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murad

murad Sentence Examples

  • to the west of Lake Van, and close to the headwaters of the Murad Su, the eastern branch of the Euphrates, while the most easterly point is situated in a region about 42° 50' E., southward of the same lake.

  • On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.

  • MURAD IV.

  • Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.

  • But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most manly, of the later sultans.

  • Murad V >>

  • (1842-), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad V., on the 31st of August 1876.

  • NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.

  • Then, entering a deep gorge with lofty rock walls and magnificent scenery, it runs south-east to its junction with the Murad Su.

  • The southern or eastern and longer arm, called by the Turks Murad Su (Arsanias Fl.; Armenian, Aradzani; Arab.

  • of Kharput the Murad is joined by its principal tributary, the Peri Su, which drains the wild mountain district, Dersim, that lies in the loop between the two arms. The Murad Su is of greater volume than the Frat, but its valley below Mash is contracted and followed by no great road.

  • The length of the Frat is about 275 m.; of the Murad, 415 m.; and of the Euphrates from the junction to Samsat, 115 m.

  • 1643), who figures in Turkish history, was by birth a Hungarian, who was enrolled in the Janissaries, rose to be Kapudan Pasha under Murad IV., and after the capture of Bagdad was made grand vizier.

  • He stood on friendly terms with Mahommed I., but was again besieged in his capital by Murad II.

  • Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.

  • Under Murad, however, it rose to its old height.

  • forces of Wladislaus of Poland and John Hunyadi of Transylvania, and succeeded in forcing on Murad II.

  • Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.

  • His marriage with Mal Khatun, the daughter of the learned sheikh Edbali, has been surrounded by poetical legend; he married his son Orkhan to the beautiful Greek Nilofer, daughter of the lord of Yar Hissar, whom he carried off from her destined bridegroom on her marriage-day; the fruits of this union were Suleiman Pasha and Murad.

  • Orkhan was succeeded by his son Murad.

  • After capturing Angora from a horde of Turkomans encamped there who were attacking his dominions, at first with some success, Mur ad 1, in 1361 Murad prepared for a campaign in Europe.

  • When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.

  • Murad, who had returned to Brusa, crossed over to Biga, and sent on Haji Ilbeyi with io,000 men; these fell by night on the Servians and utterly routed them at a place still known as the " Servians' coffer."

  • In 1367 Murad made Adrianople his capital and enriched it with various new buildings.

  • In 1381 Murad's son Yilderim Bayezid married Devlet Shah Khatun, hausted by the onslaughts of Ghazan Mahmud Khan, 1288-1326.

  • Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.

  • Murad thereupon returned to Europe with a large force, and sent Chendereli Zade Ali Pasha northwards; the fortresses of Shumla, Pravadi, Trnovo, Nicopolis and Silistria were taken by him; Sisman III., rebel king of Bulgaria, was punished and Bulgaria once more subjugated.

  • After the battle, while Murad was reviewing his victorious troops on the field, he was assassinated by Milosh Kabilovich, a Servian who was allowed to approach him on the plea of submission.

  • Murad maintained a show of friendly relations with the emperor John Palaeologus, while capturing his cities.

  • A review held by him in 1387 at Yeni Shehr was attended by the emperor, who, moreover, gave one of his daughters in marriage to Murad and the other two to his sons Bayezid and Yakub Chelebi.

  • Shortly after Murad's accession the emperor Manuel, having applied in vain for the renewal of the annual subsidy paid him by the late sultan for retaining in safe custody Mustafa, an alleged son of Bayezid, released the pretender.

  • Adherents flocked to him, and for a whole year Murad was engaged in suppressing his attempts to usurp the throne.

  • Murad now laid siege to Constantinople to avenge himself on the emperor, and on the 24th of August the desperate valour of the defenders succeeded in driving back an assault led by a band of fanatical dervishes.

  • The siege was raised, however, not owing to the bravery of the defence, but because the appearance of another pretender, in the person of Murad's thirteen-year-old brother Mustafa, under the protection of the revolted princes of Karamania and Kermian, called the sultan to Asia.

  • Mustafa, delivered up by treachery, was hanged (1424); but Murad remained in Asia, restoring order in the provinces, while his lieutenants continued the war against the Greeks, Albanians and Walachians.

  • By 1426 the princes of Kermian and Karamania had submitted on honourable terms; and Murad was soon free to continue his conquests in Europe.

  • Meanwhile, again confronted by a rebellion of the prince of Karamania, Murad had crossed into Asia and reduced him to submission, granting him honourable terms, in view of the urgency of the peril in Europe.

  • On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).

  • In this emergency Murad was implored to return to the throne; to a second appeal he gave way, and crossing over with his Asiatic army from Anatoli Hissar he hastened to Varna.

  • Murad is said to have abdicated a second time, and to have been again recalled to power owing to a revolt of the Janissaries.

  • The latter years of Murad's reign were troubled by the successful resistance offered to his arms in Albania by Scanderbeg.

  • Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.

  • After completing his preparations, which included the casting of a monster cannon and the manufacture of enormous engines of assault, Mahom med Murad 1!., 1421-1451.

  • He was no more successful than Piri or his successor Murad in fighting the elements and the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf; but he was happier in his fate.

  • The regular troops comprised also armourers (jebeji), from 6000 to 8000 men, and six squadrons of cavalry; these were recruited in the same way as the Janissaries, and their numbers were raised by Murad III.

  • The character of Murad III., who succeeded his father Selim II.

  • He was a weakling, swayed by his favourites in the Murad III., harem, especially by his Venetian wife Safie; and, 1574-1595.

  • On the 16th of January 1 595 Murad III.

  • In spite of the internal corruption which, under Murad III., heralded the decay of the empire, the prestige of the Ottomans in Europe was maintained during his reign.

  • The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.

  • Mustafa 1., The war in Persia was terminated by the renewal 1617-1618 in 1618 of the treaty of 1611, whereby all the con- and quests effected by Murad III.

  • For a few months Mustafa was replaced on the throne; when he abdicated in L, favour of his nephew Murad IV.

  • Profiting by the and mutiny of the army, the Persians invaded Turkey, Murad IV., capturing Bagdad; at Constantinople and in the 1623-1640.

  • With difficulty the rebellion was suppressed; in 1733 the war with Persia was resumed, and after three years of fighting Nadir succeeded in 1736 in inducing Turkey to recognize him as shah of Persia and to restore the territory captured since the reign of Murad IV.

  • The war, which broke out in 1743, was waged with varying fortunes, and the peace by which it was concluded on the 5th of September 1746, beyond stipulating for a few privileges for Persian pilgrims to the holy places, altered nothing in the settlement arranged ten years before with Murad IV.

  • These stipulations of the treaty, which were in effect a confirmation of the firman granted in 1620 by Murad IV.

  • A conspiracy to bring about a change was hereupon formed by certain prominent statesmen, whose leaders were Midhat Pasha, Mehemed Rushdi Pasha and Mahmud Damad Pasha, the husband of a princess of the blood, sister to Prince Murad.

  • Murad V.

  • Murad's brother Abd-ul-Hamid was accordingly proclaimed sultan on the 31st of August 1876.

  • Sheikhi of Kermiyan, a contemporary of Mahommed I.and Murad II., wrote a lengthy and still esteemed mesnevi on the ancient Persian romance of Khusrev and Shirin; and about the same time Yaziji-oghlu gave to the world a long versified history of the Prophet, the Muha.mmediya.

  • The most notable prose work of this period is an old collection of stories, the History of the Forty Vezirs, said to have been compiled by a certain Sheikh-zada and dedicated to Murad II.

  • But Nef'i could revile as well as praise, and such was the bitterness of some of his satires that certain influential personages who came under his lash induced Murad IV.

  • 1599), the preceptor of Murad III., wrote a valuable history of the empire from the earliest W riters.

  • 1220, has remained closed since the capture of the city by Murad IV.

  • Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.

  • (1402-1421), and resumed its triumphal progress under Murad II.

  • At the diet of Buda, early in 1444, supplies were voted for the enterprise, and Wladislaus was on the point of quitting his camp at Szeged for the seat of war, when envoys from Sultan Murad arrived with the offer of a ten years' truce on such favourable conditions (they included the relinquishment of Servia, Walachia and Moldavia, and the payment of an indemnity) that Hunyadi persuaded the king to conclude (in July) a peace which gave him more than could reasonably be anticipated from the most successful campaign.

  • When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Usbeg, Mahommed Amir Khan.

  • He made overtures to his younger brother Murad, governor of Gujarat, representing that neither of their elder brothers was worthy of the kingdom, that he himself had no temporal ambition, and desired only to place a fit monarch on the throne, and then to devote himself to religious exercises and make the pilgrimage to Mecca.

  • He therefore proposed to unite his forces to those of Murad, who would thus have no difficulty in making himself master of the empire while the two elder brothers were divided by their own strife.

  • Murad was completely deceived by these crafty representations, and at once accepted the offer.

  • Murad was soon removed by assassination, and the way being thus cleared, Aurangzeb, with affected reluctance, ascended the throne in August 1658.

  • MURAD was the eldest son of Selim and succeeded his father in 1574.

  • For, though Sokolli remained in office until his assassination in October 1578,, his authority was undermined by the harem influences, which with Murad III.

  • Murad had none of the qualities of a.

  • Murad, who had welcomed the Persian War as a good opportunity for ridding himself of the presence of the janissaries, whom he dreaded, had soon cause to fear their triumphant return.

  • Murad died in 1595, leaving to his successor a legacy of war and anarchy.

  • It was under Murad III.

  • Murad IV >>

  • In 1595 Sultan Murad, son of the emperor Akbar, besieged Ahmednagar, and was bought off by the formal cession of Berar.

  • He was deposed on April 2 7, and sent to Salonika for internment and safe-keeping; and his successor, as Sultan Murad V., was proclaimed the same day.

  • The Persians occupied Mosul for a short time in 1623, until it was, soon afterwards, recovered by sultan Murad IV.

  • His nephew Murad V.

  • Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad I., until 1453, when Constantinople fell.

  • KHARPUT, the most important town in the Kharput (or Mamuret el-Aziz) vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at an altitude of 435 o ft., a few miles south of the Murad Su or Eastern Euphrates, and almost as near the source of the Tigris, on the SamsunSivas-Diarbekr road.

  • (1347-1403), Ottoman sultan, surnamed Yilderim or "Lightning," from the great rapidityof his movements, succeeded his father Murad I.

  • The present fortress was built in 1 57 8 by Sultan Murad III.

  • After taking many cities in Palestine Abul-Dhahab died, the cause being unknown; and Murad Bey (another of the deserters at Salihia) brought his forces back to Egypt (26th of May 1775).

  • Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.

  • Murad Bey attempted to resist, but was easily defeated; and he with Ibrahim decided to fly to Upper Egypt and await the trend of events.

  • In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.

  • Though the Khalif were hapless as Bayezid, cruel as Murad, or mad as Ibrahim, he is the shadow of God, and every Moslem must leap up at his call ou will say, The Egyptian is more ungrateful than a dog, which remembers the hand that fed him.

  • MURAD II.

  • Murad maintained a long struggle against the Bosnians and Hungarians, in the course of which Turkey sustained many severe reverses through the valour of Janos Hunyadi.

  • But the treacherous attack, in violation of treaty, by the Christian powers, imposing too hard a task on the inexperienced young sovereign, Murad returned from his retirement at Magnesia, crushed his faithless enemies at the battle of Varna (Novemebr 10, and again withdrew to Magnesia.

  • Murad III >>

  • In 1356 the Turks seized Gallipoli; in 1361 the sultan Murad I.

  • MURAD V.

  • On the accession of his uncle Abd-ul-Aziz, Prince Mahommed Murad Effendi - as he was then called - was deprived of all share in public affairs and imprisoned, owing to his opposition to the sultan's plan for altering the order of succession.

  • On the deposition of Abd-ul-Aziz on the 30th of May 1876, Murad was haled from his prison by a mob of softas and soldiers of the "Young Turkey" party under Suleiman Pasha, and proclaimed "emperor by the grace of God and the will of the people."

  • See Keratry, Mourad V., prince, sultan, prisonnier d'etat 1840-1876 (Paris, 1878); Djemaleddin Bey, Sultan Murad V., the Turkish Dynasty Mystery, 1876-1895 (London, 1895).

  • Mt Dindymus (Murad Dagh) marked the frontier of Mysia, and the entire valley of the Tembrogius or Tembris (Porsuk Su) was certainly included in Phrygia.

  • Finally, when Sultan Murad was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries (June 1637).

  • It figures largely in the history of more recent times, and close by was fought in 1444 the battle in which Murad II.

  • Its tributaries are the Pursak Su (Tembris), which has its source in the Murad Dagh (Dindymus), and, after running north to Eski-shehr, flows almost due east to the Sakaria, and the Enguri Su, which joins the Sakaria a little below the junction of the `Pursak.

  • The Hermus (Gediz Chai) has its principal sources in the Murad Dagh, and, receiving several streams on its way, runs through the volcanic district of Katakekaumene to the broad fertile valley through which it flows past Manisa to the sea, near Lefke.

  • These tidings profoundly impressed Sultan Murad, and when the victorious Wladislaus appeared at Lemberg, the usual starting-point for Turkish expeditions, the Porte offered terms which were accepted in October, each power engaging to keep their borderers, the Cossacks and Tatars, in order, and divide between them the suzerainty of Moldavia and Walachia, the sultan binding himself always to place philo-Polish hospodars on those slippery thrones.

  • He left several sons, of whom two, Murad V.

  • Who this young man was is not specified; but other writers call Alamut and his brother Murad the sons of Yaqub, as though the relationship were unquestionable.

  • Alamut had taken refuge at Diarbekr; but his brother Murad, at the head of an army strengthened by Turkish auxiliaries, was still in the field with the object of contesting the paternal crown.

  • Murad fled with a small remnant of his soldiers to Diarbekr, the rallying-point of the White Sheep Turkomans.

  • Another writer says that he marched against Murad Khan in Irak-iAjami and Shiraz.

  • He had been engaged in a war with Murad III.

  • In 1601 the war with the Ottoman Empire, which had been partially renewed prior to the death of Sultan Murad in 1595, with little success on the Turkish side, was now entered upon by Abbas with more vigour.

  • A new combination of chiefs, 01 which Jiafir the Kurd and Mir Alam the Arabian are th i Creasy says the war broke out in 1743, but was terminatec in 1746 by a treaty which made little change in the old arrange ments fixed under Murad IV.

  • To provide against the intended action of the first, Zaki detached his nephew, Ali Murad, at the head of his best troops to proceed with all speed to the north; and, as to the second, the seizure of such families of Sadiks followers as were then within the walls of the town, and other violent measures, struck such dismay into the hearts of the besieging soldiers that they dispersed and abandoned their leader to his fate.

  • From Kerman, however, where he found an asylum, the latter addressed an urgent appeal for assistance to Au Murad.

  • Ali Murad, leaving the pursuit of Aga Mahcmmed, then returned to Isfahan, where he, was received with satisfaction, on.

  • He despatched his son Jiafir to assume the government of Isfahan, and watch the movements of Ali Murad, who appears to have been then absent from that city; and he gave a younger son, Ali Naki, command of an army in the field.

  • The campaign ended in the capture of Shiraz and assumption of sovereignty by Ali Murad, who caused Sadik Khan to be put to death.

  • Ali Murad reigned over Persia until 1785, and carried on a successful war with Aga Mahommed in Mazandaran, defeating him in several engagements, and occupying Teheran a,nd Sari.

  • This ruler was poisoned by the agency of conspirators, one of whom, Saiyid Murad, succeeded to the throne.

  • The salar now defied Murad Mirza, Nasru d-Dins uncle, who was besieging the city.

  • The conqueror of Meshed, Murad Mirza, became afterwards himself the prince-governor of Khorasan.

  • The founder of the Bijapur dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah, is said by Ferishta to have been a son of the Ottoman sultan Murad II.

  • MURAD surnamed Khudavendighiar (1319-1389), was the son of Orkhan and the Greek princess Nilofer, and succeeded his father in He was the first Turkish monarch to obtain a definite footing in Europe, and his main object throughout his career was to extend the European dominions of Turkey.

  • The state of Europe facilitated Murad's projects: civil war and anarchy prevailed in most of the countries of Central Europe, where the feudal system was at its last gasp, and the small Balkan states were divided by mutual jealousies.

  • Murad' hastened back to Europe and met his enemies on the field of Kossovo (1389).

  • When the rout of the Christians was complete, a Servian named Milosh Kabilovich penetrated to Murad's tent on pretence of communicating an important secret to the sultan, and stabbed the conqueror.

  • Murad was of independent character and remarkable intelligence.

  • Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, where he built a palace and added many embellishments to the town.

  • Murad II >>

  • Under the Durani monarchy it fell into the hands of the Afghans; it was conquered by Shah Murad of Kunduz in 1820, and for some time was subject to the khan of Bokhara.

  • In the later battle of Kossovo of 14 4 8, between the Hungarians, led by Hunyadi Janos and the sultan Hungary Murad II., the Walachian contingent treacherously surrendered to the Turks; but this did not hinder the prevalent laxity of marriage, the frequency of divorce, and the fact that illegitimate children could succeed as well as those born in lawful wedlock, by multiplying the candidates for the voivodeship and preventing any regular system of succession, contributed much to the internal confusion of the country.

  • The insurrection in Russo- Bulgaria, with its accompanying horrors, followed by Turkish the deposition of sultan Murad and the succession of w ar of 1877-78.

  • In 1388 it was captured by the Turks under Ali Pasha, the grand vizier of the sultan Murad.

  • No historic event has made such a deep impression on the mind of the Serbs as the battle of Kossovo - probably because the flower of the Serb aristocracy fell in that battle, and because both the tsar of the Serbs, Lazar, and the sultan of the Turks, Murad I., lost their lives.

  • But before such an alliance could practically be arranged, Murad II.

  • Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan, captured Nish, defeated three Turkish pashas, and, after taking Sofia, united with the royal army and defeated Murad II.

  • All the preparations had been made, when Murad's envoys arrived in the royal camp at Szeged and offered a ten years' truce on advantageous terms. Both Hunyadi and Brankovic counselled their acceptance, and Wladislaus swore on the Gospels to observe them.

  • Two days later Cesarini received the tidings that a fleet of galleys had set off for the Bosporus to prevent Murad (who, crushed by his recent disasters, had retired to Asia Minor) from recrossing into Europe, and the cardinal reminded the king that he had sworn to co-operate by land if the western powers attacked the Turks by sea.

  • Brankovic, however, fearful of the sultan's vengeance in case of disaster, privately informed Murad of the advance of the Christian host, and prevented Castriota from joining it.

  • Of the secular buildings, the Caravanserai, usually attributed to Murad II.

  • The Venetians to whom the city was transferred by one of the Palaeologi, were in power when Murad II.

  • In 1631 a Flemish renegade, known as Murad Reis, sacked Baltimore in Ireland, and carried away a number of captives who were seen in the slave-market of Algiers by the French historian Pierre Dan.

  • to the west of Lake Van, and close to the headwaters of the Murad Su, the eastern branch of the Euphrates, while the most easterly point is situated in a region about 42° 50' E., southward of the same lake.

  • On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.

  • MURAD IV.

  • But Murad was now beginning to assert himself.

  • Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.

  • But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most manly, of the later sultans.

  • In spite of his drunkenness, however, Murad was a bigoted Sunni, and the main cause of his campaign against Persia was his desire to extirpate the Shia heresy.

  • Murad V >>

  • (1842-), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad V., on the 31st of August 1876.

  • NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.

  • Then, entering a deep gorge with lofty rock walls and magnificent scenery, it runs south-east to its junction with the Murad Su.

  • The southern or eastern and longer arm, called by the Turks Murad Su (Arsanias Fl.; Armenian, Aradzani; Arab.

  • of Kharput the Murad is joined by its principal tributary, the Peri Su, which drains the wild mountain district, Dersim, that lies in the loop between the two arms. The Murad Su is of greater volume than the Frat, but its valley below Mash is contracted and followed by no great road.

  • The length of the Frat is about 275 m.; of the Murad, 415 m.; and of the Euphrates from the junction to Samsat, 115 m.

  • 1643), who figures in Turkish history, was by birth a Hungarian, who was enrolled in the Janissaries, rose to be Kapudan Pasha under Murad IV., and after the capture of Bagdad was made grand vizier.

  • He stood on friendly terms with Mahommed I., but was again besieged in his capital by Murad II.

  • At Manzikert, on the Murad Tchai, north of Lake Van, he was met by Alp Arslan; and the sultan having proposed terms of peace, which were scornfully rejected by the emperor, a battle took place in which the Greeks, after a terrible slaughter, were totally routed, a result due mainly to the rapid tactics of the Turkish cavalry.

  • Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.

  • Under Murad, however, it rose to its old height.

  • forces of Wladislaus of Poland and John Hunyadi of Transylvania, and succeeded in forcing on Murad II.

  • Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.

  • His marriage with Mal Khatun, the daughter of the learned sheikh Edbali, has been surrounded by poetical legend; he married his son Orkhan to the beautiful Greek Nilofer, daughter of the lord of Yar Hissar, whom he carried off from her destined bridegroom on her marriage-day; the fruits of this union were Suleiman Pasha and Murad.

  • Orkhan was succeeded by his son Murad.

  • After capturing Angora from a horde of Turkomans encamped there who were attacking his dominions, at first with some success, Mur ad 1, in 1361 Murad prepared for a campaign in Europe.

  • When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.

  • Murad, who had returned to Brusa, crossed over to Biga, and sent on Haji Ilbeyi with io,000 men; these fell by night on the Servians and utterly routed them at a place still known as the " Servians' coffer."

  • In 1367 Murad made Adrianople his capital and enriched it with various new buildings.

  • Lala Shahin Pasha was appointed feudal lord of the district of Philippopolis, and Timur Tash Pasha became beylerbey of Rumelia; Monastir, Perlepe, and parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina were next taken, a.nd the king of Servia consented to furnish to Murad a fixed contingent of auxiliary troops, besides paying a money tribute.

  • In 1381 Murad's son Yilderim Bayezid married Devlet Shah Khatun, hausted by the onslaughts of Ghazan Mahmud Khan, 1288-1326.

  • Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.

  • Murad thereupon returned to Europe with a large force, and sent Chendereli Zade Ali Pasha northwards; the fortresses of Shumla, Pravadi, Trnovo, Nicopolis and Silistria were taken by him; Sisman III., rebel king of Bulgaria, was punished and Bulgaria once more subjugated.

  • After the battle, while Murad was reviewing his victorious troops on the field, he was assassinated by Milosh Kabilovich, a Servian who was allowed to approach him on the plea of submission.

  • Murad maintained a show of friendly relations with the emperor John Palaeologus, while capturing his cities.

  • A review held by him in 1387 at Yeni Shehr was attended by the emperor, who, moreover, gave one of his daughters in marriage to Murad and the other two to his sons Bayezid and Yakub Chelebi.

  • At the time of Mahommed's death his eldest son Murad was at Amasia; and, as the troops had lately shown signs of insubordination, it was deemed advisable to conceal the news of the sultan's death and to send a part of the army across to Asia.

  • Shortly after Murad's accession the emperor Manuel, having applied in vain for the renewal of the annual subsidy paid him by the late sultan for retaining in safe custody Mustafa, an alleged son of Bayezid, released the pretender.

  • Adherents flocked to him, and for a whole year Murad was engaged in suppressing his attempts to usurp the throne.

  • Murad now laid siege to Constantinople to avenge himself on the emperor, and on the 24th of August the desperate valour of the defenders succeeded in driving back an assault led by a band of fanatical dervishes.

  • The siege was raised, however, not owing to the bravery of the defence, but because the appearance of another pretender, in the person of Murad's thirteen-year-old brother Mustafa, under the protection of the revolted princes of Karamania and Kermian, called the sultan to Asia.

  • Mustafa, delivered up by treachery, was hanged (1424); but Murad remained in Asia, restoring order in the provinces, while his lieutenants continued the war against the Greeks, Albanians and Walachians.

  • By 1426 the princes of Kermian and Karamania had submitted on honourable terms; and Murad was soon free to continue his conquests in Europe.

  • Meanwhile, again confronted by a rebellion of the prince of Karamania, Murad had crossed into Asia and reduced him to submission, granting him honourable terms, in view of the urgency of the peril in Europe.

  • On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).

  • In this emergency Murad was implored to return to the throne; to a second appeal he gave way, and crossing over with his Asiatic army from Anatoli Hissar he hastened to Varna.

  • Murad is said to have abdicated a second time, and to have been again recalled to power owing to a revolt of the Janissaries.

  • The latter years of Murad's reign were troubled by the successful resistance offered to his arms in Albania by Scanderbeg.

  • Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.

  • After completing his preparations, which included the casting of a monster cannon and the manufacture of enormous engines of assault, Mahom med Murad 1!., 1421-1451.

  • He was no more successful than Piri or his successor Murad in fighting the elements and the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf; but he was happier in his fate.

  • The regular troops comprised also armourers (jebeji), from 6000 to 8000 men, and six squadrons of cavalry; these were recruited in the same way as the Janissaries, and their numbers were raised by Murad III.

  • The character of Murad III., who succeeded his father Selim II.

  • He was a weakling, swayed by his favourites in the Murad III., harem, especially by his Venetian wife Safie; and, 1574-1595.

  • But this shortsighted policy is criticized by Turkish historians, who censure Murad III.

  • On the 16th of January 1 595 Murad III.

  • In spite of the internal corruption which, under Murad III., heralded the decay of the empire, the prestige of the Ottomans in Europe was maintained during his reign.

  • The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.

  • Mustafa 1., The war in Persia was terminated by the renewal 1617-1618 in 1618 of the treaty of 1611, whereby all the con- and quests effected by Murad III.

  • For a few months Mustafa was replaced on the throne; when he abdicated in L, favour of his nephew Murad IV.

  • Profiting by the and mutiny of the army, the Persians invaded Turkey, Murad IV., capturing Bagdad; at Constantinople and in the 1623-1640.

  • With difficulty the rebellion was suppressed; in 1733 the war with Persia was resumed, and after three years of fighting Nadir succeeded in 1736 in inducing Turkey to recognize him as shah of Persia and to restore the territory captured since the reign of Murad IV.

  • The war, which broke out in 1743, was waged with varying fortunes, and the peace by which it was concluded on the 5th of September 1746, beyond stipulating for a few privileges for Persian pilgrims to the holy places, altered nothing in the settlement arranged ten years before with Murad IV.

  • These stipulations of the treaty, which were in effect a confirmation of the firman granted in 1620 by Murad IV.

  • A conspiracy to bring about a change was hereupon formed by certain prominent statesmen, whose leaders were Midhat Pasha, Mehemed Rushdi Pasha and Mahmud Damad Pasha, the husband of a princess of the blood, sister to Prince Murad.

  • Murad V.

  • But the change of sultans brought no relief to the troubled state: Servia and Montenegro declared war, and in less than three months it had become evident that Murad was incapable of governing.

  • Murad's brother Abd-ul-Hamid was accordingly proclaimed sultan on the 31st of August 1876.

  • Sheikhi of Kermiyan, a contemporary of Mahommed I.and Murad II., wrote a lengthy and still esteemed mesnevi on the ancient Persian romance of Khusrev and Shirin; and about the same time Yaziji-oghlu gave to the world a long versified history of the Prophet, the Muha.mmediya.

  • The most notable prose work of this period is an old collection of stories, the History of the Forty Vezirs, said to have been compiled by a certain Sheikh-zada and dedicated to Murad II.

  • But Nef'i could revile as well as praise, and such was the bitterness of some of his satires that certain influential personages who came under his lash induced Murad IV.

  • 1599), the preceptor of Murad III., wrote a valuable history of the empire from the earliest W riters.

  • 1220, has remained closed since the capture of the city by Murad IV.

  • Eighteen years later, in 1638, it was besieged by Sultan Murad IV., with an army of 300,000 men and, after an obstinate resistance, forced to surrender, when, in defiance of the terms of capitulation, most of the inhabitants were massacred.

  • Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.

  • (1402-1421), and resumed its triumphal progress under Murad II.

  • At the diet of Buda, early in 1444, supplies were voted for the enterprise, and Wladislaus was on the point of quitting his camp at Szeged for the seat of war, when envoys from Sultan Murad arrived with the offer of a ten years' truce on such favourable conditions (they included the relinquishment of Servia, Walachia and Moldavia, and the payment of an indemnity) that Hunyadi persuaded the king to conclude (in July) a peace which gave him more than could reasonably be anticipated from the most successful campaign.

  • During the first three decades of the 1 9 th century it was overrun and depopulated by Kohan Beg and his son Murad Beg, chiefs of the Kataghan Usbegs of Kunduz.

  • When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Usbeg, Mahommed Amir Khan.

  • He made overtures to his younger brother Murad, governor of Gujarat, representing that neither of their elder brothers was worthy of the kingdom, that he himself had no temporal ambition, and desired only to place a fit monarch on the throne, and then to devote himself to religious exercises and make the pilgrimage to Mecca.

  • He therefore proposed to unite his forces to those of Murad, who would thus have no difficulty in making himself master of the empire while the two elder brothers were divided by their own strife.

  • Murad was completely deceived by these crafty representations, and at once accepted the offer.

  • Shuja was defeated by Dara's son, but the imperial forces under Jaswant Singh were completely routed by the united armies of Aurangzeb and Murad.

  • Murad was soon removed by assassination, and the way being thus cleared, Aurangzeb, with affected reluctance, ascended the throne in August 1658.

  • MURAD was the eldest son of Selim and succeeded his father in 1574.

  • For, though Sokolli remained in office until his assassination in October 1578,, his authority was undermined by the harem influences, which with Murad III.

  • Murad had none of the qualities of a.

  • Murad, who had welcomed the Persian War as a good opportunity for ridding himself of the presence of the janissaries, whom he dreaded, had soon cause to fear their triumphant return.

  • Murad died in 1595, leaving to his successor a legacy of war and anarchy.

  • It was under Murad III.

  • Murad IV >>

  • In 1595 Sultan Murad, son of the emperor Akbar, besieged Ahmednagar, and was bought off by the formal cession of Berar.

  • Murad, founding the city of Shahpur, fixed his seat at Berar, and after his death in 1598, and the conquest of the Deccan by Akbar, the province was united with Ahmednagar and Khandesh under the emperor's fifth son, Daniyal (d.

  • He was deposed on April 2 7, and sent to Salonika for internment and safe-keeping; and his successor, as Sultan Murad V., was proclaimed the same day.

  • The Persians occupied Mosul for a short time in 1623, until it was, soon afterwards, recovered by sultan Murad IV.

  • His nephew Murad V.

  • In the middle ages it was successively attacked by Serbs, Macedonians and Albanians; but it was in possession of the successors of Michael when the forces of the Sultan Murad appeared before it in 1430 (cf.

  • Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad I., until 1453, when Constantinople fell.

  • KHARPUT, the most important town in the Kharput (or Mamuret el-Aziz) vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at an altitude of 435 o ft., a few miles south of the Murad Su or Eastern Euphrates, and almost as near the source of the Tigris, on the SamsunSivas-Diarbekr road.

  • (1347-1403), Ottoman sultan, surnamed Yilderim or "Lightning," from the great rapidityof his movements, succeeded his father Murad I.

  • The present fortress was built in 1 57 8 by Sultan Murad III.

  • After taking many cities in Palestine Abul-Dhahab died, the cause being unknown; and Murad Bey (another of the deserters at Salihia) brought his forces back to Egypt (26th of May 1775).

  • Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.

  • Murad Bey attempted to resist, but was easily defeated; and he with Ibrahim decided to fly to Upper Egypt and await the trend of events.

  • In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.

  • Though the Khalif were hapless as Bayezid, cruel as Murad, or mad as Ibrahim, he is the shadow of God, and every Moslem must leap up at his call ou will say, The Egyptian is more ungrateful than a dog, which remembers the hand that fed him.

  • MURAD II.

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