Mosques Sentence Examples
The town walls were strengthened, new wells dug, gardens planted, mosques and schools built.
There are several mosques and an Abyssinian church (of the usual circular construction) built of stone.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
There were in 1907 3500 Greek churches in the island with 53 monasteries and 3 nunneries; S5 mosques, 4 Roman Catholic churches and 4 synagogues.
The basilica is still the predominent type, but the influence of the domed churches of Constantinople and the mosques of Palermo is also apparent.Advertisement
Of the principal mosques the large Buyuk Djamia, with nine metal cupolas, has become the National Museum; the Tcherna Djamia or Black Mosque, latterly used as a prison, has been transformed into a handsome church; the Banyabashi Djamia, with its picturesque minaret, is still used by Moslem worshippers.
The caliph Omar initiated in the 7th century a code which required Christians and Jews to wear peculiar dress, denied them the right to hold state offices or to possess land, inflicted a poll-tax on them, and while forbidding them to enter mosques, refused them the permission to build new places of worship for themselves.
Here are the ruins of a palace of the native khans, built in the 16th century; the mosques of the Persian shahs, built in 1078 and now converted into an arsenal; nearer the sea the "maidens' tower," transformed into a lighthouse; and not far from it remains of ancient walls projecting above the sea, and showing traces of Arabic architecture of the 9th and 10th centuries.
Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.
Moslem women, as a rule, are expected to say their prayers at home, but in some few mosques they are admitted to one part specially screened off for them.Advertisement
The central dome has but a slight elevation outside, but with the numerous cupolas round, and the minarets, it forms a picturesque group which is wanting in the mosques of Kairawan, Cordova, and other examples in North Africa.
There is however one feature which throughout the Mahommedan mosques in India is always found, viz.
As a rule, the mosques of India followed the normal plan, with a great central court and aisles round and a prayer chamber in front of the Mecca wall, which in India is always at the west end.
They adorned Tunis with mosques, schools and other institutions, favoured letters, and in general appear to have risen above the usual level of Moslem sovereigns.
It is the seat of an archbishop and has several mosques and Christian churches.Advertisement
Few are found to observe the law concerning the Five Hours of Prayer, and many fail to put in an appearance at the Friday congregational services in the mosques.
Many other splendid mosques and royal tombs adorned the city, and justified the Turkish proverb, "See all the world; but see Konia."
During this period the population increased and became mainly Turkish; in 1553 the town possessed eleven large and one hundred small mosques.
Even the emperor had to be content to be treated by the sultan as an inferior and tributary prince; while France had to suffer, with no more than an idle protest, the insult of the conversion of Catholic churches at Constantinople into mosques.
When Ibn Fadlan visited Khazaria forty years later, Itil was even yet a great city, with baths and market-places and thirty mosques.Advertisement
But the visible remains of Saracenic art in Tunis and its vicinity are of relatively recent date, the few mosques which might offer earlier examples not being open to inspection by Christians.
The sacred buildings, mosques, &c., were patched up (except a few which were quite ruinous) and the walls wholly removed, but an unsightly fragment of a palace-tower still remained in 1906.
The most important mosques are the great Tekke, which contains the tomb of the poet Mevlana Jelal ed-din Rumi, a mystic (sufi) poet, founder of the order of Mevlevi (whirling) dervishes, and those of his successors, the "Golden" mosque and those of Ala ed-Din and Sultan Selim.
Of the sixty-four mosques which existed at the period of the French conquest, several have disappeared.
The former palace of the khans, which recalls by its architecture the mosques of Samarkand, is the best building in the town.Advertisement
Many of the private houses, mosques and zawias are good specimens of native art of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Turks have a number of mosques; there are Greek churches and a Jewish synagogue; an old Venetian structure serves as a military hospital; and the prison is of substantial construction.
The city is the headquarters of an army corps, and the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop, of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Albanians and of a Bulgarian bishop. Its principal buildings are the citadel, the palace of the vali or provincial governor, the Greek and Bulgarian schools, numerous churches and mosques and a Roman aqueduct.
The city has no less than 360 mosques.
Nearly 10,000 pupils are said to receive their education in its 140 madrasas or theological colleges; primary schools are kept at most mosques.
The most notable of the mosques is the Mir-Arab, built in the 16th century, with its beautiful lecture halls; the chief mosque of the emir is the Mejid-kalyan, or Kok-humbez, close by which stands a brick minaret, 203 ft.
Christians are forbidden to enter the mosques.
Bontuku is peopled largely by Wongara and Hausa, and most of the inhabitants, who number some 3000, are Moslems. The town, which was founded in the 15th century or earlier, is walled, contains various mosques and generally presents the appearance of an eastern city.
A small stream called the Crkvina enters the Vrbas from the north-east and in the angle thus formed stand the citadel and barracks, with the 16th-century Ferhadiya Jamia, largest and most beautiful of more than 40 mosques in the city.
Birjend has six good caravanserais, a college and some mosques; post and telegraph offices were established there in 1902.
There are several bazaars, baths and handsome mosques, one noted for its lofty minaret, and here the American Presbyterian mission has established a college for both sexes.
In the cities the Moslems, who had generally secured such terms of surrender, retained their mosques, their kadis, and freedom of trade; in the country, however, they became serfs.
There are in the place no fewer then thirty-six mosques.
The old town, containing several mosques and synagogues and a bazaar, preserves its oriental appearance; the citadel is used as a military magazine.
Before the arrival of the French two kinds of instruction were given, reading and writing being taught in the ordinary schools and higher education - largely theological - in medressas (colleges), usually attached to the chief mosques.
Of these the most noteworthy are the Taranchi and Dungan mosques, both with turned-up roofs, and the latter with a pagoda-looking minaret.
Other mosques of some note are those of Ibn Yusef, El Mansur and El Mo`izz; the chapel of Sidi Bel Abbas, in the extreme north of the city, possesses property of great value, and serves as an almshouse and asylum.
In 1171 on the death of the Fatimite caliph he was powerful enough to substitute the name of the orthodox caliph in all Egyptian mosques.
The town contains also a Byzantine castle, built on the lofty site of the ancient citadel; a palace belonging to the Greek metropolitan; a number of mosques, synagogues and churches, the most remarkable being the church of the Virgin of Consolation, founded in 819.
Ahmad Shah pulled down Hindu temples in order to build his mosques with the material.
Vodena is the see of a Greek archbishop, and possesses numerous churches and mosques, besides unimportant remains of Roman and Byzantine buildings.
This extraordinary man, associated by tradition with Omar Khayyam, the well-known mathematician and free-thinking poet, and with Hassan (ibn) Sabbah, afterwards the founder of the sect of the Assassins (q.v.), was a renowned author and statesman of the first rank, and immortalized his name by the foundation of several universities (the Nizamiyah at Bagdad), observatories, mosques, hospitals and other institutions of public utility.
It contains the ruins of a castle and of several Seljuk mosques.
In its clean and broad streets there are many synagogues, mosques and churches, for half the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, Moslems, Armenians or Jews; the remainder being Orthodox Rumans and Greeks.
The principal monuments of the Lusignan period are the fine cathedral church of St Sophia, an edifice of French Gothic, at once solid and elegant (the towers were never completed); the church of St Catherine, an excellent example of the last years of the 14th century (both these are now mosques); and the church of St Nicolas of the English (now a grain store), built for the order of the Knights of St Thomas of Acre.
It has the appearance of a Mussulman town on account of its mosques (only two of which are in use) and it is a centre of trade in wheat, maize, tobacco and cocoons.
As there are considerable numbers of Greeks, Armenians and Jews among the inhabitants, there are a Greek cathedral, several churches and synagogues in addition to the fine Turkish mosques.
The name Kirk-Kilisseh signifies "four churches," and the town possesses many mosques and Greek churches.
The mosques are not remarkable.
There are several well-built mosques (none older than the 16th century), public baths, and several good khans.
It is a picturesque town with a large bazaar and many mosques, gardens and olive groves.
There are a busy bazaar and some old mosques.
It is reckoned that there are 'boo shops and 182 mosques in the city.
The mullahs of these mosques are generally men of considerable power.
The chief buildings are the mosques, which are open to Christians, Kairawan being the only town in Tunisia where this privilege is granted.
On that occasion the native troops hastened to the mosques to perform their devotions; they were followed by European soldiers, and the mosques having thus been "violated" have remained open ever since to non-Mahommedans.
The two mosques, now partly ruinous, were erected by his sons.
Of its numerous ecclesiastical buildings three are of interest - the synagogue of the Karaite Jews; one of the mosques, which has fourteen cupolas and is built (1552) after the plan of St Sophia in Constantinople; and the Greek Catholic cathedral (1898).
Its chief buildings are the citadel and many mosques, one of which is an ancient Byzantine basilica, originally a 1 Prince von Billow was credited with suggesting in his correspondence on the question of the Bundesrath that a tribunal of arbitration should be instituted to deal with all questions of capture.
Below lies the city with its ancient walls and lofty towers, its gardens and squares, its palaces and its mosques, with their delicately-carved domes and minarets covered with fantastic tracery, the port of Bulak, the gardens and palace of Shubra, the broad river studded with islands, the valley of the Nile dotted with groups of trees, with the pyramids on the north horizon, and on the east the barren cliffs, backed by a waste of sand.
Besides the citadel, the principal edifices in the Arab quarters are the mosques and the ancient gates.
The citadel or El-Kala was built by Saladin about 1166, but it has since undergone frequent alteration, and now contains a palace erected by Mehemet Ali, and a mosque of Oriental alabaster (based on the model of the mosques at Constantinople) founded by the same pasha on the site of " Joseph's Hall," so named after the prenomen of Saladin.
There are four other mosques within the citadel walls, the chief being that of Ibn Kalaun, built in A.D.
The most magnificent of the city mosques is that of Sultan Hasan, standing in the immediate vicinity of the citadel.
In all Cairo contains over 260 mosques, and nearly as many zawias or chapels.
Their lofty gilt domes and fanciful network or arabesque tracery are partly in ruins, and the mosques attached to them are also partly ruined.
The chief tomb mosques are those of Sultan Barkuk, with two domes and two minarets, completed A.D.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
These mosques have suffered much in the beauty of their appearance from the effects of time and neglect; but their colour has been often thus softened, and their outlines rendered the more picturesque.
In the museum are preserved treasures of Saracenic art, including many objects removed from the mosques for their better security.
Kuttabs are schools attached to mosques, found in every village and in every quarter of the larger towns.
It occupies a very prominent place in the history of the British conquest of India, but it has now lost its manufactures and trade and preserves only a few mosques and tombs as traces of its former grandeur.
Besides many mosques and churches there are three monasteries (Syrian, Franciscan and Capuchin), and an important American Mission station, with church, schools and a medical officer.
Minor schools attached to mosques are found in other places, but teach still less than the great schools already mentioned.
They have long been devout Mahommedans, and mosques and schools exist in almost all their towns.
Medinet el-Fayum (or Medina), the capital of the province, is a great agricultural centre, with a population which increased from 26,000 in 1882 to 37,320 in 1907, and has several large bazaars, mosques, baths and a much-frequented weekly market.
The mosques and Chinese and Hindu temples are numerous.
The modern town of Ajodhya contains 96 Hindu temples and 36 Mussulman mosques.
The tiles, which are evidently of the same origin as those of Persia and Turkey, are chiefly to be found in the ruined mosques and tombs of the old Mussulman dynasties; but the industry still survives at the little towns of Saidpur and Bubri.
The capital was first at Gulbarga, and was afterwards removed to Bidar, both which places still possess magnificent palaces and mosques in ruins.
Shoes are invariably removed on entering mosques or other holy places.
He not only caused the mourning for the death of Hosain and other Shiite festivals to be celebrated at Bagdad, but also allowed imprecations against Moawiya and even against Mahomet's wife Ayesha and the caliphs Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman, to be posted up at the doors of the mosques.
He did his best to remedy the misery caused by the intestine wars, repaired the ruined mosques and other public edifices, founded hospitals and libraries - his library in Shiraz was one of the wonders of the world - and improved irrigation.
The Chinese have their joss-houses and the Mahommedans a few small mosques, but the vast majority of the native inhabitants are pagans who have no buildings set apart for religious purposes.
They speak Turkish and profess to be Moslems, but have no mosques or imams. The Turkomans have villages in which they spend the winter, wandering over the great plains of the interior with their flocks and herds during the summer.
There are a number of mosques in the town, and the Mahommedans are the dominant power, but the Yoruba, who constitute the bulk of the people, are pagans.
Afium contains several mosques (one of them a very handsome building), and is the seat of an Armenian bishop. The town is connected by railway with Smyrna, Konia, Angora and Constantinople.
The principal buildings are two mosques built in the 17th century; a modern fort overlooking the cantonments; the railway station, which is an important junction on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line; the palace of the nawab of Rampur, and the government college.
Twenty-four minarets rise from the various mosques.
There are some fine old mosques and medresses (colleges), and the Armenians have a large monastery and churches.
The Turks and British have added little, and destroyed much, converting churches into mosques and grain-stores, and quarrying walls and buildings at Famagusta.
There is a Jewish quarter beneath the citadel, and the reputed sarcophagi of Daniel and the Hebrew children are shown in one of the mosques.
The whole history of religion presents perhaps no more singular spectacle than the mosques of Bagdad in the middle of the 9th century filled with vast crowds of twenty and thirty thousand of the faithful, assembled to discuss the dogmas of the created and the un created Koran.'
Other mosques have been turned into churches or utilized for military purposes.
The magnificence of its mosques and other public buildings, the number of its schools, and the extent of its warehouses shed lustre on the city; but wealth and luxury began to undermine its prosperity, and its ruin was hastened by the conduct of the Moslem refugees from Spain.
The mullahs are referred to in questions concerning religious law, hold religious assemblies, preach in mosques, teach in colleges, and are appointed by the government as judges, head-preachers, &c. Thus the dignitaries, whose character seems to us specially a religious one, are in reality doctors, or expounders and interpreters of the law, and officiating ministers charged with the ordinary accomplishment of certain ceremonies, which every other Mussulman, true believer, has an equal right to fulfil.
The shah and the government have no voice whatever in the matter of appointing mullahs or mujta/zids, but frequently appoint s/zeilths-ul-islam and cadis, and occasionally chief priests of mosques that receive important subsidies out of government funds.
Formerly all cases, civil and criminal, were referred to the clergy, and until the 17th century the clergy were subordinate to a kind of chief pontiff, named sadr-us-sodur, who possessed a very extended jurisdiction, nominated the judges, and managed all the religious endowments of the mosques, colleges, shrines, &c. Shah Safi (1629-1642), in order to diminish the influence of the clergy, appointed two such pontiffs, one for the court and nobility the other for the people.
Most of them are attached to mosques, and the teachers are members of the clergy, and receive fixed salaries out of the college funds.
The ten mosques and madrasas of Yarkand, although poorer than those of Bokhara or Samarkand, enjoy wide renown in the Moslem world.
The principal buildings which can still be distinguished are a temple, an aqueduct, a large theatre (enclosed by a castle of much more recent workmanship), several baths, a triumphal and other arches, three mosques, and what are known as the church and convent of the monk Boheira.
Of the old period a ruined mosque and two colleges remain; other mosques and colleges are of recent construction.
It was a flourishing port and had many fine mosques when captured by the Portuguese (about 1510).
It was formerly the seat of a Greek archbishop, and besides the ancient citadel and palace on the summit of the hill contains several Greek churches, mosques and public baths.
Two other mosques in Delhi itself deserve passing notice, the Kala Masjid or Black Mosque, which was built about 1380 in the reign of Feroz Shah, and the Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque, a tiny building added to the palace by Aurangzeb, as the emperor's private place of prayer.
About a mile to the west is another burying-ground, or collection of tombs and small mosques, some of them very beautiful.
Outside the walls are the remains of a vast city, now for the most part in ruins, but the innumerable tombs, mosques, caravanserais and other edifices, which have resisted the havoc of time, afford abundant evidence of the ancient splendour of the place.
Few remains of its former importance exist, the chief being the Citadel built by the Genoese and still showing Latin inscriptions on some of its towers, the one or two detached towers left when the town walls were pulled down, and two or three mosques, formerly Genoese churches.
Though in general ill-built and partly ruinous, the town possesses some fine mosques, with lofty minarets, public baths and busy bazaars.
It has few industries and little trade, but the medieval walls, well preserved castle and mosques are interesting, and the old Seljuk medresse, or college, is a beautiful building.
Several mosques and tombs have been converted to the use of British administration.
Turkish settlers were gradually making good their footing on Walachian soil, and mosques were rising in the towns and villages.
This shrine is a richly endowed establishment with mosques and college attached, and had a fine library containing many rare and valuable MSS.
The grand carpet which had covered the floor of one of the mosques for three centuries was purchased by a traveller about 1890 for ioo, and was finally acquired by the South Kensington Museum for many thousands.
The town consists of a labyrinth of narrow, winding, dirty streets, with poor, square, flat-roofed houses, half a dozen madrasas (Mahommedan colleges), a score of mosques, and some masars (tombs of Mahommedan saints).
Within, there is a ruinous walled village, and the shell of an old Venetian fortress, surrounded by mosques and bazaars; for Antivari is rather Turkish than Montenegrin.
In small mosques the Muezzin at Azan stands at the door or at the side of the building; in large ones he takes up his position in the minaret.
There are several mosques, none of them remarkable, and many interesting Roman and Byzantine remains, especially a magazine of the emperor Justinian (483-565), a square castle and tower attributed to Bayezid I.
Most of them have been converted into mosques, but they are valuable monuments of the art which flourished in New Rome.
A multitude of churches were destroyed, and most of those which survived were converted into mosques.
Another great change in the general aspect of the city has been produced by the erection of stately mosques in the most commanding situations, where dome and minarets and huge rectangular buildings present a combination of mass and slenderness, of rounded lines and soaring pinnacles, which gives to Constantinople an air of unique dignity and grace, and at the same time invests it with the glamour of the oriental world.
In their architecture, the mosques present a striking instance of the influence of the Byzantine style, especially as it appears in St Sophia.
The architects of the mosques have made a skilful use of the semi-dome in the support of the main dome of the building, and in the consequent extension of the arched canopy that spreads over the worshipper.
The great mosques express the spirit of the days when the Ottoman empire was still mighty and ambitious.
Beside the schools of the old type attached to the mosques, schools of a better class were established under the direct control of the minister of education, which, although open to improvement, certainly aimed at a higher standard than that reached in former days.
The Greeks, Turks and Jews here occupy different quarters of the city, but most of the Turkish inhabitants have now quitted the country, so that only four of the numerous mosques remain in use.
Its general aspect is Oriental, owing to the flat roofs of its twostoreyed houses and its numerous mosques.
There are numerous mosques, orishas (idol-houses) and open spaces shaded with trees.
The mosques of the city were filled with crowds who listened to lectures on science and literature, law and religion.
The present town, French in character, has well-built modern streets with many arcades, and numbers among its buildings several mosques and churches, extensive barracks and a large military hospital.
Xanthi is built in the form of an amphitheatre and possesses several mosques, churches and monasteries, a theatre with a public garden, and a municipal garden.
It contains five mosques and the Turkish government offices and barracks, and in the business quarter several cafes and shops kept by Greeks.
At one time the mosques were covered with mosaics, analogous to those of Ravenna, depicting scenes from the life of Mahomet and the prophets.
Apart from churches, mosques and synagogues, there are a few noteworthy modern buildings, such as the Ottoman Bank, the baths, quarantine station, schools and hospitals; but the chief architectural interest of Salonica is centred in its Roman and Byzantine remains.
The conspicuous mosques of Salonica are nearly all of an early Christian origin; the remarkable preservation of their mural decorations makes them very important for the history of Byzantine architecture.
It is estimated that there are over two hundred mosques in Damascus.
Churches were now turned into mosques.
Sinan is particularly renowned for his innovative mosques in which the central domed baldachin appears weightless and the interior surfaces bathed in light.
The artwork ranged from mosques made out of sugar candy to newspaper architectural structures.
Mosques in Birmingham have had excrement put through their letter boxes.
Concomitant with their function as places of worship, mosques served as social centers and as rest houses for travelers and itinerant mendicants.
Very often Mosques have a domed roof and a tall tower called a minaret.
The older system is a religious one, taught by the mullahs, who conduct schools in the village mosques.
At night the low-rise city of Fallujah, famed for its mosques, echoed to the thunder of heavy ordnance.
Crumbling Roman ruins, glittering Byzantine palaces and mighty Ottoman mosques pepper the landscape and serve as glorious reminders of Turkey's colorful history.
Palermo became a city of a hundred mosques; Rome remained sacrosanct.
These were laid out to create shapes such as a hissing snake, mosques, stars and crescent moons.
Dating back to the 13th century, much of the Swahili structures are still intact, including mosques and a former sultan 's palace.
The mosques with their cupolas and minarets, and houses built in Eastern fashion contrast curiously with the Renaissance style of most of the modern buildings, the medieval aspect of the castle and the quaint appearance of the Dutch houses still standing.
The mosque of Sidi Okba is the prototype of many other notable mosques (see Mosque).
When a mosque is also the founder's tomb, it has a richly ornamented sepulchral chamber always covered by a dome (see further Mosque, which contains plans of the mosques of Amr and sultan Hasan, and of the tomb mosque of Kait Bey).
The beautiful mosques and madrasas (theological colleges) are dilapidated; no astronomers study the sky from the tops of their minarets; and the scholars of the madrasas waste their time on the most deplorably puerile scholasticism.
When entering holy areas such as churches and mosques, you should remove your shoes.
Throughout the world votive candles burn in churches, temples, synagogues, mosques and home alters, each with special meaning to the people of each faith.
Akhmim has several mosques and two Coptic churches, maintains a weekly market, and manufactures cotton goods, notably the blue shirts and check shawls with silk fringes worn by the poorer classes of Egypt.
Among the latter are the mosques at Ajmere and the temples on Abu.
Though still half oriental, and wholly beautiful, with its Turkish bazaar, its hundred mosques, wooden houses and cypress groves, it was largely rebuilt, after 1878, in western fashion.
The Begova Djamia (Djamia), or mosque of Husref Bey, is only surpassed, among European mosques, by those of Adrianople and Constantinople.
Most mosques have endowed property, which is administered by a warden (nazir), who also appoints the imams and other officials.
As a contrast to the Ahmedabad mosques, the Kadam Rasul mosque at Gaur in Bengal possesses some characteristics which resemble those of the mosque of Tulun in Cairo, possibly due to the fact that it is entirely built in brick, with massive piers carrying pointed arches.
The town possesses 65 mosques and 168 Hindu temples.
One conspicuous feature of the Bosnian land-system is the Moslem Vakuf, or ecclesiastical property, consisting of estates dedicated to such charitable purposes as poor-relief, and the endowment of mosques, schools, hospitals, cemeteries and baths.
In a few cases, such as the Begova Dzamia at Serajevo, the Foea mosques and the Mostar bridge, the buildings raised by the Turks are of high architectural merit.
In order to conciliate even the Moslems, who include the bulk of the great landholders and of the urban population, its representatives visit the mosques in state on festivals; grants are made for the Mecca pilgrimage; and even the howling Dervishes in Serajevo are maintained by the state.
He established the system whereby the lands conquered by the arms of his troops were divided into the different classes of fiefs, or else assigned to the maintenance of mosques, colleges, schools and charitable institutions, or converted into common and pasturage lands.
The attempt of the imperialists, under Joachim of Brandenburg, to retake Budapest (September 15 4 2), failed ignominiously; and in the following year Suleiman in person conducted a campaign which led to the conquest of Siklos, Gran, Szekesf ehervar and Visegrad (1544) Everywhere the churches were turned into mosques; and the greater part of Hungary, divided into twelve sanjaks, became definitively a Turkish province.
It has its own shops, bazaars, mosques, &c., and constitutes a quarter by itself.
As in all Mahommedan cities, the mosques are conspicuous objects.
The other mosques, of which there are about thirty within the walls, excluding the chapels and places of prayer, are all of recent erection.
The other mosques do not merit any particular attention, and in general it may be said that Bagdad architecture is neither distinctive nor imposing.
More important than the mosques proper are the tomb mosques.
There are over 30 mosques in the town, a dervish monastery, and numerous theological colleges (medresses), and the Moslem inhabitants have a reputation for bigotry.
There are two mosques of special interest - the Umawi (or Zakaria) on the site of a church ascribed to the empress Helena and containing a tomb reputed to be that of the Baptist's father, and the Kakun.
There are five caravanserais, three mosques and a post office.
There are several handsome mosques in the native quarter.
But the city is the seat of a Greek archbishop, and still possesses many mosques and churches, besides synagogues, a Greek college (gymnasium), a library and a hospital.
Its long subjection to Turkey has left little trace of antiquity, and the most striking features in the general view are the minarets of the disused mosques (only four are now in use) and the Mahommedan burying-grounds.
Few are still in situ, the majority having been taken from their original positions and built into houses, mosques or wells of more recent date.
The climax of Mahommedan work in India is reached in that of the Mogul emperors at Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur-Sikri, in which there is a very close resemblance in design to the mosques of Syria, Egypt, and Persia; the four-centred arch, which is in the Mogul style, finds general acceptance, and was probably derived from Persian sources.
There are Turkish primary and secondary schools in some of the towns; in the village mosques instruction in the Koran is given by the imams, but neither reading nor writing is taught.