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muscles

muscles Sentence Examples

  • The muscles in her legs felt numb.

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  • The muscles in her legs were contracting painfully.

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  • She rested her hands on his chest, but they didn't stay, instead running over the muscles of his chest and around to his back.

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  • Dusty's jaw clenched until he felt the muscles tick.

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  • By the time she clawed her way over the edge, she was soaked with sweat and panting, her muscles burning from effort.

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  • She pushed away from the ground stiffly and rubbed at the sore muscles in her back while she surveyed the house.

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  • There was a chill, but once Dean began warming his muscles he felt comfortable in this familiar posture.

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  • His long, sleek hair was tied in a tight braid, and despite the cold and wind he wore only a long-sleeved sweater that hugged the muscles of his arms and shoulders beneath a down vest.

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  • His jaw muscles worked.

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  • By the time she reached the top of the hill, the muscles in her legs were aching.

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  • His jaw muscles worked as he spun on one heel and marched to the outside door, slamming it as he left.

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  • If you like having sore muscles at the end of a day or working a job that requires little of your mental capacity so you can contemplate Nietzsche, hey, more power to you.

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  • She was soon soaked by a light drizzle and stretched to keep her stiffening muscles warm.

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  • His jaw was clenched and ticking as the muscles jumped.

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  • The thought of a hot bath made her muscles quake with anticipation.

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  • He towered over them both, the muscles in his arms and shoulders straining against his shirt as he hooked his thumbs in the front pockets of his jeans.

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  • He glanced at the whip and his jaw muscles worked.

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  • She felt both awed and terrified watching his rippling, shapely muscles move beneath the olive skin.

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  • His fingers slipped under her shirt, warmly working at the muscles in her back.

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  • Indigo jeans outlined the long lean muscles in his thighs, and the sleeves of his western shirt were rolled up to reveal tanned muscular forearms.

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  • The muscles on his chest and arms were not well defined.

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  • She had to eat, sleep, think, speak, weep, work, give vent to her anger, and so on, merely because she had a stomach, a brain, muscles, nerves, and a liver.

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  • Greasy food can weigh you down the next day's activities, but an eatery that serves light, delectable food will nourish tired muscles and bones.

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  • The movement brought a painful awareness of how stiff her muscles were becoming.

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  • The muscles in Howard's jaws worked with rage.

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  • Actually, her legs felt like stumps and her groin muscles were knotted with pain.

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  • His long, lean muscles bulged with the workout.

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  • His shirt stretched tightly over his shoulders and across his back while his biceps flexed and the roped muscles of his forearms rippled with his tinkering.

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  • He relaxed and tested the muscles of his arm again, dissatisfied with being injured.

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  • His fingers were gently massaging the muscles on either side of her backbone - warm and relaxing.

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  • His back was towards her, the expanse of golden skin stretched over bulging muscles startling her.

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  • The bar boasts a selection of imported sake, shouchu, plum liqueur and beer sure to help comfort any achy muscles you might have from your active day.

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  • His hands worked up her back moving gradually as he massaged every inch of the muscles on either side of her spine.

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  • His arms were huge, his muscles long and lean.

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  • Her legs were wobbly, the muscles of her inner thighs stiff.

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  • But the indigo jeans hugged his lean hips in a tantalizing way and outlined the long muscles in his thighs.

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  • His fingers left her neck, working down the muscles on either side of her spine.

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  • They were so graceful, their muscles rippling under shiny coats as they moved.

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  • She could think of nothing more than his bare skin against hers, of the feel of his muscles beneath her fingers.

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  • It was taking his muscles a long time to stretch.

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  • He closed his eyes, his jaw clenched hard enough for the muscles to tick.

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  • Suddenly the broad muscles and lines of the count's face began to twitch.

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  • Suddenly strong fingers began working her shoulder muscles, delightfully descending to the muscles on either side of her spine.

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  • She slowly slid her hands up his chest, enjoying the feel of the smooth muscles beneath his shirt.

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  • Yet he still couldn't control his facial muscles or speak.

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  • His muscles were so bunched, they ached when he shook them free.

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  • Then the muscles in his leg tightened and she stepped back, allowing him to dismount.

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  • The muscles worked in his jaw and he glanced away.

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  • Her muscles felt relaxed for the first time in weeks.

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  • He was covered in sweat, the muscles of his exposed back rippling with his movement.

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  • He ate and sipped the cider, its warmth making his muscles relax.

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  • Rostov was particularly struck by the beauty of a small, pure-bred, red- spotted bitch on Ilagin's leash, slender but with muscles like steel, a delicate muzzle, and prominent black eyes.

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  • She tried to work the muscles in her lower back with her fingertips, but the effort was worse than the benefit.

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  • Instead, her fingers slid across the smooth muscles and up to his neck, drawing his mouth down harder on hers.

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  • His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain.  He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.

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  • The first day was behind him, his muscles weren't overly sore, he seemed to be adjusting to the altitude and he had conquered more hills in one day than a year of Pennsylvania biking would offer.

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  • I don't want her muscles turning to jelly.

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  • While Dean stretched his muscles and alternated between bites of peanut butter sandwich and a banana, Fred perused the rest of the master lists.

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  • Her muscles were tense enough to ache.

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  • She didn't remember his passion, the way he tasted and smelled and felt, or the movement of his muscles beneath taut, smooth skin.

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  • She absently traced a hand down his shoulder and large bicep to the roped muscles of his forearm.

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  • Lacing fingers behind her neck, she arched back, feeling the muscles in her back stretch.

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  • The muscles of his upper body bulged as he sparred, their changing shapes amplified by a play of shade and sunlight.

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  • Here the medusoid, attached by the centre of its ex-umbral surface, has lost its velum and sub-umbral muscles, its sense organs and mouth, though still retaining rudimentary tentacles.

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  • abdomen muscles are the core of your body's strength.

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  • He doesn't have complete control of his muscles yet.

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  • Vara's jaw clenched hard enough for muscles on either side to tick.

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  • Although the route was relatively flat by Colorado standards, Dean learned that a body unaccustomed to elevation in the 7,000­foot range needed more oxygen to fuel its muscles.

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  • But I gotta tell ya it's great for relaxing the muscles.

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  • A warm shower soothed aching muscles.

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  • She sank to a bench and sipped on her coffee, letting its warmth invaded her body and relax her stiff muscles.

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  • Denton crammed his hands into his pockets and his jaw muscles worked as he glared at her.

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  • The shoulder muscles beneath his gray blazer rippled as he moved.

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  • He closed his eyes and felt his muscles relax at the soothing routine.

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  • His body was flawless: thick muscles moving effortlessly beneath bronze skin.

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  • Even the muscles along his back were roped, defined.

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  • His back was to her, the large muscles moving effortlessly as he deftly prepped another pot.

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  • Muscles bunched and released beneath his smooth skin, the chiseled body even more defined from the effort of battle.

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  • His muscles were still bulging from exertion of his visit to the gym, and her gaze stayed on his biceps as he pulled on his boots.

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  • He kneaded the stiff muscles of her neck.

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  • Jessi's hands traced the thick muscles of his arms.

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  • The nerves conduct the animal spirits to act upon the muscles, and in their turn convey the impressions of the organs to the brain.

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  • This odd animal is provided with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird, affixed to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and muscles.

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  • The adult worm, which is of extremely minute size, the male being only Fi l sth and the female s of an inch in length inhabits the alimentary canal of man and many other carnivorous mammalia; the young bore their way into the tissues and become encysted in the muscles - within the muscle-bundles according to Leuckart, but in the connective tissue between them according to Chatin and others.

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  • When first sucked up by the insect from an infected man it passes into its stomach, and thence makes its way into the thoracic muscles, and there for some time it grows.

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  • m Muscles moving spicule.

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  • The proximal portion forms the retractor muscles of themanubrium, or proboscis, well developed, for example, in Geryonia.

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  • The distal portions form the muscles of the tentacles.

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  • In contrast with the polyp, the longitudinal muscle-system is entirely ectodermal, there being no endodermal muscles in craspedote medusae.

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  • Starting from the wellknown fact that the habitual use of a limb tends to develop the muscles of the limb, and to produce a greater and greater facility in using it, he made the general assumption that the effort of an animal to exert an organ in a given direction tends to develop the organ in that direction.

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  • From the outer tuberculum extends the large crista superior (insertion of pectoralis major and of deltoideus major muscles).

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  • The three middle metatarsals become fused together into a cannon bone; the upper part of the third middle metatarsal projects behind and forms the so-called hypotarsus, which in various ways, characteristic of the different groups of birds (with one or more sulci, grooved or perforated), acts as guiding pulley to the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes.

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  • The muscles of the limbs show a great amount of specialization, away from the fundamental reptilian and mammalian conditions.

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  • The muscles of the fore limbs are most aberrant, but at the same time more uniformly developed than those of the hinder extremities.

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  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.

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  • Consequently only a few of the original extensor muscles have been preserved, but these are much modified into very independent organs, notably the extensor metacarpi radialis longus, the ext.

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  • metac. ulnaris and the two radio- and ulnari-metacarpi muscles, all of which are inserted upon the metacarpus by means of long tendons.

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  • - Wing muscles of a Goose.

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  • sec., elastic vinculum and Exp.sec., expansor secundariorum; Pt.br and Pt.lg, short and long propatagial muscles; Tri, triceps.

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  • The posterior patagium, the fold between trunk and inner surface of the upper arm, is stretched by the metapatagialis muscle, which is composed of slips from the serratus, superficialis, latissimus dorsi and the expansor secundariorum muscles.

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  • Here, alone, at the distal portion of the tendon, occur muscular fibres, but these are unstriped, belonging to the category of cutaneous muscles.

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  • We have here the interesting fact that a muscle (portion of the triceps humeri of the reptiles) has been reduced to a tendon, which in a secondary way has become connected with cutaneous muscles, which, when strongly developed, represent its belly.

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  • The arm-muscles have been studied in an absolutely exhaustive manner by Fiirbringer, who in his monumental work has tabulated and then scrutinized the chief characters of fourteen selected muscles.

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  • Of the muscles of the hind-limbs likewise only a few can be mentioned.

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  • The ambiens muscle, long and spindle-shaped, lying immediately beneath the skin, extending from the pectineal process or ilio-pubic spine to the knee, is the most median of the muscles of the thigh.

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  • It is, however, fair to state that his system was not built entirely upon these muscular variations, but rather upon a more laborious combination of anatomical characters, which were so selected that they presumably could not stand in direct correlation with each other, notably the oil-gland, caeca, carotids, nasal bones and above all, the muscles of the thigh.

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  • To return to these thigh muscles.

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  • Only a few papers and works can be mentioned here, with the remark that few authors have paid attention to the all-important innervation of the muscles.

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  • Rolleston, " On the Homologies of Certain Muscles connected with the Shoulder-joint," Trans.

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  • The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.

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  • The moving mechanism is a further and much higher development of that which prevails in reptiles, there being two muscles completely separate from each other.

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  • The quadrate muscle adjusts the motion, and prevents pressure upon the optic nerve; during the state of relaxation of both muscles the nictitans withdraws through its own elasticity.

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  • The communication with the atrium is guarded by a valvula cardiaca dextra, which only in function represents the mammalian tricuspid; it consists of an oblique reduplication of the muscular fibres together with the endocardiac lining of the right ventricle, while the opposite wall is convex and forms neither a velum nor papillary muscles, nor chordae tendineae.

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  • Essential are vibrating membranes between the cartilaginous framework, and next, special muscles for regulating the tension.

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  • Whilst the type of syrinx affords no help in classification, it is very different with its muscles.

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  • These - as indicated by their supply from a branch of the hypoglossal nerve, which descends on either side of the trachea - are, so to speak, a detached, now mostly independent colony of glosso-pharyngeal muscles.

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  • Omitting the paired tracheo-clavicular muscles, we restrict ourselves to the syringeal proper, those which extend between tracheal and bronchial rings.

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  • Further, according to these muscles being inserted only upon the dorsal, or only upon the ventral, or on both ends of the semi-rings, we distinguish between an-, kat- and diacromyodi.

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  • There remains but one logical way, namely, to distinguish as follows: - (i) Passeres anisomyodi, in which the syrinx muscles are unequally inserted, either on the middle or on one end of the semi-rings, either dorsal or ventral.

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  • (2) Passeres diacromyodi, in which some of the syrinx muscles are attached to the dorsal, and some to the ventral ends, those ends being, so to say, equally treated.

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  • Cuculus canorus and trogons, is often lined with the broken-off hairs of these caterpillars, which, penetrating the cuticle, assume a regular spiral arrangement, due to the rotatory motion of the muscles of the gizzard.

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  • It is protruded and retracted by special muscles which are partly attached to the ventral, distal end of the ilium.

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  • Desmognathous, without basipterygoid processes; with one pair of sternotracheal muscles.

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  • - Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.

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  • - Syrinx muscles of either side attached to the dorsal and ventral corners of the rings.

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  • Tremors of the muscles more or less violent accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and trunk.

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  • These muscles are not striated, as they are in the Arthropoda.

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  • Usually the epidermis is immediately followed by the circular layer of muscles, and this by the longitudinal coat.

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  • odm, Muscles and cartilage of the odontophore.

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  • As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.

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  • muscles.

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  • This columella muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in Patella, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.

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  • k, Retractor muscles.

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  • 1, A, B, mn), articulating at their bases with the head-capsule by sub-globular condyles, and provided with abductor and adductor muscles by means of which they can be separated or drawn together so as to bite solid food, or seize objects which have to be carried about.

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  • - Ventral Muscles and Nerve Cord Cockroach.

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  • of Head muscles Ext.

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  • For example, the con Head muscles y traction of the tergo A 's sternal muscles, connect r.

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  • tergal ful muscles arising from the thoracic walls, and inserted into the proximal ends of the thighs, N.

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  • - Dorsal Muscles, Heart and various tissues and Pericardial Tendons of Cockroach.

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  • These spiracles have firm chitinous edges, and can be closed by valves moved by special muscles.

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  • The imaginal disks for the outer wall of the body, some of them, at any rate, include mesodermal rudiments (from which the muscles are developed) as well as hypodermis.

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  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

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  • Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.

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  • It must not be supposed that the vocal muscles were first discovered by Muller; on the contrary, they had been described.

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  • In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.

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  • Every "line" of its build is designed and eminently adapted for rapid progression through the water; the muscles massed along the vertebral column are enormously developed, especially on the back and the sides of the tail, and impart to the body a certain rigidity which interferes with abruptly sideward motions of the fish.

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  • Mackerel, like all fishes of this family, have a firm flesh; that is, the muscles of the several segments are interlaced, and receive a greater supply of blood-vessels and nerves than in other fishes.

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  • Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.

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  • Mesonemertini, in which the nervous system has passed into the dermal muscles and lies amongst them; other characters as in Protonemertini.

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  • Metanemertini, in which the nervous system lies inside the dermal muscles in the parenchyma; the mouth lies in front of the level of the brain; the proboscis as a ru'e bears stylets; the intestine nearly always has a caecum.

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  • Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.

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  • The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.

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  • The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.

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  • 8), between it and the bulk of the outer longitudinal muscles.

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  • It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.

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  • The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.

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  • Montgomery has also described certain spaces which may be coelomic lying between the alimentary canal and the inner longitudinal layer of muscles in the Heteronemertini.

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  • They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.

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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.

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  • c, Retractor muscles of the pro- i, Longitudinal muscular layer.

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  • Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the complex retains the old name of "retinaculum."

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  • It is hunted by the blacks with trained dingoes; the flesh is much prized by the blacks, but the presence of a worm between the muscles and the skin renders it less inviting to Europeans.

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  • The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut.

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  • Fibrin, produced from fibrinogen by a ferment, is a jelly-like substance, coagulable by heat, alcohol, &c. The muscle-albumins include " myosin " or paramyosinogen, a globulin, which by coagulation induces rigor mortis, and the closely related " myosinogen " or myogen; myoglobulin and myoalbumin are also found in muscles.

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  • In the Trimerellidae, for example, some of the muscles are attached to a massive or vaulted platform situated in the medio-longitudinal region of the posterior half or umbonal portion of both valves.

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  • f, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (= occlusors, Hancock); c, divaricator (=cardinal muscles, King, = muscles diducteurs principaux, Gratiolet); c', accessory divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, Gratiolet); b, ventral adjustor (=ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire superieure, Gratiolet); b', peduncular muscle.

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  • c, c', cardinal process; b', b', hinge-plate; s, dental sockets; 1, loop; q, crura; a, a', adductor impressions; c, accessory divaricator; b, peduncle muscles; ss, septum.

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  • c, c', Divaricator muscles.

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  • The peduncular muscles have been purposely omitted.

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  • Lip which overhangs the mouth heart, numerous muscles and runs all roundthelophophore.

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  • There is further a great tendency for the endothelial cells to form muscles, and this is especially pronounced in the small arm-sinus, where a conspicuous muscle is built up. The mantle-sinuses which form the chief spaces in the mantle are diverticula of the main coelomic cavity.

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  • The number and position of the muscles differ materially in the two great divisions into which the Brachiopoda have been grouped, and to some extent also in the different genera of which each division is composed.

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  • Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be regretted.

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  • In the Testicardines, of which the genus Terebratula may be taken as an example, five or six pairs of muscles are stated by A.

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  • The function of this pair of muscles is the closing of the valves.

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  • Two other pairs have been termed divaricators by Hancock, or cardinal muscles (" muscles diducteurs " of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening of the valves.

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  • The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.

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  • Two pairs of muscles, apparently connected with the peduncle and its limited movements, have been minutely described by Hancock as having one of their extremities attached to this organ.

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  • b', Peduncular muscles.

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  • The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.

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  • Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.

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  • j, k, 1, Lateral muscles (j, an 26, Interior of dorsal valve.

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  • valves to move forward h, Central muscles (close valves).

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  • and backward on each i, Transmedial or sliding muscles.

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  • Of the shell or valvular muscles W.

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  • The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.

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  • Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an opposite position, or holding them adjusted.

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  • In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.

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  • (After Hancock.) The its primitive connexion with the letters indicate the muscles as external epithelium.

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  • Laterally, the sub-oesophageal ganglia give off (v.) nerves to the ventral mantle, and finally they supply (vi.) branches to the various muscles.

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  • The under arm-nerve, which lies between the small arm-sinus and the surface, supplies nerves to the muscles of both arm-sinuses (figs.

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  • Muscles.

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  • N.S.), and in a series of subsequent memoirs, in which the structure of the entosternum, of the coxal glands, of the eyes, of the veno-pericardiac muscles, of the respiratory lamellae, and of other parts, was for the first time described, and in which the new facts discovered were shown uniformly to support the hypothesis that Limulus is an Arachnid.

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  • m' and m 2, Perforations of the diaphragm for the passage of muscles.

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  • The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.

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  • Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).

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  • i and 2) it as twenty-five pairs of muscles attached to it, coming FIG.

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  • In each somite of the mesosoma is a small, free entosternite having a similar position, but below or ventral to the nerve cords, and having a smaller number of muscles attached to it.

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  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

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  • In Limulus small entosternites are found in each somite of the appendage-bearing mesosoma, and we find in Scorpio, in the only somite of the mesosoma which has a welldeveloped pair of appendages, that of the pectens, a small entosternite with ten pairs of muscles inserted into it.

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  • There are seven pairs of these venopericardiac vertical muscles in Scorpio, and eight in Limulus (see figs.

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  • It is obvious that the contraction of these muscles 7?']0?0(dQOOOC?n.. ? ?

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  • In any case it is clear that we have in these muscles an apparatus'for causing the blood to flow differentially in increased volume into either the pericardium, through the veins leading from the respiratory organs, or from the body generally into the great sinuses which bring the blood to the respiratory organs.

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  • These muscles act so as to pump the blood through the respiratory organs.

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  • The veno-pericardiac muscles of Scorpio were seen and figured by Newport but not described by him.

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  • - The alimentary canal in Scorpio, as in Limulus, is provided with a powerful suctorial pharynx, in the working of which extrinsic muscles take a part.

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  • VPM' to VPM 7, The series of seven pairs of veno-pericardiac muscles (labelled pv in fig.

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  • There is some reason to admit the existence of another more anterior pair of these muscles in Scorpio; this would make the number exactly correspond with the number in Limulus.

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  • dv' to dv s, Dorso-ventral muscles (same as the series labelled tsm in fig.

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  • pv' to pv 7, The seven veno-pericardiac muscles of the right side (labelled VPM in fig.

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  • tsm, Tergo-sternal muscles, six pairs as in Scorpio (labelled dv in fig.

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  • VPM' to VPN1 8, The eight pairs of veno-pericardiac muscles (labelled pv in fig.

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  • An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).

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  • msg, Stigmata of the tergosternal muscles.

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  • p, The tergal stigmata of the tergo-sternal muscles.

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  • opistho I, First somite of the opisthosoma; opistho 2, second do.; g, genital aperture; 1, edges of the lamellae of the lung-books; m, stigmata of tergo-sternal muscles.

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  • The muscles suffer at an early period: they fall off in bulk, and later suffer from fatty degeneration, the heart being probably the first muscle to give way.

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  • Thus the brain falls off in bulk, and the muscles become attenuated, and in no muscle is this more notable than in the case of the heart.

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  • The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.

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  • Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive.

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  • bones, muscles, &c.) shown as if external, as in some Mesopotamian sculptures.

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  • In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.

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  • The muscles are arranged, jn ten or more layers, and are transversely striated.

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  • At this neck-like zone the muscles are absent, and across it falls the line of fracture when the proglottis separates from its fellows.

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  • The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.

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  • sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.

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  • This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.

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  • The muscles are remarkable for two reasons.

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  • Some of the central cells remain in clumps as "germ-balls," others form a mesenchyma in which "flame-cells" arise; others again give rise to muscles; and at the thicker end of the body, rudiments of the brain and digestive system are observable.

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  • In cases of myopia or short-sight owing to weakness of the internal recti muscles, the eyes in looking at a near object, instead of converging, tend to turn outwards, and so double vision results.

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  • in, r', Parietovaginal muscles.

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  • In the Gymnolaemata protrusion is effected by the contraction of the parietal muscles, which pass freely across the body-cavity from one part of the body-wall to another.

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  • The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.

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  • In Cheilostomata with a rigid frontal wall A, of Membranipora; B, of an Jullien showed that proimmature zooecium of Cribrilina trusion and retraction were p.m., Parietal muscles.

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  • p.m., Parietal muscles.

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  • 9, B) into which the parietal muscles are still inserted.

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  • (iii.) In Umbonula of Cribrilina, showing the frontal membrane and parietal the entrance to the muscles of the young zooecium are like compensation - .sac on those of Membranipora, but they become the proximal side of the covered by the growth, from the proximal operculum (op).

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  • The parietal muscles are usually reduced to.

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  • The avicularium can move as a whole by means of special muscles, and its chitinous lower jaw m- ect.

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  • The operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, while the occlusor muscles have become enormous.

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  • In its least differentiated form the avicularium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium ("vicarious avicularium"), from which it is distinguished by the greater development of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide is normally not functional.

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  • In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.

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  • But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.

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  • G, prefrontal; M, maxilla; J, poison-fang; Tr, transpalatine; Pt, pterygoid; p, palatine; Q, quadrate; Sq, squamosal; Pm, premaxilla; T.a, articular; Pe and Di, muscles.

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  • During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).

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  • As all these animals are killed by the poison of the snake before they are swallowed, and as their muscles are perfectly relaxed, their armature is harmless to the snake, which begins to swallow its prey from the head, and depresses the spines as deglutition proceeds.

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  • His knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology was necessarily defective, the respect in which the dead body was held by the Greeks precluding him from practising dissection; thus we find him writing of the tissues without distinguishing between the various textures of the body, confusing arteries, veins and nerves, and speaking vaguely of the muscles as " flesh."

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  • The swelling of the mountain of Venus is simply the indication of the size of the muscles of the ball of the thumb, and can be increased by their exercise.

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  • Similarly the hypothenar muscles for the little finger underlie the three ulnar marginal mountains, the sizes of which depend on their development and on the prominence of the pisiform bone.

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  • They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.

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  • The animal possesses two nearly equal adductor muscles.

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  • But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.

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  • In many lizards the muscles of the segments of the tail are so loosely connected and the vertebrae are so weak that the tail easily breaks off.

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  • A medusa has a layer of muscles, more or less strongly developed, running in a circular direction on the surface of the subumbrella, the contractions of which are antagonized by the elasticity of the gelatinous substance of the body.

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  • By the contraction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards.

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  • Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium.

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  • subumbral muscles form a rim known as the velum (v., see fig.

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  • Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale); eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty.

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  • (All after Hudson.) to the ciliated cells of the corona, to the foot, and also to the muscles and sense organs.

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  • It is, in common with others, a hollow process into which run two pairs of broad, coarsely transversely striated muscles.

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  • It presents a single pair of muscles attached along its inner wall which run up and form a muscular girdle round the body in its posterior third.

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  • On either side is attached a dorsolateral and ventro-lateral appendage, each with a fan-like plumose termination consisting of compound hairs or setae, found elsewhere only among arthropods (q.v.); each of these is moved by muscles running upwards towards the neck and arising immediately under the trochal disk, the inferior ventro-lateral pair also presenting muscles which form a girdle in the hind region of the body.

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  • At the lowest level we have vague movements of large groups of muscles, as in "bier-divination," where the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized action are many kinds of witch seeking.

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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).

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  • It is the approximate equality in the size of the anterior and posterior adductor muscles which led to the name Isomya for the group to which Anodonta belongs.

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  • The former classification based on these differences in the adductor muscles is now abandoned, having proved to be an unnatural one.

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  • The adductor muscles placed in the concavity of the shells act upon the long arms of the lever at a mechanical advantage; their contraction keeps the shells shut, and stretches the ligament or spring h.

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  • Modiolopsidae.-Extinct; Silurian to Cretaceous; adductor muscles sub-equal.

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  • The coccyx and the sacro-sciatic ligaments, together with the muscles attached to them, have been removed.

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  • The digastric muscles also are remarkable for their well-defined central tendon, and in many species their anterior bellies are united between the two halves of the lower jaw.

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  • Physostigmine, indeed, stimulates nearly all the non-striped muscles in the body, and this action upon the muscular coats of the arteries, and especially of the arterioles, causes a great rise in blood-pressure shortly after its absorption, which is very rapid.

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  • The muscles are striated and arranged in four quadrants, two dorso-lateral and two ventro-lateral, an arrangement which recalls that of the Nematoda, whilst in their histology they somewhat resemble the muscles of the Oligochaeta.

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  • The cerebral ganglion also gives off a nerve on each side to a pair of small ganglia, united by a median commissure, which have sunk into and control the muscles of the head.

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  • Small doses increase the sensibility of touch, sight and hearing; large doses cause twitching of the muscles and difficulty in swallowing; while in overdose violent convulsions are produced.

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  • The symptoms of strychnine poisoning usually appear within twenty minutes of the ingestion of a poisonous dose, starting with an uneasy sensation, stiffness at the back of the neck, twitching of the muscles and a feeling of impending suffocation.

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  • The patient is then seized with violent convulsions of a tetanic character; the arms are stretched out, respiration impeded, the muscles are rigid, the body is thrown into opisthotonos, i.e.

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  • After a minute the muscles relax, and the patient sinks back exhausted, consciousness being preserved throughout.

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  • If the case is about to terminate fatally the spasms rapidly succeed each other and death usually occurs within two hours, either from asphyxia produced by spasm of the respiratory muscles or more rarely from exhaustion.

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  • In strychnine poisoning trismus or lockjaw is generally secondary to spasm of the other muscles, while in tetanus it is usually the first symptom, no relaxation taking place between the spasms.

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  • Nitrite of amyl inhalations are useful in the early stages when the respiratory muscles are freely movable.

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  • The physiological school of physiognomy was foreshadowed by Parsons and founded by Sir Charles Bell, whose Essay on the Anatomy of the Expression, published in 1806, was the first scientific study of the physical manifestation of emotions in the terms of the muscles which produce these manifestations.

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  • Duchenne (Mecanisme de la physiognomie humaine, Paris, 1862) showed that by the use of electricity the action of the separate muscles could be studied and by the aid of photography accurately represented.

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  • It follows from these propositions that the expression of emotion is, for the most part, not under control of the will, and that those striped muscles are the most expressive which are the least voluntary.

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  • To the foregoing may be added the following three additional propositions, so as to form a more complete expression of a physiognomical philosophy: (4) Certain muscles concerned in producing these skin-folds become strengthened by habitual action, and when the skin diminishes in elasticity and fulness with advancing age, the wrinkles at right angles to the course of the muscular fibres become permanent.

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  • The tail is capable of free vertical motion, and controlled by strong muscles, so that, at least in the true toucans, when the bird is preparing to sleep it is reverted and lies almost flat on the back, on which also the huge bill reposes, pointing in the opposite direction.

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  • b, buccal mass; m, retractor muscles of the buccal mass; ov, ovary; od, oviduct; i, coils of intestines; ao, aorta; c', left auricle; c, ventricle.

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  • The jaws are short and strong, and the width of the zygomatic arches, and great development of the bony ridges on the skull, give ample space for the attachment of the powerful muscles by which they are closed.

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  • Two years later he first tried the effect of electro-puncture of the muscles on a patient under his care, and from this time on devoted himself more and more to the medical applications of electricity, thereby laying the foundation of the modern science of electro-therapeutics.

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  • All who have eaten it declare the flesh of the Tinamou to have a most delicate taste, as it has a most inviting appearance, the pectoral muscles being semi-opaque.

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  • l.m, Longitudinal muscles.

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  • o.m, Oblique muscles.

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  • Polygordius and Protodrilus live in sand, but while the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles, Protodrilus can progress by the action of the bands of cilia surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral groove.

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  • Within this is usually a sheath of connective tissue, which surrounds a layer of circular muscles; the latter may be split up into separate bundles, but more usually form a uniform sheet.

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  • Within the circular muscles is a layer of longitudinal muscles, very often broken into bundles, the number of which is often of specific importance.

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  • Oblique muscles sometimes lie between the circular and longitudinal sheaths.

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  • On the inner surface is a layer of peritoneal epithelium, which is frequently ciliated, and at the bases of the retractor muscles is heaped up and modified into the reproductive organs.

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  • The mouth is devoid of armature, and passes without break into the oesophagus; this is surrounded by the retractor muscles, which are inserted into the skin around the mouth, and have their origin in the bodywall, usually about one-third or one-half of the body-length from the anterior end (figs.

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  • The number of muscles varies from one (Onchnesoma and Tylosoma) to four, the latter being very common.

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  • There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.

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  • Sipunculoids are dioecious, and the ova and spermatozoa are formed from the modified cells lining the body-cavity, which are heaped up into a low ridge running along the line of origin of the retractor muscles.

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  • This, with Physcosoma, has its longitudinal muscles divided up into some 17-41 bundles.

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  • The following three genera have their longitudinal muscles in a continuous sheath: - (iii.) Phascolosoma, with some 25 species, mostly small, with numerous tentacles.

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  • i, Retractor muscles.

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  • - The taryings 011, slate palettes appear to begin with work crudely accurate and forceful, the heavy limbs being ridged with tendons and muscles (Plate II.

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  • Here the anatomy has reached its limits for such work; the precision of the muscles on the inner and outer sides of the leg, of the uniform grip in the left arm, and the tense muscle upholding the right arm, prove that the artist knew that part of his work perfectly.

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  • Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.

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  • In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g.

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  • gastrocnemius, tonic contraction obtains; but this, like the last mentioned, is not autochthonous in the muscles themselves; it is indirect and neural, and appears to be maintained reflexly.

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  • The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.

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  • Striped muscles possessing an autochthonous tonus appear to be the various sphincter muscles.

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  • Another mode of manifestation of contractility by muscles is the rhythmic. A tendency to rhythmic contraction seems discoverable in almost all muscles.

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  • Rhythmic contraction is also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal muscles, e.g.

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  • Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.

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  • But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.

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  • by synthesis at a summation of "beats" or of simple contras tions in the compound, or "tetanic," or summed contraction of the skeletal muscles.

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  • But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.

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  • It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.

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  • The disturbance travels as a wave of contraction, and the whole extent of the wave-like disturbance measures in ordinary muscles much more than the whole length of any single muscle fibre.

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  • Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous centre.

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  • A prominent and practically important illustration of neural tonus is given by the skeletal muscles.

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  • These muscles exhibit a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which disappears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle.

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  • Stretching of the muscles antagonistic to the extensors - namely, of the flexor muscles - reduces the jerk by inhibiting the extensor spinal nerve cells through the nervous impulses generated by the tense flexor muscles.

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  • Hence a favourable posture of the limb for eliciting the jerk is one ensuring relaxation of the hamstring muscles, as when the leg has been crossed upon the other.

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  • The turning of attention towards the knee interferes with the jerk; hence the device of directing the person to perform vigorously some movement, which does not involve the muscles of the lower limb, at the moment when the light blow is dealt upon the tendon.

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  • The direction of attention to the performance of some movement by the arm ensures that looseness and freedom from tension in the thigh muscles which is essential for the provocation of the jerk.

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  • The motor cells of the extensor muscles, when preoccupied by cerebral influence, appear refractory.

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  • It will be noted from it that there is no direct relation between the extent of a cortical area and the mass of muscles which it controls.

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  • The mass of muscles in the trunk is greater than in the leg, and in the leg is greater than in the arm, and in the arm is many times greater than in the face and head; yet for the last the cortical area is the most extensive of all, and for the first-named is the least extensive of all.

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  • Ferrier's investigations showed, motor reactions of the facial and sensori- limb muscles are regularly and easily evoked.

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  • Patients in whom, for purposes of diagnosis, it has been electrically excited, describe, as the initial effect of the stimulation, tingling and obscure but locally-limited sensations, referred to the part whose muscles a moment later are thrown into co-ordinate activity.

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  • Not that there is paralysis of the muscles of speech, since these muscles can be used perfectly for all acts other than speech.

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  • One aspect of this derangement, named by Luciani astasia, is a tremor heightened by or only appearing when the muscles enter upon action - "intention tremor."

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  • The muscles become less tense than in their waking state: their tonus is diminished, the upper eyelid falls, and the knee-jerk is in abeyance.

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  • Those that go to the voluntary muscles are depressed only by very large and dangerous doses.

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  • But moderate doses of atropine markedly paralyse the terminals of the nerves that go to involuntary muscles, whether the action of those nerves be motor or inhibitory.

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  • These are paralysed by atropine, and intestinal peristalsis is consequently made more active, the muscles being released from nervous control.

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  • The drug affects only the involuntary muscles of the eye, just as it affects only the involuntary or non-striated portion of the oesophagus.

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  • The animals thus associated, the Rotifera, Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, are composed of a larger or smaller number of hollow rings, each ring possessing typically a pair of hollow lateral appendages, moved by intrinsic muscles and penetrated by blood-spaces.

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  • His attributes are the trident and the dolphin (sometimes the tunny fish.) As represented in art Poseidon resembles Zeus, but possesses less of his majestic calm, his muscles are more emphasized, and his hair is thicker and somewhat dishevelled.

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  • By the aid of this the larva makes its way into the soft body of some insect larva, Ephemerids, Chironomids, or even of Molluscs, and encysts in the muscles or fat body.

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  • 1-7), explained fully the means whereby the jaws and the muscles which direct their movements become so effective in riving asunder cones or apples, while at the proper moment the scoop-like tongue is instantaneously thrust out and withdrawn, conveying the hitherto protected seed to the bird's mouth.

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  • The articulation of the mandible to the quadrate-bone is such as to allow of a very considerable amount of lateral play, and, by a particular arrangement of the muscles which move the former, it comes to pass that so soon as the bird opens its mouth the point of the mandible is brought immediately opposite to that of the maxilla (which itself is movable vertically), instead of crossing or overlapping it - the usual position when the mouth is closed.

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  • These myotomes enable it to swim rapidly with characteristic serpentine undulations of the body, the movements being effected by the alternate contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal muscles on both sides.

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  • In most Collembola the spring appears to belong to the fifth abdominal somite, but Willem, by study of the muscles, has shown that it really belongs to the fourth.

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  • From considering the nature of diabetes, he had come to the conclusion that many cases were due to imperfect oxidation of sugar in the body; that this oxidation was normally carried out by a ferment in the muscles, and that probably the disease was in some cases dependent upon absence of the ferment.

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  • It is probable that the pancreas in its turn also secretes something which activates a ferment in the muscles.

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  • Ascending mountains, however, is very different, because in walking up a steep ascent all the muscles of the body are thrown into action, and not only those of the legs.

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  • Thus there may be hyperaesthesia, anaesthesia, paralysis, or alterations of nutrition, such as wasting of muscles, whitening of the hair, &c.

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  • Their ectodermal muscles are mainly longitudinal, their endodermal muscles are circularly arranged on the body-wall.

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  • Another very curious property of this bird, which was observed by Jacquin, who brought it to the notice of Linnaeus, 2 is its emphysematous condition - there being a layer of air-cells between the skin and the muscles, so that on any part of the body being pressed a crackling sound is heard.

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  • The fresh-water Mussels, Anodonta cygnea, Unio pictorum, and Unio margaritiferus belong to the order Eulamellibranchia of Lamellibranch Molluscs, in which the anterior and posterior adductor muscles are equally developed.

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  • The circular muscles usually form two chief portions, a peripheral wreath-muscle (Kranzmuskel), subdivided into four, eight or sixteen areas, and an oral ring-muscle round the mouth.

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  • Endodermal muscles are found in the phacellae, and in such forms as Lucernaria, longitudinal (vertical) muscular tracts or bands are found in the taeniolae, which, according to some authorities, are xxiv.

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  • Each taeniola bears a strongly developed longitudinal muscle-band, stated by Claus and Chun to be developed from the endoderm, like the retractor muscles of the anthopolyp, but by other investigators it is affirmed that each retractor muscle of the scyphistoma arises from the lining of a funnel-shaped ectodermal ingrowth (" Septaltrichter ") growing down from the peristome inside each taeniola, in a manner similar to the infundibular cavities of Lucernaria, which in their turn are homologous with the sub f genital cavities of Scypho l A .` medusae.

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  • (After Claus.) by Friedemann (3), a recent investigator of the subject, that the infundibular cavities appear late in the scyphistoma and have no relation either to the septal muscles or to the subgenital cavities of the adult.

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  • By their contraction the muscles of the taeniolae drag the hypostome down and so produce the appearances which have been interpreted as a stomodaeal invagination.

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  • In a few Entomostraca (some Phyllopoda and Ostracoda) the chitinous lining of the fore-gut develops spines and hairs which help to triturate and strain the food, and among the Ostracods there is occasionally (Bairdia) a more elaborate armature of toothed plates moved by muscles.

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  • These teeth are connected with a framework of movably articulated ossicles developed as thickened and calcified portions of the lining cuticle of the stomach and moved by special muscles in such a way as to bring the three teeth together in the middle line.

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  • In the region of the oesophagus these muscles are more strongly developed to perform the movements of deglutition, and, where a gastric mill is present, both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles co-operate in 3a producing the movements of its 36 various parts.

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  • The whole organ can be rotated by special muscles.

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  • Two retractor muscles pass back from the base of the foot to the dorsal side of the shell.

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  • The dorsoventral and the parapodial muscles are much developed, whilst the coelom is reduced mostly to branched spaces in which the genital products ripen, Full-grown myzostomids are hermaphrodite.

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  • The angles, moreover, made by the wing with the horizon during the down and up strokes are at no two intervals the same, but (and this is a wing of the martin, where the bones of the pinion are short, and in some respects rudimentary, the primary and secondary feathers are greatly developed, and banked up in such a manner that the wing as a whole presents the same curves as those displayed by the insect's wing, or by the wing of the eagle, where the bones, muscles and feathers have attained a maximum development.

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  • The twisting referred to is partly a vital and partly a mechanical act; - that is, it is occasioned in part by the action of the muscles and in part by the greater resistance experienced from the air by the tip and posterior margin of the wing as compared with the root and anterior margin, - the resistance experienced by the tip and posterior margin causing them to reverse always subsequently to the root and anterior margin, which has the effect of throwing the anterior and posterior margins of the wing into figure-of-8 curves, as shown at figs.

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  • 1 The other forces which assist in elevating the wings are - (a) the elevator muscles of the wings, (b) the elastic properties of the wings, and (c) the reaction of the compressed air on the under surfaces of the wings.

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  • He believes that if the wing be suddenly lowered by the depressor muscles, it is elevated solely by the reaction of the air.

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  • There is one unanswerable objection to this theory: the birds and bats, and some if not all the insects, have distinct elevator muscles, and can elevate their wings at pleasure when not flying and when, consequently, the reaction of the air is not elicited.

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  • The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to bones and muscles with that of man, but is clumsier and heavier; its thumb is " opposable " like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet with its extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus possessing a character which does much to make the human hand so admirable an instrument; but the gorilla's thumb is proportionately shorter than man's.

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  • Such are the similar effects of terror on man and the lower animals, causing the muscles to tremble, the heart to palpitate, the sphincters to be relaxed, and the hair to stand on end.

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  • The mesenteries are provided with well-developed longitudinal retractor muscles, supported on longitudinal folds or plaits of the mesogloea, so that in cross-section they have a branched appearance.

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  • The mesenteries are numerous, and the longitudinal muscles, though distinguishable, are so feebly developed that there are no musclebanners.

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  • Given internally it stimulates the intestinal muscles and may cause diarrhoea.

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  • With weakness of the voluntary muscles went intermittent spasms which weakened the patient and ultimately led to death by implication of the respiratory muscles.

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  • This work, apart from its value to artists and psychologists, is of interest historically, as there is no doubt the investigations of the author into the nervous supply of the muscles of expression induced him to prosecute inquiries which led to his great discoveries in the physiology of the nervous system.

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  • He discovered that in the nervous trunks there are special sensory filaments, the office of which is to transmit impressions from the periphery of the body to the sensorium, and special motor filaments which convey motor impressions from the brain or other nerve centre to the muscles.

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  • - The inactive form occurs in the muscles of the heart and in other parts of the human body.

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  • m, Longitudinal muscles.

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  • Some of these cells produced muscles and connective tissue; others absorbed and removed waste products, iron salts, calcium carbonate and the like, and so were ready to be utilized for the deposition of pigment or of skeletal substance.

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  • - Tentacles simple or branched, never peltate; calcareous ring well developed, often bilaterally symmetrical; retractor muscles usually present; stone-canal opens internally; genital tubes in right and left tufts.

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  • It is the existence in each ring of the body of a pair of hollow lateral appendages or parapodia, moved by intrinsic muscles and penetrated by bloodspaces, which is the leading fact indicating the affinities of these great sub-phyla, and uniting them as blood-relations.

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  • Br, The bract devoid of muscles and respiratory in function.

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  • (h) The muscles of the body-wall and gut do not consist of transversely-striped muscular fibre, but of the unstriped tissue observed also in Chaetopoda.

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  • (h) The muscles in all parts of the body consist of striped muscular fibre, never of unstriped muscular tissue.

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  • This implies a very much higher development of nerves and muscles in the latter.

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  • Later the affected muscles become exquisitely tender, and then atrophy, while the knee-jerk or other reflex is lost.

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  • The muscles of the limbs are modified from those of the ordinary mammalian type in accordance with the reduced condition of the bones and the simple requirements of flexion and extension of the joints, no such actions as pronation and supination, or opposition of digits, being possible or needed.

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  • The muscles therefore which perform these functions in other quadrupeds are absent or rudimentary.

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  • 2); but its attachments and relations, as well as the occasional presence of muscular fibres in its substance, show that it is the homologue of the interosseous muscles of other mammals, modified in structure and function, to s ' '16 FIG.

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  • Behind or superficial to this are placed the two strong tendons of the flexor muscles, the most superficial, or flexor perforatus (8) dividing to allow the other to pass through, and then inserted into the middle phalanx.

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  • In the fore-leg these muscles correspond with those similarly named in man.

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  • The nostrils are placed laterally, near the termination of the muzzle, and are large and dilatable, being bordered by cartilages upon which several muscles act.

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  • The muscular fibres of the jaws are transversely striated, the other muscles are unstriated.

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  • In common with the other monotremes, the male echidna has its heel provided with a sharp hollow spur, connected with a secreting gland, and with muscles capable of pressing the secretion from the gland into the spur.

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  • Not only are the general symptoms investigated, but it is necessary to carry out experiments'on the nerves, muscles, circulation, secretions, &c., so as to get a more exact knowledge of the reasons of the general action.

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  • The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.

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  • At the same time the non-striped muscles slightly lose their tonicity, and when very large doses are given the haemoglobin of the blood becomes converted into the chocolate-coloured methaemoglobin.

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  • Physostigmine, the active principle of the Calabar bean, acts chiefly as a stimulant to voluntary and involuntary muscles, and at the same time exercises a depressing effect upon the spinal cord.

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  • Strange, but she didn't remember doing anything in the accident that required enough exertion to strain muscles.

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  • She stretched out on the rock, its warmth penetrating her shirt and further relaxing her muscles.

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  • She didn't relax until her plane was in the air, and only then was she able to loosen the muscles in her neck when she sat pressed against the window to prevent her elbow from touching the man beside her.

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  • Her eyes traveled over the image of him training others, his whip-like upper body bare to reveal the roped muscles of his shoulders and chest, the tucked waist and flat abs.

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  • His muscles didn't bulge like a body builder.

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  • It was flexible and moved with her when she tested it by flexing or releasing her forearm muscles.

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  • His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain.  He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.

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  • If stiff muscles didn't let them down, the group would pedal into Durango, Colorado, with one leg of the tour behind them.

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  • The tall Guardian was built like a model with the long, lean muscles of a ballerina.

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  • He loved war, the all consuming sensations of battle from the metallic scent of weapons and blood to the burn of his muscles as he fought beyond his normal capabilities.

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  • Her breathing was labored, her chest burning and muscles shaking from the demon's abuse of her body.

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  • The muscles in her legs complained as she squatted behind the log, peering over the rotting bark.

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  • She watched him, mouth agape at the muscles outlined in his back and the tight ass.

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  • Jessi's head nodded forward as he ran his thumbs along the sides of her neck to loosen the muscles.

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  • accentuate the natural curves and muscles.

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  • Massage ginger oil into sore muscles or rheumatic aches for pain relief.

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  • achee helped take my mind off aching muscles by giving me lessons in riding down hills at speed.

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  • Some are used as building blocks: your hair and nails contain the protein keratin, while your muscles contain actin and myosin.

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  • Both vascular and airway smooth muscles relax in response to beta adrenergic agonists via cyclic AMP.

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  • agonist muscles may limit speed of movement; consequently, strengthening them leads to an increase in agonist muscle movement speed.

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  • They quickly relax the muscles surrounding the narrowed airways.

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  • amino acids to the muscles which is why athletes use whey protein.

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  • antagonistic muscles working together.

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  • antispasmodic medicines These are medicines that relax the muscles in the wall of the gut.

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  • antispasmodic drug that works directly on the muscles rather than on the central nervous system.

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  • antispasmodic activity in muscles.

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  • Relaxing in warm water and being gently massaged relieves anxiety and relaxes tense and aching muscles.

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  • Even then I knew muscles had to be involved, but how could they be present in such extremely long, hairlike appendages?

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  • If the spasms spread to the back muscles, the spine may become strongly arched backward.

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  • For many centuries, South Americans had killed their victims with poison arrows that paralyzed muscles.

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  • Squeeze the left thigh muscles to force blood from branches of the iliac artery up the main vessel.

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  • The motor nerve cell body has a long fiber called an axon, which extends from the central nervous system to the muscles.

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  • The adjustable backrest allows training without tiring the muscles of the back.

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  • The most common mistake with the high pull is the over use of the upper body muscles to lift the barbell.

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  • This can lead to irregular beats of the heart and weakness of some groups of muscles.

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  • biceps muscles.

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  • muscles biceps - The biceps tendon attaches to the radial tuberosity on the inside of the upper radius.

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  • The skin contains a network of small blood vessels with tiny muscles in their walls.

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  • I had big muscles and I chose to wear long-sleeved blouses to hide those muscles.

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  • Holistic therapeutic bodywork for muscles, back pain, tension, healing and wellbeing.

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  • The valves of inarticulate brachiopods are held together by muscles without a hinge.

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  • He had very small teeth and was a mouth breather due to inefficient face muscles and poor tongue posture.

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  • bulbar muscles being affected.

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  • buttocks muscles at the same time.

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  • calf muscles is the " wall stretch " .

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  • The growth patterns of certain muscles in the beef carcass also may show an abrupt change in growth rate at birth.

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  • Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles ).

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  • catches the muscles unprepared to resist or overwhelms the muscles.

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  • Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged or spontaneous bleeding, especially into the muscles, joints, or internal organs.

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  • chewed up food then gets mashed up by the strong muscles in your stomach.

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  • ciliary muscles must modify the shape of the lens to ensure a clear image.

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  • clostridium chauvoei, leading to fever and swelling of infected muscles.

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  • Start by getting an adult with good muscles to bend the wire coat hangers into the right shape.

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  • vaginal cones Vaginal cones are weights that can help you exercise the muscles of your pelvic floor, and can help SUI.

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  • constrictor muscles (Kastelein et al 1991 ).

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  • contraction of the bladder muscles.

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  • You're not supposed to spend hours using single muscles moving strange metal contraptions in time to bad house music.

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  • The muscles and associated tissues in this region had been destroyed and there were very extensive subcutaneous contusions.

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  • Powerful magnets aimed at the motor cortex have been shown to induce muscles to twitch.

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  • course of action vaginal version or traditional, through the stomach muscles?

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  • Have you ever suffered cramp in your muscles during exercise?

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  • leg cramps - many pregnant women suffer from painful attacks of cramp in their calf muscles.

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  • cuff muscles over time.

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  • Gluteal muscles are also strengthened by half squats and hamstring curls.

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  • It fits snugly into your lumbar curve, relieving strain on the lower back muscles.

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  • As we become progressively deformed - even in only tiny ways - different muscles learn to compensate.

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  • This pattern of the motorneuron dendrites is a neural map, which represents centrally the distribution of body wall muscles in the periphery.

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  • Muscles developed arm depressors, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and teres major.

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  • The Trunk: Elephants are endowed with versatile trunks, which have over 100,000 muscles units that make it extremely dexterous.

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  • dilator muscles altering the tension of the vocal cords and the mass of the arytenoid cartilages that controls call frequency.

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  • My son is 4 and has spastic diplegia and the muscles in his legs fire off whenever he tries to do anything- even sing!

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  • It is near impossible to take divots and the course therefore can be tough on muscles, joints and bones.

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  • Selection of the Trigger Point box brings up anatomical drawings showing the TP and pattern of pain radiation for a range of muscles.

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  • Patient trembles has aching muscles and heaviness especially of the head and eyes - even the eyelids droop.

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  • Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing may cause dysphagia.

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  • The mdx mouse is supposed to represent muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate with no treatment.

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  • dystrophyese muscles are damaged or diseased eg. myopathies or muscle dystrophies ventilation may become inadequate, and breathing support may be required.

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  • The objective of the exercise program for Class I muscles or limbs is to increase muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance.

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  • equalize pressure during descent by swallowing or yawning or by tensing the muscles of the throat.

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  • Neural impulses do not travel at the same speed, muscles are not equidistant from the brain, and much more.

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  • erector spinae muscles should be targeted with prone (lying on your front) back extensions.

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  • Surgery for large angle congenital esotropia: two versus three and four horizontal muscles.

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  • A possible etiology is an imbalance in muscle strength of the small muscles of the foot.

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  • For instance, the long toe extensors with the peronei and the calf muscles (triceps surae) with the biceps femoris.

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  • For example, an athlete recovering from tennis elbow will need to strengthen the wrist extensor muscles to prevent the injury recurring.

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  • Tennis Elbow Tennis Elbow is pain in the region where the forearm extensor muscles fasten to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.

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  • Indian Head Massage relaxes the scalp and tones up the subcutaneous muscles relieving eyestrain, headaches and improving concentration.

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  • Keeping fit and healthy is not simply about losing weight, building muscles or becoming a fitness fanatic.

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  • Like all muscles, the tensor fascia lata has a band of connective tissue at each end which bind it to bone.

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  • The superior and inferior longitudinal muscles each had an average of 40 distinct muscle fascicles, each supplied by a nerve branch.

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  • Severe and debilitating fatigue, painful muscles and joints, disordered sleep, gastric disturbances, poor memory and concentration are commonplace.

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  • fibrillation potentials were more frequent in muscles with lower grade of strength.

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  • flabby muscles.

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  • flaccid muscles; the jowl sagged.

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  • flex muscles.

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  • However, the vertebral column also allows for flexion, extension, rotation and lateral flexion with the help of several muscles.

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  • Poor flexibility in the hip flexor muscles may lead to an anterior pelvic tilt, where the pelvis is tilted down to the front.

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