The son of a miller, his name originally was Johann Muller, but he called himself, from his birthplace, Joh.
Muller (1870), Haupt-Vahlen (last ed., 1904), *Bahrens (1880), *A.
Muller, Der Begriff der sittlichen Unvollkommenheit bei Descartes and Spinoza (1890); J.
Muller from three MSS.
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
Muller, Die Gesetze Hammurabis (Vienna, 1903); J.
Muller tried to show that even sense experience throws us on the Infinite - which for him was the kernel of the idea of God.
Muller, Gesammelte Schriften (Otto Becker, Leipzig, 1872), and Arch.
Max Muller, "On Ancient Prayers," in Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr Alexander Kohut (1897); L.
Muller in the Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy (Phil.-hist.
Muller, Livi Andronici et Cn.
Bohm.-Bruder (1882); Muller, Das Bischofstum der Bruder-Kirche (1888); Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alien Bruder-Kirche (1900); Die deutschen Katechismen.
Muller, Biographisches fiber Duns Scotus (progr., Cologne, 1881); W.
Muller, De Antisthenis cynici vita et scriptis (Dresden, 1860); T.
The second, according to Max Muller and A.
2; Memnon in C. Muller, Frag.
Muller, Kirchengeschichte (2nd edition by H.
Muller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A.
Kahler, Julius Muller (1878); L.
Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.
Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
Character of this kind is not to be despised as a practical mode of separating the birds which possess it; and, more than this, it would appear that the discovery thus announced was the immediate means of leading to a series of investigations of a much more important and lasting nature - those of Johannes Muller to be presently mentioned.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
Nothing whatever is to be said against the composition of his first and second " tribes"; but the third is an assemblage still more heterogeneous than that which Nitzsch brought together under a name so like that of Muller - for the fact must never be allowed to go out of sight that the extent of the Picarii of the latter is not at all that of the Picariae of the former.'
But again Muller made his third " tribe " Picarii also to contain the Tyrannidae, of which mention has just been made, though it is so obvious as now to be generally admitted that they have no very intimate relationship to the other families with which they are there associated.
It must not be supposed that the vocal muscles were first discovered by Muller; on the contrary, they had been described.
But Muller has the merit of clearly outstriding his predecessors, and with his accustomed perspicuity made the way even plainer for his successors to see than he himself was able to see it.
These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in birds of the same order; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal bones in birds of the same order; (3) there are relations of likeness 1 The title of the English translation is Johannes Muller on Certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice.
The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of Muller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of birds, much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation.
In the Oscines or Polymyodi of Muller the number was either nine or ten - and if the latter the outermost of them was generally very small.
The final disposition of the " Sub-class Insessores " - all the 2 On the other hand, Muller makes,several references to the labours.
Muller, Stimmorganen der Passerinen, p. 65).
Muller, Ann., 1864, 131, p. 35 2), and by the action of silver oxide on s-di-chloracrylic ester .at 125° C. (0.
Muller, 1885-1894), followed the lines of the xv.
Muller, has been generally accepted by modern archaeologists; and it is a strong point in its favour that the bishop of Orvieto in 595 signs himself episcopus civitatis Bulsiniensis (Gregor.
Of the Cyclostomidae only one species, Cyclostoma elegans, Muller, is British; it hides under stones and roots.
His first music master was Gottlieb Muller, who thought him self-willed and eccentric; and his first production as a composer was an overture, performed at the Leipzig theatre in 1830.
Muller, Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand (1855); also Numismatics: § I.
Muller (Plan and Kartenzeichnen, 1788) and J.
For the latest edition we are indebted to the late Carl Muller (Paris, 1883-1906) to whom we are likewise indebted for an edition of the Geographi graeci minores (1855-1861).
The first real advance towards their interpretation was made by Otfried Muller (Die Etrusker, 1828), who pointed out that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubinis (1833), finally determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the latest.
Geological Survey of India; Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East (Oxford, 1890-1894); Elisee Reclus, The Earth and its Inhabitants (series, 1890); G.
JULIUS MULLER (1801-1878), German Protestant theologian, was born at Brieg on the 10th of April 1801.
A disciple of Neander and friend of Richard Rothe, Muller bitterly opposed the philosophy of Hegel and the criticism of F.
Schultze, Julius Muller (1879) and Julius Muller als Ethiker (1895).
Muller and F.
Huber, Muller, and Ferdinand Wolf are among the leading authorities in the history and literature of the Cid.