Every muscle in her body was sore.
A deeper ache, as if she had the flu and every muscle in her body was on fire, was made worse by sleeping on the cold floor.
We'll want as much muscle as we can get, if the worst happens, Rhyn said quietly.
And that was all muscle from doing things you should have left for me.
His bare back had lost muscle tone while he was in the hospital, but he wasn't as thin as she had first thought.
She was looking him over, noting that he had gained back the weight and muscle tone, and that he looked delightful again.
She'd run her hands over his perfect body, marveling at the smooth skin stretched over solid muscle.
His fangs sank into her neck, and she jerked, feeling her skin and muscle tear.
Her body strained under muscle fatigue as the form became increasingly complex and slower.
Every muscle in his chest and abdomen displayed definition beyond normal.
She was entirely feminine, yet each muscle was defined, sinewy.
His fingers were working up her back, relaxing every muscle.
Every muscle in her body tensed.
He was one large muscle with a direct gaze that made her overly self-conscious.
Every muscle in her body was aching.
He took a hot shower to soothe the muscle aches and stood in the hot water, letting it run over him.
His was a body that had been honed until all that stood between muscle and air was a thin coat of skin.
Bronzed skin contrasted in an attractive way with the white muscle shirt.
It was hard to keep her eyes from drifting downward, to the body that was nothing but muscle under taut bronze skin.
With large, brown eyes and dark hair, she was toned and tall, a model's body with an extra layer of muscle.
The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.
Whether a pouch is present or not, the young are born in an exceedingly imperfect state of development, after a very short period of gestation, and are immediately transferred by the female parent to the teats, where they remain firmly attached for a considerable time; the milk being injected into their mouths at intervals by means of a special muscle which compresses the glands.
The body-cavity is largely occupied by processes from the large muscle cells of the skin.
d, Muscle of spine.
This regulation of turgor is as characteristic of vegetable protoplasm as contraction is of muscle.
The os articulare bears on its inner side the inner mandibular process which serves for the insertion of part of the digastric muscle or opener of the mouth; another portion of this muscle is attached to the os angulare, which frequently forms a FIG.
Supra-angular and coronoid splint-bones serve for the insertion of part of the temporal or masseter muscle.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
- Scapula, coracoid and clavicle, meet to form the foramen triosseum, through which passes the tendon of the supracoracoideus, or subclavius muscle to the tuberculum superius of the humerus.
When the wing is folded the long glenoid surface of the head of the humerus is bordered above by the tuberculum externum or superius, in the middle and below by the tuberculum medium or inferius for the insertion of the coraco-brachialis posterior muscle.
There is a patella, intercalated in the tendon of the femori-tibialis or extensor cruris muscle.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
This great muscle covers completely the supracoracoideus, generally described as the second pectoral, or subclavius muscle, in reality homologous with the mammalian supraspinatus muscle.
The extent of the origin of this muscle from the sternum, on which it leaves converging, parallel or diverging impressions, is of some taxonomic value.
The propatagialis longus muscle is composed of slips from the deltoid, pectoral, biceps and cucullaris muscles.
Its elastic tendon runs directly to the carpus, forming thereby the outer margin of the anterior patagium, or fold of skin between the upper and forearm, which it serves to extend, together with the propatagialis brevis muscle.
The posterior patagium, the fold between trunk and inner surface of the upper arm, is stretched by the metapatagialis muscle, which is composed of slips from the serratus, superficialis, latissimus dorsi and the expansor secundariorum muscles.
This, the stretcher of the cubital quills, is a very interesting muscle.
We have here the interesting fact that a muscle (portion of the triceps humeri of the reptiles) has been reduced to a tendon, which in a secondary way has become connected with cutaneous muscles, which, when strongly developed, represent its belly.
The flexor digitorum sublimis muscle arises fleshy from the long elastic band which extends from the inner humeral condyle along the ventral surface of the ulna to the ulnar carpal bone, over which the tendon runs to insert itself on the radial anterior side of the first phalanx of the second digit.
The ambiens muscle, long and spindle-shaped, lying immediately beneath the skin, extending from the pectineal process or ilio-pubic spine to the knee, is the most median of the muscles of the thigh.
One of the functions of this peculiar muscle (which is similarly developed in crocodiles, but absent, or not differentiated from the ilio-tibial and ilio-femoral mass, in other vertebrates) is that its contraction helps to close the second and third toes.
Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.
all the Passeres, which do not possess this muscle at all, whilst many of those which have it fully developed, e.g.
Garrod went so far as to divide all the birds into Homalogonatae and Anomalogonatae, according to the presence or absence of the ambiens muscle.
To appreciate this, it is sufficient to enumerate the birds without the critical muscle: Passeriformes and Coraciiformes, without exception; Ardeae and Podiceps; lastly various genera of storks, pigeons, parrots, petrels and auks.
The absence of the ambiens muscle in all owls, which apparently use their feet in the same way as the Accipitres (all of which possess it), indicates that owls are not developed from the latter, but from a group which, like the other Coraciiformes, had already lost their muscle.
Of course this doubleheaded condition is the more primitive, and as such exists in most nidifugous birds, but in many of these, as well as in many nidicolous birds, either the caudal or the iliac head is absent, and in a very few (Cancroma, Dicholophus, Steatornis and some Cathartes) the whole muscle is absent.
The iris contains a sphincter and a dilator muscle; the former, supplied by branches from the oculomotorius nerve, is under control of the will, whilst the dilator fibres belong to the sympathetic system.
Both are supplied by the abducens nerve, together with the rectus externus muscle.
One, the quadratus or bursalis muscle, arises from the hinder surface of the eyeball, and forms with its narrow margin, which is directed towards the optic nerve, a pulley for the long tendon of the pyramidalis muscle.
The quadrate muscle adjusts the motion, and prevents pressure upon the optic nerve; during the state of relaxation of both muscles the nictitans withdraws through its own elasticity.
Tendon of the flexor hallucis longus muscle sending a strong vinculum to that of the flexor profundus muscle, the tendon of which goes to the third toe only.
Below this is a circular, and below that again a longitudinal, layer of muscle fibres.
This is the typical arrangement, which is exhibited in the majority of the Polychaeta and Oligochaeta; in these the successive chambers of the coelom are separated by the intersegmental septa, sheets of muscle fibres extending from the body wall to the gut and thus forming partitions across the body.
In the latter case, the numerous bands of muscle attaching the pharynx to the parietes have obliterated the regular partition by means of septa.
mc, Circular muscle.
ml, Longitudinal muscle.
cl, Muscle cells of lateral line.
Muscle scar divided into numerous impressions.
mc, Columella muscle (muscular process grasping the shell).
20, will serve to exhibit the disposition of viscera which prevails in the group. The branchial chamber formed by the mantle-skirt overhanging the head has been exposed by cutting along a line extending backward from the letters vd to the base of the columella muscle mc, and the whole roof of the chamber thus detached from the right side of the animal's neck has been thrown over to the left, showing the organs which lie upon the roof.
This columella muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in Patella, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.
Retractor muscle of foot.
on muscular anatomy, making the two major divisions of Aves (his Homalogonatae and Anomalogonatae, depend in the first instance on the presence or absence of a peculiar muscular slip in the leg, known as the ambiens, although indeed he expressly stated that this was not on account of the intrinsic importance of the muscle in question, but because of its invariable association with other peculiarities.
Inside the syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle fibres, and within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.
f, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (= occlusors, Hancock); c, divaricator (=cardinal muscles, King, = muscles diducteurs principaux, Gratiolet); c', accessory divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, Gratiolet); b, ventral adjustor (=ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire superieure, Gratiolet); b', peduncular muscle.
22) is hollow, and it contains a diverticulum "' s from the coelom, a branch of the vascular system, a nerve and some muscle fibres.
Occlusor muscle - its double origin (i.) is derived from the is shown.
Dorsal adjustor muscle.
Others of the endothelial cells show a great tendency to form muscle fibres.
There is further a great tendency for the endothelial cells to form muscles, and this is especially pronounced in the small arm-sinus, where a conspicuous muscle is built up. The mantle-sinuses which form the chief spaces in the mantle are diverticula of the main coelomic cavity.
External tentacular muscle.
Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be regretted.
King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and individualizes their respective functions as follows: - Three pairs are lateral, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one pair are transmedians, each member passing across the middle of the reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal cavity.
Anterior occlusor muscle.
Posterior occlusor muscle.
Obliquus superior muscle.
Levator brachii muscle.
dpm, Dorso-plastral muscle.
tsm l, Tergo-sternal muscle (labelled dv in fig.
tsm 4, Tergo-sternal muscle of the fifth mesosomatic somite.
tsm s, Tergo-sternal muscle of the enlarged first metasomatic somite.
ad, Muscle from carapace to entosternum.
md, Muscle from tergite of genital somite to entosternum (same as dpm in fig.
dam, Muscle from carapace to a praeoral entosclerite.
Muscle and white fibrous tissue follow next in order, while elastic tissue and bone are the last to show signs of disintegration.
The muscles suffer at an early period: they fall off in bulk, and later suffer from fatty degeneration, the heart being probably the first muscle to give way.
In the case of muscle, if the available nourishment be sufficient, and if the power of assimilation of the muscle cells remain unimpaired, its bulk increases, that is to say, it becomes hypertrophied.
Increased work thrown on to a tissue may produce hypertrophy, but, if this excessive function be kept up, atrophy will follow; even the blacksmith's arm breaks down owing to the hypertrophic muscle fibres becoming markedly atrophied.
Thus the brain falls off in bulk, and the muscles become attenuated, and in no muscle is this more notable than in the case of the heart.
A tendency to pigmentation also develops in certain tissues of the body, such as the nerve and muscle cells.
- Muscle fibre greatly increased in size, from hypertrophied heart.
- Muscle fibres from atrophied heart.
Many of the muscle fibres show numerous droplets of oil seen as dark round granules.
- Healing abscess showing a wall of young cellular and vascular granulation tissue, which separates the pus area (top of Fig.) from the muscle fibres seen at lower part of Fig.
- Chronic interstitial myocarditis, showing the muscle fibres in the heart wall being separated and becoming atrophied by a slow fibrous overgrowth of the connective tissue.
The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.
It may follow a diminished functional activity, as in the atrophying thymus gland' and in the muscle cells of the uterus after parturition.
Note that the malignant cells are invading and destroying the muscle fibres of the heart.
The change appears to begin in the fibrils which lie between the circular muscle fibres of the middle coat of the smaller arterioles and extends both backwards and forwards along the vessels.
Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.
The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.
Cysticercus cellulosae may be comparatively innocuous in a muscle or subcutaneous tissue, but most hurtful in the eye or brain.
In the Entoprocta the tentacles are withdrawn by being infolded into the "vestibule," a depression of the oral surface which can be closed by a sphincter muscle.
mr, Retractor muscle.
In the branching Ctenostomes the entire body-wall is flexible, so that the contraction of a parietal muscle acts equally on the two points with which it is connected.
III., 1st maxilla; a, base; b, sheath; c, stylet; c', muscle.
In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
The folds, therefore, which are disposed for the purpose of making the grasp secure, vary with the relative lengths of the metacarpal bones, with the mutual relations of the sheaths of the tendons, and the edge of the palmar fascia, somewhat also with the insertion of the palmaris brevis muscle.
After beginning the study of chemistry in his father's shop he came to Paris and gained the appointment of apothecary in chief to the Salpetriere, also lecturing on chemistry at the muscle of the aeronaut J.
The bivalved carapace has a jointed rostrum, and covers only the front part of the body, to which it is only attached quite in front, the valve-like sides being under control of an adductor muscle.
M, End of adductor muscle.
Motor Automatism, on the other hand, is a non-reflex movement of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness.
formica), in stinging nettles, in some mineral waters, in animal secretions and in muscle.
h, Anterior (pallial) adductor muscle of the shells.
Anterior retractor muscle of the foot.
k, Protractor muscle of the foot.
1, Posterior (pedal) adductor muscle of the shells.
m, Posterior retractor muscle of the foot.
i [i]) is called the umbonal area; the great anterior muscular surface h is that of the anterior adductor muscle, the posterior similar surface i is that of the posterior adductor muscle; the long line of attachment u is the simple " pallial muscle," - a thickened ridge which is seen to run parallel to the margin of the mantle-skirt in this Lamellibranch.
The hinder adductor muscle is always large in Lamellibranchs, but the anterior adductor may be very small (Heteromya), or absent altogether (Monomya).
- Viewof the two muscle is in front of the mouth and .
The single adductor muscle of the Monomya is separated by a difference of fibre into two portions, but neither of these can be regarded as possibly representing the anterior adductor of the other Lamellibranchs.
- Diagram of a section of a Lamellibranch's shells, ligament and adductor muscle.
a, b, right and left valves of the shell; c, d, the umbones or short arms of the lever; e, f, the long arms of the lever; g, the hinge; h, the ligament; i, the adductor muscle.
g, Anterior adductor muscle.
a,a, Anterior adductor muscle.
p.a, Posterior adductor muscle.
Anterior adductor muscle.
Posterior adductor muscle.
Each nephridium in the oyster is a pyriform sac, which communicates by a narrow canal with the urino-genital groove placed to the front of the great adductor muscle; by a second narrow canal it communicates with the pericardium.
ad, Adductor muscle.
This byssus is not homologous with that of other Lamellibranchs, but originates from a single glandular epithelial cell embedded in the tissues on the dorsal anterior side of the adductor muscle.
It remains in this condition for a period of two to six weeks, and during this time the permanent organs are developed from the cells of two symmetrical cavities behind the adductor muscle.
The Pseudolamellibranchia included the oyster, scallop and their allies which formerly constituted the order Monomyaria, having only a single large adductor muscle or in addition a very small anterior adductor.
Megalodontidae.-Shell 1a, tr, Upper and lower inequilateral, thick; posterior siphons adductor impression on a myo ms, Siphonal muscle of the phorous apophysis.
mantle-flap. Megalodon; Devonian to Jur ma, Anterior adductor assic. Pachyrisma; Trias and muscle.
mp, Posterior Dicerocardium; Jurassic. muscle.
The navigable mileage of the Alabama rivers is 2000 m., but obstructions often prevent the formation of a continuous route, notably the "Muscle Shoals" of the Tennessee, extending from a point io m.
The round ligament is a cord of unstriped muscle which runs from the lateral angle of its own side of the uterus forward to the internal abdominal ring, and so through the inguinal canal to the upper part of the labium majus.
The convolutions are held together by the pelvic cellular tissue, and by involuntary muscle continuous with that of the bladder.
Microscopically the prostate consists of masses of long, slender, slightly branching glands, embedded in unstriped muscle and fibrous tissue; these glands open by delicate ducts (about twenty in number) into the prostatic urethra, which will be.
In the anterior part of the gland are seen bundles of striped muscle fibres, which are of interest when the comparative ana Ampulla of vas deferens tomy of the gland Cut end of great sacrois studied: they are 1 sciatic ligament Common ejaculatory duct Levator ani than in old prostates.
- Transverse Section of a young Prostate, showing wavy striped muscle in front, urethra in the middle, and the two ejaculatory ducts behind.
This is known as the membranous urethra, and is very narrow, being gripped by the compressor urethrae muscle.
The lachrymal forj amen is always within the orbital margin; and in many species the infra-orbital foramen is very large (in some as large as the orbit) and transmits part of the masseter muscle.
- Skull of Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), with muscle attached.
t, temporal muscle; m, masseter; m', portion of masseter transmitted through the infra-orbital foramen, the superior maxillary nerve passing outwards between it and the maxilla.
' The skin is generally thin, and the panniculus carnosus muscle rarely much developed.
muscle does not pass through the narrow infra-orbital canal.
The masseter muscle does not pass through the narrow infra-orbital canal, and the temporal muscle is large.
zygomatic arch, the middle portion of which is formed by the more or less straight and horizontal jugal, and the large infra-orbital canal, traversed by a portion of the masseter muscle.
It is also necessary, he inferred, for all muscular movements, and he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other combustible (salino-sulphureous) particles in the body; hence the heart, being a muscle, ceases to beat when respiration is stopped.
Animal heat also is due to the union of nitro-aerial particles, breathed in from the air, with the combustible particles in the blood, and is further formed by the combination of these two sets of particles in muscle during violent exertion.
A similar stimulation of the non-striped muscle in the alimentary canal results in violent vomiting and purging, if a large dose has been taken.
Besides the sphincter pupillae, the fibres of the ciliary muscle are stimulated.
Its stimulant action on the iris and ciliary muscle is employed when they are weak or paralysed.
The interior of the head is filled up with masses of muscle fibres which are mainly occupied with moving the sickle-shaped hooks.
The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.
Its first action on any of the body-tissues is upon unstriped muscle, so that the first consequence of its absorption is a contraction of the arteries and arterioles.
The systole is not altered in length, but the diastole is very much prolonged, and since this is the period not only of cardiac rest but also of cardiac "feeding" - the coronary vessels being compressed and occluded during systole - the result is greatly to benefit the nutrition of the cardiac muscle.
Thereafter follows the most important effect of the drug, which is a direct stimulation of the cardiac muscle.
This can be proved to occur in a heart so embryonic that no nerves can be recognized in it, and in portions of cardiac muscle that contain neither nervecells nor nerve-fibres.
The air-bladder may be so reduced as to lose its hydrostatic function and become subservient to a sensory organ, its outer exposed surface being connected with the skin by a meatus between the bands of muscle, and conveying the thermobarometrical impressions to the auditory nerves.
The limbs of the U are further twisted together in a looser or tighter coil, the axis of which may be traversed by a "spindle" muscle arising from the posterior end of the body.
(ix.) Onchnesoma, with 2 species, and (x.) Tylosoma, with z species, have no tentacles, only one brown tube, and only one retractor muscle.
8, Retractor muscle of head.
Dr Elliott Smith, who has examined thousands pf skeletons and mummies of all periods, finds that the prehistoric population of Upper Egypt, a branch of the North African-MediterraneanArabian race, changed with the advent of the dynasties to a stronger type, better developed than before in skull and muscle.
Here the anatomy has reached its limits for such work; the precision of the muscles on the inner and outer sides of the leg, of the uniform grip in the left arm, and the tense muscle upholding the right arm, prove that the artist knew that part of his work perfectly.
38) is thick-featured, full of force, with powerful masses of facial muscle covering the skull.
The manifestations of contractility by muscle are various in mode.
The muscular wall of the blood-vessels also exhibits tonic contraction, which, however, seems to be mainly traceable to a continual excitation of the muscle cells by nervous influence conveyed to them along their nerves, and originating in the great vaso motor centre in the bulb.
In several of these it appears not unlikely that the recurrent explosive liberations of energy in the muscle tissue are not secondary to recurrent explosions in nerve cells, but are attributable to decompositions arising sua sponte in the chemical substances of the muscle cells themselves in the course of their living.
Even small strips of the muscle of the heart, if taken immediately after the death of the animal, continue, when kept moist and warm and supplied with oxygen, to "beat" rhythmically for hours.
the short-lasting explosive contraction of the heart muscle, can be elicited by a single, even momentary, application of a stimulus, e.g.
Similarly, such a single stimulus elicits from a skeletal muscle a single "beat," or, as it is termed, a "twitch."
In the heart muscle during a brief period after each beat, that is, after each single contraction of the rhythmic series, the muscle becomes inexcitable.
This second contraction starts from whatever phase of previous contraction the muscle may have reached at the time.
The tension developed by their means in the muscle is many times greater than that developed by a simple twitch.
Muscle cells respond by changes in their activity to changes in their environment, and thus are said to be "excitable."
In the case of the heart muscle this threshold stimulus evokes a beat as extensive as does the strongest stimulus; that is, the intensity of the stimulus, so long as it is above threshold value, is not a function of the amount of the muscular response.
Just as in a nerve fibre, when excited by a localized stimulus, the excited state spreads from the excited point to the adjacent unexcited ones, so in muscle the "contraction," when excited at a point, spreads to the adjacent uncontracted parts.
Both in muscle and in nerve this spread is termed conduction.
It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.
In the heart muscle it travels much more slowly.
The disturbance travels as a wave of contraction, and the whole extent of the wave-like disturbance measures in ordinary muscles much more than the whole length of any single muscle fibre.
That the excited state spreads only to previously unexcited portions of the muscle fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of muscle there exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability.
The duration of this period is about ---o / r of a second in skeletal muscle.
When muscle that has remained inactive for some time is excited by a series of single and equal stimuli succeeding at intervals too prolonged to cause summation the succeeding contractions exhibit progressive increase up to a certain degree.
The explanation may lie in the production of CO 2 in the muscle.
That substance, in small doses, favours the contractile power of muscle.
The muscle is a machine for utilizing the energy contained in its own chemical compounds.
We find that if the series of excitations of the muscle be prolonged beyond the short stage of initial improvement, the contractions, after being well maintained for a time, later decline in force and speed, and ultimately dwindle even to vanishing point.
The muscle recovers on being allowed to rest unstimulated for a while, and more quickly on being washed with an innocuous but nonnutritious solution, such as 6%, NaC1 in water.
The washing seems to remove excreta of the muscle's own production, and the period of repose removes them perhaps by diffusion, perhaps by breaking them down into innocuous material.
The neuron is described as having a cell body or perikaryon from which the cell branches - dendrites and axon - extend, and it is this perikaryon which, as its name implies, muscle produces lactic acids during activity, it has been suggested that acids are among the "fatigue substances" with which muscle poisons itself when deprived of circulating blood.
The contracted state, instead of rapidly subsiding after discontinuance of the stimulus, slowly and only partially wears off, the muscle remaining in a condition of physiological "contracture."
contraction of muscle; it enormously delays the return from the contracted state, as also does epinephrin, an alkaloid extracted from the suprarenal gland.
It can be demonstrated that they are practically indefatigable - repeatedly stimulated by electrical currents, even through many hours, they, unlike muscle, continue to respond with unimpaired reaction.
of the response of the nerve, it is found that unmistakable signs of fatigue appear even very soon after commencement of the excitation of the nerve, and the muscle ceases to give any contraction in response to stimuli applied indirectly to it through its nerve.
But the muscle will, when excited directly, e.g.
The inference is that the "fatigue substances" generated in the muscle fibres in the course of their prolonged contraction injure and paralyse the motor end plates, which are places of synapsis between nerve cell and muscle cell, even earlier than they harm the contractility of the muscle fibres themselves.
Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the muscle cells undergo "degeneration" - dwindle, become fatty, and alter almost beyond recognition.
This trophic influence which one neuron exerts upon others, or upon the cells of an extrinsic tissue, such as muscle, is exerted in that direction which is the one normally taken by the natural nerve impulses.
These muscles exhibit a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which disappears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle.
It is a muscular tonus of central source consequent on the continual glow of excitement in the spinal motor neuron, whose outgoing end plays upon the muscle cells, whose ingoing Yet when the muscular contraction is taken as index ology.
It is with the neural element of muscle tonus that tendon phenomena are intimately associated.
It is a brief extension of the limb at the knee-joint, due to a simple contraction of the extensor muscle, elicited by a tap or other short mechanical stimulus applied to the muscle fibres through the tendon of the muscle.
The jerk is obtainable only from muscle fibres possessed of neural tonus.
If the sensory nerves of the extensor muscle be severed, the "jerk" is lost.
The brevity of the interval between the tap on the knee and the beginning of the resultant contraction of the muscle seems such as to exclude the possibility of reflex development.
A slight degree of contraction of muscle seems the substratum of all attention.
The nerve cells of the higher vertebrata, unlike their blood cells, their connective tissue cells, and even their muscle cells, early, and indeed in embryonic life, lose power of Nervous multiplication.
The action of atropine in dilating the pupil is also aided by a stimulation of the fibres from the sympathetic nervous system, which innervate the remaining muscle of the iris - the dilator pupillae.
long, with a strong crista lateralis, which indicates a strongly developed great pectoral muscle and hence, by inference, the presence of a keel to the sternum.
In pain due to violent sciatica relief and even permanent cure has been obtained by the injection of morphine directly into the muscle of the affected part, and in the treatment of renal and hepatic colic morphine given subcutaneously will relieve the acute pain consequent on the passage of biliary and urinary calculi.
The heart muscle is normal, or soft and friable.
The mouth consists of two portions, an outer vestibule and an inner apertura oris; the latter is surrounded by a sphincter muscle, which forms the so-called velum.
He studied the nature of muscular contraction, causing a muscle to record its movements on a smoked glass plate, and he worked out the problem of the velocity of the nervous impulse both in the motor nerves of the frog and in the sensory nerves of man.
The valves of the shell are closed by a single large adductor muscle, the anterior adductor being absent.
The heart and pericardial chamber in the oyster lie along the anterior face of the adductor muscle, almost perpendicular to the direction of the gills, with which in Anodon they are parallel.
During the early period of their sojourn in the pouch, the blind, naked, helpless young creatures (which in the great kangaroo scarcely exceed an inch in length) are attached by their mouths to the nipple of the mother, and are fed by milk injected into their stomach by the contraction of the muscle covering the mammary gland.
Each taeniola bears a strongly developed longitudinal muscle-band, stated by Claus and Chun to be developed from the endoderm, like the retractor muscles of the anthopolyp, but by other investigators it is affirmed that each retractor muscle of the scyphistoma arises from the lining of a funnel-shaped ectodermal ingrowth (" Septaltrichter ") growing down from the peristome inside each taeniola, in a manner similar to the infundibular cavities of Lucernaria, which in their turn are homologous with the sub f genital cavities of Scypho l A .` medusae.
Muscle of the gastral ridge.
The edge of the mantle at the anterior aperture is very thick and muscular; at the posterior aperture also there is a circular muscle, and here the edge is interrupted by a ventral sinus and is provided internally with a dorsal and ventral valve which can be applied to each other so as to close the aperture.
a', Longitudinal muscle.
b, Anterior circular muscle of the mantle.
c, c', Longitudinal muscle of mantle.
The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.
mm, Mesenteries; budding from a single mb muscle banners; sc, sulcus; st, parent zooid.
r, Rotteken's muscle.
Carniferrin is another tasteless powder containing iron in combination with the phosphocarnic acid of muscle preparations, and contains 35% of iron.
The physiological action of stramonium resembles that of belladonna, except that stramonium relaxes to a greater extent the unstriped muscle of the bronchial tubes; for this reason it is used in asthma to relieve the bronchial spasm.
Each consists in essence of a tightly stretched membrane or drum which is thrown into a state of rapid vibration by a powerful muscle attached to its inner surface and passing thence downwards to the floor of the thoracic cavity.
The skull generally shows a slight depression in front of the socket of the eye, which, although now serving as the attachment for the muscle running to the nostril, may represent the face-gland of the extinct Hipparion.
Behind it, and freely communicating with it beneath the osseous bridge (the post-orbital process of the frontal) forming the boundary between them, is the small temporal fossa occupying the whole of the side of the cranium proper, and in front is the great flattened expanse of the " cheek," formed chiefly by the maxilla, giving support to the long row of cheek-teeth, and having a prominent ridge running forward from below the orbit for the attachment of the masseter muscle.
The lower jaw is large, especially the region of the angle, which is expanded and flattened, giving great surface for the attachment of the masseter muscle.
In the fore-leg the tendon of this muscle (which corresponds with the extensor minimi digiti of man) receives a slip from that of the principal extensor, and is inserted into the first phalanx.
The perforating tendon is derived from the muscle corresponding with the long flexor of man, and the smaller tendon of the oblique flexor (tibialis porticus of man) is united with it.
Its duct leaves the inferior anterior angle, at first descends a little, and runs forward under cover of the rounded inferior border of the lower jaw, then curves up along the anterior margin of the masseter muscle, becoming superficial, pierces the buccinator, and enters the mouth by a simple aperture opposite the middle of the crown of the third premolar tooth.
When in a state of repose it is retracted, by a muscle arising from the sacrum, within the prepuce, a cutaneous fold attached below the symphysis pubis.
The withers may be moderately high and thin; the chest well developed, but not too wide or deep; the shoulder should lie well on the chest, and be oblique and well covered with muscle, so as to reduce concussion in galloping; the upper and lower arms should be long and muscular; the knees broad and strong; legs short, flat and broad; fetlock joints large; pasterns strong and of moderate length; the feet should be moderately large, with the heels open and frogs sound - with no signs of contraction.
That experiments, founded on the study of his nature and properties, which have from time to time been made to improve the breed, and bring the different varieties to the perfection in which we now find them, have succeeded, is best confirmed by the high estimation in which the horses of Great Britain are held in all parts of the civilized world; and it is not too much to assert that, although the cold, humid and variable nature of their climate is by no means favourable to the production of these animals in their very best form, Englishmen have by great care, and by sedulous attention to breeding, high feeding and good grooming, with consequent development of muscle, brougnt them to the highest state of perfection of which their nature is capable.
The points of chief importance are a fine, clean, lean head, set on free from collar heaviness; a long and strongly muscular neck, shoulders oblique and covered with muscle; high, long withers, chest of good depth and narrow but not extremely so; body round in type; back rib well down; depth at withers a little under half the height; length equal to the height at withers and croup; loins level and muscular; croup long, rather level; tail set on high and carried gracefully; the hind quarters long, strongly developed, and full of muscle and driving power; the limbs clean-cut and sinewy, possessing abundance of good bone, especially desired in the cannons, which are short, broad and flat; comparatively little space between the fore legs; pastern joints smooth and true; pasterns strong, clean and springy, sloping when at rest at an angle of 45°; feet medium size, wide and high at the heels, concave below and set on straight.
Afterwards he was in charge of the construction of the Muscle Shoals Canal on the Tennessee river and of another canal near Chattanooga, Tenn.
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