The mother liquor includes generally more or less of nickel, cobalt, zinc and other heavy metals, which, as Wailer showed, can be removed as insoluble sulphides by the addition of ammonium sulphide; uranium, under the circumstances, is not precipitated by this reagent.
It is insoluble in water and in nitric acid and apparently so in hydrochloric acid; but if heated with this last for some time it passes into a compound, which, after the acid mother liquor has been decanted off, dissolves in water.
On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.
The crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals.
Thus also the crystals already formed come in contact with fresh mother-liquor, and so go on adding to their size.
The firstmentioned process consists of charging and feeding the vacuum pan with the richest syrup, and then as the crystals form and this syrup becomes thereby less rich the'pan is fed with syrup of lower richness, but still of a richness equal to that of the mother-liquor to which it is added, and so on until but little mother-liquor is left, and that of the poorest quality.
When the massecuite, well pugged and prepared for purging, is in the centrifugals, it is first washed with syrup of low density, to assist the separation of mother-liquor of similar quality, this washing being supplemented by the injection of pure syrup of high density, or " clairce," when very white sugar is required.
Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.
The mother-liquor is used for a subsequent extraction of fresh raw salt.
If the original solution contained the chlorides of magnesium or calcium or sulphate of potassium all impurities remain in the mother-liquor (the sulphur as KHS04), and can be removed by washing the precipitate with strong hydrochloric acid.
Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.
1 A " eutectic " is the last-freezing part of an alloy, and corresponds to what the mother-liquor of a saline solution would become if such a solution, after the excess of saline matter had been crystallized out, were finally completely frozen.
It is the mother-liquor or " bittern " frozen.
On concentration of the solution, the major portion of the aluminium present separates as alum, and the mother liquor remaining contains beryllium and iron sulphates together with a little alum.
The mother-liquor now falls to a specific gravity of 1.3082 to 1.2965, and yields a very mixed deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt.
There is also deposited a double magnesium and potassium chloride, similar to the carnallite of Stassfurt, and finally the mother-liquor, which has now again risen to specific gravity 1.3374, contains only pure magnesium chloride.
In Britain the brine is so pure that, keeping a small stream of it running into the pan to replace the losses by evaporation and the removal of the salt, it is only necessary occasionally (not often) to reject the mother-liquor when at last it becomes too impure with magnesium chloride; but in some works the mother-liquor not only contains more of this impurity but becomes quite brown from organic matter on concentration, and totally unfit for further service after yielding but two or three crops of salt crystals.
The corresponding potash compounds are not manufactured in the United Kingdom, but exclusively in Germany (from potassium chloride and from the mother-liquor of the strontia process in the manufacture of beetroot sugar) and in France (from vinasse).
It is continued until the contents of the pan have been coverted into a thick paste of small crystals of monohydrated sodium carbonate, permeated by a mother-liquor which is removed by draining on perforated plates or by a centrifugal machine, and is always returned to the pans.
The mother-liquor, drained from the soda-crystals, on boiling down to dryness yields a very white, but low-strength soda-ash, as the soluble impurities of the original soda-ash are nearly all collected here; it is called " mother-alkali."
There the reaction mentioned above takes place, and Owing to the concentration of the liquid the sodium bicarbonate formed is to a great extent precipitated in the shape of small crystals, forming with the mother-liquor a thin magma.
Here a separation takes place between the crystals of sodium bicarbonate and the mother-liquor.
the recovery of the ammonia from the mother-liquor coming from the vacuum filters and various washing liquors.
The ammonia is for the major part found in the mother-liquor as ammonium chloride.
After twenty-four hours about one-half of the silver has separated out in crystals; from the mother-liquor the rest comes down promptly on application pf a water-bath heat.
It is manufactured from the magnesium bromide contained in "bittern" (the mother liquor of the salt industry), by two processes, the continuous and the periodic. The continuous process depends upon the decomposition of the bromide by chlorine, which is generated in special stills.
The mother-liquor from the 70% chloride is evaporated, the common salt which separates out in the heat removed as it appears, and the sufficiently concentrated liquor allowed to crystallize, when almost pure carnallite separates out, which is easily decomposed into its components '(see' infra).
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