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muscles

muscles Sentence Examples

  • The muscles on his chest and arms were not well defined.

  • The muscles in her legs were contracting painfully.

  • By the time she reached the top of the hill, the muscles in her legs were aching.

  • The movement brought a painful awareness of how stiff her muscles were becoming.

  • It ached in places there couldn't be muscles.

  • He towered over them both, the muscles in his arms and shoulders straining against his shirt as he hooked his thumbs in the front pockets of his jeans.

  • There was a soft step behind her, and then his hands were on her waist, his thumbs nimbly working the tense muscles.

  • His hands worked up her back moving gradually as he massaged every inch of the muscles on either side of her spine.

  • The muscles in Howard's jaws worked with rage.

  • His jaw muscles worked.

  • He glanced at the whip and his jaw muscles worked.

  • The muscles in her legs felt numb.

  • Actually, her legs felt like stumps and her groin muscles were knotted with pain.

  • She tried to work the muscles in her lower back with her fingertips, but the effort was worse than the benefit.

  • Suddenly strong fingers began working her shoulder muscles, delightfully descending to the muscles on either side of her spine.

  • His jaw muscles worked as he spun on one heel and marched to the outside door, slamming it as he left.

  • Instead, her fingers slid across the smooth muscles and up to his neck, drawing his mouth down harder on hers.

  • She pushed away from the ground stiffly and rubbed at the sore muscles in her back while she surveyed the house.

  • He doesn't have complete control of his muscles yet.

  • I don't know if he's going to try Saturday or if he's just flexing his muscles.

  • His long, lean muscles bulged with the workout.

  • Dusty's jaw clenched until he felt the muscles tick.

  • His long, sleek hair was tied in a tight braid, and despite the cold and wind he wore only a long-sleeved sweater that hugged the muscles of his arms and shoulders beneath a down vest.

  • She was soon soaked by a light drizzle and stretched to keep her stiffening muscles warm.

  • I don't want her muscles turning to jelly.

  • He closed his eyes, his jaw clenched hard enough for the muscles to tick.

  • There was a chill, but once Dean began warming his muscles he felt comfortable in this familiar posture.

  • She rested her hands on his chest, but they didn't stay, instead running over the muscles of his chest and around to his back.

  • She didn't remember his passion, the way he tasted and smelled and felt, or the movement of his muscles beneath taut, smooth skin.

  • She absently traced a hand down his shoulder and large bicep to the roped muscles of his forearm.

  • She slowly slid her hands up his chest, enjoying the feel of the smooth muscles beneath his shirt.

  • Yet he still couldn't control his facial muscles or speak.

  • Lacing fingers behind her neck, she arched back, feeling the muscles in her back stretch.

  • His shirt stretched tightly over his shoulders and across his back while his biceps flexed and the roped muscles of his forearms rippled with his tinkering.

  • His jaw was clenched and ticking as the muscles jumped.

  • By the time she clawed her way over the edge, she was soaked with sweat and panting, her muscles burning from effort.

  • She felt both awed and terrified watching his rippling, shapely muscles move beneath the olive skin.

  • She sighed deeply as it beat against her sore muscles.

  • Her legs were wobbly, the muscles of her inner thighs stiff.

  • His muscles were so bunched, they ached when he shook them free.

  • He relaxed and tested the muscles of his arm again, dissatisfied with being injured.

  • Thick, bronze skin coated layers of roped, rippling muscles.

  • The muscles of his upper body bulged as he sparred, their changing shapes amplified by a play of shade and sunlight.

  • But the indigo jeans hugged his lean hips in a tantalizing way and outlined the long muscles in his thighs.

  • He began massaging the stiff muscles.

  • His fingers left her neck, working down the muscles on either side of her spine.

  • His fingers were gently massaging the muscles on either side of her backbone - warm and relaxing.

  • His fingers slipped under her shirt, warmly working at the muscles in her back.

  • His back was towards her, the expanse of golden skin stretched over bulging muscles startling her.

  • His arms were huge, his muscles long and lean.

  • His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain.  He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.

  • Although the route was relatively flat by Colorado standards, Dean learned that a body unaccustomed to elevation in the 7,000­foot range needed more oxygen to fuel its muscles.

  • While Dean stretched his muscles and alternated between bites of peanut butter sandwich and a banana, Fred perused the rest of the master lists.

  • The first day was behind him, his muscles weren't overly sore, he seemed to be adjusting to the altitude and he had conquered more hills in one day than a year of Pennsylvania biking would offer.

  • But I gotta tell ya it's great for relaxing the muscles.

  • Indigo jeans outlined the long lean muscles in his thighs, and the sleeves of his western shirt were rolled up to reveal tanned muscular forearms.

  • They were so graceful, their muscles rippling under shiny coats as they moved.

  • A warm shower soothed aching muscles.

  • She ran a hand across his forearm, enjoying the feel of his muscles.

  • Then the muscles in his leg tightened and she stepped back, allowing him to dismount.

  • The muscles worked in his jaw and he glanced away.

  • Her muscles felt relaxed for the first time in weeks.

  • He was covered in sweat, the muscles of his exposed back rippling with his movement.

  • She could think of nothing more than his bare skin against hers, of the feel of his muscles beneath her fingers.

  • Her muscles were tense enough to ache.

  • Vara's jaw clenched hard enough for muscles on either side to tick.

  • The thought of a hot bath made her muscles quake with anticipation.

  • He ate and sipped the cider, its warmth making his muscles relax.

  • It was taking his muscles a long time to stretch.

  • His rain coat flipped in the breeze, exposing rippling muscles in his thighs as the square toed boots sought and found solid footholds in the wet rock.

  • His warm hands covered hers and she could feel the hardness of his chest muscles on her back as he guided her arms in a smooth swing.

  • Now that the storm had passed, her taut muscles relaxed and she felt weak.

  • She sank to a bench and sipped on her coffee, letting its warmth invaded her body and relax her stiff muscles.

  • Denton crammed his hands into his pockets and his jaw muscles worked as he glared at her.

  • The shoulder muscles beneath his gray blazer rippled as he moved.

  • He closed his eyes and felt his muscles relax at the soothing routine.

  • His body was flawless: thick muscles moving effortlessly beneath bronze skin.

  • Even the muscles along his back were roped, defined.

  • His back was to her, the large muscles moving effortlessly as he deftly prepped another pot.

  • Muscles bunched and released beneath his smooth skin, the chiseled body even more defined from the effort of battle.

  • His muscles were still bulging from exertion of his visit to the gym, and her gaze stayed on his biceps as he pulled on his boots.

  • He kneaded the stiff muscles of her neck.

  • Jessi's hands traced the thick muscles of his arms.

  • The nerves conduct the animal spirits to act upon the muscles, and in their turn convey the impressions of the organs to the brain.

  • This odd animal is provided with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird, affixed to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and muscles.

  • The adult worm, which is of extremely minute size, the male being only Fi l sth and the female s of an inch in length inhabits the alimentary canal of man and many other carnivorous mammalia; the young bore their way into the tissues and become encysted in the muscles - within the muscle-bundles according to Leuckart, but in the connective tissue between them according to Chatin and others.

  • When first sucked up by the insect from an infected man it passes into its stomach, and thence makes its way into the thoracic muscles, and there for some time it grows.

  • m Muscles moving spicule.

  • The proximal portion forms the retractor muscles of themanubrium, or proboscis, well developed, for example, in Geryonia.

  • The distal portions form the muscles of the tentacles.

  • In contrast with the polyp, the longitudinal muscle-system is entirely ectodermal, there being no endodermal muscles in craspedote medusae.

  • Here the medusoid, attached by the centre of its ex-umbral surface, has lost its velum and sub-umbral muscles, its sense organs and mouth, though still retaining rudimentary tentacles.

  • Starting from the wellknown fact that the habitual use of a limb tends to develop the muscles of the limb, and to produce a greater and greater facility in using it, he made the general assumption that the effort of an animal to exert an organ in a given direction tends to develop the organ in that direction.

  • From the outer tuberculum extends the large crista superior (insertion of pectoralis major and of deltoideus major muscles).

  • The three middle metatarsals become fused together into a cannon bone; the upper part of the third middle metatarsal projects behind and forms the so-called hypotarsus, which in various ways, characteristic of the different groups of birds (with one or more sulci, grooved or perforated), acts as guiding pulley to the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes.

  • The muscles of the limbs show a great amount of specialization, away from the fundamental reptilian and mammalian conditions.

  • The muscles of the fore limbs are most aberrant, but at the same time more uniformly developed than those of the hinder extremities.

  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.

  • Consequently only a few of the original extensor muscles have been preserved, but these are much modified into very independent organs, notably the extensor metacarpi radialis longus, the ext.

  • metac. ulnaris and the two radio- and ulnari-metacarpi muscles, all of which are inserted upon the metacarpus by means of long tendons.

  • - Wing muscles of a Goose.

  • sec., elastic vinculum and Exp.sec., expansor secundariorum; Pt.br and Pt.lg, short and long propatagial muscles; Tri, triceps.

  • The propatagialis longus muscle is composed of slips from the deltoid, pectoral, biceps and cucullaris muscles.

  • The posterior patagium, the fold between trunk and inner surface of the upper arm, is stretched by the metapatagialis muscle, which is composed of slips from the serratus, superficialis, latissimus dorsi and the expansor secundariorum muscles.

  • Here, alone, at the distal portion of the tendon, occur muscular fibres, but these are unstriped, belonging to the category of cutaneous muscles.

  • We have here the interesting fact that a muscle (portion of the triceps humeri of the reptiles) has been reduced to a tendon, which in a secondary way has become connected with cutaneous muscles, which, when strongly developed, represent its belly.

  • The arm-muscles have been studied in an absolutely exhaustive manner by Fiirbringer, who in his monumental work has tabulated and then scrutinized the chief characters of fourteen selected muscles.

  • Of the muscles of the hind-limbs likewise only a few can be mentioned.

  • The ambiens muscle, long and spindle-shaped, lying immediately beneath the skin, extending from the pectineal process or ilio-pubic spine to the knee, is the most median of the muscles of the thigh.

  • It is, however, fair to state that his system was not built entirely upon these muscular variations, but rather upon a more laborious combination of anatomical characters, which were so selected that they presumably could not stand in direct correlation with each other, notably the oil-gland, caeca, carotids, nasal bones and above all, the muscles of the thigh.

  • To return to these thigh muscles.

  • Only a few papers and works can be mentioned here, with the remark that few authors have paid attention to the all-important innervation of the muscles.

  • Rolleston, " On the Homologies of Certain Muscles connected with the Shoulder-joint," Trans.

  • The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.

  • The moving mechanism is a further and much higher development of that which prevails in reptiles, there being two muscles completely separate from each other.

  • The quadrate muscle adjusts the motion, and prevents pressure upon the optic nerve; during the state of relaxation of both muscles the nictitans withdraws through its own elasticity.

  • The communication with the atrium is guarded by a valvula cardiaca dextra, which only in function represents the mammalian tricuspid; it consists of an oblique reduplication of the muscular fibres together with the endocardiac lining of the right ventricle, while the opposite wall is convex and forms neither a velum nor papillary muscles, nor chordae tendineae.

  • Essential are vibrating membranes between the cartilaginous framework, and next, special muscles for regulating the tension.

  • Whilst the type of syrinx affords no help in classification, it is very different with its muscles.

  • These - as indicated by their supply from a branch of the hypoglossal nerve, which descends on either side of the trachea - are, so to speak, a detached, now mostly independent colony of glosso-pharyngeal muscles.

  • Omitting the paired tracheo-clavicular muscles, we restrict ourselves to the syringeal proper, those which extend between tracheal and bronchial rings.

  • Further, according to these muscles being inserted only upon the dorsal, or only upon the ventral, or on both ends of the semi-rings, we distinguish between an-, kat- and diacromyodi.

  • There remains but one logical way, namely, to distinguish as follows: - (i) Passeres anisomyodi, in which the syrinx muscles are unequally inserted, either on the middle or on one end of the semi-rings, either dorsal or ventral.

  • (2) Passeres diacromyodi, in which some of the syrinx muscles are attached to the dorsal, and some to the ventral ends, those ends being, so to say, equally treated.

  • Cuculus canorus and trogons, is often lined with the broken-off hairs of these caterpillars, which, penetrating the cuticle, assume a regular spiral arrangement, due to the rotatory motion of the muscles of the gizzard.

  • It is protruded and retracted by special muscles which are partly attached to the ventral, distal end of the ilium.

  • Desmognathous, without basipterygoid processes; with one pair of sternotracheal muscles.

  • - Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.

  • - Syrinx muscles of either side attached to the dorsal and ventral corners of the rings.

  • Tremors of the muscles more or less violent accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and trunk.

  • These muscles are not striated, as they are in the Arthropoda.

  • Usually the epidermis is immediately followed by the circular layer of muscles, and this by the longitudinal coat.

  • odm, Muscles and cartilage of the odontophore.

  • As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.

  • muscles.

  • This columella muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in Patella, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.

  • k, Retractor muscles.

  • 1, A, B, mn), articulating at their bases with the head-capsule by sub-globular condyles, and provided with abductor and adductor muscles by means of which they can be separated or drawn together so as to bite solid food, or seize objects which have to be carried about.

  • - Ventral Muscles and Nerve Cord Cockroach.

  • of Head muscles Ext.

  • For example, the con Head muscles y traction of the tergo A 's sternal muscles, connect r.

  • tergal ful muscles arising from the thoracic walls, and inserted into the proximal ends of the thighs, N.

  • - Dorsal Muscles, Heart and various tissues and Pericardial Tendons of Cockroach.

  • These spiracles have firm chitinous edges, and can be closed by valves moved by special muscles.

  • The imaginal disks for the outer wall of the body, some of them, at any rate, include mesodermal rudiments (from which the muscles are developed) as well as hypodermis.

  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

  • Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.

  • It must not be supposed that the vocal muscles were first discovered by Muller; on the contrary, they had been described.

  • In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.

  • Every "line" of its build is designed and eminently adapted for rapid progression through the water; the muscles massed along the vertebral column are enormously developed, especially on the back and the sides of the tail, and impart to the body a certain rigidity which interferes with abruptly sideward motions of the fish.

  • Mackerel, like all fishes of this family, have a firm flesh; that is, the muscles of the several segments are interlaced, and receive a greater supply of blood-vessels and nerves than in other fishes.

  • Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.

  • Mesonemertini, in which the nervous system has passed into the dermal muscles and lies amongst them; other characters as in Protonemertini.

  • Metanemertini, in which the nervous system lies inside the dermal muscles in the parenchyma; the mouth lies in front of the level of the brain; the proboscis as a ru'e bears stylets; the intestine nearly always has a caecum.

  • Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.

  • The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.

  • The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.

  • 8), between it and the bulk of the outer longitudinal muscles.

  • It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.

  • The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.

  • Montgomery has also described certain spaces which may be coelomic lying between the alimentary canal and the inner longitudinal layer of muscles in the Heteronemertini.

  • They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.

  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.

  • c, Retractor muscles of the pro- i, Longitudinal muscular layer.

  • Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the complex retains the old name of "retinaculum."

  • It is hunted by the blacks with trained dingoes; the flesh is much prized by the blacks, but the presence of a worm between the muscles and the skin renders it less inviting to Europeans.

  • The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut.

  • Fibrin, produced from fibrinogen by a ferment, is a jelly-like substance, coagulable by heat, alcohol, &c. The muscle-albumins include " myosin " or paramyosinogen, a globulin, which by coagulation induces rigor mortis, and the closely related " myosinogen " or myogen; myoglobulin and myoalbumin are also found in muscles.

  • In the Trimerellidae, for example, some of the muscles are attached to a massive or vaulted platform situated in the medio-longitudinal region of the posterior half or umbonal portion of both valves.

  • f, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (= occlusors, Hancock); c, divaricator (=cardinal muscles, King, = muscles diducteurs principaux, Gratiolet); c', accessory divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, Gratiolet); b, ventral adjustor (=ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire superieure, Gratiolet); b', peduncular muscle.

  • c, c', cardinal process; b', b', hinge-plate; s, dental sockets; 1, loop; q, crura; a, a', adductor impressions; c, accessory divaricator; b, peduncle muscles; ss, septum.

  • c, c', Divaricator muscles.

  • The peduncular muscles have been purposely omitted.

  • Lip which overhangs the mouth heart, numerous muscles and runs all roundthelophophore.

  • The posterior occlusor muscles lie in a special closed space which Blochmann also regards as coelomic. The posterior end of the intestine is similarly surrounded by a closed coelomic space known as the peri-anal sinus in which the rectum lies freely, unsupported by mesenteries.

  • There is further a great tendency for the endothelial cells to form muscles, and this is especially pronounced in the small arm-sinus, where a conspicuous muscle is built up. The mantle-sinuses which form the chief spaces in the mantle are diverticula of the main coelomic cavity.

  • The number and position of the muscles differ materially in the two great divisions into which the Brachiopoda have been grouped, and to some extent also in the different genera of which each division is composed.

  • Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be regretted.

  • In the Testicardines, of which the genus Terebratula may be taken as an example, five or six pairs of muscles are stated by A.

  • The function of this pair of muscles is the closing of the valves.

  • Two other pairs have been termed divaricators by Hancock, or cardinal muscles (" muscles diducteurs " of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening of the valves.

  • The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.

  • Two pairs of muscles, apparently connected with the peduncle and its limited movements, have been minutely described by Hancock as having one of their extremities attached to this organ.

  • b', Peduncular muscles.

  • The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.

  • Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.

  • j, k, 1, Lateral muscles (j, an 26, Interior of dorsal valve.

  • valves to move forward h, Central muscles (close valves).

  • and backward on each i, Transmedial or sliding muscles.

  • Of the shell or valvular muscles W.

  • The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.

  • Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an opposite position, or holding them adjusted.

  • In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.

  • (After Hancock.) The its primitive connexion with the letters indicate the muscles as external epithelium.

  • Laterally, the sub-oesophageal ganglia give off (v.) nerves to the ventral mantle, and finally they supply (vi.) branches to the various muscles.

  • The under arm-nerve, which lies between the small arm-sinus and the surface, supplies nerves to the muscles of both arm-sinuses (figs.

  • Muscles.

  • N.S.), and in a series of subsequent memoirs, in which the structure of the entosternum, of the coxal glands, of the eyes, of the veno-pericardiac muscles, of the respiratory lamellae, and of other parts, was for the first time described, and in which the new facts discovered were shown uniformly to support the hypothesis that Limulus is an Arachnid.

  • m' and m 2, Perforations of the diaphragm for the passage of muscles.

  • The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.

  • Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).

  • i and 2) it as twenty-five pairs of muscles attached to it, coming FIG.

  • In each somite of the mesosoma is a small, free entosternite having a similar position, but below or ventral to the nerve cords, and having a smaller number of muscles attached to it.

  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

  • In Limulus small entosternites are found in each somite of the appendage-bearing mesosoma, and we find in Scorpio, in the only somite of the mesosoma which has a welldeveloped pair of appendages, that of the pectens, a small entosternite with ten pairs of muscles inserted into it.

  • There are seven pairs of these venopericardiac vertical muscles in Scorpio, and eight in Limulus (see figs.

  • It is obvious that the contraction of these muscles 7?']0?0(dQOOOC?n.. ? ?

  • In any case it is clear that we have in these muscles an apparatus'for causing the blood to flow differentially in increased volume into either the pericardium, through the veins leading from the respiratory organs, or from the body generally into the great sinuses which bring the blood to the respiratory organs.

  • These muscles act so as to pump the blood through the respiratory organs.

  • The veno-pericardiac muscles of Scorpio were seen and figured by Newport but not described by him.

  • - The alimentary canal in Scorpio, as in Limulus, is provided with a powerful suctorial pharynx, in the working of which extrinsic muscles take a part.

  • VPM' to VPM 7, The series of seven pairs of veno-pericardiac muscles (labelled pv in fig.

  • There is some reason to admit the existence of another more anterior pair of these muscles in Scorpio; this would make the number exactly correspond with the number in Limulus.

  • dv' to dv s, Dorso-ventral muscles (same as the series labelled tsm in fig.

  • pv' to pv 7, The seven veno-pericardiac muscles of the right side (labelled VPM in fig.

  • tsm, Tergo-sternal muscles, six pairs as in Scorpio (labelled dv in fig.

  • VPM' to VPN1 8, The eight pairs of veno-pericardiac muscles (labelled pv in fig.

  • An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).

  • msg, Stigmata of the tergosternal muscles.

  • p, The tergal stigmata of the tergo-sternal muscles.

  • opistho I, First somite of the opisthosoma; opistho 2, second do.; g, genital aperture; 1, edges of the lamellae of the lung-books; m, stigmata of tergo-sternal muscles.

  • The muscles suffer at an early period: they fall off in bulk, and later suffer from fatty degeneration, the heart being probably the first muscle to give way.

  • Thus the brain falls off in bulk, and the muscles become attenuated, and in no muscle is this more notable than in the case of the heart.

  • The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.

  • Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive.

  • bones, muscles, &c.) shown as if external, as in some Mesopotamian sculptures.

  • In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.

  • The muscles are arranged, jn ten or more layers, and are transversely striated.

  • At this neck-like zone the muscles are absent, and across it falls the line of fracture when the proglottis separates from its fellows.

  • The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.

  • sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.

  • This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.

  • The muscles are remarkable for two reasons.

  • Some of the central cells remain in clumps as "germ-balls," others form a mesenchyma in which "flame-cells" arise; others again give rise to muscles; and at the thicker end of the body, rudiments of the brain and digestive system are observable.

  • In cases of myopia or short-sight owing to weakness of the internal recti muscles, the eyes in looking at a near object, instead of converging, tend to turn outwards, and so double vision results.

  • in, r', Parietovaginal muscles.

  • In the Gymnolaemata protrusion is effected by the contraction of the parietal muscles, which pass freely across the body-cavity from one part of the body-wall to another.

  • The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.

  • In Cheilostomata with a rigid frontal wall A, of Membranipora; B, of an Jullien showed that proimmature zooecium of Cribrilina trusion and retraction were p.m., Parietal muscles.

  • p.m., Parietal muscles.

  • 9, B) into which the parietal muscles are still inserted.

  • (iii.) In Umbonula of Cribrilina, showing the frontal membrane and parietal the entrance to the muscles of the young zooecium are like compensation - .sac on those of Membranipora, but they become the proximal side of the covered by the growth, from the proximal operculum (op).

  • The parietal muscles are usually reduced to.

  • The avicularium can move as a whole by means of special muscles, and its chitinous lower jaw m- ect.

  • The operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, while the occlusor muscles have become enormous.

  • In its least differentiated form the avicularium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium ("vicarious avicularium"), from which it is distinguished by the greater development of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide is normally not functional.

  • In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.

  • But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.

  • G, prefrontal; M, maxilla; J, poison-fang; Tr, transpalatine; Pt, pterygoid; p, palatine; Q, quadrate; Sq, squamosal; Pm, premaxilla; T.a, articular; Pe and Di, muscles.

  • During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).

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