How to use Municipal in a sentence

municipal
  • A red brick municipal building stood at the far end of the street ahead of us.

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  • In Paris the municipal police are divided among the twenty arrondissements, which the uniform police patrol.

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  • There are numerous municipal and other parks.

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  • Patrons may have to pay to park at a municipal garage.

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  • Indeed, it was not so much a principality as a municipal republic of the Venetian type.

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  • Even municipal institutions, which had never shown much vitality, were subjected to similar restrictions.

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  • During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.

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  • The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384).

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  • The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.

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  • Lookout, and is the only strictly municipal university in the United States.

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  • The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.

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  • Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.

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  • Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in 1274.

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  • Hadersleben is first mentioned in 1228, and received municipal rights from Duke Waldemar II.

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  • The archiepiscopal palace and Museo Civico, as well as the municipal buildings, have some valuable paintings.

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  • In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.

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  • The town, though frequently the centre for medieval assizes and inquisitions, never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, but was governed by two constables, elected in the manorial court.

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  • The system of municipal and communal government remains practically unchanged.

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  • He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.

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  • The municipal borough includes the western and part of the Bermondsey divisions of the parliamentary borough of Southwark, and the borough of Newington, divided into the western and Walworth divisions; each division returning one member.

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  • He became a member of the municipal council of Paris in 1882, and vice-president in 1888-1889.

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  • There were also elementary schools, and municipal foundations in which Latin was taught, in the dominions of the Order.

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  • There is a theatre, an orphanage and a municipal library.

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  • In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.

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  • In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.

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  • The municipal councils had slightly larger powers, relating to loans, octrois, &c. But the chief municipal officer, the mayor, was chosen by the prefect.

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  • Green's teaching was, directly and indirectly, the most potent philosophical influence in England during the last quarter of the 19th century, while his enthusiasm for a common citizenship, and his personal example in practical municipal life, inspired much of the effort made, in the years succeeding his death, to bring the universities more into touch with the people, and to break down the rigour of class distinctions.

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  • Biagio and the municipal picture gallery also contain works by him.

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  • The town received a municipal charter in 1860, and during the governorship of Lord Lamington (1896-1897) became the summer residence of the governor and his staff.

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  • Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced.

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  • Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.

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  • The municipal bulletin of the 31st of December 1906 gives a total of 169,563, not including 4835 soldiers.

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  • Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.

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  • The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.

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  • The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional.

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  • A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city.

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  • In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.

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  • There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization.

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  • For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).

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  • There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674 - probably in 1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced.

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  • The library is supported almost entirely by municipal appropriations, though holding also considerable trust funds ($388,742 in 1905).

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  • It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.

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  • Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.

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  • On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted, and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.

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  • There are no municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control of a state commission.

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  • The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'

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  • The technical terms of municipal government are mostly Greek, transliterated into Palmyrene; a few Latin words occur, of course in Aramaic forms. For further characteristics of the dialect see Nuldeke, ZDMG.

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  • Powers of granting building and other leases have been conferred by modern legislation on municipal corporations and other local authorites.

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  • In the decade of1890-1900the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits.

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  • The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.

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  • The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.

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  • He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.

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  • Provincial governors were kept under strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal assumption of various municipal offices.

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  • The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden of maintaining the imperial posts.

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  • Of its municipal constitution little is known, indeed in an inscription of the end of the Republic it is spoken of both as a colonic and a municipium.

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  • The town now possesses an exchange, a large theatre, a gymnasium, a naval school, municipal buildings and several hospitals and charitable institutions erected by private munificence.

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  • Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received municipal rights in 1297.

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  • In 1864 the town was made a municipal borough by royal charter.

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  • The administration of justice is vested in a United States district court and a supreme court, district courts, municipal courts and justice of the peace courts of Porto Rico.

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  • The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.

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  • Each municipal district elects biennially a mayor and a municipal council, the membership of which varies from five to nine according to the population of the district.

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  • The mayor appoints practically all municipal employes and may veto any ordinance of the council; his veto, however, may be overridden by two-thirds of the council.

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  • He controls the expenditure of public money for school purposes, the examination and the appointment of teachers, whose nominations by the municipal school boards are referred to the commissioner.

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  • Municipal departments and bureaus are grouped in the four divisions.

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  • In 1919 the city's outstanding bonds amounted to $19,884,000, to which in 1920 was added $5,500,000 for removal of railway grade crossings, for a municipal farm to afford better treatment of the tubercular and insane, for new engine houses and reconstruction of streets and for municipal lighting equipment.

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  • A pageant and masque given by 2,000 participants before audiences of Ioo,000 led to the construction in 1917 of a municipal theatre in Forest Park, with accommodation for 9,270.

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  • At a cost of $7,200,000, the city completed in 1917 a municipal bridge of massive steel construction, double track and double deck, across the Mississippi.

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  • A municipal court building, a city jail and a children's detention house, all of stone, were erected, the first in 1912, the others in succeeding years, at a cost of $1,855,000.

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  • West Hartlepool, a wholly modern town, has several handsome modern churches, municipal buildings, exchange, market hall, Athenaeum and public library.

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  • The municipal area embraces the three townships of Seaton Carew, a seaside resort with good bathing, and golf links; Stranton, with its church of All Saints, of the 14th century, on a very early site; and Throston.

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  • Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350.

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  • The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.

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  • Lauban has a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a town hall, dating from 1541, a conventual house of the order of St Magdalene, dating from the 14th century, a municipal, library and museum, two hospitals, an orphanage and several schools.

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  • Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces.

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  • This post he held for eighteen months only, but in that brief period he obtained a reputation as a social and municipal reformer.

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  • These contain one 1 This municipality was superseded by a new municipal body, with extensive powers, created in 1890.

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  • In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.

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  • Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burialplaces of the early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance.

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  • Adjoining it are handsome municipal buildings (1891), and near it is the mansion house, built in 1725 from designs by the earl of Burlington.

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  • The city within the municipal limits constitutes a separate division of the county.

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  • The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.

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  • In the name of the state he exercises a certain administrative control over the local authorities, such as the conseil general, the mayors and the municipal councils.

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  • This control, though considerably restricted by the law of the 10th of August 1871, on the conseils generaux, and that of the 5th of April 1884, on municipal organization, still holds good in some important respects.

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  • He can suspend for a month a municipal council, mayor or deputy-mayor; certain decisions of the municipal councils require his approval; and he may annul such of their regulations as are extra vires.

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  • Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.

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  • The " termino municipal " is the chief political and administrative civil division.

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  • The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.

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  • Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.

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  • Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.

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  • Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.

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  • The municipal water supply comes from a reservoir at Crystal Springs at the foot of Mill Mountain near the city limits.

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  • The principal buildings are the town hall, with some ancient furniture, a large 15th century church with a notable square tower, a municipal orphanage, and the Nassau-Veluwe gymnasium.

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  • Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.

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  • The municipal electric-lighting plant was in 1907 producing arc lights for $34 per arc, per year.

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  • The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.

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  • The municipal street cleaning department cleans all streets by the wet process.

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  • In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.

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  • Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.

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  • Few if any cities in the Union have, in recent years, been better governed than Cleveland, and this seems to be due largely to the keen interest in municipal affairs which has been shown by her citizens.

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  • Especially has this been manifested by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce and by the Municipal Association, an organization of influential professional and business men, which, by issuing bulletins concerning candidates at the primaries and at election time, has done much for the betterment of local politics.

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  • There was a less violent street car strike in 1908, after the assumption of control by the Municipal Traction Company, which refused to raise wages according to promises made (so the employees said) by the former owner of the railway; the strikers were unsuccessful.

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  • The municipal council has the disposal of 20% of the annual profits made on produce purchased within the confines of each district.

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  • Probably no town in the kingdom has a nobler group of public buildings than those in Cathays Park, which also commands a view of the castle ramparts and the old keep. On opposite sides of a fine avenue are the assize courts and new town hall (with municipal offices), which are both in the Renaissance style.

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  • The corporation consists of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, and the area of the municipal borough is 8408 acres.

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  • The town received its earliest known grant of municipal privileges sometime before 1147 from Fitz Hamon's successor and son-in-law Robert, earl of Gloucester.

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  • The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.

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  • Were it not for political and municipal boundaries Hamburg might be considered as forming with Altona and Ottensen (which lie within Prussian territory) one town.

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  • It is the place of meeting of the municipal council and of the senate and contains the city archives.

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  • In 1907 an act was passed by which the former county of Oahu, including the island of Oahu and the small islands adjacent, was made a municipal corporation under the name of the "city and county of Honolulu"; this act came into effect on the 1st of January 1909.

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  • Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.

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  • Ruppin received municipal rights in 1256.

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  • Besides these historical buildings the principal public structures include Smith's school, the municipal buildings, the free library, the episcopal library (founded by Bishop Forbes, who, as well as Bishop AbernethyDrummond, presented a large number of volumes).

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  • The municipal picture gallery contains a collection of pictures, and among them are some primitive frescoes, attributable to the 12th century, which still retain traces of Byzantine influence.

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  • The long straight lines of works which stretched to the plateau of the Michelsberg and formed the outworks of the main fortress on the left bank of the Danube were purchased in 1900 by the municipal authorities, in order to be levelled and laid out in streets for the extension of the town in this direction.

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  • The fortifications also of Neu-Ulm, on the Bavarian side of the Danube, were ordered to be razed and devoted to municipal purposes.

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  • The municipal borough is under a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors.

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  • In 1835 the corporation was remodelled under the Municipal Corporations Act.

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  • In 1920 there were only 17,606 workers and employees in private industrial enterprises, 988 in municipal enterprises, and 2,880 in state enterprises; in Riga alone, 9,739 in private enterprises against 62,000 in 1914.

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  • Pop. of the municipality (1900), 2 9,33 1, a large percentage being summer residents, as the census was taken late in December; (1902, municipal census), 18, 373.

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  • Among the public buildings are the old imperial palace, a modern summer residence of the national executive and a municipal hall.

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  • The nation has only a municipal organization with a priestly aristocracy, precisely the state of things that prevailed under the Persian empire.

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  • Cicero was in friendly relations with it, and exerted influence that it might retain its property in Gaul, so that it is obvious that it had then recovered municipal rights.

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  • Amongst the principal buildings are a Gothic church of the 15th century, the town and county hall, a German gymnasium with a good collection of antiquities, and the municipal museum.

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  • Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.

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  • The federal district, which has a municipal council instead of a legislature, has a system of municipal and higher courts peculiar to itself.

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  • The chief cities received municipal constitutions, as in Portugal.

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  • It was originally intended to form a shrine for Flaxman's marble statue of the poet (now in the National Portrait Gallery), but it proved to be too confined to afford a satisfactory view of the sculptor's work and was at length converted into a museum of Burnsiana (afterwards removed to the municipal buildings).

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  • The municipal golf links are on the Braid Hills.

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  • The area of the city has been enlarged by successive extensions of its municipal boundaries, especially towards the west and south.

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  • By the Redistribution Act of 1885 the city was divided for parliamentary purposes into East, West, Central and South Edinburgh, each returning one member; the parliamentary and municipal boundaries are almost identical.

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  • The town council, which has its headquarters in the Municipal Buildings in the Royal Exchange, consists of fifty members, a lord provost, seven baffles, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a convener of trades, seven judges of police, and thirty-two councillors.

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  • The neighbouring lords attacked and ravaged the municipal territories; grave injuries were inflicted by the mercenary bands, especially by the Bretons and Gascons.

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  • The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.

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  • In 1906 municipal disabilities were imposed upon Asiatics, and in 1907 a Dealers' Licences Act was passed with the object, and effect, of restricting the trading operations of Indians.

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  • The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.

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  • These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.

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  • Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary has twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights.

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  • Matthias laboured strenuously to develop and protect the towns, multiplied municipal charters, and materially improved the means of communication, especially in 1 We know actually of fifteen, but there may have been many more.

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  • There are large and well-kept public parks, a common (17 acres) with a soldiers' monument, a free public library, with more than 50,000 volumes in 5907, a city hall, county and municipal court-houses, a county gaol and house of correction, a county industrial school and a state armoury.

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  • All the municipal councils in Dalmatia (with the solitary exception of Zara, which had an Italian majority) were dissolved at an early stage in the war.

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  • After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."

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  • Pop. of the city (1899) 3954; of the municipal district 20,246, of whom 10,715 were of mixed races.

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  • Johannesburg, the centre of the gold-mining industry, had a population, within the municipal boundary, of 155,642 (83,36 3 whites).

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  • The municipal boards possess very ' The number of electors at the first registration (1907) was 105,368.

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  • The basis of municipal qualification is ownership of real property of the value of £ioo, or the tenancy of premises of the value of £300, or annual value of £2 4.

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  • Several of its churches are architecturally interesting, especially the Madonna delle Lacrime (1487) outside the town, the elegant early Renaissance architecture of which resembles that of the Madonna del Calcinaio at Cortona, and most of them (and also the municipal picture gallery) contain paintings by artists of the Umbrian school - notably Lo Spagna, a pupil of Perugino.

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  • A school of science was erected in 1861, and there is a municipal secondary, and technical school.

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  • By an unscrupulous use of the dispensing power he introduced Dissenters and Catholics into all departments of state and into the municipal corporations, which were remodelled in their interests.

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  • The judicial organization of the states includes in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts.

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  • In the territories there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal courts.

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  • There is a municipal council of seven members in each district, elected by the municipios, and in each municipio a communal junta appointed by the municipal council.

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  • By the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 a mayor, aldermen and a council replaced the capital burgesses, the older governing body.

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  • It probably acquired municipal rights in 90 B.C., but Augustus, owing to the fact that it did not support him, assigned a part of its territory to his veterans in 41 B.C., and henceforth it is once more called colonia.

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  • The intelligent classes have become far better educated in the laws of health, and less disposed to quackery; the less intelligent are better cared for and protected by municipal and central authority.

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  • The lectures at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, which he attended from its foundation in 1868, revealed his true bent; and henceforth he devoted himself almost entirely to scholarship. He began modestly by the study of the municipal charters of St Omer.

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  • A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.

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  • In 1903 the Education (London) Act was passed in pursuance of the general system, put into operation by the Education Act (1902) of bringing education within the scope of municipal government.

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  • Already in 1884 Sir William Harcourt had attempted to constitute the metropolis a municipal borough under the government of a single council.

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  • The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.

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  • Here at least the medieval system, in spite of any anomalies with respect to modern conditions, has resisted reform, and no other municipal body shares the traditions and peculiar dignity of the City Corporation.

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  • The powers of the governing body of the City, moreover, are as peculiar in this direction as in that of municipal administration; and the act left the City as a county of a city practically unchanged.

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  • In the 12th century there was a great municipal movement over Europe.

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  • A striking point in this municipal revolution is that the new privileges extended to the city of London were entirely copied from those of continental cities, and Mr Round shows that there is conclusive proof of the assertion that the Commune of London derived its origin from that of Rouen.

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  • When the Act for the reform of Municipal Corporations was passed in 1835 London was specially excepted from its provisions.

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  • There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma.

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  • In 1324 a municipal edict was issued forbidding the erection of glass-furnaces within the city.

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  • He worked as a designer in Paris, and became prominent as a member of the municipal council of Paris, rousing much angry discussion by a proposal to rename the Parisian streets which bore saints' names.

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  • Other public buildings include the municipal buildings, the sheriff court and county buildings, Balfour hospital, and the fever hospital.

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  • Some continental writers, in dealing with the origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they form the germ of medieval municipal government.

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  • It has often been asserted that the gild merchant and the borough were identical, and that the former was the basis of the whole municipal constitution.

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  • Admission to the gild was not restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic body having control over the whole municipal polity.

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  • No good evidence has, moreover, been advanced to prove that this or any other kind of gild was the germ of the municipal constitution.

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  • While in most towns the name and the old organization of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole municipal corporation.

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  • In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.

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  • Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.

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  • The town hall, dating from the latter half of the 19th century, contains a municipal library and an interesting collection of pictures.

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  • Kitzingen is still surrounded by its old walls and towers, and has an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, two municipal museums, a town-hall, a grammar school, a richly endowed hospital and two old convents.

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  • Stendal was founded in 11, 51 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter.

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  • Among the public buildings are several churches and hospitals (including the Jurujuba yellow-fever hospital and the Barreto isolation hospital), the government palace, a municipal theatre and a large Salesian college situated in the suburbs of Santa Rosa on an eminence overlooking the lower bay.

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  • Alsergrund, with the enormous general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter.

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  • The municipal districts outside the Ring also contain numerous handsome modern buildings.

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  • The municipal council is composed of 158 members elected for a period of six years.

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  • The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.

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  • He was also, as he tells us himself, alderman of a London ward and an active partisan in municipal politics.

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  • Though municipal in its outlook, it is valuable for the general history of the kingdom, owing to the important part which London played in the agitation against the misrule of Henry III.

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  • Munich is divided into twenty-four municipal districts, nineteen of which, including the old town, lie on the left bank of the Isar, while the suburban districts of Au, Haidhausen, Giesing, Bogenhausen and Ramersdorf are on the opposite bank.

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  • In1882-1886he was mayor of the city of Brooklyn, being twice elected on an independent ticket; and by his administration of his office he demonstrated that a rigid "merit" civil-service system was practicable - in September 1884 the first municipal civil-service rules in the United Service were adopted in Brooklyn.

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  • Under these governors the great and small councils continued to discharge municipal business and to administer the Paduan law, contained in the statutes of 1276 and 1362.

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  • The municipal council of Trieste constitutes at the same time the local Diet of the crown land, and is composed of S4 members.

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  • Solingen received its municipal charter in 1374.

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  • The municipal governments of Newport and Providence present interesting features, for which see the separate articles on these cities.

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  • When parliament met they executed, for form's sake, some confused manoeuvres, and then they were beaten on an amendment to the address in favour of Municipal Allotments.

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  • Of numerous other medieval buildings may be mentioned the Leinwandhaus (linendrapers' hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in 1892 as a municipal museum.

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  • The municipal library, with 300,000 volumes, boasts among its rarer treasures a Gutenberg Bible printed at Mainz between 1450 and 1455, another on parchment dated 1462, the Institutiones Justiniani (Mainz, 1468), the Theuerdank, with woodcuts by Hans Schaufelein, and numerous valuable autographs.

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  • Besides the municipal library (Stadtbibliothek) mentioned above there are three others of importance, the Rothschild, the Senckenberg and the Jewish library (with a well-appointed reading-room).

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  • The present municipal constitution of the city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference from the ordinary Prussian system.

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  • With the beginning of the 13th century the municipal constitution appears to have taken definite shape.

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  • About this time a body of Schoffen (scabini, jurats), fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control of municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was taken towards civic representative government.

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  • After the Civil War General Porter was engaged in business in New York, and later held successively many important municipal offices.

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  • The municipal buildings (1893) include a library, and a school of science and art.

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  • Many remains from the Roman period have been excavated, such as traces of an amphitheatre, a triumphal arch, the old fortifications, an aqueduct, &c. The remains are preserved partly in the museum at Budapest, and partly in the municipal museum.

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  • It attained municipal privileges in 1284, was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643, and in 1848 became the capital, under Danish rule, of Schleswig.

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  • The town was given municipal privileges by Gustavus Adolphus in 1620, but is modern in appearance, having been rebuilt after fires in 1860 and 1865.

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  • Questions affecting the interests of the whole Fu come before the Fu-kwai, or prefectural assembly, made up of representatives from both Ku and Gun, and a prefectural council, of which „the governor is president; while matters concerning the city alone are discussed by a Shi-kwai, or municipal assembly, and administered by a municipal council, of which the Shicho or mayor is president.

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  • In Germany, the use of duty-free spirit is only allowed to state and municipal hospitals, and state scientific institutions, and for the manufacture of fulminates, fuzes and smokeless powders.

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  • Here he endeavoured to satisfy his passion for activity, partly by sharing in the municipal government of the town and the regulation of itsc commons, woods and pastures, and partly by the composition of the apology he published under the title of El Nicandro, which was perhaps written by an agent, but was undeniably inspired by the fallen minister.

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  • The mines within the municipal area produce nearly half the total gold output of the Transvaal.

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  • The local government is carried on by an elected municipal council, the franchise being restricted to white British subjects (men and women) who rent or own property of a certain value.

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  • At the census of April 1904 the inhabitants of the city proper numbered 99,022, the population within the municipal area being 155,642, of whom 83,363 were whites.

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  • One result of this movement was a slight advance in municipal self-government.

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  • After a period of military administration and of government by a nominated town council, an ordinance was passed in June 1903 providing for elective municipal councils, and in December following the first election to the new council took place.

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  • In that year the number of municipal voters was 23,338.

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  • In 1873 the municipal boundary was extended northwards beyond the river so as to include Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace Town, formerly separate.

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  • In 1690 he moved a famous amendment to the Corporation Bill, proposing the addition of a clause - the purport of which was misrepresented by Macaulay - for disqualifying for office for seven years municipal functionaries who in defiance of the majority of their colleagues had surrendered their charters to the Crown.

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  • Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.

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  • An advanced and vehement Radical in politics and Progressive in municipal affairs, Mr Harrison in 1886 stood unsuccessfully for parliament against Sir John Lubbock for London University.

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  • The etiquette of the imperial circle, scenes from the law-courts and the recitationroom, the reunions of dilettanti and philosophers, the busy life of the capital or of the municipal town, the recreations of the seaside and of the country - all these he brings vividly before our eyes.

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  • It was governed by a mayor and twelve aldermen, but by 1864 their privileges had become merely nominal, and the corporation was dissolved in 1885 under the Municipal Corporations Act.

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  • Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.

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  • In conformity with the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1840 the constitution of the corporation was made to consist of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, under the style and title of " The Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Belfast."

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  • There are no municipal institutions.

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  • The Normans, like the Arabs, were not numerically strong; the rule of both, in Sicily as well as Malta, was based on a recognition of municipal institutions under local officials; the Normans, however, exterminated the Mahommedans.

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  • Under the Aragonese, Malta, as regards local affairs, was administered bya Universitd or municipal commonwealth with wide and indefinite powers, including the election of its officers, Capitan di Verga, Jurats, &c. The minutes of the " Consiglio Popolare " of this period are preserved, showing it had no legislative power; this was vested in the king, and was exercised despotically in the interests of the Crown.

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  • Le Marchant, and considerable municipal improvements and embellishments were completed.

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  • A new city charter, embodying what has become known as the "Des Moines Plan" of municipal government, was adopted in 1907.

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  • After petition signed by a number of voters not less than 25% of the number voting at the preceding municipal election, any member of the council may be removed by popular vote, to which all public franchises must be submitted, and by which the council may be compelled to pass any law or ordinance.

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  • In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.

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  • The climate and the scenery in and about Biddeford attract summer visitors and there are two resorts, Biddeford Pool and Fortune Rocks within the municipal limits; but the city is chiefly a manufacturing centre (third in rank among the cities of the state in 1905) - good water-power being furnished by the river - and cotton goods, foundry and machine shop products and lumber are the principal products, the first being by far the most important.

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  • The site of Oneida was purchased in1829-1830by Sands Higinbotham, in honour of whom one of the municipal parks (the other is Allen Park) is named.

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  • Grain, wine, oil and fruit are produced in the district, and there is a municipal farm, founded in 1885, for experiments in viticulture.

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  • The city has a Carnegie library, a municipal hospital, an aged women's home and a children's home.

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  • Rheydt is an ancient place, but its industrial importar e is of very recent growth, and it only received municipal rights in 1856.

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  • Re-elected in the municipal elections of the 2nd of December 1792, he was soon charged with the functions of procurator of the Commune, and contributed with success to the enrolments of volunteers by his appeals to the populace.

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  • The municipal corporations are civil divisions quite independent of the county and township system.

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  • Cities of the first class are those having a population of 15,000 or over; cities of the second class are those having a population of 2000 but less than 15,000; all other municipal corporations, except cities with special charters, are known as incorporated towns.

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  • The state has no bonded debt, and the constitution forbids it to incur debts exceeding in the aggregate a quarter of a million dollars, except for warlike purposes or for some single work to which the people give their consent by vote; the constitution also forbids any county or municipal corporation from incurring an indebtedness exceeding 5% of the value of its taxable property.

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  • The principal buildings and institutions are the town hall and municipal buildings, the Princess Alice Memorial and other hospitals, a free library and, among many high-class schools, Eastbourne College for boys, founded in 1867.

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  • He was immediately elected a member of the municipal council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, serving from October 1785 to October 1788.

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  • From 1801 to 1802 and from 1806 to 1807 he was a member of the Council of Appointment, and realizing the power this body possessed through its influence over the selection of a vast number of state, county and municipal officers, he secured in 1801, while his uncle was governor, the removal of a number of Federalist office-holders, in order to strengthen the Republican organization by new appointments.

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  • Facing the north side of the Parade Ground are the handsome municipal buildings, completed in 1906.

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  • The town was granted municipal institutions in 1836.

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  • It has been superseded for municipal business by a new building, and now contains the civic archives and museum.

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  • In the municipal offices interesting ancient regalia and records are kept.

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  • Important municipal docks have been built by the city.

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  • Since 1896 there has been a strong independent movement in politics, marked by the organization of a League for Better City Government (1896) and a Municipal League (1900), and by the organization of postal primaries to secure the co-operation of electors pledged to independent voting.

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  • The last of these provides that 25% of the voters choosing a municipal officer may, by signing a petition for his recall, force a new election during his term of office and thereby remove him if another candidate receives a greater number of votes.

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  • Their petty punishments and their minute interferences with private life are only special instances of what was common to all municipal rule in the 16th century."

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  • Boston has been a leader in the establishment of municipal baths.

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  • Beginning in 1892 various townships and cities, numbering 18 in 1903, adopted municipal ownership and operation of lighting works.

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  • The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.

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  • The extant imperial charter does not specify what were the municipal rights that were conceded, but it is certain that at this time they were very limited.

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  • From this time, until the French Revolution, the ancient democratic institutions of the city remained nothing but a name; the rights of the community were exercised by a municipal aristocracy, who held all power in their own hands.

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  • The municipal museum contains a library of over 85,000 volumes as well as 1800 MSS., and a fine collection of sculpture and paintings.

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  • The political and commercial centre of the city is the Plaza Mayor, or Plaza de la Constituc16n, on which face the cathedral, national palace, and municipal palace.

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  • During Spanish rule the only break in the ordinary course of events was the revolt of 1692, which resulted in the destruction of the municipal buildings.

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  • The towns had municipal franchises, exercised by a governing body comprised of Spaniards, either immigrants from Old Spain, or Creoles, i.e.

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  • The provisions of the Truce of God were often incorporated bodily in municipal and district statutes such as the laws of Barcelona (1067).

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  • Besides the Gothic cathedral (1480-1511), with the tombs of the marquises, the churches of San Giovanni (formerly San Domenico), San Bernardo and the Casa Cavazza, now the municipal museum, are noteworthy.

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  • The strongholds of these heretical opinions were the great towns, the centres of civilization, because there the growing sentiment of municipal independence, and the rise of a burgher class through commerce, created a spirit of criticism which was dissatisfied with the worldly lives of the clergy and their undue influence in affairs.

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  • In the 13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • In an act of 1883 it is mentioned as one of the towns which had long ceased to be municipal.

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  • We find, indeed, two cases of men who held municipal honours at Puteoli and in the Rhone valley.

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  • Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.

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  • The last asked for returns regarding valuation, taxation, educational and religious statistics, pauperism, crime and the prevailing rates of wages in each municipal division.

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  • In the regions where census tables and interpretations are derived from registration records kept by the several states or cities they are often made more complete than those in the state or municipal documents.

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  • In cities the mayor is required to appoint a municipal civil service commission, with similar duties; not more than twothirds of the members may be of the same political party.

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  • The revised charter also provided that any one who brought over five colonists and established them in a new settlement should receive 200 acres, and if such a settlement grew to be a town or village it should receive a grant of municipal government.

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  • Local administration is vested in local elective bodies, such as municipal councils, county councils, road boards, harbour boards, charitable aid boards, and others, with power to levy rates.

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  • The supreme court has original jurisdiction in habeas corpus, quo warranto and mandamus proceedings against all state officers; and it has appellate jurisdiction except in civil actions for the recovery of money or personal property, in which the original amount in controversy does not exceed $200, and which at the same time do not involve the legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, or the validity of a statute.

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  • They have original jurisdiction in all cases in equity, in all cases at law which involve the title or possession of real property, or the legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, and in all other cases at law in which the amount in controversy is $loo or more, in nearly all criminal cases, in matters of probate, in proceedings for divorce, and in various other cases; and they have appellate jurisdiction of cases originally tried before a justice of the peace or other inferior courts where the amount in controversy is more than $20.

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  • The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.

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  • The administration of justice is intrusted to a supreme court, an increasing number of district courts, and at least two justices' courts in each organized township, besides police and municipal courts.

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  • The principal municipal officers hold office for two years.

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  • Pierre Eyquem, Montaigne's father, had been engaged in commerce (a herring-merchant Scaliger calls him, and his grandfather Ramon had certainly followed that trade), had filled many municipal offices in Bordeaux, and had served under Francis I.

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  • The municipal (or Murhard) library, in the Hanau park, contains 118,000 volumes.

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  • The religious vocation of Israel was no longer national but ecclesiastical or municipal, and the historical continuity of the nation was vividly realized only within the walls of Jerusalem and the courts of the Temple, in the solemn assembly and stately ceremonial of a feast day.

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  • It has a theatre, a municipal library, a gymnasium, and other educational establishments.

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  • The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).

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  • In 1794 he returned to St Etienne, where, but only for a short period, he filled a municipal office; and from 1797 to 1799 he devoted himself to strenuous study, more especially of the literature and history, both ancient and modern, of Greece and Italy.

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  • It was included in the municipal borough of Stoke-onTrent under an act of 1908.

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  • It might have been expected that the concession of universal suffrage in the case of the House of Deputies would have led to the abolition of the class system of voting for the legislative bodies of the several territories and the introduction of an equal franchise, and also to the doing away with the three-class system of voting - established on the Prussian model - in the case of the election of municipal representatives.

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  • There was only a cautious and gradual extension of the right to vote in Diet and municipal elections in the several territories; and it was not till Jan.

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  • He was a disciple of Lueger, a Christian Socialist, and framed a new municipal statute and associations based on the Christian view of society.

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  • They opened a Komensky school there without proper authorization, and when this was closed by the municipal authorities, they organized a demonstration of Czech women, who crowded with their children into the Parliament House.

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  • Public institutions include a people's park and large municipal buildings (1904).

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  • The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.

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  • Stoke Newington is partly in the north division of the parliamentary borough of Hackney, but the district of South Hornsey, included in the municipal borough, is in the Hornsey division of Middlesex.

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  • This remained in force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.

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  • The Palazzo dei Priori (1208-54), now the municipal palace, is especially fine, and the piazza in which it stands most picturesque.

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  • It is included by Pliny among the municipal towns of Etruria.

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  • The townhall contains a collection of municipal and mining laws dating as far back as 1389.

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  • About 400 the Notitia Galliarum calls it a civitas (so that it then had a municipal administration of its own), and reckons it as first among those of the Viennese.

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  • In the course of this struggle (and especially after the last episcopal vidomne had left the town in 1526) the municipal authorities of the city greatly developed, a grand conseil of 200 members being set up in imitation of those at Bern and at Fribourg, while within the larger assembly there was a petit conseil of 60 members for more confidential business.

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  • The constitution of 1814 set up a common form of government for the city and the canton, the city not obtaining its municipal independence till the constitution of 1842.

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  • Local civil government is carried on by popularly elected parish, district, urban and municipal councils.

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  • The state appoints to 56%, private and municipal patrons to 34%, and congregations to io% of the whole.

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  • The Polish towns, notably Cracow, had obtained their privileges, including freedom from tolls and municipal government, from the Crown in return for important services, such as warding off the Tatars, while the cities of German origin were protected by the Magdeburg law.

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  • Casimir the Great even tried to make municipal government as democratic as possible by enacting that one half of the town council of Cracow should be elected from the civic patriciate, but the other half from the commonalty.

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  • It is controlled by the Zoological Society of New York, with representatives of the municipality of the City of New York, and is financed largely out of municipal funds, and is open free to the public five days a week.

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  • The city is governed under the municipal code enacted by the state legislature in 1902, for the provisions of which see Ohio.

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  • Saarburg dates from the 10th century and received municipal rights in 1291.

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  • The parliamentary borough includes the adjacent municipal borough of Batley, and returns one member.

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  • The municipal borough, incorporated in 1862, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.

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  • The municipal borough, incorporated in 1890, is.

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  • The name of Linz appears in documents for the first time in 799 and it received municipal rights in 1324.

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  • The municipal water-supply is drawn from Pike's Peak, 10 m.

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  • The municipal borough, incorporated in 1871, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.

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  • The chief towns are Algiers, the capital and principal seaport, with a population (1906), including Mustapha and other suburbs, of 154,049; Oran (100,499),' a western The figures given are not those of the communes, but of the towns proper, certain classes of persons (such as troops, lunatics, convicts) excluded from the municipal franchise not being counted.

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  • For certain specified objects, financial and municipal, Mahommedans are, however, permitted to exercise the franchise.

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  • In those of the first kind, modelled on the French communes, the Mahommedans possess the municipal franchise.

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  • The " mixed " communes are under an administrator nominated by the governor-general and assisted by a municipal council composed of Europeans and natives.

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  • The leading burghers were, however, soon alienated by his violent and despotic methods, by his defence of Kieft, and by his devotion to the interests of the company; the nine men became (as early as 1649, when they sent the famous Vertoogh, or Remonstrance, to the states-general asking for burgher government and other reforms) the centre of municipal discontent; and a bitter quarrel ensued.

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  • In 1650 the statesgeneral suggested a representative government to go into effect in 1653, but the company opposed it; in 1653, however, there was established the first municipal government for the city of New Amsterdam modelled after that of the cities of Holland.

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  • Among the other public buildings are the guildhall, with Renaissance front, the corn exchange, the picturesque custom-house of the 17th century, the athenaeum (including a museum, hall and other departments), the Stanley Library and the municipal buildings.

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  • The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member.

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  • They still preserved in their municipal institutions the old style of republicas derived from the civitates and respublicae of ancient Rome.

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  • But their representatives, assisted by the senators and deputies of the Basque Provinces in the Cortes, negotiated successive pacts, each lasting several years, securing for the three Provinces their municipal and provincial self-government, and the assessment, distribution and collection of their principal taxes and octroi duties, on the understanding that an agreed sum should be paid annually to the state, subject to an increase whenever the national taxation of other provinces was augmented.

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  • Soraluce, and other historians, has examined, catalogued and indexed the municipal archives of all the towns, without which no true history can be written.

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  • The municipal museum, founded in 1869 and located in the old cloth-hall (Laeckenhalle) (1640), contains a varied collection of antiquities connected with Leiden, as well as some paintings including works by the elder van Swanenburgh, Cornelius Engelbrechtszoon, Lucas van Leiden and Jan Steen, who were all natives of Leiden.

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  • This last conception lay beyond the horizon of Caesar, as of all ancient statesmen, but his first act on gaining control of Italy was to enfranchise the Transpadanes, whose claims he had consistently advocated, and in 45 B.C. he passed the Lex Julia Municipalis, an act of which considerable fragments are inscribed on two bronze tables found at Heraclea near Tarentum.3 This law deals inter alia with the police and the sanitary arrangements of the city of Rome, and hence it has been argued by Mommsen that it was Caesar's intention to reduce Rome to the level of a municipal town.

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  • The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.

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  • Accordingly, we find that free birth is not, as in Italy, a necessary qualification for municipal office.

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  • The police service is both municipal and federal in character.

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  • The larger political divisions of the state (partidos, distritos, &c.) are governed by a jefe politico, or prefect, and the smaller by a municipal council called an ayuntamiento.

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  • In 1895 the 6% external debt was converted into a 5% debt, the bonds of which remained at a premium for 1902; in 1896 the alcabalas or interstate customs and municipal octrois were abolished, and replaced in part by direct taxation and increased stamp duties.

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  • Similarly, the state legislatures, as well as the judges and municipal officers, were actually or virtually selected by the state governors, who were practically agents of the president.

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  • Kay's free grammar school was founded in 1726; there are also municipal technical schools.

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  • Pop. (1903) 4494; with the barrios of San Roque and Caridad (on the main peninsula), which are under the municipal government of Cavite (15,630).

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  • In accordance with the general laws each city elects a mayor, a board of aldermen, and a common council in whom is vested the administration of its " fiscal, prudential and municipal affairs "; the mayor presides at the meetings of the board of aldermen, and has a veto on any measure of this body, and no measure can be passed over his veto except by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the aldermen; each ward elects three selectmen, a moderator and a clerk in whom is vested the charge of elections; the city marshal and assistant marshals are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, but the city clerk and city treasurer are elected by the aldermen and common council in joint session.

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  • One feature of municipal activity in Bradford deserves special notice - there is a municipal railway, opened in 1907, extending from Pateley Bridge to Lofthouse (6 m.) and serving the Nidd valley, the district from which the main water-supply of the city is obtained.

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  • The municipal boundary lies generally a little outside the so-called Circular Road, which may be taken as encircling the city proper, with a few breaks.

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  • The city hall, used as municipal offices, has already been mentioned; the official residence of the lord mayor is the Mansion House, Dawson Street.

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