18th-century architecture half-figures of men with strong muscular development were used to support balconies (see Caryatides and Telamones).
The Pentactaea again suggested a search for some primitive type in which quinqueradiate symmetry was exhibited in circumoral appendages, but had not affected the nervous, water-vascular, muscular or skeletal systems to any great extent, and the generative organs not at all.
In mammals both caecum and colon are often sacculated, a disposition caused by the arrangement of the longitudinal bands of muscular tissue in their walls; but the small intestine is always smooth and simple-walled externally, though its lining membrane often exhibits contrivances for increasing the absorbing surface without adding to the general bulk of the organ, such as the numerous small tags, or " villi," by which it is everywhere beset, and the more obvious transverse, longitudinal, or reticulating folds projecting into the interior, met with in many animals, of which the " valvulae conniventes " of man form well-known examples.
Now, when you got Holden 's kit off, was her muscular torso a sure sign that she worked out a lot?
Muscular weakness is a major problem in older people with arthritis.
He has muscular dystrophy and uses a wheelchair for mobility.
While some people mistakenly believe that cerebral palsy involves muscular or nerve problems, it is actually a brain disorder in which the brain is unable to effectively control the body's movements.
Body - The chest is wide, and the cat is very muscular.
Legs - The legs are muscular and of medium length.
The spinal neurons that regulate skeletal muscles in the cat's upper body and legs die off and cause muscular atrophy.
Bengals are a bit larger than the average cat, owing to their Asian Leopard Cat heritage, and should feel quite muscular.
The Applehead Siamese, also known as the Traditional Siamese, has a round head and is athletic and muscular.
Spinal Muscular Atrophy - This is a genetically inherited muscular disease.
Due to the length of the legs and the muscular build, these cats are agile and can jump very high.
Moreover, their muscular frames grant them enough balance to rest on delicate branches.
These kittens grow into muscular, solid cats with long legs and short, thick coats.