A red brick municipal building stood at the far end of the street ahead of us.
ALBANY, a municipal town in the county of Plantagenet, West Australia, on Princess Royal Harbour, a branch of King George Sound, 352 m.
In 1 9 05 he was Democratic candidate for mayor of New York on the Municipal Ownership ticket, and four years later on the Independence League ticket; in 1906 he was candidate for governor of New York on the Democratic and Independence League tickets, in every instance being defeated.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
There are municipal technical schools.
GALASHIELS, a municipal and police burgh of Selkirkshire, Scotland.
The principal structures include the municipal buildings, corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market cross.
DUFFTOWN, a municipal and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Fiddich, 64 m.
supervision of markets,policing,land-transfer, &c., are carried on by a mayor and two assistants, to whom the municipal council delegates its powers.
The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors, and has an area of 2751 acres.
It is evident from the fact of thirteen inhabitants being allowed to hold the manor that the town had some kind of incorporation in the 17th century, although its incorporation charter was not granted until 1899, when it was created a municipal borough.
In 1832 he was knighted, and after serving as one of the municipal corporations commissioners, became deputykeeper of the public records in 1838, holding this office until his death at Hampstead on the 6th of July 1861.
THORNABY-ON-TEES, a municipal borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 3 m.
The town was formerly known as South Stockton, and is still included in the parliamentary borough of Stockton (it is within the Cleveland division of the county), but was incorporated as a separate municipal borough in 1892.
On his return to Lyons, Chalier was the first to be named member of the municipal bureau.
The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242.
In the local and municipal politics of Berlin again he took a leading part, and as a member of the municipal council was largely responsible for the transformation which came over the city in the last thirty years of the 19th century.
HUMACAO, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, in Porto Rico, 46 m.
Pop. (1899) of the city, 4428; and of the municipal district, 14,313.
A fine bridge over the Trent, and the municipal buildings, were provided by Lord Burton.
LANARK, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and county town of Lanarkshire, Scotland, standing on high ground about half a mile from the right bank of the Clyde, 31 m.
In the early municipal constitution ex-magistrates passed automatically into the senate of their town; but at a later date this order was reversed, and membership of the senate became a qualification for the magistracy.
This change was largely due to the heavy financial burdens which the Roman government laid on the municipal senates.
municipal jealousy of church power.
The municipal authority in those times claimed the right to exercise a censorship over the citizens' private life.
Ecclesiastical affairs were, as a matter of course, wholly under the management of the cantonal and municipal authorities, and Zwingli was content that it should be so.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
for each man, woman, and child in the republic. About 71% of this charge was on account of national expenditures, and 29% provincial and municipal expenditures.
It was endowed by its founder with a cabildo (corporation) and full Spanish municipal privileges.
Both mayors and deputy mayors are elected by and from among members of the municipal council for four years.
The local affairs of the commune are decided by the municipal council, and its decisions become operative after the expiration of a month, save in matters which involve interests transcending those of the commune.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
The municipal police is divided into two principal branchesthe service in uniform of the agents de police and the service out of uniform of ins pecteurs de police.
In Paris the municipal police are divided among the twenty arrondissements, which the uniform police patrol.
In the commune an official known as the receveur municipal receives all moneys due to it, and, subject to the authorization of the mayor, makes all payments due from it.
Communal Finances.The budget of the commune is prepared by the mayor, voted by the municipal council and approved by the prefect.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
Primary courses for adults are instituted by the prefect on the recommendation of the municipal council and academy inspector.
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
A proportion of the sums payable in return for concessions of land in municipal cemeteries.
The municipal government is housed in an ancient tobacco factory converted to public uses, and a fine old Capuchin convent now serves as a public hospital.
The last houses the provincial antiquarian museum and the municipal library of 70,000 volumes.
Although under the sway of the dukes of Pomerania, the city was able to maintain a marked degree of independence, which is still apparent in its municipal privileges.
The non-incorporated members are within the municipal jurisdiction of the ports to which they are attached; but the corporate members are as free within their own liberties as the individual ports themselves.
The so-called "Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.
from Kemp Town on the east to Hove (a separate municipal borough) on the west.
There are municipal schools of science, technology and art.
There is no municipal water-supply, and the main drain of the city discharges into the lower pool of Siloam, which has become an open cesspit.
In the north also the 13th century was rich in municipal charters.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
ASTON MANOR, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Warwickshire, England, adjoining Birmingham on the north-east.
At the southern end of the boulevard de la Republique is the square de la Republique, formerly the place Bresson, in which is the municipal theatre; at the other extremity of the boulevard is the place du Gouvernement, which is planted on three sides with a double row of plane trees and is the fashionable resort for evening promenade.
HOVE, a municipal borough of Sussex, England, adjoining the watering-place of Brighton on the west, on the London, Brighton, & South Coast railway.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1898, includes the parishes of Hove and Aldrington, of which the first is within the parliamentary borough of Brighton, but the second is in the Lewes division of the county.
PUDSEY, a municipal borough in the Pudsey parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 6 m.
Carro, Santerre general de la republique francaise (Paris, 1847), compiled from Santerre's MS. notes; P. Robiquet, Le Personnel municipal de Paris pendant la Revolution (Paris, 1890); C. L.
CHATHAM, a port and municipal and parliamentary borough of Kent, England, on the right bank of the Medway, 34 m.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
The Tunbridge Wells and Swansea municipal undertakings were subsequently sold to the National Telephone Company, and the Glasgow and Brighton undertakings to the Post Office.
Hull and Portsmouth were the only municipal telephone systems working in 1907.
The Association of Municipal Corporations and the London County Council, on the other hand, considered the terms of purchase to be too favourable to the company.
FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1181 or 1182-1226), founder of the Franciscans, was born in 1181 or 1182 at Assisi, one of the independent municipal towns of Umbria.
In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business administrations and opposed to partisan nominations.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
The provincial council elects a provincial commission and the communal council a municipal council from among its own members; these smaller bodies carry on the business of the larger while they are not sitting.
The law considers as charitable institutions (opere pie) all poorhouses, almshouses and institutes which partly or wholly give help to able-bodied or infirm paupers, or seek to improve their moral and economic condition; and also the Congregazioni di caritd (municipal charity boards existing in every commune, and composed of ~embers elected by the municipal council), which administer funds destined for the poor in general.
The syndic (sindaco) or chief magistrate of the commune was appointed by the king for three years, and he was assisted by a municipal junta.
the so-called guardie di pubblica sicurezza, the carabinieri being really a military force; only the largest towns maintain a municipal police force), charities, education, &c., in case such expenditure is neglected by the communal authorities.
Among the centrifugal forces which determined the future of the Italian race must be reckoned, first and foremost, the new spirit of municipal independence.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
All they claim is municipal autonomy; the right to manage their own affairs within the city walls, to fight their battles as they choose, and to follow their several ends unchecked.
The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.
The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.
The French authorities, under whose eyes the massacre was perpetrated, did nothing to prevent or repress it, and the mayor of Marseilles even refused to admit the wounded Italian workmen to the municipal hospital.
Here and there it was based upon a bastard Socialism, ~ in other places it was made a means of municipal ~ party warfare under the guidance of the local mafia, and in some districts it was simply popular effervescence against the local octrois on.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
At the elections for the local bodies the Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal councils and obtained the majority in some.
MUSSELBURGH, a municipal and police burgh of Midlothian, Scotland, 52 m.
Auckland is under municipal government.
STRATFORD-ON-AVON, a market town and municipal borough in the Stratford-on-Avon parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England; on a branch line of the Great Western railway and on the East & West Junction railway, in connexion with which it is served from London by the Great Central (922 m.) and the London & North-Western railways.
A large municipal electric-lighting plant was completed in 1908.
of Cologne and contiguous to the Belgian and Dutch frontiers, to which its municipal boundaries extend.
It was restored in 1889 to accommodate the municipal archives.
In 1450 an insurrection led to the admission of the gilds to a share in the municipal government.
ABINGDON, a market town and municipal borough in the Abingdon parliamentary division of Berkshire, England, 6 m.
The town-hall contains the municipal library, collec tions of tapestry, portraits and antiquities, and valuable archives relating to the town and province.
Kampen is the seat of a Christian Reformed theological school, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a municipal school of design, and a large orphanage.
There are few or no local taxes, the municipal chest being filled by the revenues derived from the fertile delta-land, the Kampeneiland, which is always being built up at the mouth of the Ysel.
It is administered by an elective municipal council with a civil service administrator as mayor.
Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
Chieti, q.v.], the chief town of the Marrucini, the whole of whose territory was placed under its municipal jurisdiction by the Romans, after the "Social War."
The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
LERWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Shetland, Scotland, the most northerly town in the British Isles.
LOCHGILPHEAD, a municipal and police burgh of Argyllshire, Scotland, at the head of Loch Gilp, a small arm on the western side of Loch Fyne.
(2) the zemstvos in the 34 governments of Russia proper, (3) the municipal dumas.
The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma.
Under Alexander III., however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos.
In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
Indeed, it was not so much a principality as a municipal republic of the Venetian type.
cessor Basil followed in his footsteps, and dealt with 1505the municipal republic of Pskov was Ivan had dealt 1533.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
Even municipal institutions, which had never shown much vitality, were subjected to similar restrictions.
carried the scheme a step further by the creation of elected provincial assemblies (zemstvos), to which in 1870 elected municipal councils (dumas) were added.
4 In November, with the tacit consent of the police, a private assembly of eminent members zemst- of local zemstvos and municipal dumas was held vos.
Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in 1274.
A.) Financial Organization The methods of financing railway enterprises, both new projects and existing lines, have been influenced very largely by the attitude of the state and of municipal authorities.
Hadersleben is first mentioned in 1228, and received municipal rights from Duke Waldemar II.
The archiepiscopal palace and Museo Civico, as well as the municipal buildings, have some valuable paintings.
The Michaelskirche, 12th-century Romanesque (restored), on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of a Benedictine monastery secularized in 1803, which now contains the Biirgerspital, or alms-house, and the museum and municipal art collections.
In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
MOSSLEY, a market town and municipal borough in the Prestwich parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 102 m.
The town, though frequently the centre for medieval assizes and inquisitions, never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, but was governed by two constables, elected in the manorial court.
HARWICH, a municipal borough and seaport in the Harwich parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the extremity of a small peninsula projecting into the estuary of the Stour and Orwell, 70 m.
The system of municipal and communal government remains practically unchanged.
LYMINGTON, a municipal borough and seaport in the New Forest parliamentary division of Hampshire, England, 98 m.
HONITON, a market town and municipal borough in the Honiton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, pleasantly situated on rising ground on the left bank of the Otter, 162 m.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.
The municipal borough includes the western and part of the Bermondsey divisions of the parliamentary borough of Southwark, and the borough of Newington, divided into the western and Walworth divisions; each division returning one member.
He became a member of the municipal council of Paris in 1882, and vice-president in 1888-1889.
BECCLES, a market town and municipal borough, in the Lowestoft parliamentary division of Suffolk, England; on the right bank of the river Waveney, 109 m.
GRIMSBY, or Great Grimsby, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lincolnshire, England; an important seaport near the mouth of the Humber on the south shore.
The Order only imposed customs duties: it levied no tolls within the land; and though its consent was necessary to any change in municipal ordinances, it allowed the towns a large amount of self-government.
There were also elementary schools, and municipal foundations in which Latin was taught, in the dominions of the Order.
There is a theatre, an orphanage and a municipal library.
The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384).
The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.
BEWDLEY, a market town and municipal borough in the Bewdley parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England; 137 m.
PEMBROKE (Penfro), an ancient municipal borough, a contributory parliamentary borough and county-town of Pembrokeshire, Wales, situated on a narrow peninsula at the head of the Pennar tidal inlet or "pill" of Milford Haven.
The municipal councils had slightly larger powers, relating to loans, octrois, &c. But the chief municipal officer, the mayor, was chosen by the prefect.
WAREHAM, a market town and municipal borough in the eastern parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 1212 m.
Green's teaching was, directly and indirectly, the most potent philosophical influence in England during the last quarter of the 19th century, while his enthusiasm for a common citizenship, and his personal example in practical municipal life, inspired much of the effort made, in the years succeeding his death, to bring the universities more into touch with the people, and to break down the rigour of class distinctions.
Biagio and the municipal picture gallery also contain works by him.
WEST HAM, a municipal, county, and parliamentary borough of Essex, England, forming an eastward suburb of London.
The town received a municipal charter in 1860, and during the governorship of Lord Lamington (1896-1897) became the summer residence of the governor and his staff.
HALIFAX, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 194 m.
Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced.
Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.
The municipal bulletin of the 31st of December 1906 gives a total of 169,563, not including 4835 soldiers.
of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts.
Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.
The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.
The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional.
See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities.
The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (something like that under the "federal plan" in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments - public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings.
A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization.
For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).
Wilcox, Municipal Government in Michigan and Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, v.
Fairlie, "The Municipal Crisis in Ohio," in the Michigan Law Review for February 1903; and Thomas L.
Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909.
There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674 - probably in 1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced.
The library is supported almost entirely by municipal appropriations, though holding also considerable trust funds ($388,742 in 1905).
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted, and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.
There are no municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control of a state commission.
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
Boston (2 vols., Boston, 1854; and later editions), and Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston (Boston, 1873, and later editions); Josiah Quincy, A Municipal History of.
The technical terms of municipal government are mostly Greek, transliterated into Palmyrene; a few Latin words occur, of course in Aramaic forms. For further characteristics of the dialect see Nuldeke, ZDMG.
Powers of granting building and other leases have been conferred by modern legislation on municipal corporations and other local authorites.
MARGATE, a municipal borough and seaside resort in the Isle of Thanet parliamentary division of Kent, England, 74 m.
In the decade of1890-1900the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits.
The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
Provincial governors were kept under strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal assumption of various municipal offices.
The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden of maintaining the imperial posts.
Of its municipal constitution little is known, indeed in an inscription of the end of the Republic it is spoken of both as a colonic and a municipium.
PENZANCE, a municipal borough, market town and seaport in the St Ives parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, the terminus of the Great Western railway, 3251 m.
The town now possesses an exchange, a large theatre, a gymnasium, a naval school, municipal buildings and several hospitals and charitable institutions erected by private munificence.
Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received municipal rights in 1297.
DUNSTABLE, a municipal borough and market town in the southern parliamentary division of Bedfordshire, England, 37 m.
In 1864 the town was made a municipal borough by royal charter.
The administration of justice is vested in a United States district court and a supreme court, district courts, municipal courts and justice of the peace courts of Porto Rico.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
Each municipal district elects biennially a mayor and a municipal council, the membership of which varies from five to nine according to the population of the district.
The mayor appoints practically all municipal employes and may veto any ordinance of the council; his veto, however, may be overridden by two-thirds of the council.
The police force of each municipality, or rather of each of 66 police districts, is maintained and controlled by the insular government; justice in each municipality is also administered by the insular government; the building, maintenance and repair of public roads are under the management of a board of three road supervisors in each of the seven insular election districts; and matters pertaining to education are for the most part under the insular commissioner of education and a school board of three members elected biennially in each municipality; nearly all other local affairs are within the jurisdiction of the mayor and municipal council.
He controls the expenditure of public money for school purposes, the examination and the appointment of teachers, whose nominations by the municipal school boards are referred to the commissioner.
Willoughby, Insular and Municipal Finances in Porto Rico for the Fiscal Year 1902-1903, issued by the Bureau of the United States Census (ibid., 190, 5); R.
Municipal departments and bureaus are grouped in the four divisions.
In 1919 the city's outstanding bonds amounted to $19,884,000, to which in 1920 was added $5,500,000 for removal of railway grade crossings, for a municipal farm to afford better treatment of the tubercular and insane, for new engine houses and reconstruction of streets and for municipal lighting equipment.
The tax rate for 1920-I was $2.55 per $loo assessed valuation, divided as follows: state purposes, $o.18; public schools, $0.78; municipal government, $1.51; public library, $0.04; art museum, $0.02; zoological park, $0.02.
A pageant and masque given by 2,000 participants before audiences of Ioo,000 led to the construction in 1917 of a municipal theatre in Forest Park, with accommodation for 9,270.
At a cost of $7,200,000, the city completed in 1917 a municipal bridge of massive steel construction, double track and double deck, across the Mississippi.
A municipal court building, a city jail and a children's detention house, all of stone, were erected, the first in 1912, the others in succeeding years, at a cost of $1,855,000.
The hÃ´tel-de-ville with a municipal museum and library occupy the remains of the abbey buildings (18th century).
HARTLEPOOL, a parliamentary borough of Durham, England, embracing the municipal borough of Hartlepool or East Hartlepool and the municipal and county borough of West Hartlepool.
West Hartlepool, a wholly modern town, has several handsome modern churches, municipal buildings, exchange, market hall, Athenaeum and public library.
The municipal area embraces the three townships of Seaton Carew, a seaside resort with good bathing, and golf links; Stranton, with its church of All Saints, of the 14th century, on a very early site; and Throston.
LOCKERBIE, a municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in the district of Annandale, 142 m.
HELSTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Truro parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 11 m.
Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
These, no doubt, possessed municipal autonomy with the ordinary organization of the Greek state; to what extent they were formally and regularly controlled by the provincial authorities we do not know; Pithon, the satrap of the Indian province is specially described as sent "in colonias in Indis conditas" (Just.
ALLOA, a municipal and police burgh and seaport of Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
Lauban has a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a town hall, dating from 1541, a conventual house of the order of St Magdalene, dating from the 14th century, a municipal, library and museum, two hospitals, an orphanage and several schools.
PONTEFRACT (pronounced and sometimes written "Pomfret"), a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 21 m.
GUAYAMA, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, on the southern coast of Porto Rico, 53 m.
Pop. (1899) of the city, 5334; of the municipal district, 12,749.
The municipal district (156 sq.
Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces.
This post he held for eighteen months only, but in that brief period he obtained a reputation as a social and municipal reformer.
In it are the Zizinia theatre and the municipal palace (containing the public library); the museum lies up a short street to the N.
These contain one 1 This municipality was superseded by a new municipal body, with extensive powers, created in 1890.
WENLOCK, a municipal borough in the Ludlow and Wellington parliamentary divisions of Shropshire, England, extending on both sides of the river Severn.
In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.
Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burialplaces of the early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance.
YORK, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, the seat of an archbishop, and the county town of Yorkshire, England, 188 m.
Adjoining it are handsome municipal buildings (1891), and near it is the mansion house, built in 1725 from designs by the earl of Burlington.
The city within the municipal limits constitutes a separate division of the county.
The municipal city and the Ainsty (a district on the S.W.
See Francis Drake, Eboracum: or the History and Antiquities of the City of York, from its original to the present time (1736); Extracts from the Municipal Records of the City of York during the Reigns of Edward IV., Edward V.
The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.
In the name of the state he exercises a certain administrative control over the local authorities, such as the conseil general, the mayors and the municipal councils.
This control, though considerably restricted by the law of the 10th of August 1871, on the conseils generaux, and that of the 5th of April 1884, on municipal organization, still holds good in some important respects.
He can suspend for a month a municipal council, mayor or deputy-mayor; certain decisions of the municipal councils require his approval; and he may annul such of their regulations as are extra vires.
Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.
The " termino municipal " is the chief political and administrative civil division.
The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.
Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
This bank brought out the Constantinople municipal loan of 1909 (£1,000,000).
Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
The municipal water supply comes from a reservoir at Crystal Springs at the foot of Mill Mountain near the city limits.
The principal buildings are the town hall, with some ancient furniture, a large 15th century church with a notable square tower, a municipal orphanage, and the Nassau-Veluwe gymnasium.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
The municipal electric-lighting plant was in 1907 producing arc lights for $34 per arc, per year.
The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.
The municipal street cleaning department cleans all streets by the wet process.
In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.
Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.
Few if any cities in the Union have, in recent years, been better governed than Cleveland, and this seems to be due largely to the keen interest in municipal affairs which has been shown by her citizens.
Especially has this been manifested by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce and by the Municipal Association, an organization of influential professional and business men, which, by issuing bulletins concerning candidates at the primaries and at election time, has done much for the betterment of local politics.
There was a less violent street car strike in 1908, after the assumption of control by the Municipal Traction Company, which refused to raise wages according to promises made (so the employees said) by the former owner of the railway; the strikers were unsuccessful.
TUNBRIDGE WELLS, a municipal borough and inland watering-place of England, chiefly in the Tonbridge parliamentary division of Kent, but extending into the eastern division of Sussex, 341 m.
The municipal council has the disposal of 20% of the annual profits made on produce purchased within the confines of each district.
CARDIFF, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, seaport and market-town, and the county town of Glamorganshire, South Wales, situated on the Taff, 5 m.
Probably no town in the kingdom has a nobler group of public buildings than those in Cathays Park, which also commands a view of the castle ramparts and the old keep. On opposite sides of a fine avenue are the assize courts and new town hall (with municipal offices), which are both in the Renaissance style.
The corporation consists of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, and the area of the municipal borough is 8408 acres.
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