Motions Sentence Examples
I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers.
The force which brings the atoms together in the forms of objects is inherent in the elements, and all their motions are necessary.
The rest of the time, he just went through the motions.
They went through the motions of checking all the hotels and flophouses in the city, but no one had seen Homer in the days preceding his murder.
I used to sit in my mother's lap all day long and keep my hands on her face because it amused me to feel the motions of her lips; and I moved my lips, too, although I had forgotten what talking was.Advertisement
Her motions are often more expressive than any words, and she is as graceful as a nymph.
He changed the subject by pointing out Brandon Westlake standing near the boys, his arm about Billy, as with animated motions he seemed to be giving last-minute instructions.
They went through an entire range of movements, from attacking to defending in motions that resembled a dance.
Jenn's closed her eyes, running through the motions in her head that Sofi directed her to take.
But the Cartesian theory, like the later speculations of Kant and Laplace, proposes to give a hypothetical explanation of the circumstances and motions which in the normal course of things led to the state of things required by the law of attraction.Advertisement
The motions of bodies, or of the ultimate parts of bodies, also involve energy, for stopping them would be a source of work.
The shafts are turned by the pull of the magnet upon the coils, and the motions of the transmitting pencil are thus reproduced.
The only assumption here involved is the evidently legitimate one that, when two systems of variously distributed motion at the lamina are superposed, the corresponding motions in front are superposed also.
By its provisions communications from the Government and the other House, and reports of commissions, had to take precedence of other business; further, the president could postpone to the end of the sitting formal motions, interpellations, emergency motions, and other obstructive measures.
Dean went through the motions of checking the phone anyway, but found what he expected, absolutely nothing.Advertisement
The motions impressed upon the carbon granules are very vigorous, and this together with the particular arrangement of the parts of the instrument is effectual in obviating the difficulty from packing which attended the use of earlier forms of granulated carbon transmitters.
He considered, at every instant, the actual motion of a stratum as composed of a motion which it had in the preceding instant and of a motion which it had lost; and the laws of equilibrium between the motions lost furnished him with equations representing the motion of the fluid.
We might conceive the rapid motions of the heavenly bodies to result in some change either in the direction or amount of their gravitation towards each other at each moment; but such is not the case, even in the most rapidly moving bodies of the solar system.
The result of this would be seen in the motions of the planets around the sun; but the most refined observations show no such effect.
Brown is the first investigator to determine the theoretical motions with this degree of precision; and he finds that there is no such divergence between the actual and the computed motion.Advertisement
They exhibit a great dissimilarity in paths, motions and colours.
One of the first motions put to the House was that a special Committee should be appointed to consider the violations of the liberties and franchises of all the corporations of the kingdom " and particularly of the City of London."
When generalizing the theory of pendulums of Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) he discovered a principle of dynamics so simple and general that it reduced the laws of the motions of bodies to that of their equilibrium.
The most obvious test of the reality of the required modifications would be afforded by two other bodies, the motions of whose pericentres should be similarly affected.
The meteors, whatever their dimensions, must have motions around the sun in obedience to the law of gravitation in the same manner as planets and comets - that is, in conic sections of which the sun is always at one focus.Advertisement
The great variety in the apparent motions of meteors proves that they are not directed from the plane of the ecliptic; hence their orbits are not like the orbits of planets and short-period comets, which are little inclined, but like the orbits of parabolic comets, which often have great inclinations.
Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions.
They can adapt their motions to every variation of the ground over which they move, yet all varieties of snake locomotion are founded on the following simple process.
Their motions in the water are almost as rapid as they are uncertain and awkward when the animals are removed out of their proper element.
To remedy drawback (2) Repsolds provided for the Yale heliometer an additional handle for motion in position angle, intermediate in velocity between the original quick and slow motions.
Each bombardment will, however, change the motion of the particle, so that changes are too frequent for the separate motions to be individually visible.
But it can be shown that from the aggregation of these separate short motions the particle ought to have a resultant motion, described with an average velocity which, although much smaller than 2 mm.
The more general case of motion of source, medium and receiver may be treated very easily if the motions are all in the line joining source and receiver.
The reader will be able to make out the simultaneous motions and pressures at various points.
It is evident that the pressure condition will be fulfilled only if the motions in the two tubes are in the same direction at the same time, closing into and opening out from the nodes together.
If the jet tube is somewhat longer than half the sounding tube there will be a node in it, and now the condition of equality of pressure requires opposite motions in the two at the nozzle, for their nodes are situated on opposite sides of that point.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
The two clock motions may be geared to a single counting mechanism which records the difference in the rates of going of the two clocks.
The view that our knowledge in such cases may be completely represented by means of laws of action at a distance, expressible in terms of the positions (and possibly motions) of the interacting bodies without taking any heed of the intervening space, belongs to modern times.
Now the kinetics of a medium in which the parts can have finite relative motions will lead to equations which are not linear - as, for example, those of hydrodynamics - and the phenomena will be far more complexly involved.
It imitates the motions made in polishing a speculum by hand by giving both a rectilinear and a lateral motion to the polisher, while the speculum revolves slowly; by shifting two eccentric pins the course of the polisher can be varied at will from a straight line to an ellipse of very small eccentricity, and a true parabolic figure can thus be obtained.
The motions of most lizards are executed with great but not enduring rapidity.
The motions of these limbless lizards are similar to those of snakes, which they resemble in their elongate body.
Napier's original work, the Descriptio Canonis of 1614, contained, not logarithms of numbers, but logarithms of sines, and the relations between the sines and the logarithms were explained by the motions of points in lines, in a manner not unlike that afterwards employed by Newton in the method of fluxions.
In his speculations as to the physical cause of the celestial motions, his mind, though not wholly emancipated from the tyranny of gratuitous assumptions, was working steadily towards the light.
The kaleidophone, intended to present visibly the movements of a sonorous body, consisted of a vibrating wire or rod carrying a silvered bead reflecting a point of light, the motions of which, by persistence of the successive images on the retina, were thus represented in curves of light.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
The mind, especially in mathematics, abstracts numbers, motions, relations, causes, essences, ends, kinds; and it over-abstracts things mentally separate into things really separate.
Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons.
But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.
Not Even Appear That The Length Of The Intercalary Month Was Regulated By Any Certain Principle, For A Discretionary Power Was Left With The Pontiffs, To Whom The Care Of The Calendar Was Committed, To Intercalate More Or Fewer Days According As The Year Was Found To Differ More Or Less From The Celestial Motions.
The Number Of Days In The Period Being Known, It Is Easy To Ascertain Its Accuracy Both In Respect Of The Solar And Lunar Motions.
Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the aberration due to these two motions.
Further, he explained the old Cartesian difficulty of the relation of body and mind by transforming the Spinozistic parallelism of extension and thought into a parallelism between the motions of bodies and the perceptions of their monads; motions always proceeding from motions, and perceptions from perceptions; bodies acting according to efficient causes, and souls according to final causes by appetition, and as if one influenced the other without actually doing so.
Both, however, used this influence freely; and, whereas Lotze used the Leibnitzian argument from indivisibility to deduce indivisible elements and souls, Fechner used the Leibnitzian hypotheses of universal perception and parallelism of motions and perceptions, in the light of the .Schellingian identification of physical and psychical, to evolve a world-view (Weltansicht) containing something which was neither Leibnitz nor Schelling.
On the assumption, then, that time and space are not objects, but systems, of sensations, he concludes that a body in time and space is " a relatively constant sum of touch-and-light-sensations, joined to the same time-and-space-sensations," that each man's own body is included in his sensations, and that to explain sensations by motions would only be to explain one set of sensations from another.
Kirchhoff asserted that the whole object of mechanics is " to describe the motions occurring in Nature completely in the simplest manner."
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
The regularity of their diurnal revolutions could not escape notice, and a good deal was known 2000 years ago about the motions of the sun and moon and planets among the stars.
For the statement of the motions of these bodies uniform motion in a circle was employed as a fundamental type, combinations of motions of this type being constructed to fit the observations.
This procedure - which was first employed by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and developed by Ptolemy three centuries later - did not afford any law connecting the motions of different bodies.
Kepler (1571-1630) was led by his study of the planetary motions to reject this method of statement as inadequate, and it is in fact incapable of giving a complete representation of the motions in question.
The method of superposition of two motions may be illustrated by such examples as that of a body dropped from the mast of a ship moving at uniform speed.
It involved the adoption of a point of view as to the relation between the motions of bodies of different forms, which practically amounted to a perception of the principle of energy as applied to the case in question.
This definition correctly indicates that the mass of any portion of matter is equal to the sum of the masses of its parts, and that the masses of bodies alike in other respects are equal, but gives no test for comparison of the masses of bodies of different substances; this test is supplied only by a comparison of motions.
When, as in the case of contact, a mutual relation is perceived between the motions of two particles, the changes of velocity are in opposite directions, and the ratio of their magnitudes determines the ratio of the masses of the particles; the motion being reckoned relative to any base which is unaffected by the change.
Particular laws of force may be suggested by a study of the simplest cases in which they are manifested, and from them results may be obtained by calculation as to the motions of systems of any given structure.
Finally, he made substantial progress with more exact calculations of the motions of the solar system, especially for the case of the moon.
The verification is sufficiently exact to establish the law of gravitation, as providing a statement of the motions of the bodies composing the solar system which is correct to a high degree of accuracy.
In the treatment of the relative motions of a limited system, we may use a confessedly provisional base, though it may be necessary to introduce corrections, either exact or approximate, to take account either of the existence of bodies outside the system, or of the rotation of the base employed relative to a more correct one.
The earth, which is commonly employed as a base for terrestrial motions, is not a very close approximation to being a Newtonian base.
For the study of the relative motions of the solar system, a provisional base established for that system by itself, bodies outside it being disregarded,' is a very good one.
Here we get the link with physics and chemistry alluded to above, which is obtained by the recognition of new forms of energy, interchangeable with what may be called mechanical energy, or that associated with sensible motions and changes of configuration.
Neither the forms nor the motions of the calcium flocculi revealed the existence of such b
From 1855 to 1859 he acted as director of the Dudley observatory at Albany, New York; and published in 1859 a discussion of the places and proper motions of circumpolar stars to be used as standards by the United States coast survey.
He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.
They brought in repeated motions to impeach the ministers, and parliament had to be prorogued in June, although no business of any kind had been transacted.
The Czechs blocked business by a pile of " urgency motions " and occasionally indulged in noisy obstruction.
Our limits forbid a historical account of the earlier endeavours to fulfil these ends by means of motions in altitude and azimuth, nor can we do more than refer to mountings such as those employed by the Herschels or those designed by Lord Rosse to overcome the engineering difficulties of mounting his huge telescope of 6 ft.
The observer at the eye-end can also read off the hour and declination circles and communicate quick or slow motions, to the telescope both in right ascension and declination by conveniently Pulkovo, placed handles.
Other water engines, similarly connected, with keys at the observer's hands, rotate the dome and perform the quick motions in right ascension and declination.
He is provided with quick and slow motions in right ascension and declination, which can be operated from the eye-end, and he can work in a closed and comfortably heated room.
These have proper motions which are almost identical in amount and in direction.
It is difficult to understand what may be the connexion between stars so widely separated; from the equality of their motions they must have been widely separated for a very long period.
The stars chosen were those with centennial proper motions greater than 40", observable at Yale, and not hitherto attacked.
Fortunately the study of proper motions teaches us with some degree of certainty something of the general mean distances and distribution of these more distant stars, though it cannot tell us the distances of individual stars.
Proper Motions of Stars.-The work of cataloguing the stars and determining their exact positions, which is being pursued on so large a scale, naturally leads to the determination of their proper motions.
Halley was the first to suspect from observation the proper motions of the stars.
It was early realized that the proper motions of the stars were changes of position relative to the sun, and that, if the sun had any motion of its own as compared with the surrounding stars as a whole, this would be shown by a general tendency of the apparent motions of the stars to be directed away from the point to which the sun was moving.
To determine proper motions it is necessary to have observations separated by as long a period of time as possible.
Thackeray, and proper motions derived by comparison with modern Greenwich observations.
A very extensive determination of proper motions from a comparison of all the principal catalogues has been made by Lewis Boss.
The results are given in his Prelimina, y General Catalogue (1910), which comprises the motions of 6188 stars fairly uniformly distributed over the sky, including all the stars visible to the naked eye.
Recently the proper motions of faint stars have been determined by comparing photographs of the same region of the sky, taken with an interval of a number of years.
Large proper motions can however be found in this way.
The majority of the stars have far smaller proper motions than these.
Only 24% of the stars of Auwers-Bradley have proper motions exceeding to" per century, and 51% exceeding 5" per century.
With catalogues containing fainter stars the proportion of large proper motions is somewhat smaller, thus the corresponding percentages for the Groombridge stars are 12 and 31 respectively.
When the proper motions of a considerable number of stars are collected and examined, a general systematic tendency is noticed.
The motions of individual stars, it is true, vary widely, but if the mean motion of a number of stars is considered this tendency is always to be found.
Now it is necessary to bear in mind that all observed motions are relative; and, especially in dealing with stellar motions, it is arbitrary what shall be considered at rest, and used as a standard to which to refer their movements.
Although his data were the proper motions of only seven stars, he indicated a point near X Herculis not very far from that found by modern researches.
Again in 1805 from Maskelyne's catalogue of the proper motions of 36 stars (published in 1790), he found the position, R.A.
The systematic tendency of the proper motions is so marked that the motions of a very few stars are quite sufficient to fix roughly the position of the solar apex; but attempts to fix its position to within a few degrees have failed, notwithstanding the many thousands of determined proper motions now available.
Of the various modern determinations of the apex, we give first those which depend, wholly or mainly, on the Auwers-Bradley proper motions.
To arrive at some estimate of the speed of the solar motion, we may consider the motions of those stars whose parallaxes have been measured, and whose actual linear speed is accordingly known (disregarding motion in the line of sight).
If a sufficient number of stars are considered, their peculiar motions will mutually cancel and the parallactic or solar motion can then be derived.
A very weighty objection is that the stars whose parallaxes are determined are mainly those of large proper motion and therefore not fairly representative of the bulk of the stars; in fact their peculiar motions will not neutralize one another in the mean.
A better method is to derive the speed from the radial motions observed with the spectroscope.
Campbell from the radial motions of 280 stars found the velocity to be 20 kilometres per second with a probable error of 12 km.
This result, while it does not afford any means of determining the parallaxes of individual stars, enables us to determine the mean parallax of a group of stars, if we may assume their peculiar motions practically to cancel one another.
In researches on the solar motion the assumption is almost always made that the motions of the stars relatively to one another - the peculiar motions - are at random.
The correctness cf this hypothesis has long been under suspicion, but it has generally been accepted as the best simple approximation to the actual distribution of the motions that could be made.
The stars composing this all have equal and parallel motions; about 40 stars brighter than the seventh magnitude are known to belong to it.
But, whilst recognizing the existence of local drifts and systems, and admitting the possibility of relative motion between the nearer and more distant, or other classes of stars, it is;only recently that astronomers have seriously doubted the correctness of the hypothesis of random distribution of stellar motions as at least a rough representation of the truth.
The stars have on this theory random peculiar motions in addition to the motion of the drift to which they belong, just as on the older theory the stars have peculiar motions in addition to the solar or parallactic motion shared by all of them.
But the two theories lead to a very different statistical distribution of the stellar motions.
It seems difficult to account for the very remarkable and unsymmetrical distribution of the motions, unless we suppose that the stars form two more or less separate systems superposed; and it has been found possible by assuming two drifts with suitably assigned velocities to account very satisfactorily for the observed motions.
Assoc. Rep., 1905, p. 257), and has subsequently been confirmed by a discussion of the Groombridge proper motions (Mon.
We may conveniently distinguish the two drifts as the slow-moving and fast-moving drifts respectively; but it should be remembered that, since these motions are measured relatively to the sun, this distinction is not physically significant.
Until the hypothesis has been thoroughly tested by an examination of the line-of-sight velocities of stars from the same point of view, this physical interpretation must be received with some degree of caution; but there can be no doubt of the reality of the anomalies in the statistical distribution of proper motions of the stars, and of these it offers a simple and adequate explanation.
Having determined the motions of the two drifts, and knowing also that the stars are nearly equally divided between them, it is evidently possible to determine the mean motion of the drifts combined.
In this connexion it may be noticed that, when the smaller and larger proper motions are discussed separately, the latter category will include an unduly great proportion of stars belonging to the fast-moving drift, and the resulting determination will lead to a solar apex too near the apex of that drift, i.e.
This appears to be the explanation of Stumpe's and Porter's results; they both divided their proper motions into groups according to their numerical amount, and found that the declination of the solar apex progressively increased as the size of the motions used diminished.
Thus Kapteyn found that the Bradley stars having proper motions greater than 5" per century were evenly distributed over the sky.
Dyson and Thackeray's tables show the same result for the Groombridge stars down to magnitude 6.5; but the fainter stars (with centennial proper motions greater than 5") show a marked tendency to draw towards the galactic circle.
We infer that nearly all the stars down to magnitude 6.5, whose proper motions exceed 5", are at a distance from the sun less than SP, whilst of the fainter stars with equally great proper motions a large proportion are at a distance greater than SP. This result enables us to form some sort of idea of the distance SP.
It has been seen that the parallaxes afford little information as to the distribution of the main bulk of the stars and that the chief evidence on this point must be obtained indirectly from their proper motions.
The comparative nearness of the stars of the solar type, which we have had occasion to allude to, is confirmed by the fact that their proper motions are on the average much larger than those of the Sirian stars.
Newton did indeed first show synthetically what kind of motions by mechanical laws have their ground in a centripetal force varying inversely as the square of the distance (all P is M); but his next step was, not to deduce synthetically the planetary motions, but to make a new start from the planetary motions as facts established by Kepler's laws and as examples of the kind of motions in question (all S is P); and then, by combining these two premises, one mechanical and the other astronomical, he analytically deduced that these facts of planetary motion have their ground in a centripetal force varying inversely as the squares of the distances of the planets from the sun (all S is M).
Really, we first experience that particular causes have particular effects; then induce that causes similar to those have effects similar to these; finally, deduce that when a particular cause of the kind occurs it has a particular effect of the kind by synthetic deduction, and that when a particular effect of the kind occurs it has a particular cause of the kind by analytic deduction with a convertible premise, as when Newton from planetary motions, like terrestrial motions, analytically deduced a centripetal force to the sun like centripetal forces to the earth.
But his name is chiefly perpetuated through his investigation of the motions of sun-spots, by which he determined the elements of the sun's rotation and made the important discovery of a systematic drift of the photosphere, causing the rotation-periods of spots to lengthen with increase of solar latitude.
It is affected by the motions of Precession and Nutation, of which the former has been known since the time of Hipparchus.
These two motions are defined with greater detail in the articles Precession Of The Equinoxes and Nutation.
This is sometimes discussed as a separate theory but for our present purposes it is more convenient to introduc kinematical motions as they are required.
The effect of forces of this type on small vibratory motions may be investigated as follows.
The precession of the equinoxes is due to the fact that the earth performs a motion of this kind about its centre, and the whole class of such motions has therefore been termed precessional.
The frame is a structure which supports the pieces of the mechanism, and to a certain extent determines the nature of their motions.
The foi-m and arrangement of the pieces of the frame depend upon the arrangement and the motions of the mechanism; the dimensions of the pieces of the frame required in order to give it stability and strength are determined from the pressures applied to it by means of the mechanism.
Points, lines and surfaces have no independent existence, and consequently those divisions of this chapter which relate to their motions are only preliminary to the subsequent divisions, which relate to the motions of bodies.
Comparative Motion.The comparative motion of two points is the relation which exists between their motions, without having regard to their absolute amounts.
It consists of two elements, the velocity ratio, which is the ratio of any two magnitudes bearing to each other the proportions of the respective velocities of the two points at a given instant, and the directional relation, which is the relation borne to each other by the respective directions of the motions of the two points at the same given instant.
It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points.
Robert Willis (1800-1875) has the merit of having been the first to simplify considerably the theory of puie mechanism, by pointing out that that branch of mechanics relates wholly to comparative motions.
Motions ClassedIn problems of mechanism, each solid piece of the machine is supposed to be so stiff and strong as not to undergo any sensible change of figure or dimensions by the forces applied to ita supposition which is realized in practice if the machine is skilfully designed.
Shifting in a straight line is regulated either by straight fixed guides, in contact with which the moving piece slides, or by combinations of link-work, called parallel motions, which will be described in the sequel.
DefinitionsAn elementary combination in mechanism consists of two pieces whose kinds of motion are determined by their connection with the frame, and their comparative motion by their connection with each otherthat connection being effected either by direct contact of the pieces, or by a connecting piece, which is not connected with the frame, and whose motion depends entirely on the motions of the pieces which it connects.
But that classification is founded on the absolute instead of the comparative motions of the pieces, and is, for that reason, defective, as Willis pointed out in his admirable treatise On the Principles of Mechanism.
If at any instant the direction of one of the crank-arms coincides with the line of connection, the common perpendicular of the line sf connection and the axis of that crank-arm vanishes, and the 3irectional relation of the motions becomes indeterminate.
General Pr-inciples.----Willis designated as aggregate combinations those assemblages of pieces of mechanism in which the motion of one follower is the resultant of component motions impressed on it by more than one driver.
Now from the laws of statics it is known that, in order that a system of forces applied to a system of connected points may be in equilibrium, it is necessary that the sum formed by putting together the products of the forces by the respective distances through which their points of application are capable of moving simultaneously, each along the direction of the force applied to it, shall be zero, products being considered positive or negative according as, the direction of the forces and the possible motions of their points of application are the same or opposite.
In most of the delusive machines commonly called perpetual motions, of which so many are patented in each year, and which are expected by their inventors to perform work without receiving energy, the fundamental fallacy consists in an expectation that some reciprocating force shall restore more energy than it has been the means of storing.
Accordingly he resolved to " devote all the force which he could spare to the work of deriving improved values of the fundamental elements and embodying them in new tables of the celestial motions."
He proved by systematic experiments that the electromotive forces set up in conductors by their motions in magnetic fields or by the induction of other currents in the field were due to the secondary conductor cutting lines of magnetic force.
It handles the configurations and the appetites or motions of matter.
Motions' are either simple or compound, the latter being the sum of a number of the former.
Besides being authorized to veto motions, the strategus (general) had practically the sole power of introducing measures before the assembly.
These wheels receive motions from bands and pulleys from a steam or other engine contained in the car.
But, whereas the new scholarch, confining himself to the detailed examination of natural kinds, attempted no comprehensive explanation of the universe, Aristotle held that a theory of its origin, its motions, and its order was a necessary adjunct to the classificatory sciences; and in nearly all his references to Speusippus he insists upon this fundamental difference of procedure.
Conceiving that the motions of the universe and its parts are due to the desire which it and they feel towards the supreme external mind and its several thoughts, so that the cosmical order planned by the divine mind is realized in the phenomenal universe, Aristotle thus secures the requisite unification, not indeed of mind and matter, for mind and matter are distinct, but of the governing mind, the prime unmoved movent, since it and its thoughts are one.
Hansky believes these motions may be the consequences of matter rising from below and thrusting the surface groups aside.
Rapidly falling temperature must (and visibly does) produce furious motions which wholly outrun mere restoration of statical balance.
The movement towards contraction and consequent rise of temperature which radiation sets up, like other motions, overruns the equilibriumpoint, only however by a minute amount; the accumulated excesses from all past time now stored in the sun would maintain its radiations at their present rate for nX3000 years, that is, for a few thousand years only.
In 1755 Euler had been elected a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and some time afterwards the academical prize was adjudged to three of his memoirs Concerning the Inequalities in the Motions of the Planets.
Excepting in the correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until the 21st of April 1686, when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties, in which he states " that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press," and that the law of the inverse square " is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally, that its truth is past dispute."
Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books, wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth, sun and planets, with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon; in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre.
This scholium was- " The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley."
Hill of Washington expounded a new and beautiful method for dealing with the problem of the lunar motions, Adams briefly announced his own unpublished work in the same field, which, following a parallel course had confirmed and supplemented Hill's.
A further step was to suggest the ultimate dependence of the secondary qualities of bodies upon " the bulk, figures, number, situation and motions of the solid parts of which the bodies consist," these mathematical or primary qualities " existing as we think of them whether or not they are perceived."
The field we have defined is divisible into at least two parts, that of Astronomy proper, or " Astrometry," which treats of the motions, mutual relations and dimensions of the heavenly bodies; and that of Astrophysics, which treats of their physical constitution.
The development of this branch has infused life and interest into what might a few years ago have been regarded as the most lifeless mass of figures possible, expressing merely the positions and motions of innumerable individual stars, as determined by generations of astronomical observers.
To the statistician of the stars, catalogues of spectra, magnitude, position and proper motions are of the same importance that census tables are to the student of humanity.
One characteristic of astronomy which tends to make its progress slow and continuous arises out of the general fact that, except in the case of motions to or from us, which can be determined by a single observation with the spectroscope, the motion of a heavenly body can be determined only by comparing its position at two different epochs.
Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.
Here we have to make a distinction of fundamental importance between the diurnal motions of the sun and of the stars.
Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.
Among the problems of theoretical astronomy we may assign the first place to the determination of orbits, which is auxiliary to the prediction of the apparent motions of a planet, satellite or star.
But when definitive results as to the orbits are required, it is necessary to compute the perturbations produced by such of the major planets as have affected the motions of the body.
The precision with which the path of an eclipse is laid down years in advance cannot but imbue the minds of men with a high sense of the perfection reached by astronomical theories; and the discovery, by purely mathematical processes, of the changes which the orbits and motions of the planets are to undergo through future ages is more impressive the more fully one apprehends the nature of the problem.
When the subject was taken up by the continental mathematicians, using the analytical method, the question naturally arose whether the motions of three bodies under their mutual attraction could not be determined with a degree of rigour approximating to that with which Newton had solved the problem of two bodies.
Investigation soon showed that certain integrals expressing relations between the motions not only of three but of any number of bodies could be found.
It is thus with the motions of the planets going through their revolutions.
It follows that L the motions of the mean longitudes are nearly in the same proportion re versed.
Let the line CJ represent the common direction of the two planets from the sun when they are in conjunction, and let us follow the motions until they again come into conjunction.
The telescope, in order that it may be pointed in any direction, must admit of two motions, one round the principal axis, and the other round an axis at right angles to it.
By these two motions the instrument may be pointed first at one of the objects and then at the other.
Auwers in 1882, form the true basis of exact astronomy, and of our knowledge of proper motions.
Tobias Mayer of GÃ¶ttingen (1723-1762) originated the mode of adjusting transit-instruments still in vogue; drew up a catalogue of nearly a thousand zodiacal stars (published posthumously in 1775); and deduced the proper motions of eighty stars from a comparison of their places as given by Olaus Romer in 1706 with those obtained by himself in 1756.
He, moreover, definitively established, in 1783, the fact and general direction of the sun's movement in space, and thus introduced an element of order into the maze of stellar proper motions.
C. Kapteyn and Simon Newcomb, to estimate, through the analysis of their proper motions, the " mean parallax " of stars assorted by magnitude.
Bossert was enabled to deduce 2675 proper motions, published at Paris in four successive memoirs, 1887-1902; and the sum-total of those ascertained probably now exceeds 6000.
After the establishment of universal gravitation as the primary law of the celestial motions, the problem was reduced to that of integrating the differential equations of the moon's motion, and testing the completeness of the results by comparison with observation.
Although the precision of the mathematical solution has been placed beyond serious doubt, the problem of completely reconciling this solution with the observed motions of the moon is not yet completely solved.
We may conclude the ancient history of the lunar theory by saying that the only real progress from Hipparchus to Newton consisted in the more exact determination of the mean motions of the moon, its perigee and its line of nodes, and in the discovery of three inequalities, the representation of which required geometrical constructions increasing in complexity with every step.
Notwithstanding his unremitting labours in educating public opinion and annual motions in the House of Commons, it was not till 1807, the year following Pitt's death, that the first great step towards the abolition of slavery was accomplished.
How are the motions of sun and moon to be accounted for?
He pointed out that they were limited to a certain defined zone on the sun's surface; he noted the faculae with which they are associated, the penumbra by which they are bordered, their slight proper motions and their rapid changes of form.
The recognition of the second - that of the independence of different motions - must be added to form the true theory of projectiles.
The establishment of the principle of the composition of motions formed a conclusive answer to the most formidable of the arguments used against the rotation of the earth, and we find it accordingly triumphantly brought forward by Galileo in the second of his dialogues on the systems of the world.
The scholastic distinctions between corruptible and incorruptible substances, between absolute gravity and absolute levity, between natural and violent motions, if they did not wholly disappear from scientific phraseology, ceased thenceforward to hold the place of honour in the controversies of the learned.
For long ages astronomy and astrology (which might be called astromancy, on the same principle as "chiromancy") were identified; and a distinction is made between "natural astrology," which predicts the motions of the heavenly bodies, eclipses, &c., and "judicial astrology," which studies the influence of the stars on human destiny.
The system was taken up almost bodily by the Arab astronomers, it was embodied in the Kabbalistic lore of Jews and Christians, and through these and other channels came to be the substance of the astrology of the middle ages, forming, as already pointed out, under the designation of "judicial astrology," a pseudo-science which was placed on a perfect footing of equality with "natural astrology" or the more genuine science of the study of the motions and phenomena of the heavenly bodies.
These modern adjustments are made so exact that motions can be easily measured FIG.
Near one phase of this combined period the two component motions nearly annul each other, so that the variation is then small, while at the opposite phase, 3 to 4 years later, the two motions are in the same direction and the range of variation is at its maximum.
We then see the engine going through all its motions but much more slowly, and can follow them easily.
This ray is also given a periodic motion of the same frequency by reflection from a separate oscillating mirror so as to make the two motions at right angles to one another, and thus we have depicted on the screen a bright line having the same form as the periodic current being tested.
A ray of light is reflected from this mirror and from another mirror which is rocked by a small motor driven off the same circuit, so that the ray has two vibratory motions imparted to it at right angles, one a simple harmonic motion and the other a motion imitating the variation of the current or electromotive force under test.
She dressed then went through the motions of brushing her teeth and dressing without the aid of a mirror, irritated that the only mirror in the bedroom was in the inside door of the wardrobe.
Instead, he sauntered into the dining room and sat next to Edith as she halved a muffin and in tiny motions spread it with butter and marmalade.
Dean went to the kitchen, returning with a dustpan and whisk broom, only to be rewarded with a stern lecture on his insensitivity when he made motions to pitch the little varmint out in the snow.
She fought the invasion, unable to control her own motions.
We can detect these small motions by looking at the Doppler shift in spectral lines emitted by atoms in the solar surface.
To account for this, the laser beacon collimator has two extra independent axial motions for lens elements.
Constitution changes All motions put forward in the ballot to amend the constitution changes All motions put forward in the ballot to amend the constitution were carried by considerably more than the two thirds majority required.
Enter ABC def using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the abc and the def.
This R factor corresponds to the relative motions occurred during molecular dynamics (see more at flexibility ).
Phil did n't emote, he just went through the motions.
On the other hand, control of these chaotic motions is also studied by applying a parametric periodic excitation.
If the contact involves vibrational or impact motions then there will be a risk of fretting, fretting corrosion or even fretting fatigue.
See Holyrood.com report PQs and Motions New Written Answers published today include health (eye operations) and torture / rendition flights.
We do not have guillotine motions these days; instead we have program motions, which were recommended by the Modernisation Committee.
Getting motions passed at general meetings forces Student Unions to campaign against privatization.
Inorganic iron supplements can cause dark brown to black bowel motions.
The name for both these twisting motions is gyroscopic precession.
For his motions upon the face of the earth are more than any other quadruped.
There are larger movements in the coupled motions, including scapula and trunk movements and, hence, it is a less pure movement.
It wasn't a passionate full-on snog, more going through the motions.
Occasionally an issue of such major national importance may arise subsequent to the closing date for receipt of Conference Motions.
If motions are hard and difficult to void, try inserting a glycerol suppository to reduce straining.
When it is further remembered that the earlier telescopes were not provided with the modern slow motions in right ascension and that the Struves,, in their extensive labours among the double stars, used to complete their bisections of the fixed wire by a pressure of the finger on the side of the tube, one is puzzled whether more to wonder at such poor adaptation of means to ends or the patience and skill which, with such means, led to such results.'
Though controlling all phenomena of which we have any experience, the principle of the dissipation of energy rests on a very different foundation from that of the conservation of energy; for while we may conceive of no means of circumventing the latter principle, it seems that the actions of intelligent beings are subject to the former only in consequence of the rudeness of the machinery which they have at their disposal for controlling the behaviour of those ultimate portions of matter, in virtue of the motions or positions of which the energy with which they have to deal exists.
If, on the other hand, we have to deal with a system of molecules of whose motions in the aggregate we become conscious only by indirect means, while we know absolutely nothing either of the motions or positions of any individual molecule, it is obvious that we cannot grasp single molecules and control their movements so as to derive the full amount of work from the system.
The theoretical availability of heat is limited only by our power of bringing those particles whose motions constitute heat in bodies to rest relatively to one another; and we have precisely similar practical limits to the availability of the energy due to the motion of visible and tangible bodies, though theoretically we can then trace all the stages.
In order to enable two or more motions to be worked together, or independently as required, reversing friction cones are used for the subsidiary motions, especially the slewing motion.
Besides the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called " racking " motion, by which the lifting crab, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out along the j ib without altering the level of the load.
By the action of the two variable currents on the electromagnetic mechanism in the receiver, the two component motions are reproduced and by their combined action on a second system of levers the receiving pen is caused to duplicate the motions of the transmitting pencil.
Availing himself of the admirable generalized co-ordinate system of Lagrange, Maxwell showed how to reduce all electric and magnetic phenomena to stresses and motions of a material medium, and, as one preliminary, but excessively severe, test of the truth of his theory, he pointed out that (if the electromagnetic medium be that which is required for the explanation of the phenomena of light) the velocity of light in vacuo should xvii.
Resuming the inquiry into the invariability of mean motions, Poisson carried the approximation, with Lagrange's formulae, as far as the squares of the disturbing forces, hitherto neglected, with the same result as to the stability of the system.
Eytelwein (1764-1848) of Berlin, who published in 1801 a valuable compendium of hydraulics entitled Handbuch der Mechanik and der Hydraulik, investigated the subject of the discharge of water by compound pipes, the motions of jets and their impulses against plane and oblique surfaces; and he showed theoretically that a waterwheel will have its maximum effect when its circumference moves with half the velocity of the stream.
The preservation of any record, however rude, of the lapse of time implies some knowledge of the celestial motions, by which alone time can be accurately measured, and some advancement in the arts of civilized life, which could be attained only by the accumulated experience of many generations (see Time).
In the article Calendar (q.v.), that part of chronology is treated which relates to the measurement of time, and the principal methods are explained that have been employed, or are still in use, for adjusting the lunar months of the solar year, as well as the intercalations necessary for regulating the civil year according to the celestial motions.
It is also in many cases possible to follow with the eye the motions of the particles of the sounding body, as, for instance, in the case of a violin string or any string fixed at both ends, when the string will appear through the persistence of visual sensation to occupy at once all the positions which it successively assumes during its vibratory motion.
The disciples of Newton maintained that in the fact of the mutual gravitation of the heavenly bodies, according to Newton's law, they had a complete quantitative account of their motions; and they endeavoured to follow out the path which Newton had opened up by investigating and measuring the attractions and repulsions of electrified and magnetic bodies, and the cohesive forces in the interior of bodies, without attempting to account for these forces.
It may, however, be maintained that an ultimate analysis would go deeper, and resolve all phenomena of elastic resilience into consequences of the kinetic stability of steady motional states, so that only motions, but not strains, would remain.
The Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (Linz and Frankfort, 1618-162r), a lucid and attractive textbook of Copernican science,was remarkable for the prominence given to "physical astronomy," as well as for the extension to the Jovian system of the laws recently discovered to regulate the motions of the planets.
Besides, he was deeply impressed by the fact of man's personality and by the problem of his personal immortality, which brought him back through Schelling to Leibnitz, whose Monadologie throughout maintains the plurality of monadic souls and the omnipresence of perception, sketches in a few sections (§§ 23, 78-81) a panpsychic parallelism, though without identity, between bodily motions and psychic perceptions, and, what is most remarkable, already uses the conservation of energy to argue that physical energy pursues its course in bodies without interacting with souls ., and that motions produce motions, perceptions produce perceptions.
The study of such cases suggests that the statement in terms of force of the relations between the motions of bodies may be only a provisional one, which, though it may summarize the effect of the actual connexions between them sufficiently for some practical purposes, is not to be regarded as representing them completely.
Struve's skill as an observer was such that he used to complete the bisection on the fixed wire of the micrometer by a pressure of the finger on the side of the tube - a method of proved efficiency in such hands, but plainly indicative of the want of rigidity in the instrument and of the imperfection of the slow motions (see Micrometer).
His researches indicate that, instead of being haphazard, the proper motions of the star show decided preference for two " favoured " directions, The Two apparently implying that the stars surrounding us do Star not constitute a simple system but a dual one.
Schiaparelli was primarily an observer-his first discovery was of the asteroid Hesperia in 1861-but he had also considerable mathematical gifts, as is shown in his treatment of orbital motions, published in 1864, and in other papers.
But there are cases in which the motions of both bodies are appreciable, and must be taken into accountsuch as the projection of projectiles, where the velocity of the recoil or backward motion of the gun bears an appreciable proportion to the forward motion of the projectile; and such as the propulsion of vessels, where the velocity of the water thrown backward by the paddle, screw or other propeller bears a very considerable proportion to the velocity of the water moved forwards and sideways by the ship. In cases of this kind the energy exerted by the effort is distributed between the two bodies between which the effort is exerted in shares proportional to the velocities of the two bodies during the action of the effort; and those velocities are to each other directly as the portions of the effort unbalanced by resistance on the respective bodies, and inversely as the weights of the bodies.
Eddington, confirmed by Dyson, show that there is better ground for believing that the universe is composed mainl y of two streams of stars, the members of each stream actuated by proper motions of the same sense and magnitude on the average, than that the relative motions of the stars with one another are fortuitous (see Star).
The Fenian movement had practically expired; some annual motions for the introduction of Home Rule, made with all the decorum qf parliamentary usage, had been regularly defeated.
Tobias Mayer of GÃƒ¶ttingen (1723-1762) originated the mode of adjusting transit-instruments still in vogue; drew up a catalogue of nearly a thousand zodiacal stars (published posthumously in 1775); and deduced the proper motions of eighty stars from a comparison of their places as given by Olaus Romer in 1706 with those obtained by himself in 1756.
That of the 8th of July 1842 was the first to be efficiently observed; and the luminous inducements to the construction of exact and comprehensive catalogues has been to elicit, by comparisons of those for widely separated epochs, the proper motions of the stars enumerated in them.
It could readily ascend the sides of the room by short impulses, like a squirrel, which it resembled in its motions.
Motions shall be sent by e-mail unless any subcommittee member has agreed with the sub-committee chair an alternative method of contact.
Motions require a simple majority to be passed, except in the case of constitutional changes, where a three-quarters majority is required.
The boisterous woman waved her hands in large motions as she spoke.
Most flat fees are for specific things, like motions.
You can use windshield wiper motions or small circles to get into those areas and blend out the color from there.
Once you have a small amount of product on the bristles, buff in circular motions from the center of the face outward.
You can apply these types of foundations by gently misting over the face in circular motions, taking care to start out with light coverage and then adding more product where needed to conceal redness or imperfections.
Apply the powder on the brush with small circular motions, starting from the center of your face working outwards.
Starting with the forehead gently apply and smooth the product in small, even, downward motions or semi-circles until blended.
Luminess works by pouring a small amount of the brand's liquid foundation into an airbrush gun, or stylus pen, and then spraying your entire face in small, circular motions.
The blush is applied similarly to the foundation, but lightly spraying the apples of your cheeks or cheekbones in small circular motions until you've achieved your desired shade.
Reflexes can get better if you play games like Tetris or the number of games on the Wii, which allows you to make realistic motions with its unique controllers.
The two mafia members lift their heads and with motions only agree on a sleeping village to "kill".
These movements can appear as repetitive jerking motions, or it may simply look like the dog is struggling to change position without much success.
Use smooth motions and only light pressure when operating the clipper.
This is because your fingers may not be used to performing the motions required to playthis style ofmusic.
If you require a big and tall suit because you're very muscular, move your arms in a full range of motions to make sure the jacket moves with you without undue pulling on the seams.
One of the issues involved when considering cashiers' health and safety at work is physical pains and strains from repeatedly performing the same kinds of motions.
The subtle but deliberate motions of tai chi are not only a good stretch exercise for seniors, but also have a calming effect on the mind and body.
The frame needs to be strong enough to move as one unit even if the lifting mechanism shakes the frame during the lifting and returning motions.
The motions are low-impact and yet masculine enough that senior men will feel comfortable doing them.
Hammocks with a frame can be used indoors, and can be rocked with very slight motions either by the person in the hammock or a spouse, partner, or caregiver.
Cars swing through the trees mimicking the motions of an elite fighter jet and the model jets near the ride entrance make the theme even more outstanding.
Some of the games are annoying at first, but when you nail down the mechanics and realize the Wii Remote motions and practice a little bit, it is possible you will become addicted to some of the games.
The Wii Remote is well utilized with the different motions for each of the 20+ games.
If you want to see everything and help Kat with her studies, then you will have to push through the same point and go motions with the remote and the thousands of petting opportunities for information.
You MUST have the EyeToy to play this game because you use hand motions to interact with the screen and 'activate' the moving balls and smiley faces.
Character animations sometimes lost their frame-rate and spasmed around their motions, looking unnatural.
There aren't too many exercise games out for the Balance Board and while some of the motions of this game are like some of the motions in Wii Fit, the different types of exercises you can do should be enough to be different.
Individual moves are not called upon by "charging" or "half-circle" motions, like you'd find in Street Fighter titles.
The Nintendo Wii is an excellent system for fishing games since the unique Wii Remote makes the motions you'll use to catch fish realistic.
The new attachment enhances the Wii Remote to accurately and more quickly detect complex motions.
Touch your puppy with the stylus and make quick downward motions.
The Prince and all other characters have smooth and complex motions.
Wielding the weapon put the prince in a different stance and shifted controls to allow for finer combat motions.
However, unlike the underground boxer from Las vegas, Dudley's moves are performed with "command motions" rather than "charge motions".
It picked up the range of motions nicely and registered each step and movement with precision.
Wii games for kids utilize the simple and realistic motions in order to play sports and other fun games.
Since the Wii is built around using natural motions, the Wii Sports series lets anyone pick up a controller and learn games like bowling, tennis, archery, basketball and more in just a few minutes.
Mimicking real life motions, you hold the Wii Remote in front of your chest like how you would when preparing for your turn in real bowling.
With just a few simple motions, you can talk to and view your friends, family members and other loved ones.
The infant responds by making walking motions with both feet.
The child may be asked to perform tasks such as identification of fingers, whistling, saluting, brushing teeth motions, combing hair, drawing, and tracing figures.
Examples of complex motor tics include such gestures as jumping, squatting, making motions with the hands, twirling around when walking, touching or smelling an object repeatedly, and holding the body in an unusual position.
A tantrum is an episode of extreme anger and frustration characterized by crying, screaming, and violent body motions, including throwing things, falling to the floor, and banging one's head, hands, and feet against the floor.
The fetus is able to swallow and make sucking motions.
The Wii version of DDR incorporates the Wiimote with cues to perform hand motions in addition to the usual footwork.
Dance routines are the same way - they are stories told through motions, not words.
Some dance steps (such as the basic walk) are simple enough to only require one diagram with all the motions involved in it.
Crossovers and weaving motions are used in the dance to form intricate shapes and formations not found elsewhere.
Variations of the hustle, with other dance steps and arm motions added, began spreading around the clubs as well.
Having gone through the upsetting motions of making complex funeral arrangements, often the last thing on a person's mind is to send out cards or notes of thanks to fellow mourners and well-wishers.
It can be difficult to get the threading motions down at first, but after a few minutes, you'll feel more confident.
The movements can help start labor and the swaying motions help relax the labor contractions.
The machine creates the same motions that you use when you are needle felting by hand, but it uses numerous needles at the same time.
Anyone who plays tennis gets full body conditioning through a wide range of motions.
Babies and toddlers have no real fear of the water, and while they're obviously too young to learn proper swimming strokes, they will instinctively close their mouths and make motions to propel themselves through the water.
According to Shavers.co.uk a rotary electric razor is most effective when the user makes circular motions around the face in combination with a back and forth stroking action.
After the unit is plugged in, simply press down on the ergonomic button on the top of the switch using light pulsing motions.
The hip movements and hand motions worked in conjunction to tell a story or to ask for favors, such as good harvest or fertility, from pre-Christian gods.
Biologically, these motions are indications of a healthy and fertile female partner.
Children with autism often like movement that helps them coordinate their balance and their motions.
When you begin to buff, do so in circular motions.
Designed specifically with the motions of running in mind, this shoe is described as "hyper-light" on the Brooks website (see purchasing link below), due to the fact that it is just over five ounces.
Whether the team is doing simple hand motions to the cheers, jumping or performing a variety of larger stunts, the crowd is sure to become more engaged with the cheering.
Male members do arm motions to the music.
Dance squad members must be able to learn 50 or more dance routines, be able to work with pom pons and be familiar with cheerleading arm motions, but they do not tumble or do stunts.
Check out LTK's slideshow Give Me Motions to Cheers!
Unlike cheers, chants are generally done with limited motions, no stunts (or very limited stunting), and are very easy for the crowd to follow if you do them right.
This is a great time to give one of your cheers that uses motions.
You can put intricate motions to your cheers or you can simply shout, clap and stomp your way to greeting your crowd!
Having the motions at different heights makes them "pop".