Muscles sentence example

muscles
  • The muscles in her legs felt numb.
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  • The muscles in her legs were contracting painfully.
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  • She rested her hands on his chest, but they didn't stay, instead running over the muscles of his chest and around to his back.
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  • His long, sleek hair was tied in a tight braid, and despite the cold and wind he wore only a long-sleeved sweater that hugged the muscles of his arms and shoulders beneath a down vest.
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  • His shirt stretched tightly over his shoulders and across his back while his biceps flexed and the roped muscles of his forearms rippled with his tinkering.
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  • By the time she clawed her way over the edge, she was soaked with sweat and panting, her muscles burning from effort.
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  • The muscles in Howard's jaws worked with rage.
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  • His long, lean muscles bulged with the workout.
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  • His back was towards her, the expanse of golden skin stretched over bulging muscles startling her.
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  • Actually, her legs felt like stumps and her groin muscles were knotted with pain.
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  • Dusty's jaw clenched until he felt the muscles tick.
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  • There was a chill, but once Dean began warming his muscles he felt comfortable in this familiar posture.
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  • She had to eat, sleep, think, speak, weep, work, give vent to her anger, and so on, merely because she had a stomach, a brain, muscles, nerves, and a liver.
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  • His jaw muscles worked.
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  • He glanced at the whip and his jaw muscles worked.
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  • His jaw muscles worked as he spun on one heel and marched to the outside door, slamming it as he left.
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  • She was soon soaked by a light drizzle and stretched to keep her stiffening muscles warm.
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  • His jaw was clenched and ticking as the muscles jumped.
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  • She felt both awed and terrified watching his rippling, shapely muscles move beneath the olive skin.
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  • He relaxed and tested the muscles of his arm again, dissatisfied with being injured.
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  • His fingers were gently massaging the muscles on either side of her backbone - warm and relaxing.
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  • His fingers slipped under her shirt, warmly working at the muscles in her back.
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  • Indigo jeans outlined the long lean muscles in his thighs, and the sleeves of his western shirt were rolled up to reveal tanned muscular forearms.
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  • The muscles worked in his jaw and he glanced away.
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  • The thought of a hot bath made her muscles quake with anticipation.
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  • Of the muscles of the hind-limbs likewise only a few can be mentioned.
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  • Further, according to these muscles being inserted only upon the dorsal, or only upon the ventral, or on both ends of the semi-rings, we distinguish between an-, kat- and diacromyodi.
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  • If you like having sore muscles at the end of a day or working a job that requires little of your mental capacity so you can contemplate Nietzsche, hey, more power to you.
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  • Greasy food can weigh you down the next day's activities, but an eatery that serves light, delectable food will nourish tired muscles and bones.
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  • The bar boasts a selection of imported sake, shouchu, plum liqueur and beer sure to help comfort any achy muscles you might have from your active day.
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  • By the time she reached the top of the hill, the muscles in her legs were aching.
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  • Whilst the type of syrinx affords no help in classification, it is very different with its muscles.
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  • Every "line" of its build is designed and eminently adapted for rapid progression through the water; the muscles massed along the vertebral column are enormously developed, especially on the back and the sides of the tail, and impart to the body a certain rigidity which interferes with abruptly sideward motions of the fish.
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  • Mackerel, like all fishes of this family, have a firm flesh; that is, the muscles of the several segments are interlaced, and receive a greater supply of blood-vessels and nerves than in other fishes.
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  • Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.
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  • Mesonemertini, in which the nervous system has passed into the dermal muscles and lies amongst them; other characters as in Protonemertini.
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  • Metanemertini, in which the nervous system lies inside the dermal muscles in the parenchyma; the mouth lies in front of the level of the brain; the proboscis as a ru'e bears stylets; the intestine nearly always has a caecum.
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  • There is further a great tendency for the endothelial cells to form muscles, and this is especially pronounced in the small arm-sinus, where a conspicuous muscle is built up. The mantle-sinuses which form the chief spaces in the mantle are diverticula of the main coelomic cavity.
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  • The number and position of the muscles differ materially in the two great divisions into which the Brachiopoda have been grouped, and to some extent also in the different genera of which each division is composed.
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  • Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be regretted.
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  • Rostov was particularly struck by the beauty of a small, pure-bred, red- spotted bitch on Ilagin's leash, slender but with muscles like steel, a delicate muzzle, and prominent black eyes.
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  • Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
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  • The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.
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  • The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.
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  • It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.
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  • The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.
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  • Montgomery has also described certain spaces which may be coelomic lying between the alimentary canal and the inner longitudinal layer of muscles in the Heteronemertini.
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  • They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.
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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
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  • Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the complex retains the old name of "retinaculum."
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  • It is hunted by the blacks with trained dingoes; the flesh is much prized by the blacks, but the presence of a worm between the muscles and the skin renders it less inviting to Europeans.
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  • The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut.
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  • Fibrin, produced from fibrinogen by a ferment, is a jelly-like substance, coagulable by heat, alcohol, &c. The muscle-albumins include " myosin " or paramyosinogen, a globulin, which by coagulation induces rigor mortis, and the closely related " myosinogen " or myogen; myoglobulin and myoalbumin are also found in muscles.
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  • In the Trimerellidae, for example, some of the muscles are attached to a massive or vaulted platform situated in the medio-longitudinal region of the posterior half or umbonal portion of both valves.
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  • The peduncular muscles have been purposely omitted.
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  • Lip which overhangs the mouth heart, numerous muscles and runs all roundthelophophore.
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  • The function of this pair of muscles is the closing of the valves.
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  • Two other pairs have been termed divaricators by Hancock, or cardinal muscles (" muscles diducteurs " of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening of the valves.
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  • The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.
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  • Two pairs of muscles, apparently connected with the peduncle and its limited movements, have been minutely described by Hancock as having one of their extremities attached to this organ.
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  • The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.
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  • Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
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  • The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.
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  • Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an opposite position, or holding them adjusted.
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  • In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.
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  • Laterally, the sub-oesophageal ganglia give off (v.) nerves to the ventral mantle, and finally they supply (vi.) branches to the various muscles.
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  • The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.
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  • Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).
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  • In each somite of the mesosoma is a small, free entosternite having a similar position, but below or ventral to the nerve cords, and having a smaller number of muscles attached to it.
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  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.
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  • In Limulus small entosternites are found in each somite of the appendage-bearing mesosoma, and we find in Scorpio, in the only somite of the mesosoma which has a welldeveloped pair of appendages, that of the pectens, a small entosternite with ten pairs of muscles inserted into it.
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  • In any case it is clear that we have in these muscles an apparatus'for causing the blood to flow differentially in increased volume into either the pericardium, through the veins leading from the respiratory organs, or from the body generally into the great sinuses which bring the blood to the respiratory organs.
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  • These muscles act so as to pump the blood through the respiratory organs.
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  • The veno-pericardiac muscles of Scorpio were seen and figured by Newport but not described by him.
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  • There is some reason to admit the existence of another more anterior pair of these muscles in Scorpio; this would make the number exactly correspond with the number in Limulus.
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  • An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).
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  • Thus the brain falls off in bulk, and the muscles become attenuated, and in no muscle is this more notable than in the case of the heart.
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  • The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.
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  • Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive.
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  • In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.
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  • The muscles are arranged, jn ten or more layers, and are transversely striated.
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  • Some of the central cells remain in clumps as "germ-balls," others form a mesenchyma in which "flame-cells" arise; others again give rise to muscles; and at the thicker end of the body, rudiments of the brain and digestive system are observable.
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  • In cases of myopia or short-sight owing to weakness of the internal recti muscles, the eyes in looking at a near object, instead of converging, tend to turn outwards, and so double vision results.
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  • In the Gymnolaemata protrusion is effected by the contraction of the parietal muscles, which pass freely across the body-cavity from one part of the body-wall to another.
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  • The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.
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  • In Cheilostomata with a rigid frontal wall A, of Membranipora; B, of an Jullien showed that proimmature zooecium of Cribrilina trusion and retraction were p.m., Parietal muscles.
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  • The parietal muscles are usually reduced to.
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  • The avicularium can move as a whole by means of special muscles, and its chitinous lower jaw m- ect.
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  • The operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, while the occlusor muscles have become enormous.
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  • In its least differentiated form the avicularium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium ("vicarious avicularium"), from which it is distinguished by the greater development of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide is normally not functional.
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  • In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.
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  • But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.
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  • During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).
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  • As all these animals are killed by the poison of the snake before they are swallowed, and as their muscles are perfectly relaxed, their armature is harmless to the snake, which begins to swallow its prey from the head, and depresses the spines as deglutition proceeds.
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  • His knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology was necessarily defective, the respect in which the dead body was held by the Greeks precluding him from practising dissection; thus we find him writing of the tissues without distinguishing between the various textures of the body, confusing arteries, veins and nerves, and speaking vaguely of the muscles as " flesh."
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  • The swelling of the mountain of Venus is simply the indication of the size of the muscles of the ball of the thumb, and can be increased by their exercise.
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  • Similarly the hypothenar muscles for the little finger underlie the three ulnar marginal mountains, the sizes of which depend on their development and on the prominence of the pisiform bone.
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  • They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.
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  • But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
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  • In many lizards the muscles of the segments of the tail are so loosely connected and the vertebrae are so weak that the tail easily breaks off.
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  • A medusa has a layer of muscles, more or less strongly developed, running in a circular direction on the surface of the subumbrella, the contractions of which are antagonized by the elasticity of the gelatinous substance of the body.
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  • By the contraction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards.
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  • Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium.
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  • Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale); eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty.
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  • It is, in common with others, a hollow process into which run two pairs of broad, coarsely transversely striated muscles.
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  • It presents a single pair of muscles attached along its inner wall which run up and form a muscular girdle round the body in its posterior third.
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  • On either side is attached a dorsolateral and ventro-lateral appendage, each with a fan-like plumose termination consisting of compound hairs or setae, found elsewhere only among arthropods (q.v.); each of these is moved by muscles running upwards towards the neck and arising immediately under the trochal disk, the inferior ventro-lateral pair also presenting muscles which form a girdle in the hind region of the body.
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  • At the lowest level we have vague movements of large groups of muscles, as in "bier-divination," where the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized action are many kinds of witch seeking.
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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
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  • It is the approximate equality in the size of the anterior and posterior adductor muscles which led to the name Isomya for the group to which Anodonta belongs.
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  • The former classification based on these differences in the adductor muscles is now abandoned, having proved to be an unnatural one.
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  • The adductor muscles placed in the concavity of the shells act upon the long arms of the lever at a mechanical advantage; their contraction keeps the shells shut, and stretches the ligament or spring h.
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  • Modiolopsidae.-Extinct; Silurian to Cretaceous; adductor muscles sub-equal.
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  • The coccyx and the sacro-sciatic ligaments, together with the muscles attached to them, have been removed.
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  • The digastric muscles also are remarkable for their well-defined central tendon, and in many species their anterior bellies are united between the two halves of the lower jaw.
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  • Physostigmine, indeed, stimulates nearly all the non-striped muscles in the body, and this action upon the muscular coats of the arteries, and especially of the arterioles, causes a great rise in blood-pressure shortly after its absorption, which is very rapid.
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  • The muscles are striated and arranged in four quadrants, two dorso-lateral and two ventro-lateral, an arrangement which recalls that of the Nematoda, whilst in their histology they somewhat resemble the muscles of the Oligochaeta.
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  • The cerebral ganglion also gives off a nerve on each side to a pair of small ganglia, united by a median commissure, which have sunk into and control the muscles of the head.
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  • Small doses increase the sensibility of touch, sight and hearing; large doses cause twitching of the muscles and difficulty in swallowing; while in overdose violent convulsions are produced.
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  • The symptoms of strychnine poisoning usually appear within twenty minutes of the ingestion of a poisonous dose, starting with an uneasy sensation, stiffness at the back of the neck, twitching of the muscles and a feeling of impending suffocation.
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  • The patient is then seized with violent convulsions of a tetanic character; the arms are stretched out, respiration impeded, the muscles are rigid, the body is thrown into opisthotonos, i.e.
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  • After a minute the muscles relax, and the patient sinks back exhausted, consciousness being preserved throughout.
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  • If the case is about to terminate fatally the spasms rapidly succeed each other and death usually occurs within two hours, either from asphyxia produced by spasm of the respiratory muscles or more rarely from exhaustion.
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  • In strychnine poisoning trismus or lockjaw is generally secondary to spasm of the other muscles, while in tetanus it is usually the first symptom, no relaxation taking place between the spasms.
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  • Nitrite of amyl inhalations are useful in the early stages when the respiratory muscles are freely movable.
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  • Duchenne (Mecanisme de la physiognomie humaine, Paris, 1862) showed that by the use of electricity the action of the separate muscles could be studied and by the aid of photography accurately represented.
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  • It follows from these propositions that the expression of emotion is, for the most part, not under control of the will, and that those striped muscles are the most expressive which are the least voluntary.
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  • The tail is capable of free vertical motion, and controlled by strong muscles, so that, at least in the true toucans, when the bird is preparing to sleep it is reverted and lies almost flat on the back, on which also the huge bill reposes, pointing in the opposite direction.
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  • The jaws are short and strong, and the width of the zygomatic arches, and great development of the bony ridges on the skull, give ample space for the attachment of the powerful muscles by which they are closed.
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  • Two years later he first tried the effect of electro-puncture of the muscles on a patient under his care, and from this time on devoted himself more and more to the medical applications of electricity, thereby laying the foundation of the modern science of electro-therapeutics.
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  • All who have eaten it declare the flesh of the Tinamou to have a most delicate taste, as it has a most inviting appearance, the pectoral muscles being semi-opaque.
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  • Polygordius and Protodrilus live in sand, but while the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles, Protodrilus can progress by the action of the bands of cilia surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral groove.
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  • Within this is usually a sheath of connective tissue, which surrounds a layer of circular muscles; the latter may be split up into separate bundles, but more usually form a uniform sheet.
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  • Within the circular muscles is a layer of longitudinal muscles, very often broken into bundles, the number of which is often of specific importance.
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  • Oblique muscles sometimes lie between the circular and longitudinal sheaths.
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  • On the inner surface is a layer of peritoneal epithelium, which is frequently ciliated, and at the bases of the retractor muscles is heaped up and modified into the reproductive organs.
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  • The number of muscles varies from one (Onchnesoma and Tylosoma) to four, the latter being very common.
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  • There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.
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  • Sipunculoids are dioecious, and the ova and spermatozoa are formed from the modified cells lining the body-cavity, which are heaped up into a low ridge running along the line of origin of the retractor muscles.
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  • This, with Physcosoma, has its longitudinal muscles divided up into some 17-41 bundles.
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  • Here the anatomy has reached its limits for such work; the precision of the muscles on the inner and outer sides of the leg, of the uniform grip in the left arm, and the tense muscle upholding the right arm, prove that the artist knew that part of his work perfectly.
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  • Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.
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  • In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g.
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  • The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
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  • Striped muscles possessing an autochthonous tonus appear to be the various sphincter muscles.
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  • Another mode of manifestation of contractility by muscles is the rhythmic. A tendency to rhythmic contraction seems discoverable in almost all muscles.
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  • Rhythmic contraction is also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal muscles, e.g.
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  • Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.
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  • But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.
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  • But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.
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  • It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.
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  • Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous centre.
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  • A prominent and practically important illustration of neural tonus is given by the skeletal muscles.
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  • These muscles exhibit a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which disappears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle.
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  • Stretching of the muscles antagonistic to the extensors - namely, of the flexor muscles - reduces the jerk by inhibiting the extensor spinal nerve cells through the nervous impulses generated by the tense flexor muscles.
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  • Hence a favourable posture of the limb for eliciting the jerk is one ensuring relaxation of the hamstring muscles, as when the leg has been crossed upon the other.
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  • The turning of attention towards the knee interferes with the jerk; hence the device of directing the person to perform vigorously some movement, which does not involve the muscles of the lower limb, at the moment when the light blow is dealt upon the tendon.
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  • The direction of attention to the performance of some movement by the arm ensures that looseness and freedom from tension in the thigh muscles which is essential for the provocation of the jerk.
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  • The motor cells of the extensor muscles, when preoccupied by cerebral influence, appear refractory.
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  • It will be noted from it that there is no direct relation between the extent of a cortical area and the mass of muscles which it controls.
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  • The mass of muscles in the trunk is greater than in the leg, and in the leg is greater than in the arm, and in the arm is many times greater than in the face and head; yet for the last the cortical area is the most extensive of all, and for the first-named is the least extensive of all.
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  • Ferrier's investigations showed, motor reactions of the facial and sensori- limb muscles are regularly and easily evoked.
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  • Patients in whom, for purposes of diagnosis, it has been electrically excited, describe, as the initial effect of the stimulation, tingling and obscure but locally-limited sensations, referred to the part whose muscles a moment later are thrown into co-ordinate activity.
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  • Not that there is paralysis of the muscles of speech, since these muscles can be used perfectly for all acts other than speech.
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  • One aspect of this derangement, named by Luciani astasia, is a tremor heightened by or only appearing when the muscles enter upon action - "intention tremor."
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  • Those that go to the voluntary muscles are depressed only by very large and dangerous doses.
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  • But moderate doses of atropine markedly paralyse the terminals of the nerves that go to involuntary muscles, whether the action of those nerves be motor or inhibitory.
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  • These are paralysed by atropine, and intestinal peristalsis is consequently made more active, the muscles being released from nervous control.
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  • The drug affects only the involuntary muscles of the eye, just as it affects only the involuntary or non-striated portion of the oesophagus.
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  • The animals thus associated, the Rotifera, Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, are composed of a larger or smaller number of hollow rings, each ring possessing typically a pair of hollow lateral appendages, moved by intrinsic muscles and penetrated by blood-spaces.
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  • His attributes are the trident and the dolphin (sometimes the tunny fish.) As represented in art Poseidon resembles Zeus, but possesses less of his majestic calm, his muscles are more emphasized, and his hair is thicker and somewhat dishevelled.
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  • By the aid of this the larva makes its way into the soft body of some insect larva, Ephemerids, Chironomids, or even of Molluscs, and encysts in the muscles or fat body.
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  • The articulation of the mandible to the quadrate-bone is such as to allow of a very considerable amount of lateral play, and, by a particular arrangement of the muscles which move the former, it comes to pass that so soon as the bird opens its mouth the point of the mandible is brought immediately opposite to that of the maxilla (which itself is movable vertically), instead of crossing or overlapping it - the usual position when the mouth is closed.
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  • These myotomes enable it to swim rapidly with characteristic serpentine undulations of the body, the movements being effected by the alternate contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal muscles on both sides.
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  • In most Collembola the spring appears to belong to the fifth abdominal somite, but Willem, by study of the muscles, has shown that it really belongs to the fourth.
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  • From considering the nature of diabetes, he had come to the conclusion that many cases were due to imperfect oxidation of sugar in the body; that this oxidation was normally carried out by a ferment in the muscles, and that probably the disease was in some cases dependent upon absence of the ferment.
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  • It is probable that the pancreas in its turn also secretes something which activates a ferment in the muscles.
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  • Ascending mountains, however, is very different, because in walking up a steep ascent all the muscles of the body are thrown into action, and not only those of the legs.
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  • Thus there may be hyperaesthesia, anaesthesia, paralysis, or alterations of nutrition, such as wasting of muscles, whitening of the hair, &c.
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  • Their ectodermal muscles are mainly longitudinal, their endodermal muscles are circularly arranged on the body-wall.
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  • Another very curious property of this bird, which was observed by Jacquin, who brought it to the notice of Linnaeus, 2 is its emphysematous condition - there being a layer of air-cells between the skin and the muscles, so that on any part of the body being pressed a crackling sound is heard.
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  • The fresh-water Mussels, Anodonta cygnea, Unio pictorum, and Unio margaritiferus belong to the order Eulamellibranchia of Lamellibranch Molluscs, in which the anterior and posterior adductor muscles are equally developed.
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  • The circular muscles usually form two chief portions, a peripheral wreath-muscle (Kranzmuskel), subdivided into four, eight or sixteen areas, and an oral ring-muscle round the mouth.
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  • Endodermal muscles are found in the phacellae, and in such forms as Lucernaria, longitudinal (vertical) muscular tracts or bands are found in the taeniolae, which, according to some authorities, are xxiv.
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  • Each taeniola bears a strongly developed longitudinal muscle-band, stated by Claus and Chun to be developed from the endoderm, like the retractor muscles of the anthopolyp, but by other investigators it is affirmed that each retractor muscle of the scyphistoma arises from the lining of a funnel-shaped ectodermal ingrowth (" Septaltrichter ") growing down from the peristome inside each taeniola, in a manner similar to the infundibular cavities of Lucernaria, which in their turn are homologous with the sub f genital cavities of Scypho l A .` medusae.
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  • By their contraction the muscles of the taeniolae drag the hypostome down and so produce the appearances which have been interpreted as a stomodaeal invagination.
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  • In a few Entomostraca (some Phyllopoda and Ostracoda) the chitinous lining of the fore-gut develops spines and hairs which help to triturate and strain the food, and among the Ostracods there is occasionally (Bairdia) a more elaborate armature of toothed plates moved by muscles.
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  • These teeth are connected with a framework of movably articulated ossicles developed as thickened and calcified portions of the lining cuticle of the stomach and moved by special muscles in such a way as to bring the three teeth together in the middle line.
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  • In the region of the oesophagus these muscles are more strongly developed to perform the movements of deglutition, and, where a gastric mill is present, both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles co-operate in 3a producing the movements of its 36 various parts.
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  • The whole organ can be rotated by special muscles.
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  • Two retractor muscles pass back from the base of the foot to the dorsal side of the shell.
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  • The dorsoventral and the parapodial muscles are much developed, whilst the coelom is reduced mostly to branched spaces in which the genital products ripen, Full-grown myzostomids are hermaphrodite.
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  • The twisting referred to is partly a vital and partly a mechanical act; - that is, it is occasioned in part by the action of the muscles and in part by the greater resistance experienced from the air by the tip and posterior margin of the wing as compared with the root and anterior margin, - the resistance experienced by the tip and posterior margin causing them to reverse always subsequently to the root and anterior margin, which has the effect of throwing the anterior and posterior margins of the wing into figure-of-8 curves, as shown at figs.
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  • He believes that if the wing be suddenly lowered by the depressor muscles, it is elevated solely by the reaction of the air.
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  • The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to bones and muscles with that of man, but is clumsier and heavier; its thumb is " opposable " like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet with its extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus possessing a character which does much to make the human hand so admirable an instrument; but the gorilla's thumb is proportionately shorter than man's.
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  • Such are the similar effects of terror on man and the lower animals, causing the muscles to tremble, the heart to palpitate, the sphincters to be relaxed, and the hair to stand on end.
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  • The mesenteries are provided with well-developed longitudinal retractor muscles, supported on longitudinal folds or plaits of the mesogloea, so that in cross-section they have a branched appearance.
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  • The mesenteries are numerous, and the longitudinal muscles, though distinguishable, are so feebly developed that there are no musclebanners.
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  • Given internally it stimulates the intestinal muscles and may cause diarrhoea.
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  • With weakness of the voluntary muscles went intermittent spasms which weakened the patient and ultimately led to death by implication of the respiratory muscles.
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  • This work, apart from its value to artists and psychologists, is of interest historically, as there is no doubt the investigations of the author into the nervous supply of the muscles of expression induced him to prosecute inquiries which led to his great discoveries in the physiology of the nervous system.
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  • He discovered that in the nervous trunks there are special sensory filaments, the office of which is to transmit impressions from the periphery of the body to the sensorium, and special motor filaments which convey motor impressions from the brain or other nerve centre to the muscles.
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  • Some of these cells produced muscles and connective tissue; others absorbed and removed waste products, iron salts, calcium carbonate and the like, and so were ready to be utilized for the deposition of pigment or of skeletal substance.
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  • It is the existence in each ring of the body of a pair of hollow lateral appendages or parapodia, moved by intrinsic muscles and penetrated by bloodspaces, which is the leading fact indicating the affinities of these great sub-phyla, and uniting them as blood-relations.
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  • This implies a very much higher development of nerves and muscles in the latter.
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  • Later the affected muscles become exquisitely tender, and then atrophy, while the knee-jerk or other reflex is lost.
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  • The muscles of the limbs are modified from those of the ordinary mammalian type in accordance with the reduced condition of the bones and the simple requirements of flexion and extension of the joints, no such actions as pronation and supination, or opposition of digits, being possible or needed.
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  • The muscles therefore which perform these functions in other quadrupeds are absent or rudimentary.
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  • Behind or superficial to this are placed the two strong tendons of the flexor muscles, the most superficial, or flexor perforatus (8) dividing to allow the other to pass through, and then inserted into the middle phalanx.
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  • In the fore-leg these muscles correspond with those similarly named in man.
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  • The nostrils are placed laterally, near the termination of the muzzle, and are large and dilatable, being bordered by cartilages upon which several muscles act.
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  • The muscular fibres of the jaws are transversely striated, the other muscles are unstriated.
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  • In common with the other monotremes, the male echidna has its heel provided with a sharp hollow spur, connected with a secreting gland, and with muscles capable of pressing the secretion from the gland into the spur.
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  • Not only are the general symptoms investigated, but it is necessary to carry out experiments'on the nerves, muscles, circulation, secretions, &c., so as to get a more exact knowledge of the reasons of the general action.
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  • The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.
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  • At the same time the non-striped muscles slightly lose their tonicity, and when very large doses are given the haemoglobin of the blood becomes converted into the chocolate-coloured methaemoglobin.
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  • Physostigmine, the active principle of the Calabar bean, acts chiefly as a stimulant to voluntary and involuntary muscles, and at the same time exercises a depressing effect upon the spinal cord.
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  • Strange, but she didn't remember doing anything in the accident that required enough exertion to strain muscles.
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  • She stretched out on the rock, its warmth penetrating her shirt and further relaxing her muscles.
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  • She didn't relax until her plane was in the air, and only then was she able to loosen the muscles in her neck when she sat pressed against the window to prevent her elbow from touching the man beside her.
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  • Her eyes traveled over the image of him training others, his whip-like upper body bare to reveal the roped muscles of his shoulders and chest, the tucked waist and flat abs.
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  • His muscles didn't bulge like a body builder.
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  • It was flexible and moved with her when she tested it by flexing or releasing her forearm muscles.
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  • His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain.  He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.
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  • If stiff muscles didn't let them down, the group would pedal into Durango, Colorado, with one leg of the tour behind them.
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  • The tall Guardian was built like a model with the long, lean muscles of a ballerina.
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  • He loved war, the all consuming sensations of battle from the metallic scent of weapons and blood to the burn of his muscles as he fought beyond his normal capabilities.
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  • Her breathing was labored, her chest burning and muscles shaking from the demon's abuse of her body.
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  • The muscles in her legs complained as she squatted behind the log, peering over the rotting bark.
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  • She watched him, mouth agape at the muscles outlined in his back and the tight ass.
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  • Jessi's head nodded forward as he ran his thumbs along the sides of her neck to loosen the muscles.
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  • Both vascular and airway smooth muscles relax in response to beta adrenergic agonists via cyclic AMP.
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  • They quickly relax the muscles surrounding the narrowed airways.
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  • Relaxing in warm water and being gently massaged relieves anxiety and relaxes tense and aching muscles.
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  • Even then I knew muscles had to be involved, but how could they be present in such extremely long, hairlike appendages?
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  • If the spasms spread to the back muscles, the spine may become strongly arched backward.
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  • For many centuries, South Americans had killed their victims with poison arrows that paralyzed muscles.
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  • Squeeze the left thigh muscles to force blood from branches of the iliac artery up the main vessel.
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  • The motor nerve cell body has a long fiber called an axon, which extends from the central nervous system to the muscles.
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  • The adjustable backrest allows training without tiring the muscles of the back.
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  • The most common mistake with the high pull is the over use of the upper body muscles to lift the barbell.
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  • This can lead to irregular beats of the heart and weakness of some groups of muscles.
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  • The skin contains a network of small blood vessels with tiny muscles in their walls.
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  • I had big muscles and I chose to wear long-sleeved blouses to hide those muscles.
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  • Holistic therapeutic bodywork for muscles, back pain, tension, healing and wellbeing.
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  • The valves of inarticulate brachiopods are held together by muscles without a hinge.
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  • He had very small teeth and was a mouth breather due to inefficient face muscles and poor tongue posture.
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  • The growth patterns of certain muscles in the beef carcass also may show an abrupt change in growth rate at birth.
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  • Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles ).
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  • Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged or spontaneous bleeding, especially into the muscles, joints, or internal organs.
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  • Start by getting an adult with good muscles to bend the wire coat hangers into the right shape.
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  • You're not supposed to spend hours using single muscles moving strange metal contraptions in time to bad house music.
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  • The muscles and associated tissues in this region had been destroyed and there were very extensive subcutaneous contusions.
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  • Powerful magnets aimed at the motor cortex have been shown to induce muscles to twitch.
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  • Have you ever suffered cramp in your muscles during exercise?
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  • Gluteal muscles are also strengthened by half squats and hamstring curls.
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  • It fits snugly into your lumbar curve, relieving strain on the lower back muscles.
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  • As we become progressively deformed - even in only tiny ways - different muscles learn to compensate.
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  • This pattern of the motorneuron dendrites is a neural map, which represents centrally the distribution of body wall muscles in the periphery.
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  • Muscles developed arm depressors, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and teres major.
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  • My son is 4 and has spastic diplegia and the muscles in his legs fire off whenever he tries to do anything- even sing!
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  • It is near impossible to take divots and the course therefore can be tough on muscles, joints and bones.
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  • Selection of the Trigger Point box brings up anatomical drawings showing the TP and pattern of pain radiation for a range of muscles.
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  • Patient trembles has aching muscles and heaviness especially of the head and eyes - even the eyelids droop.
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  • Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing may cause dysphagia.
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  • The mdx mouse is supposed to represent muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate with no treatment.
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  • The objective of the exercise program for Class I muscles or limbs is to increase muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance.
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  • Neural impulses do not travel at the same speed, muscles are not equidistant from the brain, and much more.
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  • A possible etiology is an imbalance in muscle strength of the small muscles of the foot.
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  • For example, an athlete recovering from tennis elbow will need to strengthen the wrist extensor muscles to prevent the injury recurring.
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  • Tennis Elbow Tennis Elbow is pain in the region where the forearm extensor muscles fasten to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
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  • Indian Head Massage relaxes the scalp and tones up the subcutaneous muscles relieving eyestrain, headaches and improving concentration.
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  • Keeping fit and healthy is not simply about losing weight, building muscles or becoming a fitness fanatic.
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  • Like all muscles, the tensor fascia lata has a band of connective tissue at each end which bind it to bone.
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  • The superior and inferior longitudinal muscles each had an average of 40 distinct muscle fascicles, each supplied by a nerve branch.
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  • Severe and debilitating fatigue, painful muscles and joints, disordered sleep, gastric disturbances, poor memory and concentration are commonplace.
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  • However, the vertebral column also allows for flexion, extension, rotation and lateral flexion with the help of several muscles.
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  • Poor flexibility in the hip flexor muscles may lead to an anterior pelvic tilt, where the pelvis is tilted down to the front.
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  • Golfers Elbow Golfers Elbow is pain in the region where the forearm flexor and pronator muscles fasten to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.
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  • Similarly, polymyalgia rheumatica in the elderly frequently presents with stiffness and pain in limb girdle muscles.
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  • Short, tight hamstring muscles can spell disaster for many sports people.
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  • Young, dashingly handsome, and with enough pectoral muscles to get the audience screaming in lust whenever his shirt is removed.
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  • Intention is a powerful force; it begins to activate the nervous system and triggers nerve impulses into muscles.
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  • The electrical impulses form the " machine code routines " which drive his muscles.
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  • The nerve impulses cause the muscles to contract, thus narrowing the airway.
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  • This might make movements jerky, or muscles stiff.
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  • Any imbalance in the muscles of the thigh can pull the kneecap out of position.
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  • Why did black athletes ' muscles produce less lactate?
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  • There is a point at which the working muscles are producing lactic acid at a faster rate than the body can remove it.
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  • Alcohol also relaxes the muscles in the back of your mouth, increasing the likelihood of snoring.
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  • She can see the man 's muscles even in the poor lighting of the plane.
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  • You see to some a man must look like a Rugby Player or WWE Wrestler with huge muscles to be really manly.
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  • If a person has a preponderance of fast-twitch muscles there is no chance of him or her becoming a world-class marathoner.
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  • They are blocked by an injection of local anesthetic between internal and external oblique muscles just medial to the anterior superior iliac spine.
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  • The process by which muscles obtain energy from glucose in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic metabolism.
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  • A slight misalignment of the two images in each eye produces a visual disparity that the muscles try to correct.
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  • These so called spinal motoneurons project long protrusions that contact all skeletal muscles.
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  • I was feeling very tired again in training, with heavy, aching muscles.
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  • Breathe in deeply by allowing your abdominal muscles to expand outwards.
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  • The permanent muscle tone present in many facial muscles make the creases look like deep furrows.
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  • Another cause is a weakness in the quadriceps muscles alone.
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  • For measuring explosive power & efficiency in the lower limb extensor muscles.
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  • And I love muscles, but I donít like the guy to be too muscle-bound.
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  • Do you have myasthenia gravis (when some or all of your muscles are affected by weakness, or they tire easily )?
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  • Brief jerking movements of the muscles (called myoclonus) occur in most cases.
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  • In severe cases, when the muscles of the heart are affected, inflammatory myositis can even be fatal.
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  • No. orthotics simply allow the muscles, tendons and bones of the feet and lower legs to function at their highest potential.
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  • Unfortunately, the muscles finally succumb to the strain of chronic overuse.
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  • For the symptomatic strong, the extent of muscle overuse ranged from two to three muscles.
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  • The first session saw the squad pound out the miles and burn their thigh muscles on the excruciatingly painful sand dunes.
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  • Symptoms of nerve root pressure paralysis of single muscles, possibly with pain radiating to the arms or legs.
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  • The tendons join the muscles of the upper and lower leg and hold the patella (kneecap) in place.
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  • By using the knees to stabilize the pelvis, muscles are relieved of their isometric tasks.
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  • The food is moved along the small intestine by rhythmic movement of muscles called peristalsis.
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  • They develop the physique evenly unlike some sports which require specialized use of certain muscles or muscle groups.
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  • She wonders if she has a plica, aggravated by a tight iliotibial band and muscles.
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  • With the training style I use I can't push really heavy poundages due to the load that is applied directly on my muscles.
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  • After some banter with Mr McNulty the final three had to flex their muscles by doing more press-ups.
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  • During pregnancy, the body produces more progesterone, which relaxes the muscles to allow the baby to grow.
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  • It also has the effect of improving joint proprioception (i.e. feedback to the muscles from the nerve endings in the joint ).
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  • It typically starts suddenly with fever, chills, headache, aching muscles, general prostration and a cough or other respiratory symptoms.
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  • A little pucker uses just two muscles around the lips.
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  • As your muscles get stronger, the contraction can be held for longer and more pull-ups achieved.
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  • This exercise works a whole range of muscles including quadriceps, hamstrings, abdominals and lower back.
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  • In 1978 I suffered a prolapsed rectum - were my muscles that weak?
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  • Also, during pregnancy the hormone relaxin softens the muscles of the pelvic floor ready for the birth.
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  • If you contract your muscles, your body may stay rigid in places and not join the wave.
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