or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
Tom DeLeo continued doing legwork on the Wassermann case, a curious jurisdictional mess with the Federal boys in charge but legions of local flat feet in scattered municipalities doing their grunt work.
Dunedin is governed by a mayor and corporation, and most of its numerous suburbs are separate municipalities.
With the growth of the central power and of that of the municipalities the vidames gradually lost all importance, and the title became merely honorary See A.
Bureaux dassistance exist in every commune, and are managed by the combined committees of the hospices and the bureaux de bienfaisance or by one of these in municipalities, where only one of those institutions exists.
Since July 1899, when the post office in Salem was made a sub-station of that of Winston, the cities (officially two independent municipalities) have been known by postal and railway authorities as Winston-Salem.
Thus grew up a number of municipalities - practically self-governing republics - semiindependent feudatories in the feudal state.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.
The old Celtic tribes were broken up: instead, municipalities of Roman citizens were founded to rule their territories.
Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old tribal districts.
The chefs-lieux of the tribes became practically, though not officially, municipalities, and many of these towns reached considerable size and magnificence of public buildings.
Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos.
was supplied by the state, 23% by the zemstvos, 351% by the village communities and the municipalities and 112% by private persons.
The middle schools are maintained by the state, which contributes 25% of the expenditure of the classical and technical schools, by the fees of the pupils (30%), and by donations from the zemstvos and municipalities.
Materials for forming such an estimate no doubt exist, but before doing so we have to study in infinite detail a vast number of separate manors, municipalities or other separate economic areas.
In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions.
Boston was one of the first municipalities of the country to make provision for the separate treatment of juvenile offenders; in 1906 a juvenile court was established.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
Both kinds of functions were discharged by slaves, not only at Rome, but in the rural and provincial municipalities.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
These laws strictly defined the powers of the president; more clearly separated the executive departments, so as to lessen friction and jealousies; reformed the courts; reformed administrative routine; and increased the strength of the provinces at the expense of the municipalities.
For administrative purposes, Upper Austria is divided into two autonomous municipalities, Linz (58,778) the capital, and Steyr (17,592) and 12 districts.
In 1903, after the census had been taken, the population of the town was more than doubled by the addition of the municipalities of La Paz (pop. 5724), Mandurriao (pop. 4482), Molo (pop. 8551) and Jaro (pop. 10,681); in 1908 Jaro again became a separate town.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447) Other principal towns are: Baden (12,447) Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Mddling (15,304), Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchen (10,831), St Pdlten (14,510) and Klosterneuburg (11,595).
The constitution provides for the autonomy of the municipalities in order to safeguard the permanence of representative institutions.
The census returns are for municipalities, and not for cities proper.
Both the national and state governments exercise the right to impose stamp and consumption taxes, and the municipalities likewise are permitted to impose licence and consumption taxes.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
Plan of ' Main Entrance II Impluvium Bath IV Principal Hall 'V birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula, while the Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
The suburbs comprise the following distinct municipalities, Alexandria, with a population in 1901 of 9341; Annandale, 8 349; Ashfield, 14,329; Balmain, 30,076; Bexley, 3079; Botany, 33 8 3; North Botany, 3772; Burwood, 7521; Camperdown, 7931 Canterbury, 4226; Concord, 2818;2818; Darlington, 3784; Drummoyne, 4244; Enfield, 2 4 97;97; Erskineville, 6059; Glebe, 19,220;, Hunter's Hill, 4232; Hurstville, 4019; Kogarah, 3892; Lane Cove, 1918; Leichhardt, 17,454; Manly, 5035; Marrickville, 18, 775; Eastwood, 713; Mosman, 5691; Newtown, 22,598;22,598; North Sydney, 22,040; Paddington, 21,984; Petersham, 15,307; Randwick, 9753; Redfern, 24,2,9; Rockdale, 7857; Ryde, 3222; St Peter's, 5906; Vaucluse, 1152; Waterloo, 9609;9609; Waverley, 12,342; Willoughby, 6004; Woollahra, 12,351.
As regards local government, the country is divided into municipalities or counties, which possess a certain amount of self-government.
These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
The debt of London, like that of other municipalities, has considerably increased and shows a tendency to go on increasing, although certain safeguards against too ready borrowing have been imposed.
In March1298-1299letters were sent from " the Mayor and Commune of the City of London " to the municipalities of Bruges, Caen and Cambray.
On the other hand, the gild merchant was certainly an official organ or department of the borough administration, and it exerted considerable influence upon the economic and corporative growth of the English municipalities.
While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close "select body."
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 21 districts and 4 towns with autonomous municipalities, namely Graz (pop. 138,370), the capital, Cilli (6743), Marburg (24,501) and Pettau (4227).
There are also on the Rand, and dependent on the gold-mining, three towns possessing separate municipalities - Germiston and Boksburg, respectively 9 m.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.
Though these are managed by various municipalities, there is practically no break in the buildings for the whole distance.
In 1888 the number of licences to be granted in municipalities voting in favour of their issue was limited to one for each moo inhabitants, except in Boston, where one licence may be issued for every 500 inhabitants.
The vote varies from year to year, and it is not unusual for a certain number of municipalities to change from " licence " to " no licence," and vice versa.
Especially has the commonwealth undertaken certain noteworthy enterprises as the agent of the several municipalities in the immediate vicinity of Boston, constituting what is known as the Metropolitan District; as, for example, in bringing water thither from the Nashua River at Clinton, 40 m.
Although the tendency in Massachusetts is towards chartering as cities " towns " which have a population of 12,000 or more, the democratic institution of the town-meeting persists in many large municipalities which are still technically towns.'
In 1894 manual training was made a part of the curriculum in all municipalities having 20,000 inhabitants.
Municipalities are incorporated under general laws, and cities are divided into three classes, the first class including those having a population of 20,000 or more, the second class those having a population between 10,000 and 20,000, the third class those having a population between 1500 and 10,000.
The city and Ballarat East, separated only by the Yarrowee Creek, are distinct municipalities.
For a long period the different parts were under separate municipalities, the new town uniting with the old in 1560, and the Bergstadt with both in 1824.
Of these municipalities Wyandotte, the oldest, was originally settled by the Wyandotte Indians in 1843; it was platted and settled by whites in 1857; and was incorporated as a town in 1858, and as a city in 1859.
The larger municipalities with the population of each in 1905 were: Fargo (12,512), Grand Forks (10,127), Jamestown (5093), Bismarck, the capital, (4913), Minot (4125), Valley City (4059), Dickinson (3188), Wahpeton (2742), Mandan (2714), Grafton (2423) and Devils Lake (2367); in 1905 there were fifteen other municipalities each with a population of more than 1000.
The chief source of revenue for the state, counties and municipalities is the general property tax.
There are boards of equalization and review for the state, counties and municipalities.
There are Zoological Gardens at Melbourne (founded in 1857), Adelaide, Sydney and Perth, and small gardens at Wellington, New Zealand, supported partly by private societies and partly by the municipalities.
At Lyons and at Marseilles in France there are beautifully situated Gardens with small collections, in each case owned and controlled by the municipalities.
The Convention also sent representatives on mission into Vendee to effect the purging of the municipalities, the reorganization of the national guards in the republican towns, and the active prosecution of the revolutionary propaganda.
The municipalities are divided into six classes according to population, a classification which permits considerable special local legislation in spite of the constitutional inhibition.
Some of these suburbs are independent cities, others separate municipalities.
Melbourne has a complete tramway system; all the chief suburbs are connected with the city by cable trams. The tramways are controlled by a trust, representing twelve of the metropolitan municipalities.
The states are generally subdivided into distritos (districts) or partidos, and these into municipios (municipalities) which correspond to the townships of the American system.
The Federal District consists of thirteen municipalities.
Of these, 603 were supported by the national government, 5240 by municipalities, 2260 by private enterprise, 117 by the Catholic church, and the remainder by Protestant denominations.
Of these 6488 were supported by the national and state governments and 2706 by the municipalities.
The revenues and expenditures of the states and municipalities in 1904, the latest date available, aggregated as follows: Revenue.
Two classes of praefecti are found in the municipalities under the Empire, both of which are to be distinguished from the officials who bore that name in the municipia before the Social War.
In the municipalities, as in Rome, provision was made out of the public funds for feeding the poorest part of the population, and providing a supply of corn which could be bought by ordinary citizens at a moderate price.
And the self-governing communities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors.
A peculiarly notable form of this special or private bill legislation is that of dealing by special statutes with the governmental forms and details of management of municipalities; and the control exercised by the state legislatures over city governments is not only a most important branch of legislative business, but at the same time a means of power to scheming politicians and of enrichment to greedy ones.
On this account the subordinate civil service of the state is not large compared with that of either the Federal government or of the large municipalities, and only in a few states does it possess any importance.
The cities, towns and municipalities resort to it to supply their local needs, and there is a tendency, especially pronounced in Ontario on account of the excellence of her municipal system, to devolve the burden of educational payments, and others more properly provincial, upon the municipal authorities on the plea of decentralization.
There are 1 Owing to the custom which holds in Georgia of choosing state senators in rotation from each of the counties making up a senatorial district, it happened in 1907 that few cities were represented directly by senators chosen from municipalities.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
To some extent it was definitely encouraged by the Roman government, which here, as elsewhere, founded towns peopled with Roman citizens - generally discharged legionaries - and endowed them with franchise and constitution like those of the Italian municipalities.
Five modern cities, Colchester, Lincoln, York, Gloucester and St Albans, stand on the sites, and in some fragmentary fashion bear the names of five Roman municipalities, founded by the Roman government with special charters and constitutions.
None of them rivals the greater municipalities of other provinces.
Similar municipal buildings existed in most towns of the western Empire, whether they were full municipalities or (as probably Calleva was) of lower rank.
Nor was his failure due to lack of activity or energy, but rather to the insuperable obstacles in his path - the physical configuration of Italy, and, above all, the invincible repugnance of the Italian municipalities to submit to the mastery of a religious power.
For administrative purposes Silesia is divided into 9 districts and 3 towns with autonomous municipalities: Troppau, the capital, Bielitz and Friedek.
Thus he rewarded the Orthodox upstart, Prince Constantine Ortrogski, for his victory at Orsza by making him palatine of Troki, despite determined opposition from the Catholics; severely punished all disturbers of the worship of the Greek schismatics; protected the Jews in the country places, and insisted that the municipalities of the towns should be composed of an equal number of Catholics and Orthodox Greeks.
- The following table shows the population of the province: - 1 The name given to the rural municipalities.
Municipal ownership does not prevail to any extent, and in the larger cities the powers of certain great corporations have tended to cause friction, but such matters as the provision of electric power and light are gradually being taken in hand both by the municipalities and by the province, and a railway and municipal board appointed by the local legislature has certain powers over the railways and electric tramlines.
The financial position of the municipalities in Denmark is generally good.
But the general conclusion seems to be that these changes were always in the direction of further centralization, increasing the power of the chief ministers and their offices, bringing all more directly under the control of the Crown, and in some cases limiting the powers and appropriating the funds of local municipalities.
Invercargill became a municipality in 1871, and there are five suburban municipalities.
Its bench of jurats (Schoppenstuhl) became celebrated, and "Magdeburg law" (Magdeburger Recht), securing the administrative independence of municipalities, was adopted in many parts of Germany, Poland and Bohemia.
These powers include direct taxation within the province in order to raise revenue for provincial purposes and the control of municipalities and other local bodies, and of " elementary education " - which embraces all education other than university.
A general law of 1872 provides for the organization of municipalities, only cities and villages being recognized, though there are still some "towns" which have failed to reorganize under the new law.
City charters are granted only to such municipalities as have a population of at least 1000.
The rise of the towns in Gelderland began in the 13th century, river commerce and markets being the chief cause of their prosperity, but they never attained to the importance of the larger cities in Holland and Utrecht, much less to that of the great Flemish municipalities.
EAST MAITLAND and West, adjoining municipalities in Northumberland county, New South Wales, Australia, 120 m.
The large towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras have municipalities of this character, and there are large numbers of municipal committees and local boards all over the country.
of the Hudson river, occupies a pleasant site somewhat higher than that of its neighbouring municipalities, and commands a fine view of the surrounding country.
The Philippine " municipality " is an administrative area, often sparsely settled, is often called a town, and may be compared to a New England township; the municipalities are the units into which the provinces are divided.
Of the 75,116 born in the United States, That is, those in the two municipalities (Cheyenne and Laramie) having a population in 1900 of more than 8000.
Exemptions at first granted to the citizens were removed, while the cost of local government which continually increased was placed on the middle-class of the towns as represented by the decuriones, or members of the municipalities.
Under the constraining power of the Roman Empire the older city states were reduced to the position of municipalities, and their financial administration became dependent on the control of the Emperor - as is abundantly illustrated in the correspondence of Pliny and Trajan.
A poll tax is levied by the state for school purposes and may also be levied by municipalities.
Small forces of local policemen are supported by various municipalities.
There is no land tax, and licence or business taxes are levied by the municipalities for local purposes.
The criollos as a rule filled the posts in the municipalities (cabildos), disposed of by sale, so that when the revolution broke out the cabildos naturally became the centres of the movement.
The first political act of national importance of the new government was the grant of control to the municipalities, which hitherto had possessed little power to direct local affairs, and were not even permitted to dispose of the municipal revenues to any important amount without first obtaining the co,nsent of the central government.
Most of the suburbs are separate municipalities, namely, Stockton, Carrington, Wickham, Hamilton, Merewether, Adamstown, Waratah, New Lambton, Lambton, Wallsend and Plattsburg.
In Belgian municipalities the burgomasters are the heads of the force, which is under their control.
The status is known as the ius Caeritum, and Caere was the first of a class of such municipalities (Th.
Sancho also endeavoured to foster immigration and agriculture, by granting estates to the military orders and municipalities on condition that the occupiers should cultivate or colonize their lands.
The monarchy owed its triumph to its championship of national interests, to the support of the municipalities and military orders, and to the prestige gained by the royal armies in the Moorish and Castilian wars.
The schools are largely under the control of the municipalities, though nearly half of them are maintained by the national government, by the Church and by private means.
For administrative purposes Bohemia is divided into ninety-four districts and two autonomous municipalities, Prague (pop. 204,478), the capital, and Reichenberg (34,204).
He declared that their ancient privileges should be revised - a measure that practically signified a broad confiscation of lands that belonged to the municipalities.
Pop. of the municipality (1903) 1 4,945; after the census of 1903 was taken there were united to Vigan the municipalities of Bantay (pop. 7020), San Vicente (pop. 5060), Santa Catalina (pop. 5625) and Coayan (pop. 6201), making the total population of the municipality 38,851.
along the Hugh, and is bounded elsewhere by the Circular Canal and the Salt Lakes, and by suburbs which form separate municipalities.
In 1905, 67.1% of the factories were in municipalities having a population of at least 8000 in 1900, and their product was 74.1% (in value) of the total.
In 1910 that part of the law permitting municipalities to adopt these rules through their governing bodies was declared unconstitutional; but municipalities may adopt them by popular vote.
The counties and municipalities derive their revenues chiefly from taxes on real and personal property.
Counties and municipalities may tax property within their jurisdiction belonging to railways but not actually used for railway purposes.
The poll tax is restricted almost entirely to municipalities, which devote the proceeds to roads and schools.
Passenger stations and depot buildings were included as part of the " main stem " until 1906, when their exclusion gave considerable added revenue to the municipalities.
The various local bodies are municipalities or shires, the former is the term applied to closely peopled areas of small extent endowed with complete local government, and the latter is the designation of the more extensive districts, thinly peopled, to which a less complete system of local government has been granted.
The Britons burnt the Roman municipalities of Verulam and Colchester, the mart of London, and several military posts, massacred "over 70,000" Romans and Britons friendly to Rome, and almost annihilated the Ninth Legion marching from Lincoln to the rescue.
Of the remaining members seven are nominated on the recommendation of the Calcutta corporation, groups of municipalities, groups of district boards, selected public associations and the senate of Calcutta university.
In 1905 the eleven municipalities with a population of at least 8000 each (including the seven above, and Carthage, Moberly, Sedalia and Webb City) produced, under the "factory system," goods valued at $335,43 1, 97 8.
These fifteen departments are subdivided into provinces, 92 in all, and these into municipalities, of which there are 740.
The most important of these suburbs, which form separate municipalities, are Woodstock (28,990), Wynberg (18, 477), and Claremont (14,972).
Municipalities at the Cape date from 1836, and are now, for the most part, subject to the provisions of the General Municipal Act of 5882.
Certain municipalities have, however, obtained special acts for their governance.
In 1907 there were 119 municipalities in the province.
Under the act of 1882 the municipalities were given power to levy annually an owner's rate assessed upon the capital value of rateable property, and a tenant's rate assessed upon the annual value of such property.
The receipts of the municipalities in 5907 amounted to £1,430,000.
At the end of 1905 the total indebtedness of the municipalities was £5,775,420, and the value of assessed property within the municipal bounds £ 53,948,224.
Oregon was thus the first American state to grant complete home rule to its municipalities.
After years of conflict it succeeded indeed in placing on the statute book a measure dealing with Fiscal Irish municipalities.
The two great Whig measures, dealing with the church and the municipalities, had only been passed after years of controversy, and in a shape which deprived them of many expected advantages.
In 1905, out of a total factory product of $411,139,681, $259,420,044 was the value of goods made in factories in the twenty-two municipalities of the state, with a population (1900) of at least 8000; but only 36.3% of the total number of factories were in urban districts.
Power of the municipalities and popular clubs.
The capital is Parahyba (q.v.), and other important towns, with the populations (in 1890) of their municipalities, which include large rural districts and sometimes several other towns, are: Arcia (26,S90); Bananeiras (20,058); Campina Grande (21,475); Guarabira (26,625); Mananguape (20,754); Pilar (10,133, town); Pombal (12,804); and Souza (11,135).
Every department is divided into districts (srez), administered by the sub-prefect (sreski nachalnik); and the districts are sub-divided into communes or municipalities, each having its salaried mayor (kmet or knez), who presides over a council elected on a basis of population.
The communes and municipalities pay the entire cost of primary education, except the salaries of teachers, which, with the cost of higher education, are paid by the state.
Since the above date there have, consequently, been two municipalities at Shanghai, the French and the amalgamated British and American settlements, to which the original regulations continued to apply.
Municipal government machinery is prescribed by a general state law which provides for the acquirement by municipalities of waterworks and lightingplants, the levying and collection of taxes and?
Under it the state bought liquors, graded them in accordance with a chemical analysis, and sold them to consumers in packages of not less than one half-pint; the dispensaries were open from sunrise to sunset, no sales were made to minors or drunkards, and no liquor was drunk on the premises; there was a state dispensary commissioner and a state board of control; and the profits were divided between the state, the counties and the municipalities, the share of the state being devoted to educational purposes.
For administrative purposes Croatia-Slavonia is divided into 8 rural counties, already enumerated; besides the 4 urban counties, or municipalities of Agram, Semlin, Warasdin and Esseg.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 78 districts and 2 autonomous municipalities - Lemberg (pop. 159,618), the capital, and Cracow (91,310).
The harassed population, the municipalities which under cover of civil war had resumed the right of self-government, and the parlements elated with their social importance and their security of position, were not alone in abandoning duty and obedience.
undermined as far as he could the right of control by the states-general, the right of remonstrance by the parlements, and the communal franchises, while ensuring the impoverishment of the municipalities by his fiscal methods.
Thus the progress of the Revolution, so far, had left the mass of the people still excluded from any constitutional influence on the government, which was in the hands of the well-to-do classes, which also controlled the National Guard and the municipalities.
By this document the dukes of Brabant undertook to maintain the integrity of the duchy, and not to wage war, make treaties, or impose taxes without the consent of their subjects, as represented by the municipalities.
The primary schools for both sexes are kept up by the municipalities, at an annual cost of about 1,000,000, to which the state contributes a small subvention.
Augustus also accelerated the Romanization of the land by planting in it many municipalities (coloniae) of discharged soldiers, such for example as Augusta Emerita (mod.
But if there lay in this revival of energy and character the germs of a vigorous national life, for the time being Spain was thrown hack into the state of division from which it had been drawn by the Romanswith the vital difference that the race now possessed the tradition of the Roman law, the municipalities, and one great common organization in the Christian Church.
The latter and a strong and influential body of Conservatives, chiefly young politicians, dissented from the easy-going views of Romero Robledo and of Canovas on the expediency of reforms to correct the notorious and old-standing abuses and corruption of the municipalities, especially of Madrid.
For local government purposes Tasmania is divided into municipalities, town boards, and road trusts.
The outstanding loans of municipalities amount to £697.133, of which the greater portion is represented by the indebtedness of the two chief cities, Hobart and Launceston.
If municipalities can borrow cheaply from the Bank of Canada they won't borrow cheaply from the Bank of Canada they won't borrow from the private banks.
For those municipalities which have not matriculated armory, a brief description of any symbol used is provided.
municipalityf Sao Paolo including the municipalities has approximately 18 million inhabitants.
municipalityanada has far fewer suburban municipalities than the U.S. does.
municipalityinistrations serve as a link between central and local government, which comprises 434 municipalities.
municipalityces were operated jointly with Midland Red and neighboring municipalities so its busses were seen well outside the boro.
municipality protests cover 11 municipalities, two of which it won.
municipalitys="ex">Many municipalities have already banned possession of any snake larger than eight or ten feet.
Horsens is another new municipality where a town is being merged with a number of smaller rural municipalities.
municipalityGovernment Network was set up by the Council of European Municipalities and Regions in 1998.
municipalitya Tower Repeater has the potential to tie in all 19 Brunswick county municipalities to the main complex.
municipality was preceded by a large-scale area based social experiment where 25% of the country's municipalities were assigned to the reform.
municipality of the first municipalities in the country is drastically phasing out pesticides on its county golf courses beginning this spring.
municipality it's one of the northernmost municipalities in the world.
The revolutionary upsurge of the masses turned over the municipalities to workers ' committees.
The power of the Flemish cities rose to its height during the ascendancy of Jacques van Artevelde (1285-1345), the famous citizen-statesman of Ghent, but after his downfall the mutual jealousies of the cities undermined their strength, and with the crushing defeat of Roosebeke (1382) in which Philip van Artevelde perished, the political greatness of the municipalities had entered upon its decline.
By 1907 altogether 59 local authorities had examined the proposition of establishing telephone systems after 1899, and licences were granted to local authorities at Brighton, Belfast, Chard, Glasgow, Grantham, Huddersfield, Hull, Portsmouth, Swansea, Tunbridge Wells, Oldham, Scarborough and Hartle - pool, but only six municipalities proceeded with the business.
The unsatisfactory financial condition of the Florence, Rome and Naples municipalities necessitated state help, but the Chamber nevertheless proceeded with a light heart (23rd February 1881) to sanction the issue of a foreign loan for 26,000,000, with a view to the abolition of the forced currency, thus adding to the burdens of the exchequer a load which three years later again dragged Italy into the gulf of chronic deficit.
Later one or two municipalities were founded - Colonia Agrippinensis at Cologne (A.D.
30) in the church of Jerusalem, and most likely the name and office were adopted from the Jewish municipalities, perhaps from the Jewish synagogues (see Priest).
Hungary proper .is divided into sixty-three rural, and - including Fiume - twenty-six urban municipalities (see section on Administrative Divisions).
To the repressive measures of the government - press censorship, curtailment of the right of public meeting, dismissal of recalcitrant officials, and dragooning of disaffected county assemblies and municipalities - the Magyar nation opposed a sturdy refusal to pay taxes, to supply recruits or to carry on the machinery of administration.
The "Clergy Reserves" were secularized in 1854, and in 1851 began a railway development, the excitement and extravagance caused by which led in 1857 to a financial crisis and the bankruptcy of various municipalities, but which on the whole produced great and lasting benefit.
There is no legislative body in any of these political divisions, nor any administrative official directly representing the people, with this exception: under the law of the 22nd of December 1891, municipalities, or communes, are created and invested with certain specified powers of local government affecting local police services, sanitation, local improvements, primary instruction, industrial and business regulations, &c.; they are authorized to borrow money for sanitary improvements, road-making, education, &c., and to impose certain specified taxes for their support; these municipalities elect their own alcaldes, or mayors, and municipal councils, the latter having legislative powers within the limits of the law mentioned.
Nominally, the import duties are moderate, so much so that Bolivia is sometimes called a " free-trade country," but this is a misnomer, for in addition to the schedule rates of io to 40% ad valorem on imports, there are a consular fee of i-% for the registration of invoices exceeding 200 bolivianos, a consumption tax of 10 centavos per quintal (46 kilogrammes), fees for viseing certificates to accompany merchandise in transit, special " octroi " taxes on certain kinds of merchandise controlled by monopolies (spirits, tobacco, &c.), and the import and consumption taxes levied by the departments and municipalities.
those in the two municipalities - Salt Lake City and Ogden - having a population in 1900 of at least 8000), increased in number from 205 to 256 or 24.9%, and rural establishments decreased in number from 370 to 350 (5.4%); the capitalization of urban establishments increased from $4,212,972 to $7,700,750 (82.8%), and that of the rural from $9,006,067 to $18,303,361 (103.2%); the average number of wageearners in urban establishments increased from 2832 to 3859 (36.3%), and those in rural establishments from 2581 to 4193 (62.5%); the value of the products of urban establishments increased from $5,521,140 to $10,541,040 (90.9%) and that of rural establishments from $12,460,508 to $28,385,424 (127.8 (Y0).
Many municipalities already offer good recycling programs.
In recent years, more businesses and municipalities have mandated recycling programs, which has been excellent news and created a positive impact.
Some municipalities also give special tax breaks to alternative energy systems.
Some municipalities also have regulations about how many dogs you can own.
Most municipalities charge a nominal application fee in the range of $25.00 to $50.00.
Many municipalities do require homeowners who have a pool to install a fence around the pool area.
Additionally, many municipalities are changing property tax requirements, helping with home improvements, providing heating and cooling assistance, and other services to encourage seniors to stay in their homes for as long as possible.
Municipalities can choose to grant tax relief to seniors on a sliding scale.
You can look through jobs located in your Province; by specific department like the Atomic Energy of Canada or Canada Revenue Agency departments; and even by Municipalities, which can range from small towns to large cities.
The federal government, most state governments, local municipalities and even private parties and nonprofits offer funds or grants for people who are trying to purchase a first home.
You can rent floats that are already constructed from some municipalities and parade organizers.
The law also does not apply to state governments or local municipalities.
The Insurance Services Office (ISO) is responsible for collecting and analyzing information from local municipalities to determine its rating.
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