As a horsemaster he was far superior to Murat.
as against the 21 of Murat's cavalry in the celebrated pursuit after Jena.
Capri, however, fell to the French on the 18th of October 1808, shortly after the arrival at Naples of the new king, Murat.
Joseph left Naples on the 23rd of May 18o8; but it was not until the 6th of September that Joachim Murat made his entry.
In June 1809, during his campaign against Austria, Sir John Stuart with an Anglo-Sicilian force sailed northwards, captured Ischia and threw Murat into great alarm; but on the news of the Austrian defeat at Wagram Stuart sailed back again.
Murat, left in command of the Grand Army at of ?VapoVilna, abandoned his charge and in the next year made Icons overtures to the allies who coalesced against Napoleon.
For his vacillations at this time and his final fate, see MURAT.
The rash attempt of Murat in the autumn of 1815, which led to his death at Pizzo in Calabria, enabled the Bourbon dynasty to crush malcontents with all the greater severity.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
Of the generals, Murat, Berthier, Lannes and Leclerc were those who prepared the way for the coup d'etat.
Drums beat the charge, Murat led the way through the corridors of the palace to the Orangerie, and levelled bayonets ended the existence of the Council.
those of the grand elector (Joseph Bonaparte), arch-chancellor of the empire (Cambaceres), arch-chancellor of state (Eugene de Beauharnais), arch-treasurer (Lebrun), constable (Louis Bonaparte), grand admiral (Murat).
Next came the marshals, namely, Berthier, Murat, Massena, Augereau, Lannes, Jourdan, Ney, Soult, Brune, Davout, Bessieres, Moncey, Mortier and Bernadotte.
The duchy of Berg, along with the eastern part of Cleves and other annexes, now went to Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon (March 1806); and that melodramatic soldier at once began to round off his eastern boundary in a way highly offensive to Prussia.
Godoy, having the prospect of the Algarve before him, likewise offered no opposition to the advance of Napoleon's troops to the capital; and so it came about that Murat, named by Napoleon his Lieutenant in Spain, was able to enter Madrid in force and without opposition from that usually clannish populace.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
In all the genuine letters of the spring of 1808 - that of March 29th to Murat, no.
On Louis declining the honour, it devolved on Joseph, king of Naples, who vacated that throne for the benefit of Murat - a source of disappointment and annoyance to both.
If not, then his troops could deal with it as Murat had dealt with the men of Madrid on the 2nd of May.
His anxiety was increased by news of sinister import respecting frequent interviews between those former rivals, Talleyrand and Fouche, in which Murat was said to be concerned.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
The new empress was escorted into France by Queen Caroline Murat, for whom she soon conceived a feeling of distrust.
To remedy this, Murat and other general officers as well as minor agents were sent ahead and instructed to travel through South Germany in plain clothes with a view to collecting information and mastering the topography.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
Bernadotte in his turn became an army of observation, and Napoleon joining Murat with the main body marched rapidly westward from the Lech towards the Iller.
He was again forced to give his army rest and shelter, under cover of Murat's cavalry.
On the 28th Murat was driven in by the allied columns.
the emperor was still unaware of the position of his principal foe, and Murat with Bernadotte behind him was directed on Gera for the iith, the remainder of the army con tinuing along the roads previously assigned to them.
Murat reported the movement of the Saxons on the previous day, but omitted to send a strong detachment in pursuit.
Murat and Bernadotte via Zeitz to Naumburg; Davout (III.
on the 13th) a day of rest for all except Davout, Bernadotte, Lannes and Murat.
On the 28th Murat's cavalry overtook the remnant of Prince Hohenlohe's army near Prenzlau (N.
Murat boasted that he had ioo,000 men behind him, and on his return Massenbach implored his chief to submit to an unconditional surrender, advice which the prince accepted, though as a fact Murat's horses were completely exhausted and he had no infantry whatever within call.
Rapidly renouncing his previous intentions, he issued orders to concentrate on Allenstein; but this point was chosen too far in advance and he was anticipated by Murat and Soult at that place on the 2nd of February.
Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
Thus, when late on the 7th of February 1807 Murat and Soult overtook the enemy near Eylau (q.v.) the fighting was severe but not prolonged.
ordered Soult and Augereau on the left and right respectively to assail the enemy, Murat and the Guards remaining in the centre as reserve.
and Guard corps, together with a new cavalry reserve corps under Lannes, in all 147,000, stood ready for the operation, and with Murat and Soult as general advanced guard the whole moved forward, driving the Russian outposts before them.
Murat attacked the Russians, who had halted in their entrenched position, on the 11th and drove in their outposts, but did not discover the entrenchments.
Lestocq in the meantime had been forced northwards towards Konigsberg, and Soult with Murat was in hot pursuit.
The enemy lay direct to his right, an Murat, the IV.
This left the direct road to Vienna open, and Napoleon, hoping to find peace in the enemy's capital, pushed the whole of his army down the right bank, and with Murat's cavalry entered the city on the 12th of May, after somewhat severe resistance lasting three days.
The main army, with the emperor in person, covered by Murat and the cavalry, moved on Vilna, whilst Jerome on his right rear at once threatened Bagration and covered the emperor's outer flank.
Again arrangments were made for a Napoleonic battle; behind Murat's cavalry came the " general advanced guard " to attack and hold the enemy, whilst the main body and Davout were held available to swing in on his rear.
Here he was overtaken by Murat and Ney, but the French columns had straggled so badly that four whole days elapsed before the emperor was able to concentrate his army for battle and then could only oppose 128,000 men to the Russians' 110,000.
Murat and Ney as " general advanced guard " attacked the town in the morning of the 16th of August, and whilst they fought the main body was swung round to attack the Russian left and rear.
Kutusov continued his retreat, and Murat with his now exhausted horsemen followed as best he might.
Whilst waiting his return Murat was enjoined to skirmish with Kutusov, and the emperor himself worked out a scheme to assume the offensive with his whole army towards St Petersburg, calling in Victor and St Cyr on the way.
This project was persisted with, until on the 18th Murat was himself attacked and severely handled (action of Tarutino or Vinkovo).
Henceforward the retreat of the army became practically a headlong flight, and on the 5th of December, having reached Smorgoni and seeing that nothing further could be done by him at the front, the emperor handed over the command of what remained to Murat, and left for Paris to organize a fresh army for the following year.
On the 8th of December Murat reached Vilna, whilst Ney with about 400 men and Wrede with 2000 Bavarians still formed the rearguard; but it was quite impossible to carry out Napoleon's instructions to go into winter quarters about the town, so that the retreat was resumed on the 10th and ultimately Konigsberg was attained on the 9th of December by Murat with 400 Guards and 600 Guard cavalry dismounted.
Konigsberg thus became untenable, and Murat fell back to Posen, where on the 10th of January he handed over his command to Eugene Beauharnais and returned to Paris.
Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about ioo,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant for the emperor," entered Madrid.
of Toulouse, on the Orleans railway between Figeac and Murat.
In the Episcopal cemetery two monuments mark the graves of Charles Louis Napoleon Achille Murat (1801-1847), the eldest son of Joachim Murat, and of his wife Catherine (1803-1867), the daughter of Col.
After his death his wife lived in what is still known as the Murat Homestead, about 2 m.
In consequence of a fatal duel he was sent back to Naples; there he served under Joachim Murat with the rank of general, and fought against the AngloSicilian forces in Calabria and at Messina.
On the fall of Napoleon he took part in Murat's campaign against Eugene Beauharnais, and later in that against Austria, and was severely wounded at the battle of the Panaro (1815).
On the left, around the hill called by the French the Santon (which was fortified) was Lannes' corps, supported by the cavalry reserve under Murat.
In the meanwhile Lannes and Murat had been engaged in the defence of the Santon.
He served under Joachim Murat and fought the Austrians on the Panaro in 1815.
Prince Napoleon Lucien Charles Murat, the second son of Joachim Murat, also lived here for many years; and the estate known as "Ironsides" was long the home of Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart.
The following are worth mention: - Vie politique, militaire et privee du general Moreau (1814); Catastrophe de Murat, ou Recit de la derniere revolution de Naples (1815); Histoire de la guerre d'Espagne et du Portugal, 1807-1813 (2 vols., 1819); Collection de memoires relatifs aux revolutions d'Espagne (2 vols., 1824); Histoire de la revolution de Piemont (2 vols., 1821, 1823); Memoires secrets et inedits pour servir a l'histoire contemporaine (2 vols., 1825).
He had left Marshal Davout behind in Paris, and Murat in disgrace; Suchet was far off on the eastern frontier, and Clausel was in the south of France.
Douglas (ibid., 190), James Morgan (ibid., 1907), and Murat Halstead (Akron, 1902) are personal or political eulogies.
Early in 1800 she married Joachim Murat, whose interests she afterwards advanced with all the power of her ambitious and Murat intriguing nature.
Turquan, Caroline Murat, reine de Naples (Paris, 1899) F.
See also under Murat, Joachim.
He filled various minor administrative offices, and in 1806 became an official at Naples in Murat's government.
He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.
The villages west of the Plauen ravine and even Lobda were occupied in the early morning by General Metzko with the leading division of Klenau's corps from Freiberg, and upon Metzko Napoleon intended first to throw the weight of his attack, giving to Victor's infantry and the cavalry of Murat, king of Naples, the task of overwhelming the isolated Austrians.
"You cannot fire; surrender," said Murat to an Austrian battalion in the battle.
On the appearance of Murat's horse artillery, however, they had to surrender at once.
of the first line, and Murat, with an overwhelming cavalry force from Cotta and Burgstadl, outflanked his left, broke up whole battalions, and finally, with the assistance of the renewed frontal attack of Victor's infantry, annihilated the division.
On the 10th of June 1807 a battle took place at Heilsberg between the French under Soult and Murat, and the Russians and Prussians under Bennigsen.
The king of the mainland is often spoken of for convenience as king of Naples, but that description was never borne as a formal title save in the 16th century by Philip, king of England and Naples, and in the 19th by Joseph Buonaparte and Joachim Murat.
At Tolentino the treaty was made between Bonaparte and the pope in 1797, by which the pope ceded Avignon; and here in 1815 a battle was fought in which the French under Murat were defeated by the Austrians.
In 1807 he became editor of the Gaceta de Madrid, and in the following year was condemned to death by Murat for publishing a patriotic article; he fled to Cadiz, and under the Junta Central held various posts from which he was dismissed by the reactionary government of 1814.
of Spain in the 16th century (" King of England and Naples ") and by Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat in the 19th.
In 1808 Napoleon conferred the crown of Spain on Joseph, and appointed Joachim Murat king of Naples.
But no important engagements took place, and when Napoleon escaped from Elba, Murat suddenly returned to the allegiance of his old chief.
He was subsequently defeated by the Austrians several times and forced to retreat, and on the 18th of May he sailed from Naples for France (see Murat, Joaciiim).
Ferdinand succeeded in getting a reactionary ministry appointed, and dissolved parliament in May 1815, after concluding a treaty with Austria - now freed by Murat's defection from her engagements with him - for the recovery of his mainland dominions by means of an Austrian army paid for by himself.
On the 9th of June Ferdinand re-entered Naples and bound himself in a second treaty with Austria not to introduce a constitutional government; but at first he abstained from persecution and received many of Murat's old officers into his army in accordance with the treaty of Casalanza.
In October 1815 Murat, believing that he still had a strong party in the kingdom, landed with a few companions at Pizzo 1 The secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, runs as follows: " H.M.
Ferdinand, feeling himself helpless to resist, acceded to the demand, appointed a ministry composed of Murat's old adherents, and entrusted his authority to his son.
He entered Napoleon's army and served with distinction in several campaigns, including those in the Neapolitan kingdom, first under Joseph Bonaparte and later under Joachim Murat.
When the news of the fall of Napoleon (1814) reached Italy Pepe and several other generals tried without success to force Murat to grant a constitution as the only means of saving the kingdom from foreign invasion and the return of the Bourbons.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba (1815) Murat, after some hesitation, placed himself on the emperor's side and waged war against the Austrians, with Pepe on his staff.
After several engagements the Neapolitans were forced to retire, and eventually agreed to the treaty of Casalanza by which Murat was to abandon the kingdom; but the Neapolitan officers retained their rank under Ferdinand IV.
At Prenzlau Prince Hohenlohe, with his corps of 12,000 men, surrendered to Murat on the retreat after the battle of Jena in October 1806.
He served in the National House of Representatives in January - April 1816, and in1816-1818was minister plenipotentiary to Russia and special minister to Naples, where he attempted to secure indemnity for the losses to American merchants by seizure and confiscation during the rule of Murat in 180 0.
The eastern crescent includes by far the largest as well as the oldest portion of Naples - the ports, the arsenal, the principal churches, &c. The best-known thoroughfare is the historic Toledo (as it is still popularly called, though the official name is Via Roma) which runs almost due north from the Piazza (Largo) del Plebiscito in front of the Palazzo Reale, till, as Strada Nuova Di Capodimonte, crossing the Ponte della Sanita (constructed by Murat across the valley between Santa Teresa and Capodimonte), it reaches the gates of the Capodimonte palace.
(Bourbon) of Naples (1744); Gioacchino Murat (1808); and Victor Emmanuel II.
Berg was bestowed by Napoleon, along with the duchy of Cleves and other possessions, on Joachim Murat, who bore the title of grand-duke of Berg; and after Mura.t's elevation to the throne of Naples, it was transferred to Louis, the son of the king of Holland.
Gocke, Das Grossherzogtum Berg unter Joachim Murat, Napoleon I TT and Louis Napoleon, 1806-1813 (Cologne, 1877).
After the fall of Napoleon, Joachim Murat, who had succeeded Joseph Bonaparte as king of Naples in 1808, was dethroned, and Ferdinand returned to Naples.
By a secret treaty he had bound himself not to advance further in a constitutional direction than Austria should at any time approve; but, though on the whole he acted in accordance with Metternich's policy of preserving the status quo, and maintained with but slight change Murat's laws and administrative system, he took advantage of the situation to abolish the Sicilian constitution, in violation of his oath, and to proclaim the union of the two states into the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (December 12th, 1816).
In May 1815 he was transferred to Italy, and at the battle of Tolentino scattered Murat's bodyguard by a dashing cavalry charge.
There is also a large lunatic asylum, founded by Joachim Murat in 1813.
Joseph replaced the dispossessed Bourbons at Naples; Louis was installed on the throne of Holland; Murat became grand-duke of Berg, Jerome son-in-law to the king of Wiirttemberg, and Eug~ne de Beauharnais to the king of Bavaria; while StphaIlie de Beauharnais married the son of the grand-duke of Baden.
The formers Roman ambition was made more and more plainly visible by the occupation of the kingdom of Naples and of the Marches,and the entry,of Miollis into Rome; while Junot invaded Portugal, Radet laid hands on the pope himself, and Murat took possession of formerly Roman Spain, whither Joseph was afterwards to be transferred.
Eugene de Beauharnais, Napoleons stepson, was transferred to Frankfort, and Murat carefully watched until the time should come to take him to Russia and instal him as king of Poland.
Bernadotte, who had helped him to the Consulate, played Napoleon false to win the crown of Sweden; Soult, like Murat, coveted the Spanish throne after that of Portugal, thus anticipating the treason of 1813 and the defection of 1814; many persons hoped for an accident which might resemble the tragic end of Alexander and of Caesar.
Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).
After Napoleon's defeats in 1814 Murat seceded from the emperor and occupied Tuscany, which he afterwards handed over to Austria, and in September Ferdinand III.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba Murat turned against the Austrians, and Ferdinand had again to leave Florence temporarily; but he returned after Waterloo, and reigned until his death in 1824.
Murat, however, who commanded the French, refused to be turned aside by this change of circumstances.
his orders, Murat despatched the old king and queen and their favorite Godoy.
On the 13th of I~Iay Murat announced to an improvised junta of regency at Madrid that Napoleon desired them to accept Joseph Bonaparte as their king.
In the reign (1808-1815) of Joachim Murat a number of secret societies arose in various parts of the country with the object of freeing it from foreign rule and obtaining constitutional liberties; they were ready to support the Neapolitan Bourbons or Murat, if either had fulfilled these aspirations.
Murat's minister of police was a certain Malghella (a Genoese), who favoured the Carbonari movement, and was indeed the instigator of all that was Italian in the king's policy.
Murat himself had at first protected the sectarians, especially when he was quarrelling with Napoleon, but later, Lord William Bentinck entered into negotiations with them from Sicily, where he represented Great Britain, through their leader Vincenzo Federici (known as Capobianco), holding out promises of a constitution for Naples similar to that which had been established in Sicily under British auspices in 1812.
He and they distinguished themselves especially at the battles of Borodino and Malojaroslavitz; and on several occasions during the disastrous retreat which ensued, Eugene's soldierly constancy and devotion to Napoleon shone out conspicuously in 1813-1814, especially by contrast with the tergiversations of Murat.
Passing by her infantine recollections, which go back further than even those of Dickens, we find her at the age of three crossing the Pyrenees to join her father who was on Murat's staff, occupying with her parents a suite of rooms in the royal palace, adopted as the child of the regiment, nursed by rough old sergeants, and dressed in a complete suit of uniform to please the general.
In 1815 he gave his support to Joachim Murat, and after his fall escaped to France, whence he proceeded to Geneva.
By an arrangement with Bavaria, they were able to march through Tirol and down the valley of the Adige in force, and overpowered the troops of Eugene whose position was fatally compromised by the defection of Murat and the dissensions among the Italians.
Out of the forests which clothe the northern slopes of the Thuringer Wald the French streamed forth, easily overpowering the resistance of the Prussian outposts on the upper Saale, 1 and once the open country was reached the cavalry under Murat trotted to the front, closely followed by Bernadotte's corps as " general advance guard."
of the city, where the Fort St Luis Place, a plantation 1 Murat settled here about 1821, became a naturalized American citizen, relinquishing his claim to the crown of Naples, and lived here for much of the time until his death, holding successively the office of alderman, mayor and postmaster of the city, and devoting some of his leisure to the preparation of three books, describing political and social conditions in America, the last of which, Exposition des principes du gouvernement republicain tel qu'il a ete perfectionne en Amerique (1838), was translated into many languages and was very popular in Europe.
On his return from Elba it is true that Murat, the king of Naples, took his side; but recklessly opening an offensive campaign, Murat was beaten at Tolentino (May 2-3), and he found himself compelled to fly in disguise to France, where the emperor refused him an audience or employment.
Her relations with Napoleon were frequently strained; and in 1813-1814 she abetted Murat in his enterprises (see Murat).
The other petty monarchs were restored, and Murat's rash attempt, after Napoleon's return from Elba, to make himself king of united Italy, gave back Naples to the Bourbons, an event which would have been brought about in any case in the course of the next few years (see Murat, Joachim).
But there was much disaffection throughout the country, and the Carbonarist lodges, founded in The Murat's time with the object of freeing the country from foreign rule and obtaining a constitution, had made much progress (see Carbonari).
He became aide-de-camp to Murat, and was wounded at the battle of Landbach in 1805.
Some Carbonarist disorders having broken out in Calabria, Murat sent General Manhes against the rebels; the movement was ruthlessly quelled and Capobianco hanged in Septemlber 1813 (see Greco, Inlorno al tentativo dei Carbonari di Citeriore Calabria nel 1813).
"Count Lichtenfels was here this morning," Bilibin continued, "and showed me a letter in which the parade of the French in Vienna was fully described: Prince Murat et tout le tremblement...
Why, the French have crossed the bridge that Auersperg was defending, and the bridge was not blown up: so Murat is now rushing along the road to Brunn and will be here in a day or two.
Murat, seeing that all is lost if the sergeant is allowed to speak, turns to Auersperg with feigned astonishment (he is a true Gascon) and says: 'I don't recognize the world-famous Austrian discipline, if you allow a subordinate to address you like that!'
The success of the trick that had placed the Vienna bridge in the hands of the French without a fight led Murat to try to deceive Kutuzov in a similar way.
Count Nostitz, the Austrian general occupying the advanced posts, believed Murat's emissary and retired, leaving Bagration's division exposed.
Bonaparte's adjutant rode full gallop with this menacing letter to Murat.
Bonaparte's adjutant had not yet reached Murat's detachment and the battle had not yet begun.
Lemarrois had just arrived at a gallop with Bonaparte's stern letter, and Murat, humiliated and anxious to expiate his fault, had at once moved his forces to attack the center and outflank both the Russian wings, hoping before evening and before the arrival of the Emperor to crush the contemptible detachment that stood before him.
It was, in fact, Murat, now called "King of Naples."
Murat's face beamed with stupid satisfaction as he listened to "Monsieur de Bal-macheve."
Balashev replied that there was "nothing offensive in the demand, because..." but Murat interrupted him.
Balashev rode on, supposing from Murat's words that he would very soon be brought before Napoleon himself.
He became still more absorbed in his task when the Russian general entered, and after glancing over his spectacles at Balashev's face, which was animated by the beauty of the morning and by his talk with Murat, he did not rise or even stir, but scowled still more and sneered malevolently.
The officers said that either Napoleon or Murat was there, and they all gazed eagerly at this little group of horsemen.
Then when the whole field was covered with smoke, two divisions, Campan's and Dessaix's, advanced from the French right, while Murat's troops advanced on Borodino from their left.
Napoleon's generals--Davout, Ney, and Murat, who were near that region of fire and sometimes even entered it--repeatedly led into it huge masses of well-ordered troops.
In the middle of the day Murat sent his adjutant to Napoleon to demand reinforcements.
"Reinforcements?" said Napoleon in a tone of stern surprise, looking at the adjutant--a handsome lad with long black curls arranged like Murat's own--as though he did not understand his words.
The battle is won, and there is nothing extraordinary in the capture of Murat.
Toward four o'clock in the afternoon Murat's troops were entering Moscow.
About the middle of the Arbat Street, near the Church of the Miraculous Icon of St. Nicholas, Murat halted to await news from the advanced detachment as to the condition in which they had found the citadel, le Kremlin.
Around Murat gathered a group of those who had remained in Moscow.
Murat approached the interpreter and told him to ask where the Russian army was.
"Good!" said Murat and, turning to one of the gentlemen in his suite, ordered four light guns to be moved forward to fire at the gates.
The guns emerged at a trot from the column following Murat and advanced up the Arbat.
Murat was informed that the way had been cleared.
If Murat had not lost sight of the Russians?
Following the wounded hare he made his way far into the forest and came upon the left flank of Murat's army, encamped there without any precautions.
He said that Murat was spending the night less than a mile from where they were, and that if they would let him have a convoy of a hundred men he would capture him alive.
Had the Cossacks pursued the French, without heeding what was behind and around them, they would have captured Murat and everything there.
"We couldn't take Murat prisoner this morning or get to the place in time, and nothing can be done now!" he replied to someone else.
Kutuzov did not reply, but when they reported to him that Murat's troops were in retreat he ordered an advance, though at every hundred paces he halted for three quarters of an hour.
The battle of Tarutino obviously did not attain the aim Toll had in view--to lead the troops into action in the order prescribed by the dispositions; nor that which Count Orlov-Denisov may have had in view-- to take Murat prisoner; nor the result of immediately destroying the whole corps, which Bennigsen and others may have had in view; nor the aim of the officer who wished to go into action to distinguish himself; nor that of the Cossack who wanted more booty than he got, and so on.
With regard to military matters, Napoleon immediately on his entry into Moscow gave General Sabastiani strict orders to observe the movements of the Russian army, sent army corps out along the different roads, and charged Murat to find Kutuzov.
The French generals lost touch with the Russian army of sixty thousand men, and according to Thiers it was only eventually found, like a lost pin, by the skill--and apparently the genius--of Murat.
Leblebicioglu, Hakan, and Murat Hökelek.
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