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mosses

mosses Sentence Examples

  • the soil to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like trailers.

  • The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.

  • In the Mosses the plant-body (gametophyte) is always separable into a radially organized, supporting and conducting axis (stem)

  • IFor the histology of the comparatively simple but in many respects aberrant Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae), see BRYOPHYTA.] The stems of the other mosses resemble one another in their main histological features.

  • The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells.

  • In the highest family of mosses, Polytrichaceae, the differentiation of conducting tissue reaches a decidedly higher level.

  • This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.

  • The central hydrom strand in the seta of the sporogonium of most mosses has already been alluded to.

  • Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.

  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.

  • ferns, horse-tails, club mosses, &c., and Phanerogams or Flowering Plants) the main plant-body, that which we speak of in ordinary language as the plant, is called the sporophyte because it bears the asexual reproductive cells or spores.

  • The structure of the stomata of the sporophyte of vascular plants is fundamentally the same as that of the stomata on the sporogonium of the true mosses and of the liverwort A nihoceros.

  • One of the most striking characters common to the two highest groups of plants, the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, is the Vascular possession of a double (hydrom-leptom) conducting .s system, such as we saw among the highest mosses, YS em.

  • The stelar system of Vascular Plants has no direct phylogenetic connection with that of the mosses.

  • The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).

  • ~any Algae, lichens, and mosses are included among lithophytes, ai id also Saxifraga Aizoon, S.

  • In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.

  • The union of the germ nuclei has now been observed in all the main groups of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Mosses, Algae and Fungi, and presents a striking resemblance in all.

  • The leaves of the true mosses and those of the club-mosses (Lycopodium, Selaginella) being somewhat alike in general appearance and in ontogeny, might be, and indeed have been, regarded as homologous on that ground.

  • However, they belong respectively to two different forms in the life-history of the plants; the leaves of the mosses are borne by the gametophyte, those of the club-mosses by the sporophyte.

  • (2) The tundra or region of intensely cold winters, forbidding tree-growth, where mosses and lichens cover most of the ground when unfrozen, and shrubs occur of species which in other conditions are trees, here stunted to the height of a few inches.

  • The forests throughout most of the state have a luxuriant undergrowth consisting of a great variety of shrubs, flowering plants, grasses, ferns and mosses, and the display of magnolias, azaleas, kalmias, golden rod, asters, jessamines, smilax, ferns and mosses is often one of unusual beauty.

  • In nonflowering plants the works usually followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's Synopsis filicum; for mosses, Muller's Synopsis muscorum frondosorum, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's Genera et species muscorum, and Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien; for algae, de Toni's Sylloge algarum; for hepaticae, Gottsche, Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's Synopsis hepaticarum, supplemented by Stephani's Species hepaticarum; for fungi, Saccardo's Sylloge fungorum, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the members of large genera, e.g.

  • In mounting collemas it is advisable to let the specimen become dry and hard, and then to separate a portion from adherent mosses, earth, &c., and mount it separately so as to show the branching of the thallus.

  • Mosses when growing in tufts should be gathered just before the capsules have become brown, divided into small flat portions, and pressed lightly in drying paper.

  • Below the mountain crests, where only the hardiest lichens and mosses can survive, comes a belt of large timber, including many giant trees, 200 ft.

  • In the alpine tracts of the north the narrowness of the valleys and the steep stony slopes strewn with debris, on which only lichens and mosses are able to grow, make every plot of green grass (even if it be only of Carex) valuable.

  • The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.

  • Hooker enumerated twenty-one species of flowering plants, and seven of ferns, lycopods, and Characeae; at least seventyfour species of mosses, twenty-five of Hepaticae, and sixty-one of lichens are known, and there are probably many more.

  • Grasses, mosses and Arctic flowering plants are abundant, but there are no trees excepting occasional dwarf willows.

  • In moist regions ferns and mosses, the arum and other broad flat-leaved plants are found.

  • Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782.

  • But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.

  • It has been discovered that at the beginning of the Eocene the lake of Rilly occupied a vast area east of the present site of Paris; a water-course fell there in cascades, and Munier-Chalinas has reconstructed all the details of that singular locality; plants which loved moist places, such as Marchantia, Asplenium, the covered banks overshadowed by lindens, laurels, magnolias and palms; there also were found the vine and the ivy; mosses (Fontinalis) and Chara sheltered the crayfish (Astacus); insects and even flowers have left their delicate impressions in the travertine which formed the borders of this lake.

  • ACOTYLEDONES, the name given by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 to the lowest class in his Natural System of Botany, embracing flowerless plants, such as ferns, lycopods, horse-tails, mosses, liverworts, sea-weeds, lichens and fungi.

  • It is peculiarly adapted for peaty soils, and is accordingly a favourite crop in the fen lands of England, and on recently reclaimed mosses and moors elsewhere.

  • The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.

  • Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.

  • Chiefly, however, they are the bark of trees, rocks, the ground, mosses and, rarely, perennial leaves.

  • the Equisetales (Horse-tails), the Lycopodiales (Club mosses), the Filicales (Ferns) and Cycadofilices, the Sphenophyllales and Cordaitales.

  • The simplest leaf is found in some mosses, where it consists of a single layer of cells.

  • It is only amongst the lower classes of plants - Mosses, Characeae, &c. - that all the leaves on a plant are similar.

  • The glaciers front, with a perpendicular ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants are found to grow - poppies, mosses and the like.

  • In the dreary country still farther north there is a series of rounded hills covered with peat and mosses, the chief feature being Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.) on the confines of Cardiganshire.

  • Of the flora of the highest Andes, Whymper found 42 species, of various orders, above 16,000 ft., almost all of which were from Antisana and Chimborazo; 12 genera of mosses were found above 15,000 ft., and 59 species of flowering plants above 14,000 ft., of which 35 species came from above 15,000 and 20 species from above 16,000 ft.

  • Mosses (Grimmia) were found on Chimborazo at 16,660 ft., ferns (Polypodium pycnolepis, Kze.) at 14,900, and specimens of Gentiana rupicola, H.

  • Ferns and mosses are almost confined to the higher ranges.

  • In former ages the tree covered a large portion of the more northern part of the island, as well as of Ireland; the numerous trunks found everywhere in the mosses and peat-bogs of the northern counties of England attest its abundance there in prehistoric times; and in the remoter post-Glacial epoch its range was probably vastly more extended.

  • Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.

  • Lichens and mosses clothe many of the boulders that are scattered over the upper slopes.

  • i) of the same nature as those of the zoospores and antherozoids of algae, mosses, &c.

  • Emerson wrote Nature, and Hawthorne his Mosses from an Old Manse, containing a charming description of the building and its associations.

  • Most distinctive is the ubiquitous carpeting of mosses, varying in colours from the pure white and cream of the reindeer moss to the deep green and brown of the peat moss, all conspicuously spangled in the brief summer with bright flowers of the higher orders, heavy blossoms on stunted stalks.

  • The timber resources of Alaska are untouched 2 280 species of mosses proper, of which 46 were new to science, and 16 varieties of peat moss (Sphagnum) were listed by the Harriman expedition; and 74 species or varieties of ferns.

  • The flora includes purslane, rock roses and several species of ferns and mosses.

  • The birch and larch woods of this zone give way to pine forests as the altitude increases; and the pines to mosses, lichens and alpine plants, just below the jagged iron-grey peaks, many of which attain altitudes of 6000 to 8000 ft.

  • Wet land, if in grass, produces only the coarser grasses, and many subaquatic plants and mosses, which are of little or no value for pasturage; its herbage is late in spring, and fails early in autumn; the animals grazed upon it are unduly liable to disease, and sheep, especially, to foot-rot and liver-rot.

  • Covered with snow for the greater part of the year, and growing nothing but lichens, mosses and some scanty grass, the South Shetlands are of interest almost solely as a haunt of seals, albatrosses, penguins and other sea-fowl.

  • - Scott, Structural Botany: Flowerless Plants (London, 1896), Studies in Fossil Botany (Edinburgh, 1900);* Campbell, Mosses and Ferns (London, 1895); * Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Theil i.

  • About one tenth of the land is covered by forests, which give place, at an altitude of 5000 ft., to lichens and mosses.

  • In one or two cases Palaeozoic plants, resembling the true Mosses in habit, have been discovered; the best example is the Muscites polytrichaceus of Renault and Zeiller, from the Coal Measures of Commentry.

  • The geological history of Mosses and Liverworts is at present very incomplete, and founded on few and generally unsatisfactory fragments.

  • It is hardly too much to say that no absolutely trustworthy examples of Mosses have so far been found in Mesozoic strata.

  • Mosses are extremely rare, Heer only describing 3 species.

  • This deposit shows no trace of forest-trees, but it is full of remains of Arctic mosses, and of the dwarf willow and birch; in short, it yields the flora now found within the Arctic circle.

  • bracket fungi, others with mosses.

  • calcicole mosses.

  • calcifuge mosses such as Rhytidiadelphus loreus.

  • Plants include mosses eg Sphagnum, cotton grass, purple moor grass, cranberry, marsh cinquefoil, marsh violet and round leaved sundew.

  • In high summer, the dried lichens and mosses give the dunes a very crunchy texture, which is almost like walking on crisps.

  • dykecess shade from shrubs and trees can affect some mosses and lichens on drystone dikes.

  • Tiny mosses, hardy ferns or miniature bulbs will add extra interest.

  • flora of mosses and lichens can develop.

  • Sphagnum mosses are the main vegetation, often forming hummocks which are raised half a meter above the main surface.

  • locality in the counties for several species of mosses and liverworts.

  • Fontinalis is one of only a few completely aquatic mosses in North America.

  • Repair or build a drystane dike to provide shelter for animals and plants such as wall rue, lichens or mosses.

  • Species include bottle sedge, common cotton sedge, devil's-bit scabious and marsh violet growing over layers of Sphagnum mosses and brown mosses.

  • Plants include wood sorrel, wood anemone and a wide variety of mosses, lichens and fungi.

  • Plants include mosses eg Sphagnum, cotton grass, purple moor grass, cranberry, marsh cinquefoil, marsh violet and round leaved sundew.

  • In mosses, the thin veil or hood covering the mouth of the capsule.

  • Plants include wood sorrel, wood anemone and a wide variety of mosses, lichens and fungi.

  • the soil to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like trailers.

  • In the first place, they lessen the number of separate facts to be explained; in the second, they limit the field within which explanation must be sought, since, for instance, if a particular mode of repetition of parts occur in mosses, in flowering-plants, in beetles and in elephants, the seeker of ultimate explanations may exclude from the field of his inquiry all the conditions individual to these different organic forms, and confine himself only to what is common to all of them; that is to say, practically only the living material and its environment.

  • The Mosses and Liverworts (see BRYOPHYTA) include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.

  • Bryophyta.The Bryophyta (Hepaticae) and Mosses (Musci)], the first group of mainly terrestrial plants, exhibit considerably more advanced tissue differentiation, in response to the greater complexity in the conditions of life on.

  • In the Mosses the plant-body (gametophyte) is always separable into a radially organized, supporting and conducting axis (stem)

  • IFor the histology of the comparatively simple but in many respects aberrant Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae), see BRYOPHYTA.] The stems of the other mosses resemble one another in their main histological features.

  • The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells.

  • In the highest family of mosses, Polytrichaceae, the differentiation of conducting tissue reaches a decidedly higher level.

  • This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.

  • The central hydrom strand in the seta of the sporogonium of most mosses has already been alluded to.

  • Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.

  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.

  • ferns, horse-tails, club mosses, &c., and Phanerogams or Flowering Plants) the main plant-body, that which we speak of in ordinary language as the plant, is called the sporophyte because it bears the asexual reproductive cells or spores.

  • Within the limits of the sporophyte generation the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams also differ from the Bryophytes in possessing special assimilative and transpiring organs, the leaves, though these organs are developed, as we have seen, in the gametophyte of many liverworts and of all the mosses.

  • The structure of the stomata of the sporophyte of vascular plants is fundamentally the same as that of the stomata on the sporogonium of the true mosses and of the liverwort A nihoceros.

  • One of the most striking characters common to the two highest groups of plants, the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, is the Vascular possession of a double (hydrom-leptom) conducting .s system, such as we saw among the highest mosses, YS em.

  • The stelar system of Vascular Plants has no direct phylogenetic connection with that of the mosses.

  • The origin of the Pteridophyta (q.v.) is very obscure, but it may be regarded as certain that it is not to be sought among the mosses, which are an extremely specialized and peculiarly differentiated group. Furthermore, both the hydrom and leptom of Pteridophytes have marked peculiarities to which no parallel is to be found among the Bryophytes.

  • The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).

  • ~any Algae, lichens, and mosses are included among lithophytes, ai id also Saxifraga Aizoon, S.

  • found the most serviceable: - Hydrophytes (submerged aquatic plants) .Plants whose vegetive organs live wholly in water; e.g., most Algae, many mosses, ch as Fontinalis spp., and liverworts, such as Jungermannia spp.; few Pteridophytes, such as Pilularia spp., Isoetes spp.; several wering plants, such as Potamogeton pectinatus, Ceratophyllum p., Hottonia palustris, Utricularia spp., Liltorella lacustris.

  • In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.

  • The union of the germ nuclei has now been observed in all the main groups of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Mosses, Algae and Fungi, and presents a striking resemblance in all.

  • The leaves of the true mosses and those of the club-mosses (Lycopodium, Selaginella) being somewhat alike in general appearance and in ontogeny, might be, and indeed have been, regarded as homologous on that ground.

  • However, they belong respectively to two different forms in the life-history of the plants; the leaves of the mosses are borne by the gametophyte, those of the club-mosses by the sporophyte.

  • But there is reason to believe that they have been differentiated quite independently in various groups, such as the Marchantiaceae, the Jungermanniaceae, and the mosses proper; consequently their phylogeny is not the same, they are polyphyletic, and therefore they are not completely homologous, but are parallel developments.

  • (2) The tundra or region of intensely cold winters, forbidding tree-growth, where mosses and lichens cover most of the ground when unfrozen, and shrubs occur of species which in other conditions are trees, here stunted to the height of a few inches.

  • ACROGENAE (" growing at the apex"), an obsolete botanical term, originally applied to the higher Cryptogams (mosses and ferns), which were erroneously distinguished from the lower (Algae and Fungi) by apical growth of the stem.

  • Mosses and lichens are distinctive, as also are the birch, the dwarf willow and several shrubs; but where the soil is drier, and humus has been able to accumulate, a variety of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them familiar in W.

  • The forests throughout most of the state have a luxuriant undergrowth consisting of a great variety of shrubs, flowering plants, grasses, ferns and mosses, and the display of magnolias, azaleas, kalmias, golden rod, asters, jessamines, smilax, ferns and mosses is often one of unusual beauty.

  • In nonflowering plants the works usually followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's Synopsis filicum; for mosses, Muller's Synopsis muscorum frondosorum, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's Genera et species muscorum, and Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien; for algae, de Toni's Sylloge algarum; for hepaticae, Gottsche, Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's Synopsis hepaticarum, supplemented by Stephani's Species hepaticarum; for fungi, Saccardo's Sylloge fungorum, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the members of large genera, e.g.

  • In mounting collemas it is advisable to let the specimen become dry and hard, and then to separate a portion from adherent mosses, earth, &c., and mount it separately so as to show the branching of the thallus.

  • Mosses when growing in tufts should be gathered just before the capsules have become brown, divided into small flat portions, and pressed lightly in drying paper.

  • Below the mountain crests, where only the hardiest lichens and mosses can survive, comes a belt of large timber, including many giant trees, 200 ft.

  • In the north, where the lichen-covered or ice-shaven rocks do not protrude, the ground is covered with a carpet of mosses, creeping dwarf willows, crow berries and similar plants, while the flowers most common are the andromeda, the yellow poppy, pedicularis, pyrola, &c. besides the flowering mosses; but in South Greenland there is something in the shape of bush, the dwarf birches even rising a few feet in very sheltered places, the willows may grow higher than a man, and the vegetation is less arctic and more abundant.

  • In Yakutsk the tundra vegetation consists principally of mosses of the genera Polytrichum, Bryum and Hypnum.

  • In the alpine tracts of the north the narrowness of the valleys and the steep stony slopes strewn with debris, on which only lichens and mosses are able to grow, make every plot of green grass (even if it be only of Carex) valuable.

  • The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.

  • Observed originally by Engelmann in bacteria, by Stahl in myxomycetes, and by Pfeffer in ferns, mosses, &c., it has now become recognized as a widespread phenomenon.

  • Hooker enumerated twenty-one species of flowering plants, and seven of ferns, lycopods, and Characeae; at least seventyfour species of mosses, twenty-five of Hepaticae, and sixty-one of lichens are known, and there are probably many more.

  • Grasses, mosses and Arctic flowering plants are abundant, but there are no trees excepting occasional dwarf willows.

  • In moist regions ferns and mosses, the arum and other broad flat-leaved plants are found.

  • Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782.

  • But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.

  • It has been discovered that at the beginning of the Eocene the lake of Rilly occupied a vast area east of the present site of Paris; a water-course fell there in cascades, and Munier-Chalinas has reconstructed all the details of that singular locality; plants which loved moist places, such as Marchantia, Asplenium, the covered banks overshadowed by lindens, laurels, magnolias and palms; there also were found the vine and the ivy; mosses (Fontinalis) and Chara sheltered the crayfish (Astacus); insects and even flowers have left their delicate impressions in the travertine which formed the borders of this lake.

  • ACOTYLEDONES, the name given by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 to the lowest class in his Natural System of Botany, embracing flowerless plants, such as ferns, lycopods, horse-tails, mosses, liverworts, sea-weeds, lichens and fungi.

  • It is peculiarly adapted for peaty soils, and is accordingly a favourite crop in the fen lands of England, and on recently reclaimed mosses and moors elsewhere.

  • The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.

  • Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.

  • In habits the kakapo is almost wholly nocturnal, 3 hiding in holes (which in some instances it seems to make for itself) under the roots of trees or rocks during the day time, and only issuing forth about sunset to seek its food, which is solely vegetable in kind, and consists of the twigs, leaves, seeds and fruits of trees, grass and fern roots - some observers say mosses also.

  • Chiefly, however, they are the bark of trees, rocks, the ground, mosses and, rarely, perennial leaves.

  • (d) Muscicolous lichens again are such as are most frequently met with on decayed mosses and Jungermannia, whether on the ground, trees or rocks (e.g.

  • the Equisetales (Horse-tails), the Lycopodiales (Club mosses), the Filicales (Ferns) and Cycadofilices, the Sphenophyllales and Cordaitales.

  • The simplest leaf is found in some mosses, where it consists of a single layer of cells.

  • It is only amongst the lower classes of plants - Mosses, Characeae, &c. - that all the leaves on a plant are similar.

  • above freezing, the severity of frosts in winter is thus obviated, and the growth, especially of the roots of grasses, is encouraged; (2) nourishment or plant food is actually brought on to the soil, by which it is absorbed and retained, both for the immediate and for the future use of the vegetation, which also itself obtains some nutrient material directly; (3) solution and redistribution of the plant food already present in the soil occur mainly through the solvent action of the carbonic acid gas present in a dissolved state in the irrigation-water; (4) oxidation of any excess of organic matter in the soil, with consequent production of useful carbonic acid and nitrogen compounds, takes place through the dissolved oxygen in the water sent on and through the soil where the drainage is good; and (5) improvement of the grasses, and especially of the miscellaneous herbage, of the meadow is promoted through the encouragement of some at least of the better species and the extinction or reduction of mosses and of the innutritious weeds.

  • The glaciers front, with a perpendicular ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants are found to grow - poppies, mosses and the like.

  • In the dreary country still farther north there is a series of rounded hills covered with peat and mosses, the chief feature being Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.) on the confines of Cardiganshire.

  • Of the flora of the highest Andes, Whymper found 42 species, of various orders, above 16,000 ft., almost all of which were from Antisana and Chimborazo; 12 genera of mosses were found above 15,000 ft., and 59 species of flowering plants above 14,000 ft., of which 35 species came from above 15,000 and 20 species from above 16,000 ft.

  • Mosses (Grimmia) were found on Chimborazo at 16,660 ft., ferns (Polypodium pycnolepis, Kze.) at 14,900, and specimens of Gentiana rupicola, H.

  • Ferns and mosses are almost confined to the higher ranges.

  • In former ages the tree covered a large portion of the more northern part of the island, as well as of Ireland; the numerous trunks found everywhere in the mosses and peat-bogs of the northern counties of England attest its abundance there in prehistoric times; and in the remoter post-Glacial epoch its range was probably vastly more extended.

  • Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.

  • Lichens and mosses clothe many of the boulders that are scattered over the upper slopes.

  • i) of the same nature as those of the zoospores and antherozoids of algae, mosses, &c.

  • Emerson wrote Nature, and Hawthorne his Mosses from an Old Manse, containing a charming description of the building and its associations.

  • Most distinctive is the ubiquitous carpeting of mosses, varying in colours from the pure white and cream of the reindeer moss to the deep green and brown of the peat moss, all conspicuously spangled in the brief summer with bright flowers of the higher orders, heavy blossoms on stunted stalks.

  • The timber resources of Alaska are untouched 2 280 species of mosses proper, of which 46 were new to science, and 16 varieties of peat moss (Sphagnum) were listed by the Harriman expedition; and 74 species or varieties of ferns.

  • The flora includes purslane, rock roses and several species of ferns and mosses.

  • The birch and larch woods of this zone give way to pine forests as the altitude increases; and the pines to mosses, lichens and alpine plants, just below the jagged iron-grey peaks, many of which attain altitudes of 6000 to 8000 ft.

  • Wet land, if in grass, produces only the coarser grasses, and many subaquatic plants and mosses, which are of little or no value for pasturage; its herbage is late in spring, and fails early in autumn; the animals grazed upon it are unduly liable to disease, and sheep, especially, to foot-rot and liver-rot.

  • Covered with snow for the greater part of the year, and growing nothing but lichens, mosses and some scanty grass, the South Shetlands are of interest almost solely as a haunt of seals, albatrosses, penguins and other sea-fowl.

  • - Scott, Structural Botany: Flowerless Plants (London, 1896), Studies in Fossil Botany (Edinburgh, 1900);* Campbell, Mosses and Ferns (London, 1895); * Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Theil i.

  • About one tenth of the land is covered by forests, which give place, at an altitude of 5000 ft., to lichens and mosses.

  • In one or two cases Palaeozoic plants, resembling the true Mosses in habit, have been discovered; the best example is the Muscites polytrichaceus of Renault and Zeiller, from the Coal Measures of Commentry.

  • The geological history of Mosses and Liverworts is at present very incomplete, and founded on few and generally unsatisfactory fragments.

  • It is hardly too much to say that no absolutely trustworthy examples of Mosses have so far been found in Mesozoic strata.

  • Mosses are extremely rare, Heer only describing 3 species.

  • This deposit shows no trace of forest-trees, but it is full of remains of Arctic mosses, and of the dwarf willow and birch; in short, it yields the flora now found within the Arctic circle.

  • Repair or build a drystane dike to provide shelter for animals and plants such as wall rue, lichens or mosses.

  • Species include bottle sedge, common cotton sedge, devil's-bit scabious and marsh violet growing over layers of Sphagnum mosses and brown mosses.

  • Plants include wood sorrel, wood anemone and a wide variety of mosses, lichens and fungi.

  • In mosses, the thin veil or hood covering the mouth of the capsule.

  • The bark of tupelos is roughly furrowed, so that it is often the host for mosses and lichens.

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