MAIMONIDES, the common name of RABBI MOSES BEN
to Moses and Mahomet.
26, so far from the name Yahweh having been made known to Israel by Moses (Exod.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
The Madonna della Steccata (Our Lady of the Palisade), a fine church in the form of a Greek cross, erected between 1521 and 1539 after Zaccagni's designs, contains the tombs and monuments of many of the Bourbon and Farnese dukes of Parma, and preserves its pictures, Parmigiano's "Moses Breaking the Tables of the Law" and Anselmi's "Coronation of the Virgin."
Sunday Adeline Moses brought me a lovely doll.
For Jewish and other legends (to which Jude 9 alludes), see Beer, Leben Moses (1863), M.
- Although the legal basis for the final stage is found in the legislation of the time of Moses (latter part of the second millennium B.C.), it is in reality scarcely earlier than the 5th century B.C., and the Jewish theory finds analogies when developments of the Levitical service are referred to David (I Chron.
Much confusion has been caused by attributing to Moses more than the Pentateuch itself claims, and by misunderstanding the meaning of later references (Mat.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
The Rational Psychology formulates immortality on the ground that the immaterial soul has no parts to suffer decay - the argument which Kant's Critique of Pure Reason " refutes" with special reference to the statement of it by Moses Mendelssohn.
Much general comment on Moses Mendelssohn appeared in the press of the world on occasion of the centenary of the birth of the composer Mendelssohn in 1909.
The genealogies in their complete form pay little heed to Moses, although Aaron and Moses could typify the priesthood and other Levites generally (i Chron.
The story of the youth of Moses is, as is commonly the case with great heroes, of secondary origin; moreover, the circumstances of his birth as related in Exod.
The priesthood of Dan certainly traced its origin to Moses (Judges xvii.
Post-exilic revision has also hopelessly obscured the offence of Moses and Aaron, although there was already a tendency to place the blame upon the people (Deut.
The two are reconciled when the God of the patriarchs reveals His name for the first time unto Moses (Exod.
In the same year in which this work appeared, he and his wife Dorothea (1763-1839), a daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, joined the Roman Catholic Church, and from this time he became more and more opposed to the principles of political and religious freedom.
Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi (London, 1903).
The deity revealed himself in a new name, Yahweh, and with signs and wonders fortified Moses for his task.
8) and here, finally, for some cause, now obscured, Moses and his brother Aaron incurred Yahweh's displeasure (Num.
The deity revealed himself in a new name, Yahweh, and with signs and wonders fortified Moses for his task.
With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
Moreover, it is necessary to allow that the traditions relating to both Moses and Aaron underwent change.
25, with that ascribed to Moses in Num.
in 1040 at Mainz), a famous Talmudist and com mentator, his pupil Jacob ben Yaqar, and Moses of Narbonne, called ha-Darshan, the "Exegete," were the forerunners of the greatest of all Jewish commentators, Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who died at Troyes in 1105.
1141 at Lucena), a friend of Judah Ha-levi and of Moses ben Ezra, wrote Responsa and IIiddushin (annotations) on parts of the Talmud.
The greatest of all medieval Jewish scholars was Moses ben Maimon (Rambam), called Maimonides by Christians.
A very different person was Moses ben Nahman (Ramban) or Nahmanides, who was born at Gerona in 1194 and died in Palestine about 1270.
Of the same school were Menahem ben Simeon of Posquieres, a commentator, who died about the end of the 12th century, and Moses ben Jacob of Coucy (13th century), author of the Semag (book of precepts, positive and negative) a very popular and valuable halakhic work.
With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
1141 at Lucena), a friend of Judah Ha-levi and of Moses ben Ezra, wrote Responsa and IIiddushin (annotations) on parts of the Talmud.
A very different person was Moses ben Nahman (Ramban) or Nahmanides, who was born at Gerona in 1194 and died in Palestine about 1270.
Bless his counsels, his undertakings, and his work; strengthen his kingdom by Thine almighty hand, and give him victory over his enemy, even as Thou gavest Moses the victory over Amalek, Gideon over Midian, and David over Goliath.
MOSES MENDELSSOHN (1729-1786), Jewish philosopher, was born in Dessau in 1729.
In the "Blessing of Moses" (Deut.
Two years after his marriage he became possessed of a copy of the Kabbalistic " Bible " - the Zohar of Moses de Leon.
The story of the adoption of Moses by the Egyptian princess appealed to later imagination (Josephus,.
Pisgah or Mt Nebo (the name suggests a foreign god), to the north-east of the Dead Sea became the scene of the death of Moses; his burial-place was never known (Deut.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
The traditional view that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch in its present form, would make this the earliest monument of Hebrew literature.
The Apocry- Torah, the Law delivered to Moses, held among the Jews of the 4th century B.C. as it holds now, a pre eminent position.
i) Moses received on Mount Sinai not only the written Law as set down in the Pentateuch, but also the Oral Law, which he communicated personally to the 70 elders and through them by a "chain of tradition" to succeeding ages.
Mention need only be made further of Isaac of Troki, whose anti-Christian polemic (1593) was translated into English by Moses Mocatta under the title of Faith Strengthened (1851); Solomon of Troki, whose Appiryon, an account of Karaism, was written at the request of Pufendorf (about 1700); and Abraham Firkovich, who, in spite of his impostures, did much for the literature of his people about the middle of the 19th century.
His treatises on the verbs, written in Arabic, were translated into Hebrew by Moses Giqatilla (11th century), himself a considerable grammarian and commentator, and by Ibn Ezra.
Moses Giqatilla has been already mentioned.
In the "Blessing of Moses" (Deut.
23, 24; of Moses, Exod.
No deductions as to their chronology can be based on the silence regarding them in Moses' song, Exodus xv.
In the last stage (c) the exclusion of the ordinary Levites from all share in the priesthood of the sons of Aaron is looked upon as a matter of course, dating from the institution of priestly worship by Moses.
5 The second element of the name Abiathar is connected with Jether or Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, and even Ichabod (1 Sam.
21) seems to be an intentional reshaping of Jochebed, which is elsewhere the name of the mother of Moses.
Assumption of Moses >>
Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
At the end of the century Isaac ben Moses, called Profiat Duran (Efodi), is chiefly known as an antiChristian controversialist (letter to Me'ir Alguadez), but also wrote on grammar (Ma`aseh Efod) and a commentary on the Moreh.
It was Moses Mendelssohn's German translation of the Pentateuch (1 7 80 - 1 793) which marked the new spirit, while the views of his opponents belong to a bygone age.
Of the many Jewish bearers of this name, three are well known: (1) the grandson of Moses, who was priest at Dan (Judg.
Allied with this more empiricist stand-point is the assertion that Greek philosophy borrowed from Moses; but in studying the Fathers we constantly find that groundless assertion uttered in the same breath with the dominant Idealist view, according to which Greek philosophy was due to incomplete revelation from the divine Logos.
As it was put by Mr Stainton Moses, a leading spiritualist and himself a medium, who wrote under the nom de plume of "M.A.
Of considerable interest again are the experiences of Mr Stainton Moses between 1870 and 1880, of which the best account has been compiled from contemporary records by F.
Stainton Moses [M.A.
Many other examples might be cited, as the " suspended nun " which transforms the pronunciation of the original Mosheh (Moses) into Menashsheh (Manasseh) owing to the irregular practices of his descendant, Jonathan ben Gershom (Jud.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
- Can any clear indications be found to guide us as to the religion of the Hebrew clans before the time of Moses ?
That Moses united the scattered tribes, probably consisting at first mainly of the Josephite, under the common worship of Yahweh, and that upon the religion of Yahweh a distinctly ethical character was impressed,is generally recognized.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
Lastly, the rite of circumcision, which the Hebrews practised in common with their Semitic neighbours as well as the Egyptians, belonged to ages long anterior to the time of Moses.
the effects of Babylonian culture in western Asia on Israel and Israel's religion in early times even preceding the advent of Moses.
Moses was the first historic individuality who can be said to have welded the Israelite clans into a whole.
2), God spake to Moses and said to him: " I am Yahweh.
According to this later tradition Yahweh was unknown till the days of Moses, and under the aegis of His power the Hebrew tribes were delivered from Egyptian thraldom.
It was the signal victory won by Moses at the exodus against the Egyptians and in the subsequent battle at Rephidim against `Amalek (Ex.
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
It is probable that Moses held the larger rather than the narrower conception of Yahweh's sphere of influence.
Moreover, it is hardly probable that a great leader like Moses remained unaffected by the higher conceptions tending towards monotheism which prevailed in the great empires on the Nile and on the Euphrates.
5 (E) we read that Moses simply commissioned young men to offer sacrifices.
This is clearly shown in the " blessing of Moses " (Deut.
It is highly significant that Elijah, when driven from the northern kingdom by the threats of the Tyrian Jezebel, retreats to the old sanctuary at Horeb, whence Moses derived his inspiration and his TOrah.
That larger conceptions prevailed in some of the loftier minds of Israel, and may be held to have existed even as far back as the age of Moses, is a fact which the Yahwistic cosmogony in Gen.
- These may be briefly referred to under the following aspects: (a) Codified law and the written record of the patriarchal history, as well as the life and work of the lawgiver Moses (to whom the entire body of law came to be ascribed), assumed an ever greater importance.
There were various causes which combined to enhance the importance of the written Torah (the " instruction " par excellence communicated by God through Moses).
Pre-existence is also asserted of Moses and of sacred institutions such as the New Jerusalem, the Temple, Paradise, the Torah, &c. (Apocal.
See Moses Coit Tyler, Patrick Henry (Boston, 1887; new ed., 1899), and William Wirt Henry (Patrick Henry's grandson), Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence and Speeches (New York, 1890-1891); these supersede the very unsatisfactory biography by William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817).
The Milhamoth is throughout modelled after the plan of the great work of Jewish philosophy, the Moreh Nebuhim of Moses Maimonides, and may be regarded as an elaborate criticism from the more philosophical point of view (mainly Averroistic) of the syncretism of Aristotelianism and Jewish orthodoxy as presented in that work.
No longer individual sons of Jacob or Israel, united tribes were led out by Moses and Aaron; and, after a series of incidents extending over forty years, the " children of Israel " invaded the land in which their ancestors had lived.
In Moses (q.v.) was seen the founder of Israel's religion and laws; in Aaron (q.v.) the prototype of the Israelite priesthood.
2 seq.), and this conception of a new era in Yahweh's relations with the people is associated with the family of Moses and with small groups.
Various collections are preserved in the Old Testament; they are attributed to the time of Moses the lawgiver, who stands at the beginning of Israelite national and religious history.
Cook, Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi.
Nevertheless, it implies that religion passed into a new stage through the influence of Moses, and to this we find a relatively less complete analogy in the specific north Israelite traditions of the age of Jehu.
At Horeb, the mount of God, was located the dramatic theophany which heralded to Elijah the advent of the sword, and Jehu's supporter in his sanguinary measures belongs to the Rechabites, a sect which felt itself to be the true worshipping community of Yahweh and is closely associated with the Kenites, the kin of Moses.
Yahweh of Moses was found, and scattered traces survive of a definite belief in the entrance into Palestine of a movement uncompromisingly devoted to the purer worship of Yahweh.
4), like the remarkable vicissitudes in the traditions of Moses, Aaron and the Levites (qq.v.), represents changing situations of real significance, whose true place in the history can with difficulty be recovered.
A brazen serpent, whose institution was attributed to Moses, had not hitherto been considered out of place in the cult; its destruction was perhaps the king's most notable reform.
One fragmentary source alludes to a journey to the Midianite or Kenite father-in-law of Moses with the Ark (q.v.); another knows of its movements with David and the priest Abiathar (a name closely related to Jether or Jethro; cf.
On his arrival the people were gathered together, and in due course he read the " book of the Law of Moses " daily for seven days (Neh.
Similarly, the " book of the Law of Moses," brought from Babylon by Ezra (Ezra vii.; Neh.
What book Ezra really brought from Babylon is uncertain; the writer, it seems, is merely narrating the introduction of the Law ascribed to Moses, even as a predecessor has recounted the discovery of the Book of the Law, the Deuteronomic code subsequently included in the Pentateuch.
Moses, Jethro), &c., like the intimate relationship between Israel and surrounding lands, havea significance in the light of recent research.
That one man should hold both offices was indeed against the example of Moses, and could only be admitted as a temporary concession to necessity.
In 35 he dispersed a number of Samaritans, who had assembled near Mt Gerizim at the bidding of an impostor, in order to see the temple vessels buried there by Moses.
Troops were sent to pacify the country, and in one village a soldier found a copy of Moses' laws and tore it up in public with jeers and blasphemies.
- This notable beginning to the removal of " the ignominy of a thousand years " was causally connected with the career of Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786; q.v.).
The office of sheriff was thrown open to Jews in 1835 (Moses Montefiore, sheriff of London was knighted in 1837); Sir I.
The influence of the happier communities has been exercised on behalf of those in a worse position by individuals such as Sir Moses Montefiore rather than by societies or leagues.
His legendary presentation as the " Friend of God," like Abraham, to whom as to Cretan Moses the law was revealed on the holy mountain, calls myths.
In Philo, Alexandrian Judaism had already seized upon Plato as " the Attic Moses," and done its best to combine his speculations with the teaching of his Jewish prototype.
If the clans of Moses' kin which moved into Judah bore the ark (Num.
the myth which we know from the stories of Oedipus, Perseus, Telephus, Pelias and Neleus, Romulus, Sargon of Agade, Moses, the Indian hero Krishna, and many others, has been transferred to the founder of the Persian empire.
As early as the 5th century of the Christian era we find mention made of these historical traditions in the work of an Armenian author, Moses of Chorene (according to others, he lived in the 7th or 8th century).
The most important parts are the homilies on Jeremiah, the books of Moses, Joshua and Luke, and the commentaries on Matthew, John and Romans.
In the Mandaean view the Old Testament saints are false prophets; such as Abraham, who arose six thousand years after NU (Noah) during the reign of the sun, Misha (Moses), in whose time the true religion was professed by the Egyptians, and Shlimun (Solomon) bar Davith, the lord of the demons.
A small company of Connecticut people under Moses Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 17 9 6 and Youngstown was begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal in 1832.
The dramatic history of the city is largely associated with the Boston Museum, built in 1841 by Moses Kimball on Tremont Street, and rebuilt in 1846 and 1880; here for half a century the principal theatrical performances were given.
The miracles connected with the beginnings of the national history - the period of the Exodus - appear on closer inspection to have been ordinarily natural phenomena, to which a supernatural character was given by their connexion with the prophetic word of Moses.
And after this a pervigilium, celebrated with antiphonal and joint singing on the part of men and women and with choral dancing in imitation of Moses and Miriam at the Red Sea.
Another legend, also to be found in Arabic sources, asserts that alchemy was revealed by God to Moses and Aaron.
The treatises are nearly all anterior to the 7th century, and most appear to belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries; some are the work of authentic authors like Zosimus and Synesius, while of others, such as profess to be written by Moses, Democritus, Ostanes, &c., the authorship is clearly fictitious.
There is strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh worship existed from his day.
The early Friends definitely asserted that those who did not know quaking and trembling were strangers to the experience of Moses, David and other saints.
If the Hebrew Omer (OM also is to be identified with the Egyptian papyrus, something may be said in favour of the tradition that the bulrushes of which the ark was composed in which the infant Moses was laid were in fact papyrus.
(2) The seven baskets full of (7) Moses striking the rock.
The most common are the history of Jonah as a type of the Resurrection, the Fall, Noah receiving the dove with the olive branch, Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, Moses taking off his shoes, David with the sling, Daniel in the lions' den, and the Three Children in the fiery furnace.
(From Bosio.) The subjects, beginning at the bottom and going to the right, are (I) Moses striking the rock.
Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G.
The second part of the book (x.-xix.) connects itself formally with the first by a summary description of the role of wisdom in the early times: she directed and preserved the fathers from Adam to Moses (x.
Moses is described (xi.
From a passage in the " Blessing of Moses " (Deut.
Before the opening of this canal in 1863 water had to be brought from " the Wells of Moses," a small oasis 3 m.
According to tradition, the first Passover ("The Passover of Egypt"), was preordained by Moses at the command of God.
Moses summons the elders of Israel and orders them to kill the Passover and besprinkle the lintel and sideposts with a bunch of hyssop dipped in blood so that the Lord will pass over the door.
Plato was Moses atticizing.
In the Public Square is a soldiers' and sailors' monument consisting of a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft., and surmounted with a figure of Liberty; in the same park, also, is a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city.
A trading post was established at the mouth of the Cuyahoga river as early as 1786, but the place was not permanently settled until 1796, when it was laid out as a town by Moses Cleaveland (1754-1806), who was then acting as the agent of the Connecticut Land Company, which in the year before had purchased from the state of Connecticut a large portion of the Western Reserve.
by "ark," is used in the Old Testament (I) of the box made of bulrushes in which Pharaoh's daughter found the infant Moses (Exodus ii.
"Some have thought the dimensions of the ark as given by Moses too scanty.
The account of the commencement of the ark's journey associates it with Moses and his kin (Num.
Si'r Moses Haim Montefiore >>
There are monuments to the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (born here in 1729), to the poet Wilhelm Muller, father of Professor Max Muller, also a native of the place, to the emperor William I., and an obelisk commemorating the war of 1870-71.
But the term is specially used of meat slaughtered in accordance with the law of Moses.
The influence of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is still more apparent in the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels, and the same holds true of Jubilees and the Assumption of Moses, though in a very slight degree.
Thus it occurs in a magical book of Moses, w hich has been edited from a Leiden papyrus of the 3rd or 4th century by Dieterich (Abraxas, 109).
But the finest portions beneath the domes, with scenes from the history of Abraham, Moses and Elijah, are by Domenico Beccafumi and are executed with marvellous boldness and effect.
Moses Hayim Luzzatto >>
8 seq.), so also he was held to have completed and arranged the whole book, though according to Talmudic tradition a he incorporated psalms by ten other authors, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah.
is by Moses, to whom are assigned Ps.
The truth that underlies the tradition is that the collection is essentially the hymn-book of the second Temple,' and it was therefore ascribed to David, because it was assumed, as we see clearly from Chronicles, that the order of worship in the second temple was the same as in the first, and had David as its father: as Moses completed the law of Israel for all time before the people entered Canaan, so David completed the theory and contents of the Temple psalmody before the Temple itself was built.
xc. - cvi.: all are anonymous except xc. (Moses), ci., ciii.
It begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the borders of the promised land.
as well as in the Hebrew, and therefore probably as old as the collection itself, are the name of Moses in Ps.
Of the other 6th-century Jacobite writers we need mention only Moses of Aggel (fl.
Moses bar Kepha (f903), one of the most fertile of 9th-century authors, wrote commentaries, theological treatises and many liturgical works.
- Special mention may be made of `Ananisho` of Hedhaiyabh (middle of 7th century) well known as the author of a new recension of the Paradise of Palladius, and also the author of a volume on philosophical divisions and definitions; Romanus the physician 0-896), who wrote a medical compilation, a commentary on the Book of Hierotheus, a collection of Pytha - gorean maxims and other works; Moses bar Kepha, the voluminous writer above referred to; the famous physician Honain ibn Islhn See O.
Similarly the Armenian writer Gregory Magistros (c. 1040) accuses the Thonraki of teaching that "Moses saw not God, but the devil," and infers thence that they held Satan to be creator of heaven and earth, as well as of mankind.
MOSES AMYRAUT (1596-1664), also known as Amyraldus, French Protestant theologian and metaphysician, was born at Bourgueil, in the valley of Anjou, in 1596.
His father was a lawyer, and, designing Moses for his own profession, sent him on the completion of his study of the humanities at Orleans to the university of Poitiers.
Saigey, Moses Amyraut, sa vie et ses ecrits (1849); Alex.
ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph), French rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of the 13th century.
The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud.
The city has 95 acres of boulevards and avenues under park supervision and several fine parks (17, with 307 acres in 1907), notably Washington (containing Calverley's bronze statue of Robert Burns, and Rhind's "Moses at' the Rock of Horeb"), Beaver and Dudley, in which is the old Dudley Observatory - the present Observatory building is in Lake Avenue, south-west of Washington Park, where is also the Albany Hospital.
I - Too and later.) Assumption of Moses.
(See Solomon, The Psalms Of.) The Assumption of Moses.
The present book is possibly the long-lost AcaO'iuo Mwv04cos mentioned in some ancient lists, for it never speaks of the assumption of Moses, but always of his natural death.
So the Armenian Geography ascribed to Moses of Chorene (q.v.
The historical interval that separated these two events is treated as naturally dividing itself into three great periods, - those of Moses, David and Ezra.
There was throughout historic times a close connexion which eventually amounted to political identity between the Khazars and the Barsileens (the Passils of Moses of Chorene) who occupied the delta of the Volga; and the Barsileens can be traced through the pages of Ptolemy (Geog.
Armenian: Moses of Chorene; cf.
3), and the much older Israelite historian (E) records the first revelation of the name to Moses (Exod.
13-15), apparently following a tradition according to which the Israelites had not been worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses, or, as he conceived it, had not worshipped the god of their fathers under that name.
The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.
Moses is closely connected with the tribes in the vicinity of the holy mountain; according to one account, he married a daughter of the priest of Midian (Exod.
I); to this mountain he led the Israelites after their deliverance from Egypt; there his father-in-law met him, and extolling Yahweh as " greater than all the gods," offered (in his capacity as priest of the place?) sacrifices, at which the chief men of the Israelites were his guests; there the religion of Yahweh was revealed through Moses, and the Israelites pledged themselves to serve God according to its prescriptions.
It appears, therefore, that in the tradition followed by the Israelite historian the tribes within whose pasture lands the mountain of God stood were worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses; and the surmise that the name Yahweh belongs to their speech, rather than to that of Israel, has considerable probability.
The Kenites also, with whom another tradition connects Moses, seem to have been worshippers of Yahweh.
From some of these peoples and at one of these holy places, a group of Israelite tribes adopted the religion of Yahweh, the God who, by the hand of Moses, had delivered them from Egypt.2 The tribes of this region probably belonged to some branch of the great Arab stock, and the name Yahweh has, accordingly, been connected with the Arabic hawa, " the void " (between heaven and earth), " the atmosphere," or with the verb hawa, cognate with Heb.
THE GOLDEN CALF, a molten image made by the Israelites when Moses had ascended the Mount of Yahweh to receive the Law (Ex.
This was celebrated by a sacred festival, and it was only through the intervention of Moses that the people were saved from the wrath of Yahweh (cp. Deut.
Nevertheless 3000 of them fell at the hands of the Levites who, in answer to the summons of Moses, declared themselves on the side of Yahweh.
24 sqq.), and even to Moses himself was attributed the bronze-serpent whose cult at Jerusalem was destroyed in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
Relics of it survive in the old Gothic entrance, the portal of the church, a tower and the well of Moses, which is adorned with statues of Moses and the prophets by Claux Sluter (fl.
Moses Amyraut >>
The first serious rival of the Portfolio was the Analectic Magazine (1813-1820), founded at Philadelphia by Moses Thomas, with the literary assistance of W.
Graf also wrote, Der Segen Moses Deut.
to dig up sacred vessels hidden by Moses there (Jos.
The book closes with an appeal to observe the law of Moses, and with a promise that Elijah shall come before the threatened judgment.3 The topics noticed clearly relate the prophecy to the period of Ezra and Nehemiah, when the Temple had been rebuilt (i.
This closing prophecy may possibly be a later addition (so Marti) rounding off the prophetic canon by reference to the two great names of Moses and Elijah, and their characteristic activities.
The " law of Moses " was forgotten (iv.
A misunderstanding as to the manner in which these should be dealt with was the immediate occasion of the publication by Hutchinson in 1724 of Moses's Principia, part i., in which Woodward's Natural History was bitterly ridiculed, his conduct with regard to the mineralogical specimens not obscurely characterized, and a refutation of the Newtonian doctrine of gravitation seriously attempted.
in 1727, and by various other works, including Moses's Sine Principio, 1730; The Confusion of Tongues and Trinity of the Gentiles, 1731; Power Essential and Mechanical, or what power belongs to God and what to his creatures, in which the design of Sir I.
This method of bringing gold into solution is mentioned by Stahl in his Observationes ChymicoPhysico-Medicae; he there remarks that Moses probably destroyed the golden calf by burning it with sulphur and alkali (Ex.
we find Targums to the Song of Moses and to the Decalogue, in which this process has been fully carried out, the text of Onkelos being given as well as the variants of the Fragmentary Targum.
Bible) and the Assumption of Moses (v.
Considering the important part played by the Egyptian sojourn of the Hebrews, as narrated in the Scriptures, it was certainly not an overenthusiastic prediction that the Egyptian monuments when fully investigated would divulge important references to Joseph, to Moses, and to the all-important incidents of the Exodus; but half a century of expectant attention in this direction has led only to disappointment.
If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.
Hence all the elaborate arguments based on the supposition that Moses probably could not write fall to the ground.
Amongst his fellow lecturers were Moses Amyraut and Josue de la Place.
Ezra, a scribe of repute, well versed in the laws of Moses, returns with a band of exiles in order to reorganize the religious community.
1542 fol.; printed by Caspar Trechsel at Vienne); on this work Tollin founds his high estimate of Servetus as a comparative geographer; the passage incriminated on his trial as attacking the verity of Moses is from Lorenz Friese; the accounts of the language and character of modern nations show original observation.
MOSES IIAYIM LUZZATTO (1707-1747), Hebrew dramatist and mystic, was born in Padua 1707, and died at Acre 1747.
The beautiful Hebrew style created a new school of Hebrew poetry, and the Hebrew renaissance which resulted from the career of Moses Mendelssohn owed much to Luzzatto.
Moses himself married into a Kenite family (Judges i.
More important is the prominent part played by the Kenite (or Midianite) father-in-law of Moses, whose help and counsel are related in Exod.
Israel Ben Moses Najara >>
I have been initiated by Moses the friend of God in the great mysteries."
Moses Gill (lieut.-governor; Caleb Strong .
Philo describes him in the Life of Moses as a great magician; elsewhere 8 he speaks of "the sophist Balaam, being," i.e.
that he was blind of one eye; that he was the Elihu of Job; that, as one of Pharaoh's counsellors, he was governor of a city of Ethiopia, and rebelled against Pharaoh; Moses was sent against him by Pharaoh at the head of an army, and stormed the city and put Balaam to flight, &c. &c.
Yahweh is as much the God of Balaam as he is of Moses.
Cleveland, a clergyman of the Presbyterian Church, was of good colonial stock, a descendant of Moses Cleveland, who emigrated from Ipswich, England, to Massachusetts in 1635.
8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.
Thus Philo had, in his life of Moses, allegorized the Pentateuchal narratives so as to represent him as mediator, saviour, intercessor of his people, the one great organ of revelation, and the soul's guide from the false lower world into the upper true one.
was nothing to add to the Pentateuch, and the period from Moses to David contained little that served the purpose.
In one is represented Moses receiving the Old Law, in the other Christ delivers to St Peter the New Law - a charter sealed with the X P monogram.
It only remains to give due honour to one of the most beautiful of legends, that of the deliverance of Adam's spirit from the nether world by the Christ, the earliest form of which is a Christian interpolation inA poc. Moses, ï¿½ 42 (cp. Malan, Adam and Eve, iv.
Marr of the Grusian (Georgian) text, and he added to it (Leipzig, 1904) a translation of various small exegetical pieces, which are preserved in a Georgian version only (The Blessing of Jacob, The Blessing of Moses, The Narrative of David and Goliath).
MOSES BEN ISRAEL ISSERLES (c. 1520-1572), known as Rema, was born at Cracow and died there in 1572.
Moses de Leon undoubtedly used old materials and out of them constructed a work of genius.
i The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.
7 seq.), of which Moses was the priest and Joshua the aedituus, and ever since that time the judgment of God through the priest at the sanctuary had a greater weight than the word of a seer, and was the ultimate solution of every controversy and claim (I Sam.
The temple at Shiloh, where the ark was preserved, was the lineal descendant of the Mosaic sanctuary - for it was not the place but the palladium and its oracle that were the essential thing - and its priests claimed kin with Moses himself.
18) could all be priests, a Levite - that is, a man of Moses' tribe - was already preferred for the office elsewhere than at Shiloh (Judges xvii.
It is plain that the various priestly colleges regarded themselves as one order, that they had common traditions of law and ritual which were traced back to Moses, and common interests which had not been vindicated without a struggle (Deut., ut supra).
And as the sons of Zadok had no divine right as against the kings, so too they had no claim to be more legitimate than the priests of the local sanctuaries, who also were reckoned to the tribe which in the 7th century B.C. was recognized as having been divinely set apart as Jehovah's ministers in the days of Moses (Deut.
zu Moses Maimonides (Breslau, 1863).
xlix.) and Moses (Deut.
- The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."
I-9); afterwards in a series of vivid pictures he gives the story, as tradition told it, of the patriarchs, of Moses and the Exodus, of the journey through the wilderness, and the conquest of Canaan.
These discourses purport to be addresses delivered by Moses to the assembled people, shortly before his death, in the land of Moab, opposite to Jericho.
There was probably some tradition of a farewell address delivered by Moses, and the writer of Deuteronomy gave this tradition form and substance.
In impressive and persuasive oratory he sets before Israel, in a form adapted to the needs of the age in which he lived, the fundamental principles which Moses had taught.
xxxiii.) of Moses are not by the author of the discourses; and the latter, though not Mosaic, is of considerably earlier date.
25; Abelard (Heloissae Problema, xli.) considers the problem whether the narrative of Moses's death in Deut.
contains a prophecy by Moses or is the work of another and later writer, while the Jewish scholar Ibn Ezra (Abenezra), in a cryptic note on Deut.
Carlstadt again definitely denied the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch on the ground that Moses could not have written the account of his own death and yet that Deut.
6) concerning the sepulchre of Moses ' that no man knoweth of his sepulchre to this day '; that is, to the day wherein those words were written.
For it were a strange interpretation to say Moses spake of his own sepulchre, though by prophecy, that it was not found to that day wherein he was yet living."
" But though Moses did not compile those books entirely, and in the form we have them, yet he wrote all that which he is there said to have written: as, for example, the volume of the Law " contained " as it seemeth " in Deut.
Hobbes argues in the case of the Pentateuch that two authors are distinguishable - Moses and a much later compiler and editor.
Moses had used different documents, and that of these the two chief were distinguished by their use of different divine names - Elohim and Yahweh; by the use of this clue he gave a detailed analysis of the passages belonging to the several documents.
In identifying the compiler with Moses, Astruc failed to profit from some of his predecessors: and the fact that he held to the traditional (Mosaic) origin of the Pentateuch may have prevented him from seeing the similar facts which would have led him to continue his analysis into the remaining books of the Pentateuch.
He carries through, as Astruc had done, the analysis of Genesis into (primarily) two documents; he draws the distinction between the Priests' Code, of the middle books of the Pentateuch, and Deuteronomy, the people's law book; and admits that even the books that follow Genesis consist of different documents, many incomplete and fragmentary (whence the theory became known as the " Fragment-hypothesis "), but all the work of Moses and some of his contemporaries.
For example, among the generally or largely accepted critical conclusions are these: (1) Moses is not the author of the whole Pentateuch; (2) Isaiah is not the author of Is.
It does not, however, accord with other passages, which assign only four generations from Jacob's children to Moses (Ex.
4 Namely, Moses (in the wilderness), Joshua, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Eli, Samuel, Saul and David.
dealing with Adam, Moses or Isaiah) will always be a matter of dispute, the teaching to which it is applied stands on an independent footing as also does the application of that teaching to other ages.
Josephus in turn has another story wherein Moses leads the Egyptians against Ethiopia (Ant.
1.9 (where the concourse of chariots and horsemen would invite speculation), and the latter with the Cushite wife of Moses; but although one may grant that the canonical sources do not by any means preserve all the older current traditions, the contents of the latter cannot be recovered from the later persisting Midrashim.2 iii.
9 to the contention of the archangel Michael for the body of Moses belongs to a group of traditions which have been collected by R.
Charles (Assumption of Moses, pp. 105 seq.), and it appears that the incident was familiar to Clement of Alexandria, Origen and other early writers.
16 agrees very closely with the Latin version of the Testament of Moses, which has other parallels in Matt.
Here may be added Jannes and Jambres, who withstood Moses (2 Tim.
Note also the allusion to the wisdom of Moses in Acts vii.
He is a man of God, like Moses and Samuel, a man admitted to a strange and awful intimacy with the Most High, and like them he combines functions which in later times were distributed between prophet and priest.
The fundamental idea that Yahweh guides His people by the word of revelation is older than the separation of special classes of theocratic organs; Moses, indeed, is not only prophet and priest, but judge and ruler.
7), and Moses begins to be chiefly looked at as the greatest of prophets (Num.
the elders who receive a share in Moses' task also receive a share of his prophetic spirit (cf.
Again, Moses differs from all other prophets in that Yahweh speaks to him face to face, and he sees the similitude of Yahweh.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
There he met Nicolai and Moses Mendelssohn, with whom he formed a close friendship. In 1768 he became preacher or chaplain to the workhouse at Berlin and the neighbouring fishing village of Stralow.
For Philo pays no respect to any cultus except the Jewish; and he believed that all the fragments of truth to be found amongst Greeks and Romans had been borrowed from the books of Moses.
Moses (of the University of California) is in the Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, 11.
He compares it also to the change of Moses' rod into a snake, of the Nile into blood, to the virtue inherent in Elijah's mantle or in the wood of the cross or in the clay mixt of dust and the Lord's spittle, or in Elisha's relics which raised a corpse to life, or in the burning bush.
It is a covenant similar to that of Exodus xxiv., when after the peace-offering of oxen, Moses took the blood in basins and sprinkled half of it on the altar and on twelve pillars erected after the twelve tribes, and the other half on the people, to whom he had first read out the writing of the covenant and said, " Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words."
In the course of history the demons sought to bind men to themselves by means of sensuality, error and false religions (among which is to be reckoned above all the religion of Moses and the prophets), while the spirits of light carried on their process of distillation with the view of gaining the pure light which exists in the world.
Moses 'Alshekh >>
g S obos) of the Israelites from Egypt into Palestine, under the leadership of Moses and Aaron, as described in the books of the Bible from Exodus to Joshua.
So, although a certain amount of the narrative could date from the days of Moses, the Exodus story has been made the vehicle for the aims and ideals of subsequent ages, and has been adapted from time to time to the requirements of later stages of thought.
The Pharaoh is hostile, and Yahweh, the Israelite deity, is moved to send a deliverer; on the events that followed see Exodus, Book Of; Moses.
the length of the genealogies between the contemporaries of Joseph and those of Moses in Ex.
alludes to some unknown offence of Moses.
1-3 the Israelites (a generalizing amplification) captured Hormah, on the way to Beersheba, and subsequently the clan Caleb and the Kenites (the clan of Moses' father-in-law) are found in Judah (Judg.
and direct the people upon the march not only does Moses require the assistance of a human helper (Jethro or Hobab), but the angel, the ark, the pillar of cloud and of fire and the mysterious hornet are also provided.
Only a few fragments of his work, apparently en titled Commentaries on the Writings of Moses, are quoted by Clement, Eusebius and other theological writers, but they suffice to show its object.
It has, for example, no place in the Assumption of Moses or the Book of Jubilees.
In brief they were as follows: that he had taught that reason and the Church are each a " fountain of divine authority which apart from Holy Scripture may and does savingly enlighten men "; that " errors may have existed in the original text of the Holy Scripture "; that " many of the Old Testament predictions have been reversed by history " and that " the great body of Messianic prediction has not and cannot be fulfilled "; that " Moses is not the author of the Pentateuch," and that " Isaiah is not the author of half of the book which bears his name "; that " the processes of redemption extend to the world to come " - he had considered it a fault of Protestant theology that it limits redemption to this world - and that" sanctification is not complete at death."
He was one of the pioneers in the revival of Jewish learning which followed on the age of Moses Mendelssohn.
By the law of Moses it became obligatory upon the brother of a man dying childless to take his widow as wife.
feebleness and slackened zeal to want of progressive insight into the essential nature of the Gospel as a "new covenant," moving on a totally different plane of religious reality from the now antiquated covenant given by Moses (viii.
6), as compared with (a) angels, (b) Moses.
25); from a call sanctioned by the incomparable authority of Him in whom it had reached men, a greater than Moses and all media of the Old Covenant, even the Son of God.
They had in common with that sect their veneration for Moses and the Law, their Sabbatarianism, their striving after ceremonial purity, and their tendency towards fatalism.
Moses Coit Tyler >>
3) this universal good is directly related to God's particular purpose for His chosen people; so also in the blessing of Jacob (xlix.) and of Moses (Deut.
Paradise was sometimes regarded as the division of Sheol to which the righteous passed after death, but at others it was conceived as the heavenly abode of Moses, Enoch and Elijah, to which other saints would pass after the last judgment.
Among Lessing's chief friends during his second residence in Berlin were the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786), in association with whom he wrote in 1755 an admirable treatise, Pope ein Metaphysiker 1 tracing sharply the lines which separate the poet from the philosopher.
In the pediment is a group of sixteen figures by Thorvaldsen, representing John the Baptist preaching in the wilderness; over the entrance within the portico is a bas-relief of Christ's entry into Jerusalem; on one side of the entrance is a statue of Moses by Bissen, and on the other a statue of David by Jerichau.
Moses Kimhi was the author of a Hebrew grammar, known - after the first three words - as Mahalak Shebile Ha-daat, or briefly as Mahalak.
It is an elementary introduction to the study of Hebrew, the first of its kind, in which only the most indispensable definitions and rules have a place, the remainder being almost wholly occupied by paradigms. Moses Kimhi was the first who made the verb paqadh a model for conjugation, and the first also who introduced the now usual sequence in the enumeration of stem-forms. His handbook was of great historical importance as in the first half of the 6th century it became the favourite manual for the study of Hebrew among non-Judaic scholars (1st ed., Pesaro, 1508).
Moses Kimhi also composed commentaries to the biblical books; those on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah are in the great rabbinical bibles falsely ascribed to Abraham ibn Ezra.
In the grammar he combined the paradigmatic method of his brother Moses with the procedure of the older scholars who devoted a close attention to details.
Giinsburg, Pressburg, 1842), in which he followed Moses Maimonides in explaining biblical narratives as visions.
LECTION The custom of reading the books of Moses in the synagogues on the Sabbath day was a very ancient one in the Jewish Church.
Al Harizi 1 says at the age of twenty-nine, and Moses b.
He was one of the most influential supporters of the Formula Consensus Helvetica, drawn up chiefly by Johann Heinrich Heidegger (1633-1698), in 1675, and of the particular type of Calvinistic theology which that symbol embodied, and an opponent of the theology of Moses Amyraut and the school of Saumur.
MOSES OF CHORENE, Armenian historian, was a native of Khor`ni in Taron, a district of the Armenian province of Turuberan.
Moses took his journey by Edessa and the sacred places of Palestine.
This remark applies especially to the statement of Thomas Ardsruni, 2 that Moses, like his Hebrew prototype, lived to the age of 120 years, and recorded his own death in a fourth book of his great work.
The worst feature is the confusion in the chronology, which, strange to say, is most hopeless in treating of the contemporaries of Moses himself.
In the course of further investigations, however, he came to the conclusion that, besides the many false statements which Moses of Khor`ni makes about his authorities, he gives a false account of himself.
s For the following statements, the evidence may be found in the article " Ueber die Glaubwiirdigkeit der Armenischen Geschichte des Moses von Khoren," by Alfred von Gutschmid, in the Berichte der phi!.
Since the first published text 3 contains names like " Russians " and " Crimea," Saint Martin in his edition 4 denied that it was written by Moses, and assigned its origin to the 10th century.
But of course it is equally clear that such a book cannot be a genuine work of Moses of Khor`ni; for that division of the empire dates from the early part of the reign of King Chosroes I.
If the limits within which the Geography was composed are to be more nearly defined, we may say that, from isolated traces of Arab rule (which in Armenia dates from 651), it must have been written certainly after that year, and perhaps about the year 657.9 Another extant work of Moses is a Manual of Rhetoric, in ten books, dedicated to his pupil Theodorus.
On account of the divergence of its style from that of the History of Armenia, Armenian scholars have hesitated to ascribe the Rhetoric to Moses of Khor`ni; but, from what has been said above, this is rather to be regarded as a proof of its authenticity.
In the case of the grammatical writings, it has been suggested that there may have been some confusion between Moses of Khor`ni and a Moses of Siunich, who lived in the 7th century.
The date of the History of Moses has been discussed in many monographs.
C. Conybeare, in an article on " The date of Moses of Khoren," in the Byzantinische Zeitschrift, vol.
ii., entitled " The Relation of the Paschal Chronicle to Malalas," challenges Professor Carriere's arguments, and contends that the History of Moses is a late 5th-century work, much interpolated in the immediately succeeding centuries.
those to virgins, (2) above); for these enjoin virginity (celibacy), and praise Elijah, David, Samson, and all the prophets, whereas the Ebionite Circuits favour marriage (even in Apostles) and depreciate the prophets between Moses and Christ, "the true Prophet."
During this tour he meets with persons of typically erroneous views, which it was presumably the aim of the work to refute in the interests of true Christianity, conceived as the final form of divine revelation - a revelation given through true prophecy embodied in a succession of persons, the chief of whom were Moses and the prophet whom Moses foretold, Jesus the Christ.
In like manner, xx., which is mainly occupied with the history of Moses, forms a complete whole.
The same is true of xviii., which at first sight seems to fall into several pieces; the history of the seven sleepers, the grotesque narrative about Moses, and that about Alexander " the Horned," are all connected together, and the same rhyme through the whole sura.
One would suppose that the most ignorant Jew could never have mistaken Haman, the minister of Ahasuerus, for the minister of Pharaoh, as happens in the Koran, or identified Miriam, the sister of Moses, with Mary (= Mariam), the mother of Christ.
Opposite Old Cairo lies the island of Roda, where, according to Arab tradition, Pharaoh's daughter found Moses in the bulrushes.
Bitriq, Moses Maimonides and Ibn Baitar.
Cook, Laws of Moses, &'c. (London, 1903), pp. 116 sqq., 140 sq.
Horeb (the Burning Bush), and the subsequent commission of Moses and Aaron (iii.
17), (d) the return of Moses to Egypt, and his appeal to Pharaoh which results in the further oppression of Israel (iv.
It is to this latter source that we owe the account of the birth of Moses and of his education at the court of Pharaoh (ii.
On reaching manhood Moses openly displays his sympathy with his brethren by slaying an Egyptian, and has, in consequence, to flee to Midian, where he marries Zipporah, the daughter of the priest of Midian (ii.
The narrative of the call of Moses is by no means uniform, and shows obvious traces of twofold origin (J iii.
According to E, Moses with Aaron is to demand from Pharaoh the release of Israel, which will be effected in spite of his opposition; in assurance thereof the promise is given that they shall serve God upon this mountain; moreover, the people on their departure are to borrow raiment and jewels from their Egyptian neighbours.
According to J, on the other hand, the spokesmen are to be Moses and the elders; and their request is for a temporary departure only, viz.
In J three signs are given for the purpose of reassuring Moses, only one of which is wrought with the rod (iv.
2 In E, on the other hand, Aaron is sent by God to meet Moses at Mt.
Moses and the elders ask leave to go three days' journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to Yahweh, a request which is met by an increase of the burdensome work of brick-making: henceforward the Israelites have to provide their own straw.
The people complain bitterly to Moses, who appeals to Yahweh and is assured by him of the future deliverance of Israel "by a strong hand."
16 f., while the demand which is to be addressed to Pharaoh is identical 1 The fact that the father-in-law of Moses is called Reuel in v.
Elsewhere J speaks of "Hobab, the son of Reuel the Midianite, Moses' father-inlaw" (Num.
15B-22 speak of one son being born to Moses at this period, a statement which is borne out by iv.
19) Moses returns to Egypt with his wife and son (iv.
30; Aaron had received no command to do the signs, and the words "and he did the signs" are most naturally referred to Moses.
No allusion, however, is made by Moses to this previous demand; he merely urges the same objection as that put forward in iv.
Apart from the literary characteristics which clearly differentiate this narrative from the preceding accounts of J and E, the following points of variation are worthy of consideration: (I) The people refuse to listen to Moses; (2) Aaron is appointed to be Moses' spokesman, not with the people, but with Pharaoh; (3) one sign is given (not three) and performed before Pharaoh; (4) the rod is turned into a reptile (tannin), not a serpent (n(thash).
Other distinctive features of J's narrative are: (I) Moses alone is bidden to interview Pharaoh (vii.
i f.); (2) on each occasion he makes a formal demand; (3) on Pharaoh's refusal the plague is announced, and takes place at a fixed time without any human intervention; (4) when the plague is sent, Pharaoh sends for Moses and entreats his intercession, promising in most cases to accede in part to his request; when the plague is removed, however, the promise is left unfulfilled, the standing phrase being "and Pharaoh's heart was heavy (7f)," or "and Pharaoh made heavy (-r»n) his heart"; (5) the plagues do not affect the children of Israel in Goshen.
They are brought about by "the rod of God," which Moses wields, the effect being instantaneous and all-embracing.
In the priestly narrative (P) the plagues assume the form of a trial of skill between Aaron, who acts at Moses' command, and the Egyptian magicians, and thus connect with vii.
Throughout the P sections Aaron is associated with Moses, and the regular command given to the latter is "Say unto Aaron": no demand is ever made to Pharaoh, and the description of the plague is quite short.
21-23, 27b) seem at first sight simply to repeat the commands given to Moses and Aaron in xii.
The genealogy of Moses and Aaron (vv.
The Israelites, terrified by the approach of the Egyptians, upbraid Moses, who promises them deliverance by the hand of Yahweh (xiv.
7aa, rob, 15a, 19a, 20a), from which it may be gathered that Moses divided the waters by stretching out his rod, thus presupposing that the crossing took place by day, and that the dark cloud which divided the two hosts was miraculously caused by the angel of God.
P also represents the sea as divided by means of Moses' rod, but heightens the effect by describing the crossing as taking place between walls of water (xiii.
J's version of the Song of Moses probably does not extend beyond xv.
Its close connexion with the end of the wanderings is shown by (a) the description of Moses as an infirm old man; (b) the role played by Joshua in contrast with xxiv.
II, where he is introduced as a young man and Moses' minister; and (c) the references elsewhere to the home of the Amalekites: according to Num.
The visit of Jethro to Moses and the appointment of judges.
we have again two narratives of the sin of the people and of Moses' intercession, while in ch.
According to the former, Moses is instructed by God (Elohim) to sanctify the people against the third day (vv.
This is done and the people are brought by Moses to the foot of the mountain (Horeb), where they hear the divine voice (14-17, 19).
Moreover, Moses and Aaron and the priests are summoned to the top of the mount (in v.
1, "and unto Moses he said," point to some omission.
we learn that Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders were summoned to the top of the mountain, but that Moses alone was permitted to approach Yahweh.
But the document from which the chapter, as a whole, is derived, is certainly J, while the previous references to tables of stone and to Moses' breaking them belong to the parallel narrative of E.
These verses describe how Moses wrote all the words of the Lord in a book and recited them to the people (v.
6-9 are out of place here: they belong to the story of Moses' intercession in ch.
27, 28; according to the latter, Moses wrote the words of the covenant; and (b) the tardy mention of Moses in 4b; the name would naturally be given at the beginning of the verse.
The majority of critics, therefore, adopt Kuenen's conjecture that the "judgments" were originally delivered by Moses on the borders of Moab, and that when D's revised version of Ex.
But even in its original form it could hardly have formed part of E's Horeb legislation; for (a) both J and E have preserved a different collection of laws (or "words") inscribed by Moses, which are definitely set forth as the basis of the covenant at Sinai-Horeb (Ex.
29 ff.) are (I) the sin of the people, and (2) the intercession of Moses, of both of which a double account has been preserved.
25-29) the people, during the absence of Moses, "break loose," i.e.
Their behaviour excites the anger of Moses on his return, and in response to his appeal the sons of Levi arm themselves and slay a large number of the people: as a reward for their services they are bidden to consecrate themselves to Yahweh.
At the instigation of the people Aaron makes a molten calf out of the golden ornaments brought from Egypt; Moses and Joshua, on their return to the camp, find the people holding festival in honour of the occasion; Moses in his anger breaks the tables of the covenant which he is carrying: he then demolishes the golden calf, and administers a severe rebuke to Aaron.
Though they show clear traces of J, it is extremely difficult to fit them into that narrative in view of Moses' action in vv.
(2) Moses' Intercession.
- The time for departure from the Sacred Mount had now arrived, and Moses is accordingly bidden to lead the people to the promised land.
Yahweh himself refuses to accompany Israel owing to their disobedience, but in response to Moses'.
The account of Moses' intercession has been preserved in J, though the narrative has undergone considerable dislocation.
7 -11 (E) of Moses' practice in regard to the "tent of meeting" points no less clearly to some earlier statement as to the making of this tent.
The history of Exodus in its original form doubtless concluded with the visit of Moses' father-in-law and the appointment of judges (ch.
t f., Yahweh ordered Moses to make an ark of acacia wood before he ascended the mountain.
representation, Moses, on the seventh day after the conclusion of the covenant, was summoned to the top of the mountain, and there received instructions with regard to (a) the furniture of the sanctuary, viz.
29-35, which describe Moses' return from the mount.
These tables were broken by Moses (Ex.
1), and upon them were written the words of the covenant by Moses (xxxiv.
It is quite another question whether there is any idea in the Decalogue which can be as old as Moses.
It is urged by many critics that Moses cannot have prohibited the worship of Yahweh by images; for the subsequent history shows us a descendant of Moses as priest in the idolatrous sanctuary of Dan.
Even Moses himself is said to have made a brazen serpent which, down to Hezekiah's time, continued to be worshipped at Jerusalem.
It is argued from these facts that image-worship went on unchallenged, and that this would not have been possible had Moses forbidden it.
The identity of the Decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the Decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation.
This ideal nation consisted of all who were prepared to obey the Law of Moses, irrespective of their natural descent.
Later they acquiesced in the election of Simon to the high-priesthood with the condition "until there should arise a faithful prophet"; but some of them remonstrated against the combination of the sacred office with the position of political ruler in the person of John Hyrcanus as contrary to the precedent set by Moses at his death.
It became customary to speak of Moses as Moshe rabbenu (" our teacher Moses").
26, &c.); so too the tyrant whom the Ascension of Moses (c. A.D.
In the Ascension of Moses we already hear, at the beginning of the description of the latter time (x.
Moses, Illinois, Historical and Statistical (2 vols., Chicago, 1889); and H.
He learned the letters from the transcription of a few verses in the Star of the Messiah of Petrus Niger, and, with a subsequent hint or two from Reuchlin, who also lent him the grammar of Moses Kimhi, made his way through the Bible for himself with the help of Jerome's Latin.
23, where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Kinnamon) and cassia, and it is alluded to by Herodotus under the name Kivvaµwµov, and by other classical writers.
They saw Jesus transfigured in a radiance of glory: Elijah appeared with Moses, and they talked with Jesus.
r) means nothing for us except that there was a disposition among the later Jews to refer their books to great names of the past, Enoch, Daniel, Job, Moses, David, Solomon, Ezra; as also, outside of Jewry, works were ascribed to Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Tacitus and others that were not composed by these authors.
It is no longer the law of Moses or that of the prophetic revelation - it is the standard of rightdoing resident in every man's mind, the creation of wise reflection; such a conception lies outside the point of view that forms the very substance of Hebrew thought in the period prior to the 5th century.
ASSUMPTION OF MOSES, an extra-canonical apocalyptic work of the Old Testament.
The Assumption or Ascension of Moses ('Avanti is Mwvo ws) is a prophecy of the future relating to Israel, put into the mouth of Moses, and addressed to Joshua just before the great lawgiver died.
It contains a brief history of Israel from Moses to the Messianic age.
Most of the other references relate to the strife of Michael and Satan about the body of Moses, and ascribe it to the Ascensio Mosis, i.e.
Various other works have been attributed to Moses, such as the Petirath Moshe, the 1 31 4 13Xos Aoywv, uucrrcK&v Mwuetws, The Exodus of Moses (in Slavonic), &c. See Charles, Assumption of Moses, pp. xiv.
The Book may be the lost Testament of Moses.
- The present book is possibly the long lost OcaOiKra Mwvaiws mentioned in some of the ancient lists, for it never speaks of the assumption of Moses, but always of his natural death (i.
Our author's views on Moses are remarkable.
He writes that Moses was prepared from before the foundation of the world to be the mediator of God's covenant with his people (i.
111-152; 1868); Charles, The Assumption of Moses (translation, with notes and introduction, 1897); Clemen, in Kautzsch's Apocr.
Moses Of Chorene >>
This latter ascription is altogether unfounded, the real author of this mystical commentary on the Pentateuch being Moses of Leon.
the story of the birth of Moses, accounts of creation and deluge, &c.), or when one observes the subsequent uncompromising objection to a display of artistic meaning, implying that it aroused definite conceptions.
of Semites, p. 70, who compares the judicial authority of Moses.
Amid constant periods of apostasy Y P P Y two epoch-making events stand out: (a) the rediscovery of the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy is meant) in the time of Josiah (2 Kings xxii.) followed by a reform of sundry religious abuses dating from the foundation of the temple, and (b) the promulgation by Ezra of the Law of Yahweh, the law of Moses (Ezra.
But other evidence also points to an entrance from Kadesh into Judah, and associates the kin of Moses, Kenites, Calebites and others.
It is already suggested that allusions to a sojourn in Egypt may refer, not to the remote times of Jacob and Moses but to the circumstances of the 7th century; see C. Steuernagel, op. cit.
42), and some of the Jews died rather than disobey the law of Moses.
Other shrines, such as the alleged tomb of Moses, and the mosque of Hebron over the cave of Machpelah, are the centres of Moslem pilgrimage.
For Mrs Minor, having an interest in the Jewish people, was befriended by Sir Moses Montefiore; after her death her property was placed in charge of a Jew, and later passed into the hands of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
In 1 770 he severed his connexion with his orthodox c04eligionists by his critical commentary on the ill oreh Nebuhim of Maimonides, and devoted himself to the study of philosophy on the lines of Wolff and Moses Mendelssohn.
1844), and Professor Bernard Moses (b.
P. Willis, Our Philippine Problem, a Study of American Colonial Policy (New York, 1905); Edith Moses, Unofficial Letters of an Official's Wife (ibid.
AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see Exodus; Moses).
Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah) to meet Moses at the "mount of God" (Horeb, Ex.
9-I I), and together with Hur he was at the side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii.
Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of the Law (xxiv.
26 sqq.), and it was for some obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num.
In the account of the contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num.
The latter story illustrates the growth of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a) the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b) the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites against the rest of the Levites, a development which can scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv.
The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin) is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have belonged.
The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy, and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron.
Land), it must be placed in a line with the other un-Hebraic and difficult names associated with Moses and Aaron, which are, apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin.
It is curious that Thermuthis, the traditional name of the princess who adopted Moses (Josephus, Ant.
In the Blessing of Moses it is bidden to defend itself - evidently against invasion (Deut.
Though his claims to authoritative pre-eminence thus took him out of the class of prophets and put him even above Elijah and Moses (Mark ix.
Ships passing through the Suez Canal are subject to similar inspection; sick persons are landed at Moses Wells, and suspected ones detained.
He seems continually anxious to reconcile the Jewish Christians to himself by personally observing the law of Moses.
He is particularly careful in his speeches to show how deep is his respect for the law of Moses.
There are statues of DÃ¼rer, Sachs, Melanchthon, the reputed founder of the grammar-school, the navigator Martin Behaim, and Peter Henlein, the inventor of the watch; and the streets are further embellished with several fountains, the most noteworthy of which are the SchÃ¶ne Brunnen, 1385-1396, in the form of a large Gothic pyramid, adorned with statues of the seven electors, the "nine worthies," and Moses and the prophets; and the GÃnsemÃnnchen or goose-mannikin, a clever little bronze figure by Pankratz Labenwolf.
Fortunately, young Calhoun had the opportunity, although late, of studying under his brother-in-law, the Rev. Moses Waddell (1770-1840), a Presbyterian minister, who afterwards, from 1819 to 1829, was president of the University of Georgia.
It is the note of every great religious reformer, Moses, Buddha, Paul, Mani, Mahomet, St Francis, Luther, to enlighten and direct it to higher aims, substituting a true personal holiness for a ritual purity or taboo, which at the best was viewed as a kind of physical condition and contagion, inherent as well in things and animals as in man.
The most remarkable was the destruction of a brazen serpent, the cult of which was traditionally traced back to the time of Moses (Num.
It was first invented, he believes, before the Trojan war, by a Sidonian thinker named Moschus or Mochus, who is identical with the Moses of the Old Testament.
produced two works called The Harmony of Moses and Jesus and The Diatessaron, or Harmony of the Four Gospels, which is said by some to exist in a Latin version by Victor, bishop of Capua.
It was supposed that it had been handed down by Ezra; that it was indebted to Joshua, David or Solomon; that it was as old as Moses, to whom it had been communicated orally or in writing, complete or in its essence.
The Hagiographa), ` to teach them,' that is the Gemara - thus instructing us that all these were given to Moses from Sinai."
The fact that certain .teaching is associated with a name may have no real significance for its antiquity, even as a law ascribed to the age of Moses - the recognized law-givermay prove to be of much earlier or of much later inception.
St Bridget, or Birgitta (1303-1373), an historical figure of extraordinary interest, has left her name attached to several important religious works, in particular to a collection of Uppenbarelser (" Revelations "), in which her visions and ecstatic meditations are recorded, and a version, the first into Swedish, of the five books of Moses.
Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
As in the Greek usage and in the Benedictine, certain canticles like the Song of Moses (Exodus xv.), the Song of Hannah (I Sam.
His last work was an edition of the books of Moses and Joshua.
At this stage he was much in sympathy with the historicorationalistic criticism of the Old Testament, as carried on in Germany; giving his assent, for instance, to the naturalistic doctrine of Schiller's Die Sendung Moses.
describes how Moses carried out the command of Exod.
1-15 Moses was commanded to set up the Tabernacle and to consecrate the priests, and the succeeding verses (16-38) describe how the former command was carried out.
22), after which Moses and Aaron enter the sanctuary, and on reappearing once more bless the people.
forming the natural continuation of chap. x.; and, further, the inclusion of Aaron as well as Moses in the formula of address (xi.
trans., Dissertations on the Genuineness of Daniel and the Integrity of Zechariah (Edin., 1848), and Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch (Edin., 1847), in which the traditional view on each question is strongly upheld, and much capital is made of the absence ofharmony among the negative critics; Die Bucher Moses and A gypten (1841); Die Geschichte Bileams u.
Stoddard, In the Footprints of the Padres (San Francisco, 1900); Bernard Moses, The Establishment of Municipal Government in San Francisco (Johns Hopkins University Studies, 1889).
For the other names by which it is referred to, such as The Apocalypse of Moses, The Testament of Moses, The Book of Adam's Daughters and the Life of Adam, the reader may consult Charles's The Book of Jubilees, pp. xvii.-xx.
(I) A work which claims to be from the hand of Moses would naturally be in Hebrew, for Hebrew according to our author was the sacred and national language.
Bahrdt, who regarded Christ as merely a noble teacher like Moses, Confucius and Luther.
in Adam and Moses) and after this birth in Judea.
The editions of Tholuck (1842), Moses Stuart (3rd ed.
- In 1824 Moses Dawson published at Cincinnati the Historical Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of MajorGeneral William H.
His next and best-known work, Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated on the Principles of a Religious Deist (2 vols., 1737-1741), preserves his name as the author of the most daring and ingenious of theological paradoxes.
6 it is affirmed that he, along with Michael, Uriel, Jophiel, Jephephiah and the Metatron, buried the body of Moses.
In fact, broadly speaking, the Sadducees for the period during which they are reported to exist, represent and embody the tendency to conformity with neighbouring Gentiles, which is deplored and denounced by Jewish writers from Moses to Philo.
Idolatry is plainly incompatible with the law of Moses: so were Greek caps; but the Jews who conformed to Hellenism in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes acquired much that was conserved and utilized in that great attempt to convert the Greek world to Judaism, whose best monument is the works of Philo.
Brandt), in which the date of the Deuteronomic law book is placed earlier than in his book on the legislation of Moses - shortly before or at the beginning of the reign of Hezekiah; and his Alttestamentliche Theologie (1889, ed.
Starting from the assertion of Moses that God is " a devouring fire " (Deut.
The whole book is a queer mixture of Hellenism and Hebraism, in which the same method of allegory is applied to Homer and Hesiod as to Moses.
The five books of Moses are made to represent the five senses.
After speaking of Dositheus the Samari tan, who persuaded some of his countrymen that he was the Christ prophesied by Moses, he goes on to say: " Also Simon the Samaritan, a magician, wished to filch away some by his magic. And at the time indeed he succeeded in his deception, but now I suppose it is not possible to find 30 Simonians altogether in the world; and perhaps I have put the number higher than it really is.
For to do so is to act against the law of God as spoken through Moses, the eternal duration of which is borne witness to by our Lord.
Subsequently he translated the books of Moses from the original.
With Peter Cooper, Moses Taylor (1806-1882), Marshall Owen Roberts (1814-1880) and Chandler White, he formed the New York, Newfoundland & London Telegraph Company, which procured a more favourable charter than Gisborne's, and had a capital of $1,500,000.
In another form of the story, derived from Moses of Chorene, it is said further that Jesus sent his portrait to Abgar, and that this existed in Edessa (Hist.
Eusebius gives the legend in its oldest form; it was worked up in the Doctrina Addaei in the second half of the 4th century; and Moses of Chorene was dependent upon both these sources.
In 1709 he published (at the Hague) Adeisidaemon and Origines Judaicae, in which, amongst other things, he maintained that the Jews were originally Egyptians, and that the true Mosaic institutions perished with Moses.
We might note besides that it is quoted in the Book of Adam and Eve, the Apocalypse of Moses, the Apocalypse of Paul, the anonymous work De montibus Sina et Sion, the Sibylline Oracles ii.
18), the priest of Midian, in the Bible, whose daughter Zipporah became the wife of Moses.
18); and if Zipporah is the wife of Moses referred to in Num.
Jethro was the priest of Yahweh, and resided at the sacred mountain where the deity commissioned Moses to deliver the Israelites from Egypt.
Subsequently Jethro came to Moses (probably at Kadesh), a great sacrificial feast was held, and the priest instructed Moses in legislative procedure; Exod.
keleb, " dog"), in the Bible, one of the spies sent by Moses from Kadesh in South Palestine to spy out the land of Canaan.
Moses and Paul are put side by side with Aristotle and Menander, and there is a clear inclination to Platonic doctrines of preexistence and metempsychosis.
The Briefe fiber die Lehre Spinozas (1785; 2nd ed., much enlarged and with important Appendices, 1789) expressed sharply and clearly Jacobi's strenuous objection to a dogmatic system in philosophy, and drew upon him the vigorous enmity of the Berlin clique, led by Moses Mendelssohn.
NACHMANIDES (NAIiMANIDES), the usual name of Moses Ben Nahman (known also as Ramban), Jewish scholar, was born in Gerona in 1194 and died in Palestine c. 1270.
In the pre-Deuteronomic period altars are erected in any place where there had appeared to be a manifestation of deity, or under any circumstance in which the aid of deity was invoked; not by heretical individuals, but by the acknowledged religious leaders, such as Noah at Ararat, Abraham at Shechem, Bethel &c., Isaac at Beersheba, Jacob at Bethel, Moses at Rephidim, Joshua at Ebal, Gideon at Ophrah, Samuel at Ramah, Elijah at Carmel, and others.
The history of Israel from Moses to Ezra furnishes a large number of instances in which the fasting instinct was obeyed both publicly and privately, locally and nationally, under the influence of sorrow, or fear, or passionate desire.
The last reference contains an allusion to the weekly fasts which were observed on the 2nd and 5th days of each week, in commemoration, it was said, of the ascent and descent of Moses at Sinai.
While we have no reason to doubt that He observed the one great national fast prescribed in the written law of Moses, we have express notice that neither He nor His disciples were in the habit of observing the other fasts which custom and tradition had established.
Philo the Jew is also quoted as using OeoXoyos of poets, of Moses par excellence, and of Greek philosophers.
In the last three books we are told what happened to Israel between the time it entered into this solemn covenant and its settlement in the Promised Land under the successor of Moses.
It is generally agreed that to E belongs the passage describing the outpouring of the Spirit on Eldad and Medad and the remarkable prayer of Moses in xi.
30 we find Moses entreating Hobab, the son of Reuel his father-in-law, to come along with the Israelites to be "eyes" unto them; and in x.
33 as to the position of the ark, and to learn that Moses, instead of simply following the pillar of cloud, requests Hobab to determine the line of march and select the sites for encampment.
to, Israel's twenty days' sojourn at Sinai during which a census of the people is taken and various laws are promulgated by Moses.
The first narrative is that of JE, which relates how two Reubenites, Dathan and Abiram, rebelled against the civil authority of Moses,andwere punished by being buried alive,they and their households.
The second narrative is P l, which tells how Korah, himself a Levite, at the head of 250 Israelites rebelled against the religious authority of Moses.
From this chapter, unhistorical as it must be, we see how the legislation of Israel, whatever its character or origin, was referred back to Moses the great Law giver of Israel.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.