Moslem sentence example

moslem
  • The Moslem element predominated in the principal towns, of which the population was - Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812; Retimo, 9274.
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  • Salama, from which the word is derived appears in salaam, " peace be with you," the greeting of the East, and in Moslem, and means to be "free" - or "secure."
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  • According to Shafi`ite law, such a cadi must be a male, free, adult Moslem, intelligent, of unassailed character, able to see, hear and write, learned in the Koran, the traditions, the Agreement, the differences of the legal schools, acquainted with Arabic grammar and the exegesis of the Koran.
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  • On the birth of Avicenna's younger brother the family migrated to Bokhara, then one of the chief cities of the Moslem world, and famous for a culture which was older than its conquest by the Saracens.
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  • No Moslem is allowed to remain in Mirdite territory.
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  • In the vilayet of Scutari they form about 55% of the population; central Albania is almost entirely Moslem; in southern Albania, however, there is a considerable Christian population, whose limits practically coincide with those of the Greek-speaking districts.
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  • Some of the Gheg tribes, such as the Puka, Malsia Jakovs and Malsia Krues, are partly Roman Catholic, partly Moslem; among fellowtribesmen the difference of religion counts for little.
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  • Education is almost non-existent, and the vast majority of the population, both Christian and Moslem, are totally illiterate.
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  • The aristocratic Moslem families send their sons to be educated in Constantinople or Vienna.
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  • About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
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  • New buildings, to contain specimens of Moslem art, were added in 1903.
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  • The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
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  • These tribal dynasties of Rajputs were gradually supplanted by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds.
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  • Herodotus describes the festival of Bubastis, which was attended by thousands from all parts of Egypt and was a very riotous affair; it has its modern equivalent in the Moslem festival of the sheikh Said el Badawi at Tanta.
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  • He was born at Cordova in 1135, fled with his parents from persecution in 1148, settled at Fez in i 160, passing P g there for a Moslem, fled again to Jerusalem in 1165, and finally went to Cairo where he died in 1204.
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  • According to Moslem traditionists Mahomet declared that one of his descendants, the imam of God, who would fill the earth with equity and justice, would bear the name of al-mandi.
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  • Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.
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  • Serajevo is the seat of the provincial government, of a Roman Catholic bishop, an Orthodox metropolitan, the highest Moslem ecclesiastical authority or Reis-el-ulema, and the supreme court.
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  • It is the centre of Bosnian education, containing the celebrated orphanage founded in 1869 by Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie (afterwards Lady Sebright); the Scheriat-Schule, which derives its name from the Turkish code or scheri, and is maintained by the state for Moslem law-students; a gymnasium, a technical institute and a teachers' training-college.
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  • And the Moslem came on the scenes bringing, as a gift for Christendom, fuller knowledge of classical, especially Aristotelian, texts.
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  • Of the principal mosques the large Buyuk Djamia, with nine metal cupolas, has become the National Museum; the Tcherna Djamia or Black Mosque, latterly used as a prison, has been transformed into a handsome church; the Banyabashi Djamia, with its picturesque minaret, is still used by Moslem worshippers.
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  • The same holds good of the Meshcheryaks, both Moslem and Christian.
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  • The Mordvinians are nearly all Orthodox Greek, as also are the Votyaks, Voguls, Cheremisses and Chuvashes, but their religions are, in reality, modifications of Shamanism under the influence of some Christian and Moslem beliefs.
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  • His later life was spent in various parts of the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier Ibn `Abbad and elsewhere.
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  • It contains a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early Arabs, and is the most valuable authority we have for their pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.
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  • A great portion of the central plain of Monofatsi, the principal grain-producing district, is lying fallow owing to the exodus of the Moslem peasantry.
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  • The Moslem peasantry now flocked to the fortified towns and civil war began.
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  • The Moslem leaders acquiesced in the arrangement, which the powers undertook to guarantee, and, notwithstanding some symptoms of discontent at Candia, there was every reason to hope that the island was now entering upon a period of tranquillity.
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  • The indignation of the Christians increased, a state of insecurity prevailed, and the Moslem peasants refused to return to their homes.
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  • The intervention of Greece caused immense excitement among the Christian population, and terrible massacres of Moslem peasants took place in the eastern and western districts.
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  • For some time after his arrival complete tranquillity prevailed in the island, but the Moslem population, reduced to great distress by the prolonged insurrection, emigrated in large numbers.
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  • Yet Buddhism has never made much impression west of India, and Islam is clearly repugnant to Europeans, for even when under Moslem rule (as in Turkey) they refuse to accept it in a far larger proportion than did the Hindus in similar circumstances.
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  • Its open advocacy of force attracts warlike races, and the intensity of its influence is increased by the fusion of secular and religious power, so that the Moslem Church is a Moslem state characterized by slavery, polygamy, and, subject to the autocracy of the ruler, by the theoretical.
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  • But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
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  • These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
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  • As early as 712 the Arabs conquered Sind, and by the end of the 11th century the whole of northern India was in Moslem hands.
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  • In the neighbourhood of the Moslem capitals, Islam spread rapidly, but in such districts as Rajputana and specially Vijayanagar (Mysore) Hindu civilization and religion maintained themselves.
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  • It is plain from early Moslem literature that Persian, Christian and especially Jewish ideas had penetrated into Arabia.
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  • The literatures of all Moslem peoples are largely inspired by Arabic, which has produced a voluminous collection of works in prose and poetry.
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  • Persian, after being itself transformed by Arabic, has in its turn largely influenced all west Asiatic Moslem literature from Hindustani to Turkish.
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  • She is a moderately strong empire lying to the north of the great Moslem states, and having for neighbours a series of very weak principalities or semi-civilized tribes.
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  • During the earlier Moslem invasions in 1100 and in subsequent years, the Mahrattas do not seem to have made much resistance.
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  • Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.
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  • In external appearance the Mandaean is distinguished from the Moslem only by a brown coat and a parti-coloured headcloth with a cord twisted round it.
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  • Like many other arts in Venice, that of glass-making appears to have been imported from Moslem countries, and the influence of Oriental design can be traced in much of the Venetian glass.
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  • The town became a Moslem fortress and received a considerable Arab colony; for in the reign of Merwan II.
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  • Memphis was still important though declining at the time of the Moslem conquest.
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  • The year iIto is additionally important by reason of the accession of Maudud al Mosul, which marks the beginning of a Moslem reaction.
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  • The people of Antioch refused to submit; a projected visit to Jerusalem, during which John was to unite with Fulk in a great alliance against the Moslem, fell through; and in the spring of 1143 the emperor died in Cilicia, with nothing accomplished.
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  • Owing to the proximity of the capital this group is comparatively subject to the Turkish power, and pays a small annual tribute; the chiefs, who assess and collect the tribute, form a kind of administrative council; the confederation has also an official representative council at Scutari, called the Jibal, under the presidency of a Serkarde or Moslem official.
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  • The Mirdites are exclusively Roman Catholic, the Mat-i exclusively Moslem.
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  • But only one-fifth of the whole population is Moslem.
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  • Without counting subdivisions, there would seem to be three main schools of art in Asia at present - Chinese, Indian and Moslem.
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  • A wide missionary activity had begun in the 13th century - an activity which was the product of the Crusades and the contact with the Moslem which they brought, but which yet helped to check the Crusades, substituting as it did peaceful and spiritual conquests of souls for the violence and materialism of even a Holy War.
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  • Since, however, the steppe edge on the east is somewhat indefinite, some early Moslem and other geographers have included all the Hamad in Syria, making of the latter a blunt-headed triangle with a base some 700 m.
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  • But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
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  • The Cid of history, though falling short of the poetical ideal which the patriotism of his countrymen has so long cherished, is still the foremost man of the heroical period of Spain - the greatest warrior produced out of the long struggle between Christian and Moslem, and the perfect type of the Castilian of the 12th century.
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  • Ferdinand, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest was first effectually stemmed, on his deathbed, in 1065, divided his territories among his five children.
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  • The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.
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  • Among the enterprises of the Cid the most famous was that against Valencia, then the richest and most flourishing city of the peninsula, and an object of cupidity to both Christian and Moslem.
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  • Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.
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  • All who die within this boundary, be they Brahman or low caste, Moslem or Christian, are sure of admittance into Siva's heaven.
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  • Moslem women, as a rule, are expected to say their prayers at home, but in some few mosques they are admitted to one part specially screened off for them.
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  • It has a special interest in being the chief university of the Moslem world, containing some thousands of students (mujawirin), for whom certain parts of the mosque (riwaq) are screened off, according to the country from which they come.
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  • Similarly throughout the Moslem world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this time a legal animal, and either consume the flesh themselves or give it to the poor.
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  • The Somali coast, as has been seen, early fell under Moslem influence.
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  • There are about fifty Greek families, the rest of the population (4000) being Moslem.
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  • Falconry was long a pastime of the Moslem landlords.
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  • One conspicuous feature of the Bosnian land-system is the Moslem Vakuf, or ecclesiastical property, consisting of estates dedicated to such charitable purposes as poor-relief, and the endowment of mosques, schools, hospitals, cemeteries and baths.
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  • It is administered by a central board of Moslem officials, who meet in This was soon modified in detail.
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  • As far as possible, the Turkish law was retained during the period of occupation; all cases between Moslems were settled in separate courts by Moslem judges, against whom there was an appeal to the supreme court, aided by assessors.
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  • Serajevo is also the seat of the Jewish chief rabbi; and of the highest Moslem ecclesiastic, or reis-el-ulema, who with his council is nominated and paid by the government.
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  • The inferior Moslem clergy draw their stipends from the Vakuf.
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  • In the Moslem schools, which, in 1905, comprised 855 mektebs or primary schools, and 41 madrasas or high schools, instruction is usually given in Turkish or Arabic; while in Orthodox schools the books are printed in Cyrillic characters.
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  • For higher education there were in 1908 three gymnasia, a realschool at Banjaluka, a technical college and a teachers' trainingcollege at Serajevo, where, also, is the state school for Moslem law-students, called scheriatschule from the sheri or Turkish code; and various theological, commercial and art institutes.
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  • Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
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  • Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were at the mercy of their lords.
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  • Many of the janissaries had married and settled on the land, forming a strongly conservative and fanatical caste, friendly to the Moslem nobles, who now dreaded the curtailment of their own privileges.
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  • Haji Loja, the native leader, was supported by a body of Albanians and mutinous Turkish troops, while the whole Moslem population bitterly resented the proposed change.
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  • The reforms in Turkey certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper.
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  • The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
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  • A variety of other reforms, including the reorganization of Moslem education, were introduced by Omer Pasha, who governed the country until 1860.
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  • It was subject to the direct personal control of the sultan, who was himself a temporal autocrat, which he now is not, and the most generally recognized caliph, that is, " successor," of the Prophet, and consequently the spiritual head of by far the greater portion of the Moslem world - as he still is.
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  • In Albania serious discontent, resulting in an insurrection (May-September 1909), was caused by the political rivalry between Greeks and Albanians and the unwillingness of the Moslem tribesmen to pay taxes or to keep the peace with their neighbours, the Macedonian Serbs.
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  • The characteristic, but by no means attractive, street dress of the Moslem women of the better class comprises a black horse-hair visor completely covering the face and projecting like an enormous beak, the nether extremities being encased in yellow boots reaching to the knee and fully displayed by the method of draping the garments in front.
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  • About threefourths of the inhabitants are Christian Serbs, and the remainder are chiefly Moslem Albanians, with a few gipsies, Turkish officials and about 3000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers.
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  • There are over 30 mosques in the town, a dervish monastery, and numerous theological colleges (medresses), and the Moslem inhabitants have a reputation for bigotry.
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  • There are some 20,000 Jews, resident chiefly in the provincial capital; and of the Moslem majority the bulk.
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  • Thirteen years later it recognized and received the Fatimites, and passed under various Moslem dynasties, forming part of the Seljuk dominion from 1090 to 1117.
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  • This last attempt to win support for the Magyar solution was everywhere met with a blank refusal, and in Bosnia especially the Orthodox, Catholic and Moslem leaders united in a manifesto assuring him of their adherence to the full programme of Yugoslav unity.
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  • In that country much was due to the Jews, who had already established schools in places which were afterwards the seats of Moslem dominion.
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  • This Christian kingdom - situated in the midst of Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the crusaders, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy - had a stormy existence of about 300 years.
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  • Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra, and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam.
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  • He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha, thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.
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  • He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.
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  • In the north the Moslem arms reached Armenia and Asia Minor; on the west they were successful as far as Carthage on the north coast of Africa.
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  • He, too, desired that Mahomet's wish should be carried out and that Arabia should be purely Moslem.
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  • Abdalmalik was now supreme in Arabia and throughout the Moslem world.
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  • In Arabia he subjugated Oman, and swooping down on the west in 92 9 he horrified the Moslem world by capturing Mecca and carrying off the sacred black stone to Bahrein.
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  • The first was a Christian of the tribe of Taghlib, whose Christianity enabled him to write many verses which would have been impossible to a professing Moslem.
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  • Farazdaq of the Bani Tamim, a good Moslem but loose in morals, lived chiefly in Medina and Kufa, and was renowned for his command of language.
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  • Meanwhile the Moslem empire had arisen.
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  • This Moslem chief had made himself master of Sardinia, and was driven thence by the allied fleets in rot 5.
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  • The Pisan fleet of three hundred sail, commanded by the archbishop Pietro Moriconi, attacked the Balearic Isles, where as many as 20,000 Christians were said to be held captive by the Moslems, and returned loaded with spoil and with a multitude of Christian and Moslem prisoners.
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  • Even Moslem historians speak favourably of the Norman rule in Africa; but it was brought to an early end by the Almohade caliph Abd ul-Mumin, who took Mandia in 1160.
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  • They adorned Tunis with mosques, schools and other institutions, favoured letters, and in general appear to have risen above the usual level of Moslem sovereigns.
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  • For the North African Church after the Moslem conquest, see Migne, Pat.
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  • The actual conquest of the country was not effected without a serious struggle with Moslem fanaticism, especially at Sfax; but all Tunisia was brought completely under French jurisdiction and administration, supported by military posts at every important point.
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  • Moslem tradition also regards Shechem as the burial-place of Joseph; but it appears as though the actual site, as shown, has not been always in one unvarying spot.
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  • In Bagdad he stayed several years, studying the Koran and other works of Moslem theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians, and writing.
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  • His account of the Tatars and his sketch of Moslem religion and manners are especially noteworthy.
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  • The Confutatio Alcorani, printed at Seville in 1500, at Venice in 1607, adds hardly anything to the sections of the Itinerary devoted to Moslem belief, &c. Ricold's Libellus contra Nationes Orientales and Contra errores Judaeorum have never been printed.
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  • They own a chief sheikh, resident at Jeba`a, and have the reputation, like most heretical communities in the Sunni part of the Moslem world, of being exceedingly fanatical and inhospitable.
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  • See La Fondation de la regence d'Alger, histoire des Barberousse, chronique arabe du X VI siecle published by Sander Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837 - for a curious Moslem version of their story.
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  • It must be remembered that at the time of the pope's letter Jerusalem, which had been taken from the Moslem in 1099, was still in Christian possession.
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  • In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.
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  • For that purpose he travelled over the Moslem world, from Egypt to Samarkand, and learned (as the story goes) from over a thousand men three hundred thousand traditions, true and false.
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  • Great wealth, gained from the Moslem conquests, was pouring into Medina, and a system of business management and administration became necessary.
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  • Attached to the mosque is a college attended by several hundreds of Moslem youths.
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  • Beyond the Jewish quarter, in the Ribat-el-Soweika, is the Place el Halfa-Ouine, a favourite rendezvous of the poorer Moslem population, wherein are many native cafés.
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  • The "Voyage" of Ibn-Giobair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Moslem women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."
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  • Nor did the Turkish Moslem population escape the reforming purpose of the Committee.
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  • But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the reign of Sultan Kalaun (1282) and the succeeding century, during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place.
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  • Mosul probably occupies the site of a southern suburb of ancient Nineveh but it is very doubtful whether the older name of Mespila can be traced in the modern Al-Mausil (Arab., "the place of connexion"); it is, however, certain that a town with the Arabic name Al-Mausil stood here at the time of the Moslem conquest (636 A.D.).
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  • Its pulpit is decorated with the richest polychrome mosaic that can be found anywhere in Sicily or south Italy, and is quite Moslem in its brilliance.
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  • It had become a fine Moslem city in the 14th century, and was then called Ladik, being famous for the woven and embroidered products of its Greek inhabitants.
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  • Five miles inland west of Castiglione is Kolea (2932), a town dating from 1550 and originally peopled by Moslem refugees from Spain.
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  • There is one secondary school for Moslem girls.
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  • The population, about 35,000, consists chiefly of Moslem Tajiks, and the closely-related Galchas, and its chief town is Kala-i-khumb on the Panj, at an altitude of 4370 ft.
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  • The dominant race is the Uzbegs, who are fanatical Moslem Sunnites, scorn work, despise their Iranian subjects, and maintain their old division into tribes or clans.
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  • Mahmud's failure at Ajmere, when the brave raja Bisal-deo, obliged him to raise the siege but was himself slain, was when the Moslem army was on its way to Somnath.
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  • His love of literature brought men of learning to Ghazni, and his acquaintance with Moslem theology was recognized by the learned doctors.
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  • Saladin was therefore educated in the most famous centre of Moslem learning, and represented the best traditions of Moslem culture.
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  • At one angle, a square pillared projection contains the marble fountain or monks' lavatory, evidently the work of Moslem sculptors.
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  • The Moslem Calendar May Evidently Be Carried On Indefinitely By Successive Addition, Observing Only To Allow For The Additional Day That Occurs In The Bissextile And Intercalary Years; But For Any Remote Date The Computation According To The Preceding Rules Will Be Most Efficient, And Such Computation May Be Usefully Employed As A Check On The Accuracy Of Any Considerable Extension Of The Calendar By Induction Alone.
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  • It is their merit from a Mahommedan point of view to have re-established the power of orthodox Islam and delivered the Moslem world from the subversive influence of the ultra-Shiite tenets, which constituted a serious danger to the duration of Islam itself.
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  • The early Moslem geographers knew it as Hisn Ziyad, but the Armenian name was Khartabirt or Kharbirt, whence Kharput.
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  • The population (8000) has contained few Moslems since the Moslem quarter was destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha, in revenge for the murder of one of his favourites, after the insurrection of 1834.
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  • Their preserves have now been still further encroached upon by a number of Cretan Moslem refugees (1901-1902).
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  • It is the capital of a sanjak bearing the same name, and was formerly important as the headquarters of the local Moslem aristocracy, partly owing to the mountainous and easily defensible nature of the district.
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  • The Turks took it first in 1070, and from the 13th century onwards it was always in Moslem hands.
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  • Nicholas had scarcely recovered from the shock, when news came of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks; and his efforts to unite the Christian powers against the Moslem failed.
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  • The desolation of the city is probably due to earthquake; and the absence of Moslem erections or restorations seems to show that the disaster took place before the Mahommedan period.
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  • But after it passed into Moslem hands (635) it gradually lost all save commercial importance, and even the Crusaders did little to revive its old military glory.
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  • His manual of Moslem law according to the Shafi'ite school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882-1884), and published at Cairo (1888).
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  • In East Africa, as in the West, Christian missionaries fear most the aggressive Moslem propaganda.
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  • Moslem may need to know of Christ, he certainly has a claim to be told of Him.
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  • He is named Digenes (of double birth) as the son of a Moslem father and a Christian mother; Acritas (tiKpa, frontier, boundary), as one of the frontier guards of the empire, corresponding to the Roman milites limitanei.
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  • The chief duty of these acritae consisted in repelling Moslem inroads and the raids of the apelatae (cattle-lifters), brigands who may be compared with the more modern Klephts.
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  • The most probable tradition represents the Ashanti as deriving their origin from bands of fugitives, who in the 16th or 17th century were driven before the Moslem tribes migrating southward from the countries on the Niger and Senegal.
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  • The Latin version, made by Johannes Hispalensis and Gundisalvi about one hundred years after the author's death, had at once become known among the Schoolmen of the 12th century and exerted a powerful influence upon them, although so little was known of the author that it was doubted whether he was a Christian or a Moslem.
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    0
  • In Spain irrigation may be traced directly to the Moorish occupation, and almost everywhere throughout Asia and Africa where the Moslem penetrated is to be found some knowledge 'of irrigation.
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  • In the end the Moslem conquests in Sicily became an Aghlabite principality owning at best a formal superiority in the princes of I K airawan.
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  • But between Moslem dissension and Christian valour the struggle had still to be waged for eighty-seven years.
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  • In goo Panormus had to be won by a son of Ibrahim from Moslem rebels provoked by his father's cruelty.
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  • Thus for 263 years the Christian people of some part or other of Sicily were in subjection to Moslem masters.
    0
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  • But it would seem that, just as under the Moslem rule, conversions from Christianity to Islam were forbidden.
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  • Yet Frederick, patron of Arabic learning, suspected 'even of Moslem belief, failed to check the decline of the Saracen element in Sicily.
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  • His preaching was for long rejected by the Lamtunas, so on the advice of his patron Yahya, who accompanied him, he retired to an island in the Niger, where he founded a ribat or Moslem monastery, from which as a centre his influence spread.
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    0
  • Aristotle in the East no less than in the West was the " master of them that know "; and Moslem physicians to this day invoke the names of Hippocrates and Galen.
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    0
  • This is evident Component from the actual composition of the book, and is Parts of the confirmed by Moslem tradition.
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    0
  • But one may imagine what a world of trouble it has cost the Moslem theologians to explain the saying in accordance with their dogmatic beliefs.
    0
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  • But in the ears of every pious Moslem such a judgment will sound almost as shocking as downright atheism or polytheism.
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    0
  • In the great majority of cases there can be no doubt whatever whether a piece first saw the light in Mecca or in Medina; and for the most part the internal evidence is borne out by Moslem tradition.
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  • According to this, Ibrahim, after the controversy with the Jews, first of all became Mahomet's special forerunner in Medina, then the first Moslem, and finally the founder of the Ka'ba.
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  • We have in this list no genuine tradition, but rather the lucubrations of an undoubtedly conscientious Moslem critic, who may have lived about a century after the Flight.
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  • Every Moslem who says his five prayers regularly - as the most of them do - repeats it not less than twenty times a day.
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  • None of the efforts in this direction, whether by Moslem scholars or by Europeans, has led to convincing results.
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  • Sprenger arrives at this explanation by a very artificial method; and besides, Mahomet was not so simple as the Moslem traditionalists, who imagined that the Abyssinians could read a piece of the Arabic Koran.
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  • He was one of the oldest disciples of the Prophet, and had often rendered him personal service; but he was a man of contracted views, although he is one of the pillars of Moslem Masud theology.
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  • An unbiased European can, no doubt, see many things at a glance more clearly than a good Moslem who is under the influence of religious prejudice; but we should still be helpless without the exegetical literature of the Mahommedans.
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    0
  • In general the people living in the river valleys have been unaffected by Moslem propaganda either in blood or religion.
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  • The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
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  • Cairo itself is the fourth Moslem capital of Egypt; the site of one of those that had preceded it is, for the most part, included within its walls, while the other two were a little to the south.
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  • The Moslem inhabitants are mainly of Turkoman origin, and used to owe fealty to chieftains of the family of Chapan Oglu, whose headquarters were at Yuzgat in Cappadocia.
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  • During the Moslem period mining was abandoned, and it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that renewed efforts were made to develop the mining industry.
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  • Cairo holds a prominent place as a seat of Moslem learning, and its university, the Azhar, is considered the first of the eastern world.
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  • To meet the demand for better qualified judges for the Moslem courts a training college for cadis was established in 1907.
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  • The necessity for a reorganization of the Azhar system itself being also recognized by the high Moslem dignitaries in Egypt, a law was passed in 1907 creating a superior board of control under the presidency of the Sheikh el-Azhar to supervise the proceedings of the university and other similar establishments.
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  • The first of these divisions - includes both the Moslem and Coptic inhabitants.
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  • The harem system of appointing separate apartments to the women, and secluding them from the gaze of men, is observed in Egypt as in other Moslem countries, but less strictly.
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  • A pillar of earth before the dam is called the Bride of the Nile, and Arab historians relate that this was substituted, at the Moslem conquest, for a virgin whom it was the custom annually to sacrifice, to ensure a plentiful inundation.
    0
    0
  • Thus the Moslem conquest was easy.
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    0
  • And it would appear that at the time of the attempt by Manuel the Arabs were actually assisted by the Copts, who at the first had found the Moslem lighter than the Roman yoke.
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  • The terms were those on which conquered communities were ordinarily taken under Moslem protection.
    0
    0
  • During the period that elapsed between the Moslem conquest and the end of the Omayyad dynasty the nature of the Arab occupation had changed from what had originally been intended, the establishment of garrisons, to systematic colonization.
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    0
  • The period between the rise of the Abbasids and the quasi-independent dynasties of Egypt was marked by much religious persecution, occasioned by the fanaticism of some of the caliphs, the victims being generally Moslem sectarians.
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    0
  • Terms were then made by which both Syrians and Franks were to quit Egypt, though the garrison of Cairo remained; the hostile attitude of the Moslem population to this garrison led to another invasion at the beginning of 1168 by King Amalric, who after taking Bilbeis advanced to Cairo.
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  • Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.
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  • In 1374 the Egyptians raided Cilicia and captured Leo VI., prince of Lesser Armenia, which now became an Egyptian province with a Moslem governor.
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  • Moslem A uthorities.Arabic literature being cosmopolitan, and Arabic authors accustomed to travel from place to place to collect traditions and obtain oral instruction from contemporary authorities, or else to enjoy the patronage of Maecenates, the literary history of Egypt cannot be dissociated from that of the other Moslem countries in which Arabic was the chief literary vehicle.
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  • The eminent jurists who flourished in Moslem Egypt form a very lengthy list.
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  • Cairo on the 22nd of October 1798, of which the headquarters were in the Moslem university of Azhar.
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  • Public order was rendered perfect; the Nile and the highways were secure to all travellers, Christian or Moslem; the Bedoumn.
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  • While the removal of ancient jealousies among the European powers interested in Egypt helped to smooth the path pursued by the Egyptian administration under the guiding hand of Great Britain, the intrigues of the Turks and movement, the danger of a revival of Moslem fanaticism threatened during 1905-1906 to disturb the peace of the country.
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  • The words of the Imam are echoed in every heart, and every Moslem hears only the cry of the Faith..
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  • Though the Khalif were hapless as Bayezid, cruel as Murad, or mad as Ibrahim, he is the shadow of God, and every Moslem must leap up at his call ou will say, The Egyptian is more ungrateful than a dog, which remembers the hand that fed him.
    0
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  • It may be so to worldly eyes, but in the time of danger to Islam the Moslem turns away from the things of this world and thirsts only for the service of his Faith, even though he looks in the face of death To establish confidence in the minds of the Egyptian public that the authorities could maintain order and tranquillity, it was determined to increase permanently the strength of the British garrison.
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  • Its great natural strength and situation, not far from the mouth of the Sis pass, and near the great road which debouched from the Cilician gates, made Anazarbus play a considerable part in the struggles between the Byzantine empire and the early Moslem invaders.
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  • The less fortunate make shift to live outside as best they can, but are all day in the mosque, and are seldom deserted by Moslem charity.
    0
    0
  • Yet it is but a small fraction of the ulema of the Moslem world that enjoy even such an education as the Azhar affords.
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  • The whole Moslem population of the Peninsula is about 3,300,000.
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  • A powerful fleet was built up under several " admirals," or emirs," of whom the greatest was George of Antioch, formerly in the service of the Moslem prince of El Mehdia.
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  • The king's active and curious mind welcomed the learned; he maintained a complete toleration for the several creeds, races and languages of his realm; he was served by men of nationality so dissimilar as the Englishman Thomas Brun, a kaid of the Curia, and, in the fleet, by the renegade Moslem Christodoulos, and the Antiochene George, whom he made in 1132 "amiratus amiratorum," in effect prime vizier.
    0
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  • In defiance of her commercial interests and of her popularity with the Moslem population of the Gulf, Great Britain set herself to suppress the trade, and executed a series of agreements with the chiefs of the Arabian littoral with this object.
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  • He was martyred on the eve of the triumph of Christianity, his shrine was reared near the scene of a great Greek legend (Perseus and Andromeda), and his relics when removed from Lydda, where many pilgrims had visited them, to Zorava in the Hauran served to impress his fame not only on the Syrian population, but on their Moslem conquerors, and again on the Crusaders, who in grateful memory of the saint's intervention on their behalf at Antioch built a new cathedral at Lydda to take the place of the church destroyed by the Saracens.
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  • The culture of the vine - formerly an important staple, as is proved by the countless ancient wine-presses scattered over the rocky hillsides of the whole country - fell to some extent into desuetude, no doubt owing to the Moslem prohibition of wine-drinking.
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    0
  • Dissensions and rivalries soon broke out among the Moslem leaders, and in 661 Moawiya, the first caliph of the Omayyad.
    0
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  • This produced a Moslem exodus to Jerusalem, with the consequence mentioned.
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  • After being defeated by Saladin at Banias, the Franks were compelled to make a treaty with the Moslem leader.
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  • This bigoted Moslem caused the Jewish secretary of his office to be murdered.
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  • This has been the origin of the long succession of Semitic waves - Babylonian, Assyrian, Canaanite, Hebrew, Nabataean, Moslem - that have flowed over Mesopotamia and Palestine; there is every reason to suppose that they will be followed by others, and that the Arab will remain master at the end, as he was in the beginning.
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  • The same associations are those of the Moslem, whose religion has so strangely absorbed the prophets and traditions of the older faiths.
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  • Other shrines, such as the alleged tomb of Moses, and the mosque of Hebron over the cave of Machpelah, are the centres of Moslem pilgrimage.
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  • It was Ibn-Tufail (Abubacer), the philosophic vizier of Yusef, who introduced Averroes to that prince, and Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr), the greatest of Moslem physicians, was his friend.
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  • In the Shahpur and other districts, however, where Mahommedans have followed Hindu customs, Moslem women wear the majla, a cloth about 3 yds.
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  • To Salah Bey, who ruled from 1770 to 1792, we owe most of the existing Moslem buildings.
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  • At that time the small Arabian kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira had arisen in the western and eastern borderlands of cultivation; these now presented to Moslem conquest its nearest and natural goal.
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  • They changed their creed merely to acquire the rights and privileges of Moslem citizens.
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  • He himself did not take the field, but remained in Medina with the exception of his visit to Syria in 638; he never, however, suffered the reins to slip from his grasp, so powerful was the influence of his personality and the Moslem community of feeling.
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  • His political insight is shown by the fact that he endeavoured to limit the indefinite extension of Moslem conquest, to maintain and strengthen the national Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam, 4 and especially to promote law and order in its internal affairs.
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  • The puzzled Moslem doctors explain this fact on the ground that the Hashimites were regarded as too noble to hold ordinary administrative offices, and that they could not be spared at Medina, where their counsel was required in all important affairs.
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  • He brought 2000 Turkish archers with him to Basra, the first Turkish slaves to enter the Moslem empire.
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  • Moawiya imprisoned him and let him pay a high ransom, the law not permitting the talio against a Moslem for having killed a Christian.
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  • A vague message from Mahommed, that it was the duty of every good Moslem to take part with the family of the Prophet, was interpreted in favour of Mokhtar, and thenceforward all the Shiites, among them the powerful Ibrahim, son of Ali's right hand Malik Ashtar, followed him blindly as their chief.
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  • Moawiya, indeed, had struck dinars and dirhems with a Moslem inscription, but his subjects would not accept them as there was no cross upon them.
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  • Abdalmalik not only brought triumph to the cause of the Omayyads, but also extended and strengthened the Moslem power as a whole.
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  • Under him the chiefs who had submitted to the Moslem arms retained their authority.
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  • In the East the Moslem armies gained the most astonishing successes.
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  • Hajjaj was a sincere Moslem; this, however, did not prevent him from attacking Ibn Zobair in the Holy City, nor again from punishing rebels, though they bore the name of holy men.
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  • It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that these men saw in Omar the ideal of a prince, and that in Moslem history he has acquired the reputation of a saint.
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  • The Berbers were the chief contingent of the Moslem troops, but were treated by their Arab masters as inferior people.
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  • He was a correct Moslem and tolerant towards Christians and Jews.
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  • Notwithstanding his activity and his devotion to the management of affairs, the Moslem power declined rather than advanced, and signs of the decay of the Omayyad dynasty began to show themselves.
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  • The Greeks even conquered Marash (Germanicia) and annihilated the Moslem army sent from Dabiq.
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  • Thanks to these and similar measures, the Moslem armies were able to advance boldly into Asia Minor.
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  • In 805 the first great ransoming of Moslem prisoners took place on the banks of the little river Lamus in Cilicia.
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  • Like most of the great Moslem generals, Tahir, it is said, had conceived the project of creating an independent kingdom for himself.
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  • He had embraced the Motazilite doctrine about free will and predestination, and was in particular shocked at the opinion which had spread among the Moslem doctors that the Koran was the uncreated word of God.
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  • Hanbal (q.v.), founder of one of the four orthodox Moslem schools, were obliged to appear before an inquisitorial tribunal; and as they persisted in their belief respecting the Koran, they were thrown into prison.
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  • He carried his zeal to such a point that, on the occasion of an exchange of Greek against Moslem prisoners in 845, he refused to receive those Moslem captives who would not declare their belief that the Koran was created.
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  • Motawakkil, in 850, formulated an edict by which these sectaries were compelled to wear a distinctive dress and to distinguish their houses by a figure of the devil nailed to the door, excluding them at the same time from all public employments, and forbidding them to send their children to Moslem schools.
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  • This horrible crime raised the whole Moslem world against them.
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  • While the latter followed (or led) the Shu`ubite movement and declared for the excellence of all things not Arabian, Asma`i was the pious Moslem and avowed supporter of the superiority of the Arabs over all peoples, and of the freedom of their language and literature from all foreign influence.
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  • In Bengal he visited the famous Moslem saint Shaykh Jalaluddin, whose shrine (Shah Jalal at Silhet) is still maintained.
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  • The traveller's history, not least in China, singularly illustrates the free masonry of Islam, and its power of carrying a Moslem doctor over the known world of Asia and Africa.
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  • Gypsies - some Moslem, some Christian - are also numerous, especially in the south.
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  • Their strange sculptures and inscriptions have been found at Pteria, Euyuk, Fraktin, Kiz Hissar (Tyana), Ivriz, Bulgar, Muden and other places between Smyrna and the 1 The people, Moslem and Christian, are physically one and appear to be closely related to the modern Armenians.
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  • Whilst originally more akin in its principles to the Moslem faith, the sect seems latterly to have shown tendencies towards drifting back to the Hindu pale.
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  • They produced a brilliant succession of eminent scholars and scientists who transmitted to the Moslems the results of Babylonian civilization and Greek learning, and their influence at the court of Baghdad secured more or less toleration for Sabianism, although in the reign of Harlan al-Rashid the Harranians had already found it necessary to establish a fund by means of which the conscientious scruples of Moslem officials might be overcome.
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  • It has a population (1907) of 54,437, is the capital of the rich province of Gharbia, and is noted for its fairs and Moslem festivals, which are held three times a year in honour of Seyyid el-Bedawi, and are sometimes attended by 200,000 pilgrims and traders.
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  • The Moslem religious courts, presided over by cadis, are strictly confined to jurisdiction in religious cases affecting the Mahommedan population.
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  • There are some 300 connected with the Greek Orthodox Church, and 160 elementary Moslem schools.
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  • Among other schools are a Moslem high school (maintained entirely by government), a training college at Nicosia for teachers in the Orthodox Church schools, Greek high schools at Larnaca and Limasol, an English school for boys and a girls' school at Nicosia.
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    0
  • By a law of 1895 separate boards of education for Moslem and Greek Christian schools were established, and in each district there are separate committees, presided over by the commissioner.
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  • This region has never been thoroughly explored, or brought under effective Turkish rule, on account of the inaccessible character of its mountains and forests, and the lawlessness of its inhabitants - a group of two Roman Catholic and three Moslem tribes, known collectively as the Malsia Jakovs, whose official representative resides in J akova.
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  • The magnificence of its mosques and other public buildings, the number of its schools, and the extent of its warehouses shed lustre on the city; but wealth and luxury began to undermine its prosperity, and its ruin was hastened by the conduct of the Moslem refugees from Spain.
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  • Offered his life if he became a Moslem, he resolutely declined the proposal, and was decapitated.
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    0
  • The present name is derived from that of a Moslem saint whose tomb, near the sea-coast, is an object of veneration.
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    0
  • The ten mosques and madrasas of Yarkand, although poorer than those of Bokhara or Samarkand, enjoy wide renown in the Moslem world.
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    0
  • Both French and British military expeditions had been sent against the Sofas - Moslem mercenaries who, under the chieftainship of Fulas or Mandingos like Samory, ravaged the hinterland both of Sierra Leone and French Guinea.
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  • Dissatisfied with the meagre philosophies of his Italian teachers, he went to Toledo to study in Spanish Moslem schools, then so famous as depositories and interpreters of ancient wisdom; and, having thus acquired a knowledge of the Arabic language, he appears to have devoted the remainder of his life to the business of making Latin translations from its literature.
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    0
  • The place, re-fortified by the Byzantines, and still retaining its name as Bergama, passed into Moslem hands early in the 14th century.
    0
    0
  • This blending of the two systems of education produced the happy result of fitting this Moslem chief in an eminent degree both for the sacerdotal functions which appertain to his spiritual position, and for those social duties of a great and enlightened leader which he was called upon to discharge by virtue of that position.
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  • It continued to be the seat of great commercial activity under the early Moslem caliphs, who corrupted the name to Haila or Ailat.
    0
    0
  • They are Mahommedans, and although Arab influence has declined, their nobles still wear the Moslem flowing robe and turban (though the women go unveiled), and they use Arabic script.
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    0
  • Near Arsuf the road entered a defile between the sea and a wooded range of hills; and from the latter the whole Moslem army suddenly burst forth.
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  • The devout Moslem has to make a set response to each phrase of the Muezzin.
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    0
  • But, though prayer within the building is favoured by the example of the Prophet, it is not compulsory on the Moslem, and even in the time of Ibn Batuta the opportunities of entrance were reduced to Friday and the birthday of the Prophet.
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  • The central and essential ceremonies of the hajj or greater pilgrimage are those of the day of Arafa, the 9th of the "pilgrimage month" (Dhu'l Hijja), the last of the Arab year; and every Moslem who is his own master, and can command the necessary means, is bound to join in these once in his life, or to have them fulfilled by a substitute 1 The latter perhaps was no part of the ancient omra; see SnouckHurgronje, Het Mekkaansche Feest (1880) p. 115 sqq.
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  • But we find mention of practices condemned by the orthodox, or forming no part of the Moslem ritual, which may be regarded as traces of an older ceremonial.
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  • Panormus now became the Moslem capital.
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  • About 630 it was captured by the Moslem leader, Khalid ibn Walid, who is buried there.
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  • The third is counterbalanced everywhere by a large population of Moslem and Orthodox Syrians.
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    0
  • Divorce is easy and can be initiated by the woman; but remarriage of the pair can only be effected by the good offices of a proxy (as in Moslem societies, after a third divorce).
    0
    0
  • Owing to a very equitable distribution of irrigation water in accordance with Moslem law, agriculture and gardening have reached a high stage of development in the oases.
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    0
  • In the 14th and 15th centuries Bokhara and Samarkand became centres of Moslem scholarship, and sent great numbers of their learned doctors to Kashgaria.
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    0
  • The Kalmucks fled, and Dzungaria became a Chinese province, with a military colonization of Sibos, Solons, Dahurs, Chinese criminals and Moslem Dzungars.
    0
    0
  • Since the Turkish conquest a minaret has been erected at each of the four exterior angles of the building, and the interior has been adapted to the requirements of Moslem worship, mainly by the destruction or concealment of most of the mosaics which adorned the walls.
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    0
  • The Turkish government itself became, moreover, impressed with the importance of education, and as a consequence the whole system of public instruction for the Moslem portion of the population was, during the reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid II., more widely extended and improved.
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    0
  • The progress of education became noticeable even among Moslem girls.
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    0
  • It has never been penetrated by Moslem influence, and is inhabited in the greater part by warlike and unruly pagans.
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    0
  • In Lower Galilee the peasants are principally Moslem, with a sprinkling of Greek Christians round Nazareth, which is a Christian town.
    0
    0
  • The military occupation by the Turks left little permanent impression; colonization was never attempted; and the continuous wars by which the victors strove to secure or enlarge their dominions north of the Save left no time for the introduction of Moslem religion or civilization among the vanquished.
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  • It was a system of Greek thought, expressed in a Semitic tongue, and modified by Oriental influences, called into existence amongst the Moslem people by the patronage of their more liberal princes, and kept alive by the intrepidity and zeal of a small band of thinkers, who stood suspected and disliked in the eyes of their nation.
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  • It was with them that the Moslem theology - the science of the word (Ka/dm) - first came into existence.
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  • In this way, by a theory which, according to Averroes, involves the negation of science, the Moslem theologians believed that they had exalted God beyond the limits of the metaphysical and scientific conceptions of law, form and matter; whilst they at the same time stood aloof from the vulgar doctrines, attributing a causality to things.
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  • The energy of the Monophysites, however, began to sink with the rise of the Moslem empire; and when philosophy revived amongst them in the 13th century, in the person of Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus (Abulfaragius) (1226-1286), the revival was due to the example and influence of the Arabian thinkers.
    0
    0
  • Gaining by means of their professional skill as physicians a high rank in the society of the Moslem world, the Nestorian scholars soon made Bagdad familiar with the knowledge of Greek philosophy and science which they possessed.
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    0
  • The place of Avicenna amongst Moslem philosophers is seen in the fact that Shahrastani takes him as the type of all, and that Ghazali's attack against philosophy is in reality almost entirely directed against Avicenna.
    0
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  • With these views he carried into the fields of philosophy the aims and spirit of the Moslem theologian.
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    0
  • Philosophy, which had only sprung up when the purely Arabian influences ceased to predominate, came to an end when the sceptre of the Moslem world passed away from the dynasty of Persia.
    0
    0
  • It was this theory which Averroes (1126-1198), the last and most famous of the thinkers of Moslem Spain, carried out to his doctrine of the unity of intellect.
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  • On the other hand, he came to represent those aspects of Peripateticism most alien to the spirit of Christendom; and the deeply religious Moslem gave his name to the anti-sacerdotal party, to the materialists, sceptics and atheists, who defied or undermined the dominant beliefs of the church.
    0
    0
  • On three points Averroes, like other Moslem thinkers, came specially into relation, real or supposed, with the religious creed, viz.
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  • Averroes, rejected by his Moslem countrymen, found a hearing among the Jews, to whom Maimonides had shown the free paths of Greek speculation.
    0
    0
  • The Moslem inhabitants, being in a minority, have often shown themselves fanatical and turbulent.
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    0
  • The Mahon1medan Con quest.How utterly weak it was can be seen from the fact that it was shattered by the feeble Moslem invasion of 711.
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    0
  • The danger from Africa had been Moslem patent for half a century.
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    0
  • During the reign of Invasion, Witiza the Moslem masters of northern Africa had 2II.
    0
    0
  • A single blow delivered as much by Christian as by Moslem hands, sufficed to cut the bond which seemed to hold the kingdom together, and to scatter its fragments all over the soil of the Peninsula.
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    0
  • With the aid of the Spanish Moslem Beni-Casi the Basques drove off the counts and wardens of the marches of the Carolingians.
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    0
  • Along the shores of the bay, and in the valleys of the mountains to the north and west it was inhabited; htit a great belt of desolation separated it from the regions in which the Moslem were fighting out their own quarrels.
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    0
  • Dissensions among themselves coincided with an energetic rally of the Moslem power.
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    0
  • There were Spaniards who, like the Greeks of the Phanar, were the servile instruments of their Moslem master.
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  • The fundamental difference between the Moslem, who know only the despot and the Koran, and a Christian people who have tievelopmentthle Church, a body of law and a Latin speech, was of the well seen in the contrast between the end of the christian greatness of Mansur, and the end of the weakness Kingdoms, of his Christian contemporaries.
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  • In 1125 he carried out a great raid through Mahommedan Spain, camping in its midst for months, and returning with many thousands of the Christian rayahs, who, under the name of Mozrabes, had hitherto continued to live under Moslem rule.
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  • He took Cordova and conquered as far as Almeria, but left vassal Moslem princes in possession.
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  • But this wave of the ebbing Moslem tide had less force than the Almorvide, and fell back both sooner and farther than its predecessor.
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  • The Christian Oranada, population had disappeared in Granada and Moslem r;fugees had peopled it closely.
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  • It is said with probability that one of the early kings of Aragon, Peter I., could write no other letters than the Arabic. The Mozrabes were treated under the kings of the recunquest as separate bodies with their own judges and law, which they had been allowed to keep by the Moslem rulers.
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  • Their origin must probably be sought in the action of communities of Mozhrabes, Christians living under Moslem rule as rayahs, who put themselves under Christian chiefs of the early days of the reconquest for The Towns.
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  • Arab influence and the Moslem religion began to be felt in the western Sudan as early as the 9th century and had taken deep root by the end of the i ith.
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  • This Christian kingdom in the midst of Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the leaders of the crusades, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy, had a stormy existence of about 300 years.
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  • The adoption of Islam by the latter, and by many Armenians, divided the people sharply into Christian and Moslem, and placed the Christian in a position of inferiority.
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  • Shots were fired, and a riot occurred in which many Armenian and some Moslem lives were lost.
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  • A large majority of the Moslems disapproved of the massacres, and many Armenians were saved by Moslem friends.
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  • Kala`un of Egypt commanded his Moslem, Christian and Jewish subjects respectively to wear.'
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  • They had the help of Moslem adventurers from the Levant, of whom the most successful were Arouj and his brother Khair-ed-Din, natives of Mitylene, both of whom were known to the Christians by the nickname of Barbarossa or "Redbeard."
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  • In its more recent history the only incidents that need be mentioned are its capture by Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian general, in 1832, when the city was first opened to the representatives of foreign powers; its revolt against Ibrahim's tyranny in 1834, which he crushed with the aid of the Druses; the return of the city to Turkish domination, when the Egyptians were driven out of Syria in 1840 by the allied powers; and the massacre of July 1860, when the Moslem population rose against the Christians, burnt their quarter, and slaughtered about 3000 adult males.
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  • The Moslem objective seems to be simply to destroy the infidel.
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  • The main tourist attraction is the nearby mosque of Hala Sultan Tekke, which draws pilgrims from across the Moslem world.
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  • Moslem teachers have in my presence utterly denied that Allah is subject to an absolute standard of moral rectitude.
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  • This, and the death sentance from the Iranian theocracy was not condemned by any prominent moslem spokespersons.
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  • Either the Moslem is right to kill the unbeliever, or he is wrong.
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  • Thus it is suggested that Barabra is a real ethnical name, confused later with Greek and Roman barbarus, and revived in its proper meaning subsequent to the Moslem conquest.
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  • It is a general duty, according to canon law, upon a Moslem community to judge legal disputes on this basis, and it is an individual duty upon the ruler of the community to appoint a cadi to act for the community.
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  • The opposition of the Albanians, Christian as well as Moslem, to the reforms introduced by the sultan Mahmud II.
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  • Amongst the most marked features of the change that has taken place since 1875 are the growth of religious and philanthropic establishments; the settlement of Jewish colonies from Bokhara, Yemen and Europe; the migration of Europeans, old Moslem families, and Jews from the city to the suburbs; the increased vegetation, due to the numerous gardens and improved methods of cultivation; the substitution of timber and red tiles for the vaulted stone roofs which were so characteristic of the old city; the striking want of beauty, grandeur, and harmony with their environment exhibited by most of the new buildings; and the introduction of wheeled transport, which, cutting into the soft limestone, has produced mud and dust to an extent previously unknown.
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  • This appeal to Moslem sentiment was, however, powerless against the disaffection due to perennial misgovernment.
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  • The correct attitude of the sultan did not save him from the suspicion of intriguing with the powerful reactionary elements in the state, a suspicion confirmed by his attitude towards the counter-revolution of the 13th of April, when an insurrection of the soldiers and the Moslem populace of the capital overthrew the committee and the ministry.
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  • Owing to the havoc wrought during repeated insurrections, the impoverishment of the peasants, the desolation of the districts formerly inhabited by the Moslem agricultural population, and the drain of gold resulting from the sale of Moslem lands and emigration of the former proprietors, together with other causes, the financial situation has been unsatisfactory.
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  • It is usually accompanied by the use of the Arabic alphabet, and in the languages of Moslem nations (notably Turkish, Persian, Hindustani and Malay) a large proportion of the vocabulary is borrowed from Arabic. Hindi and Hindustani, two forms of the same language as spoken by Hindus and Mahommedans respectively, are a curious example of how deeply religion may affect culture.
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  • Both Moslem and Chinese art are closely connected with calligraphy, but Hindus rarely use writing for ornament.
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  • During the 8th and 9th centuries, when the direct pass from Cocysus came into military use, Marasion (the older name had returned into general use) was often the Byzantine objective and was more than once retaken; but after 77 0, when Mansur incorporated it in "Palestine" it remained definitely in Moslem power and was refortified by Harun-alRashid.
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  • The principal feature in the mosque is the niche (mihrab), which is sunk in a wall built at right angles to a line drawn from Mecca, and indicates the direction towards which the Moslem should turn when engaged in prayer.
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  • The state supports primary schools (352 in 1905), where reading, writing, arithmetic and history are taught; and separate instruction is given by the Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Jewish and Moslem clergy.
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  • A revolt of the Hungarian Protestants, in consequence of the persecuting policy of the house of Habsburg, now led to a renewal of the war between Turkey and Austria, due in part to the overweening ambition of Kuprili's successor, Kara Mustafa, who desired to immortalize his tenure of office by some great exploit, and who cherished dreams of founding for himself a western Moslem Empire.
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  • Their home was in the spurs of the Caucasus and along the shores of the Caspian - called by medieval Moslem geographers Bahr-al-Khazar ("sea of the Khazars"); their cities, all populous and civilized commercial centres, were Itil, the capital, upon the delta of the Volga, the "river of the Khazars," Semender (Tarkhu), the older capital, Khamlidje or Khalendsch, Belendscher, the outpost towards Armenia, and Sarkel on the Don.
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  • Napier held his Moslem ally in great esteem, and entertained a very high opinion of his political acumen and chivalry as a leader and soldier.
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  • The hosts of the Gur Khan are called by Moslem historians Al-Turk-al-Kuffar, the kafir or infidel Turks; and in later days the use of this term "kafir" led to misapprehensions, as when Vasco da Gama's people were led to take for Christians the Banyan traders on the African coast, and to describe as Christian sovereigns so many princes of the Farther East of whom they heard at Calicut.
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  • Beyond the Jewish quarter, in the Ribat-el-Soweika, is the Place el Halfa-Ouine, a favourite rendezvous of the poorer Moslem population, wherein are many native cafés.
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  • Moslem feet soon trod the courts of the great temple.
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  • Moses ben Ezra says of him that he imitated Moslem models, and was the first to open to Jewish poets the door of versification,' meaning that he first popularized the use of Arabic metres in Hebrew.
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  • The old division of the country into districts (nomoi) is maintained, and to the inhabitants of these districts demands are directly addressed by the governor of Egypt, while the head of the community, ordinarily a Copt, but in some cases a Moslem, is responsible for compliance with the demand.
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  • Damascus, Kuf a and Basra will attract the flower of all the Moslem provinces, and thus that great intellectual, literary and scientific movement, which reached its apogee under the first Abbasid Caliphs at Bagdad, steadily becomes more marked.
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  • The principle of Islam was, that no Moslem, whatever might be his nationality, should pay any tax other than the zakat or poor-rate (see Mahommedan Institutions).
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  • The kingdom of Dongola had already been reduced to a condition of anarchy by Moslem invasions from the north.
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  • The opposite is the swimsuit designed for moslem ladies.
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  • The new Constitution is stated by a leading Moslem convert to be the greatest blow against the tottering walls of Islam.
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  • To be brought up by Christians from Iowa in a Moslem country that was traditionally part of India gave me a remarkable experience of Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.