South of Mosul, at which point navigation is blocked by two ancient dams, erected, apparently, to control the river for the Assyrian city of Calah, the ruins of which are called Nimrud by the natives after these dams, which they conceive to be the work of that mythical hero.
Were it not for these dams steamers might reach Mosul itself, at an elevation of 353 ft.
Below Mosul, for some distance, occur sulphurous and bituminous springs.
Opposite Mosul are the ruins of ancient Nineveh, the last capital of Assyria, and 20 m.
SULEIMANIEH, or Suleimania, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Mosul, situated on a treeless plain in the Kurdistan Mountains, in the region known as Shehrizor, some 40 or 50 m.
Here the roads from Damascus, by way of Palmyra, and from Mosul, by way of the Khabur, reach the Euphrates, and here there must always have been a town of considerable commercial and strategic importance.
The town was so heavily taxed by the Hamdanid princes at Mosul that the Arab tribe of the Banu Habib, although blood relations of the Hamdanids, migrated into Byzantine territory, where they were well received, accepted Christianity, attracted other emigrants from Nisibis, and at last began to avenge themselves by yearly raids upon their old home.
When a power arose in Mosul, about 1130, which was able to unify Syria - when, again, in the hands of Saladin, unified Syria was in turn united to Egypt - the cause of Latin Christianity in the East was doomed.
The other leaders had, however, to promise him possession of the city, before he would bring his negotiations with Firuz to a conclusion; and the matter was so long protracted that an army of relief under Kerbogha of Mosul was only at a distance of three days' march, when the city was taken (June 3, 1098).
The year iIto is additionally important by reason of the accession of Maudud al Mosul, which marks the beginning of a Moslem reaction.
There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin (1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,, represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr about i 101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.1 But the greatest of the atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris - Maudud, who died in 1113; Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself, who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.
The constant pressure of Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin de Burgh of Edessa led to a series of retaliations between 11 io and 1115; Edessa was attacked in 1110, 1111, 1112 and 1114; and in 1113 Maudud of Mosul had even penetrated as far as the vicinity of Acre and Jerusalem.
But when Zengi established himself in Mosul in 1127, the tide gradually began to turn.
He created for himself a great and united principality, comprising not only Mosul, but also Aleppo,3 Harran, Nisibin and other districts; and in 1130, Alice, the widow of Bohemund II., sought his alliance in order to maintain herself in power at Antioch.
Lying between Mosul and Jerusalem, and important both strategically 1 Ilghazi died in 1122.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
There is little in Arabic bearing on the First Crusade: the Arabic authorities only begin to be of value with the rise of the atabegs of Mosul (c. 1127).
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
In January 1902 the German group holding the Anatolian railway concession was granted a further concession for extending that railway from Konia, then its terminus, through the Taurus range and by way of the Euphrates, Nisibin, Mosul, the Tigris, Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef to Basra, thus establishing railway communication between the Bosporus and the Persian Gulf.
Army Corps, which garrisons also the Basra and Mosul vilayets.
A road also leads northward, by Sinjar, to Mosul, crossing the river on a stone bridge, built in 1897, the only permanent bridge over the Euphrates south of Asia Minor.
Through it passed the silks of Bambyce, called bombazines, the light textiles of Mosul (mosulines - muslins) and many other commodities for the wealthy and luxurious.
The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.
East of Mosul, resulted in the discovery of a small temple dedicated to the god of dreams by Assur-nazir-pal III.
This expedition was in fulfilment of a design which he had formed, when, during his former travels in the East, his curiosity had been greatly excited by the ruins of Nimrud on the Tigris, and by the great mound of Kuyunjik, near Mosul, already partly excavated by Botta.
Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various tribes, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols.,1848-1849).
- The Nestorians or East Syrians (Surayi) of Turkey and Persia now inhabit a district bounded by Lake Urmia, or Urumia, on the east, stretching westwards into Kurdistan, to Mosul on the south, and nearly as far as Van on the north.
- In Turkey these consist of the Dominican mission, established at Mosul during the 18th century, and in Persia of the French Lazarist mission, which sprang out of some schools established by a French layman and scientific traveller, Eugene Bore, in 1838.
The modern town of Erbil or Arbil, in the vilayet of Mosul, is about 40 m.
In and near Tabriz he preached for several months, after which he proceeded to Bagdad via Mosul and Tekrit.
MOSUL, a town of Mesopotamia, capital of a Turkish vilayet and sanjak of the same name, on the right bank of the Tigris, in 36° 35' N., 43° 3' E.
In Mosul, as in Bagdad, only part of the space within the walls is covered with buildings and the rest is occupied by cemeteries; even the solid limestone walls of the ancient town are half in ruins, being serviceable only in the direction of the river, where they check inundations.
Leaving Mosul by the last named, the traveller first crosses a stone bridge, 157 ft.
The interior of Mosul has an insignificant appearance, only a few of the older buildings being left, among which may be mentioned the Great Mosque, with its leaning minaret, formerly a church dedicated to St Paul.
Mosul is the meetingpoint of roads from Aleppo, Diarbekr, Bitlis, north and west Persia and Bagdad; and it is on the projected line of railway from Constantinople to the Persian Gulf.
The language of the people of Mosul is a dialect of Arabic, partly influenced by Kurdish and Syriac. The Moslems call themselves either Arabs or Kurds, but the prevalent type, very different from the true Arabian of Bagdad, proves the Aramaean origin of many of their number.
Mosul has for several centuries been a centre of Catholic missionary activity, the Dominicans especially, by the foundation of schools and printing-offices, having made a marked impression upon an intelligent and teachable population.
Mosul shares the severe alternations of temperature experienced by upper Mesopotamia.
Mosul probably occupies the site of a southern suburb of ancient Nineveh but it is very doubtful whether the older name of Mespila can be traced in the modern Al-Mausil (Arab., "the place of connexion"); it is, however, certain that a town with the Arabic name Al-Mausil stood here at the time of the Moslem conquest (636 A.D.).
The dynasty of the Hamdanids reigned in Mosul from 934, but the town was conquered by the Syrian Okailids in 990.
The Persians occupied Mosul for a short time in 1623, until it was, soon afterwards, recovered by sultan Murad IV.
The Vilayet Of Mosul lies mainly east of the Tigris.
The most esteemed Syrian galls, according to Pereira, are those of Mosul on the Tigris.
Gradually, however, Christian enthusiasm had aroused a counter enthusiasm among the Moslems. Zengi, atabeg of Mosul, had inaugurated the sacred war by his campaigns in Syria (1137-1146).
In 1176 he conquered Saif-ud-din of Mosul beyond the Euphrates and was recognized as sovereign by the princes of northern Syria.
This contains the work of Baha-ud-din (1145-1234), diplomatist, and secretary of Saladin, the general history of Ibn-Athir (1160-1233), the eulogist of the atabegs of Mosul but the unwilling admirer of Saladin, and parts of the general history of Abulfeda.
The name of Nineveh (Syriac Ninwe; Arabic Ninawa, Nunawa) continued, even in the middle ages, to be applied to a site opposite Mosul on the east bank of the Tigris, where huge mounds and the traces of an ancient city wall bore witness of former greatness.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
Measured on the Tigris Mesopotamia would stretch from some where between Jeziret-ibn-`Omar and Mosul to somewhere below Tekrit.
At Mosul, a "damp mildness."
Id), on the Euphrates; Jeziret ibn `Omar, Mosul (q.v.), Tekrit, on the Tigris; Edessa (q.v.), Harran (q.v.), on confluents of the Belikh; Veranshehr (Tela), Ras al-`Ain (Rhesaena), Mardin (half-way up the mountain wall), and Nasibin (Assyr.
6; in the Khabur district), Bit Adini (Osroene), Kummukh (north-west corner and beyond); in the Roman period, Osroene, Mygdonia (in the east), and in Syriac usage Beth `Arbaye (between Nisibis and Mosul); in the Arab period, Diarbekr (T ar `Abdin), Diar Rebi'a (Mygdonia), Diar Muelar (Osroene).
About other cross-roads, such as those from Harr - an to Tell Shaddada on the lower Khabur, or from 'Ana by al-Haelr to Mosul it is difficult to say.
The men of Rak k a were compelled to help `Ali, after his march across Mesopotamia from near Mosul, in getting a bridge made at Rakka to convey his men to Siffin.
Meanhwile the caliph Mottaqi appeared as a fugitive at Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka (944).
The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096.
The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.
Ferhan and the South Shammar claimed the steppe south-east of a line from Mosul to Mayadin (just below Karl isiya), and Faris and the North Shammar the north-west.
Urfa is a town of J5,000; Mosul, 61,000, Bagdad, 145,000.
The exports of Mosul for 1908 were (in thousands of pounds sterling): United Kingdom 195, India 42, other countries 52, parts of Turkey 218; the imports: United Kingdom 56, India 16, other countries 35, parts of Turkey 24.
From Mosul on the road to Bagdad.