All Moscow talks of nothing but war.
The governing synod now sits at St Petersburg, but appoints delegated commissions, with a portion of its jurisdiction, in Moscow and Georgia.
On the 3rd of December 1564 he quitted Moscow with his whole family.
Soc. Imp. Nat., Moscow, xiv., 1841; B.
He told me himself that all the Moscow ladies have conspired to give him all their sons as adjutants.
(Rus.) (Moscow, 1888); L.
The metropolitical see was for a short time transferred to Vladimir and then finally to Moscow (Mouravieff, chs.
I was told a charming Moscow story today and must treat you to it.
When he returned to Moscow his father dismissed the abbe and said to the young man, Now go to Petersburg, look round, and choose your profession.
I hope that here in Moscow no one will receive him, in spite of his money.
Prince Vasili arrived in Moscow yesterday.
He had now been for some days in Moscow and was staying as usual at his father's house.
He had left Moscow when Boris was a boy of fourteen, and had quite forgotten him, but in his usual impulsive and hearty way he took Boris by the hand with a friendly smile.
"We here in Moscow are more occupied with dinner parties and scandal than with politics," said he in his quiet ironical tone.
Moscow is chiefly busy with gossip, he continued.
"Moscow has nothing else to do but gossip," Boris went on.
This was an old bachelor, Shinshin, a cousin of the countess', a man with "a sharp tongue" as they said in Moscow society.
"Well, you old sinner," she went on, turning to the count who was kissing her hand, "you're feeling dull in Moscow, I daresay?
The weather is beautiful, Princess; and besides, in Moscow one feels as if one were in the country.
Though in the new reign he was free to return to the capitals, he still continued to live in the country, remarking that anyone who wanted to see him could come the hundred miles from Moscow to Bald Hills, while he himself needed no one and nothing.
As for the past two years people have amused themselves by finding husbands for me (most of whom I don't even know), the matchmaking chronicles of Moscow now speak of me as the future Countess Bezukhova.
Moscow became the final court, in theory, as it had long been in practice.
He reached the White Sea, performed the journey overland to Moscow, where he was well received, and may be said to have been the founder of the trade between Russia and England.
He retired in 1855 and died at Moscow, on the 18th of March 1868.
There his progress was very rapid, especially in Latin, and in 1734 he was sent from Moscow to St Petersburg.
There is in Moscow a lady, une dame, and she is very stingy.
The Guards had already left Petersburg on the tenth of August, and her son, who had remained in Moscow for his equipment, was to join them on the march to Radzivilov.
The chief news, about which all Moscow gossips, is the death of old Count Bezukhov, and his inheritance.
His love for Natasha, Antichrist, Napoleon, the invasion, the comet, 666, L'Empereur Napoleon, and L'russe Besuhof--all this had to mature and culminate, to lift him out of that spellbound, petty sphere of Moscow habits in which he felt himself held captive and lead him to a great achievement and great happiness.
He had Pierre at hand in Moscow and procured for him an appointment as Gentleman of the Bedchamber, which at that time conferred the status of Councilor of State, and insisted on the young man accompanying him to Petersburg and staying at his house.
(Moscow, 1858); R.
On the 31st of January 1718 the tsarevich reached Moscow.
Their first and most notable victim was Philip, the saintly metropolitan of Moscow, who was strangled for condemning the oprichina as an unchristian institution, and refusing to bless the tsar (1569).
The same society which produced his infamous favourites also produced St Philip of Moscow, and by refusing to listen to St Philip Ivan sank below even the not very lofty moral standard of his own age.
He reached Moscow on the 15th of May, prepared "to lay down his life for the tsar," and at once proceeded to the head of the Red Staircase to meet and argue with the assembled stryeltsi, who had been instigated to rebel by the anti-Petrine faction.
P. Pogodin, The First Seventeen Years of the Life of Peter the Great (Rus.), (Moscow, 1875); S.
Tsaritsyn is the terminus of a railway which begins at Riga and, running south-eastwards, intersects all the main lines which radiate from Moscow to the south.
This Committee consists of 75 members, sending representatives to Moscow to the meetings of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Federation of Soviet Republics, but the Turkestan Republic showed itself very little inclined to accept the control which the Central Committee at Moscow endeavoured to maintain.
A powerful Italian corps marched under Eugene Beauharnais to Moscow, and distinguished itself at Malo-Jaroslavitz, as also during th~ horrors of the retreat in the closing weeks of 1812.
Russia has three large coalbearing regions - the Moscow basin, the Donets region and the Urals.
In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
While only three of these are in middle Russia (Moscow, Tula and Kazan), eight are in S.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
In 1906 there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kiev, Moscow and Riga.
The larger cities (St Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, KertchYenikala, Nikolayev, Rostov) have an administrative system of their own, independent of the governments; in these the.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
From a central plateau, which comprises the governments of Tver, Moscow, Smolensk and Kursk, and projects E.
In 1771 their headquarters were fixed at Moscow, in the Rogoshkiy cemetery assigned to them during the plague; here they had a monastery, seminary and consistory, until they were ejected by the emperor Nicholas I.
i.; Collection of Materials on Landholding, and Statistical Descriptions of Separate Governments, published by several zemstvos (Moscow, Tver, Nyzhniy-Novgorod, Tula, Ryazan, Tambov, Poltava, Saratov, &c.); Kawelin, The Peasant Question; Vasilchikov, Land Property and Agriculture (2 vols.), and Village Life and Agriculture; Ivanukov, The Fall of Serfdom in Russia; Shashkov, " Peasantry in the Baltic Provinces," in Russkaya Mysl.
Recent investigations in the government of Moscow have revealed that 40% of the peasant households possessed no horses, and similar inquiries in 41 governments elicited the fact that 28% of the peasant households were without horses, although of the total number of horses in the country 82% belong to the peasantry.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
governments every year, and similarly plasterers and painters from the government of Moscow.
Tanneries exist in nearly every government, but it is especially at Warsaw and St Petersburg, and after these at Moscow, that the largest and best modern tanneries and shoe and glove factories are established.
from Chelyabinsk and 4076 miles from Moscow, via Samara and Chelyabinsk.
Russia, and even to Moscow.
Thus, appeared the grand-prince of Suzdal or Vladimir, of Tver,, of Ryazan and of Moscow - all irreconcilable rivals with little or no feeling of blood-relationship. The more ambitious and powerful among them aspired not to succeed but to subdue the others and to take possession of their territory, and the armed.
The principality which was to become the nucleus of the future Russian empire was not Novgorod with its democratic institutions, but its eastern neighbour Moscow, in which the popular assembly played a very insignificant part, and the supreme law was the will of the prince.
- Between Moscow and Novgorod there was a long and bitter rivalry,.
Of all the princes who sought to advance their fortunes in this way the most dexterous and successful were those of Moscow.
They made themselves responsible for the tribute of The other principalities as well as of their own, and gradu- princes of ally they became lieutenants-general of their Mongol Moscow.
For some time longer the Tatars remained troublesome neighbours, capable of invading and devastating large tracts of Russian territory and of threatening even the city of Moscow, but the Horde was now broken up into independent and mutually hostile khanates, and the Moscow diplomatists could generally play off one khanate against the other, so that there was no danger of the old political domination being re-established.
Having thus freed themselves from Tatar control, the Moscow princes continued to carry out energetically their traditional policy of extending and consolidating their dominions at the expense of their less powerful relations.
their ancient liberties, he abolished the popular assembly, removed the great bell to Novgorod, installed his own boyars in the administration, transported 300 of the leading families to other localities, replaced them by 300 families from Moscow, and left in the town a strong garrison of his own troops.
In 1521 the prince, being suspected of forming an alliance with the Crimean Tatars, was summoned to Moscow and arrested.
Thus all the principalities were brought under the power of Moscow, and in that respect there remained nothing for Ivan the Terrible to do.
For the ambitious Moscow princes many of the Byzantine ideas were very acceptable.
According to Siegmund von Herberstein (1486-1566), an Austrian envoy who visited Moscow at that period, no sovereign in Europe was obeyed like the grand-prince of Muscovy, and his court was remarkable for barbaric luxury.
had already been described in the Church service as " the ruler and autocrat of all Russia, the new Tsar Constantine in the new city of Constantine Moscow," but on no previous occasion had a grand-prince been crowned under that title.
A few months later occurred in Moscow a great fire, which destroyed nearly the whole of the city, and a serious popular tumult, in which the tsar's uncle was murdered by the populace.
While thus uniting under their vigorous autocratic rule the small rival principalities, the Moscow princes had to keep a watchful eye on their eastern neighbours.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
He met with such a favourable reception from the tsar that on his return to England a special envoy was sent to Moscow by Queen Mary, and he succeeded in obtaining for his countrymen the privilege of trading freely in Russian towns.
In reality the younger son of Ivan the Terrible had been strangled before his brother's death - by orders, it was said, of Godunov - and the mysterious individual who was impersonating him was an impostor; but he was regarded as the rightful heir by a large section of the population, and immediately after Boris's death in 1605 he made his triumphal entry into Moscow.
To this latter the people of Moscow swore allegiance on condition of his maintaining Orthodoxy and granting certain rights, and on this understanding the Polish troops were allowed to occupy the city and the Kremlin.
The throne was vacant, the great nobles quarrelling among themselves, the Catholic Poles in the Kremlin of Moscow, the Protestant Swedes in Novgorod, and enormous bands of brigands everywhere.
As in all previous insurrections the Poles proved stronger in the field, and Khmelnitski in desperation sought foreign assistance, first in Constantinople and then in Moscow.
Numerous foreigners had been allowed to settle in Moscow and to build for themselves a heretical church, and their strange unholy customs had been adopted by not a few courtiers and great dignitaries.
His foreign tour, during which he visited Germany, Holland, England, France and Austria, lasted nearly a year and a half, and was suddenly interrupted, when on his way from Vienna to Venice to study the construction of war-galleys, by the alarming news that the turbulent stryeltsi of Moscow had mutinied anew with the intention of placing Sophia on the throne.
On arriving in Moscow he found that the mutiny had been suppressed and the ringleaders punished, but he considered it necessary to reopen the investigation and act with exemplary severity.
(1740-41) II., of various nationalities, was called together at Moscow to consider the needs of the empire and the means of satisfying them.
Finally, after a crushing defeat in which 2000 of the insurgents were killed and 6000 taken prisoners, he was betrayed by some of his followers and executed in Moscow.
It began in 1812 by the advance of the on Moscow, and it ended in 1815 at Waterloo.
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
the zemstvos that met at Moscow in September and November.
Bantysh-Kamenski (Moscow, 1842).
There is a Russian translation by Neviedomski (7 parts, Moscow, 1883-1886), and an Hungarian version of cc. 1-38 by K.
SERGIYEVO, a town of Russia, in the government of Moscow, 44 m.
The Troitsk or Trinity monastery is the most sacred spot in " middle Russia, the Great Russians regarding it with more veneration than even the cathedrals and relics of the Kremlin at Moscow.
Ivan the Terrible in 1561 made it the centre of the ecclesiastical province of Moscow.
"ALEXANDER GUCHKOV (1862-), Russian politician, was born in Moscow in 1862.
He studied history and humanities at the university of Moscow, and, after having gone through his military training in a grenadier regiment, left for Germany where he read political economy in Berlin under Prof. Schmoller.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
He was educated at the Moscow University, and in 1755 entered the "Reiter" of the Horse Guards.
(1875); Ornsby, "Origen against Celsus," Dublin Review (July 1879), p. 58; Pelagaud, E tude sur Celse (1878); Lebedeff, Origen's Book against Celsus (Moscow, 1878) (Russian); Overbeck in the Theolog.
Another consideration which largely conduced to the disasters of the retreat was Napoleon's postponement of any movement back from Moscow to the date of October 19th, and this is known to have resulted from his conviction that the tsar would give way as he had done at Tilsit.
Napoleon's habit of clinging to his own preconceptions never received so strange and disastrous an illustration as it did during the month spent at Moscow.
To date his decline, as Chaptal does, from the cold of the Moscow campaign is clearly incorrect.
On the 10th of December it was plain to Charles himself that Moscow was inaccessible.
The treatise of Kessler on the osteology of birds' feet, published in the Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists for 1841, next.
After Moscow, Podolia is the most densely inhabited government of Russia outside Poland.
Even then he had a great reputation at Moscow as one who thoroughly understood "German ways and things."
It is the terminus of a branch line (85 m.) from the St Petersburg & Moscow railway, and is the centre of a large transit trade between Orel, Kaluga and Smolensk and the ports of St Petersburg and Riga.
It is the chief entrepot for grain from the basin of the lower Oka, and carries on an active trade with Moscow and Nizhniy-Novgorod.
The foreign and colonial clubs which are affiliated to the Kennel Club are: the Guernsey Dog Club, the Italian Kennel Club, the Jersey Dog Club, La Societe Centrale (Paris), Moscow Gun Club of the Emperor Alexander II., New South Wales Kennel Club, Nimrod Club (Amsterdam), Northern Indian Kennel Association, Royal St Hubert's Society (Brussels) and the South African Kennel Club (Cape Town).
She was well versed in mathematics, which she studied at the university of Moscow, and in general literature her favourite authors were Bayle, Montesquieu, Boileau, Voltaire and Helvetius.
Before she was sixteen she married Prince Mikhail Dashkov, a prominent Russian nobleman, and went to reside with him at Moscow.
After a time the sentence was partially recalled on the petition of her friends, and she was permitted to pass the closing years of her life on her own estate near Moscow, where she died on the 4th of January 1810.
With incredible rapidity his hosts spread and plundered from Bagdad to Moscow.
(d) The Russian War of 1812 (Borodino and the retreat from Moscow).
His intention was to occupy a strong position and fight one general action for the possession of Moscow, and to this end he selected the line of the Kalatscha where the stream intersects the great Moscow road.
Sebastiani, commanding the advanced guard, overtook the Russians in the act of evacuating Moscow, and agreed with the latter to observe a seven hours' armistice to allow the Russians to clear the town, for experience had shown the French that street fighting in wooden Russian townships always meant fire and the consequent destruction of much-needed shelter and provisions.
The French army was thus disposed almost in an equilateral triangle with sides of about 570 m., with 95,000 men at the apex at Moscow opposed to 120,000, 30,000 about Brest opposite ioo,000, and 17,000 about Drissa confronted by 40,000, whilst in the centre of the base at Smolensk lay Victor's corps, about 30,000.
From Moscow to the Niemen was 550 m.
ELIZABETH [PETROVNA] (1709-1762), Empress Of Russia, the daughter of Peter the Great and Martha Skovronskaya, born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on the 18th of December 1709.
falls on a zone that stretches from Moscow and St Petersburg through Perm to Tobolsk and, after a dry belt as far as Tomsk, continues in a narrower strip as far as the S.
Moscow imperial guards) to garrison forts, (4) of yamshiks - a special organization of Old Russia entrusted with the maintenance of horses for postal communication, and finally (5) of convicts.
The main line of communication is the great Moscow road.
These were united by Khan Ediger, and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables.
On the defeat of the adventurer Stenka Razin (1667-1671) many who were unwilling to submit to the iron rule of Moscow made their way to the settlements of Stroganov in Perm, and tradition has it that, in order to get rid of his guests, Stroganov suggested to their chief, Yermak, that he should cross the Urals into Siberia, promising to help him with supplies of food and arms. Yermak entered Siberia in 1580 with a band of 1636 men, following the Tagil and Tura rivers.
But new bands of hunters and adventurers poured every year into the country, and were supported by Moscow.
To avoid conflicts with the denser populations of the south, they preferred to advance eastwards along higher latitudes; meanwhile Moscow erected forts and settled labourers around them to supply the garrisons with food.
As an authority on the Inquisition he stood in the highest rank of modern historians, and distinctions were conferred on him by the universities of Harvard, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Giessen and Moscow.
at Moscow in 1896.
It is famous as the scene of a battle, on the 12th of May 1813, between the French and the Allies after Napoleon's retreat from Moscow.
He attended the Panslavist congress at Moscow in 1867.
On the elevation of Anne to the Russian throne in 1740, Biren, who had in the meantime married a Fraulein von Treiden, came to Moscow, and honours and riches were heaped upon him.
in adventures in Asia Minor, He was reported in x920-21 to have been employed at Moscow as director of the Asiatic department in the Soviet Government, and to have posed at the Baku Congress of Oriental Peoples as the leader of a great Socialist movement in the middle east and north Africa.
There are numerous foreign churches, among which may be mentioned the French Protestant churches in Monmouth Road, Bayswater and Soho Square; the Greek church of St Sophia, Moscow Road, Bayswater; and the German Evangelical church in Montpelier Place, Brompton Road, opened in 1904.
See Vassiliev's Anecdota GraecoByzantina (Moscow, 1893), pp. 3 8 -44; Uncanonical Books of the Old Testament (Venice, 1901), pp. 237 sqq., 387 sqq.
ALEXIUS PETROVICH BESTUZHEV-RYUMIN, Count (1693-1768), grand chancellor of Russia, the second son of Count Peter Bestuzhev, the early favourite of the empress Anne, was born at Moscow on the 1st of June 1693.
Peter, then a youth of seventeen, married her on the 27th of January 1689 at the command of his mother, who hoped to wean him from the wicked ways of the German suburb of Moscow by wedding him betimes to a lady who was as pious as she was beautiful.
She was escorted with great ceremony to Moscow in 1728 and exhibited to the people attired in the splendid, old-fashioned robes of a tsaritsa; but years of rigid seclusion had dulled her wits, and her best friends soon convinced themselves that a convent was a much more suitable place for her than a throne.
An allowance of 60,000 roubles a year was accordingly assigned to her, and she disappeared again in a monastery at Moscow, where she died in 1731.
At the age of twenty he was gaining his livelihood in the streets of Moscow as a vendor of meat-pies.
and the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30,000 Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monument commemorative of the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, the chemist, set up in 1883.
1553-1633), patriarch of Moscow, was the second son of the boyar Nikita Romanovich.
13, 1619), and on the 2nd of June was canonically enthroned patriarch of Moscow.
The Conservative Russkoi V'yestnik (1808) was revived at Moscow in 1856 by Kattkov.
The Russkaya Missl, " Russian Thought," published in Moscow, represented the Slavophil party.
His relations with the grand-dukes of Muscovy were friendly on the whole, and twice he married orthodox Russian princesses; but this did not prevent him from besieging Moscow in 1368 and again in 1372, both times unsuccessfully.
Eighteen months later the coronation took place at Moscow with great pomp, but a gloom was thrown over the festivities by the unfortunate incident of the Khodinskoe Polye, a great open space near the city, where a popular fete had been prepared and where, from defective police arrangements, a large number of men, women and children, roughly estimated at 2000, were crushed and trampled to death.
Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839.
Hardly had they melted away when the French made a most brilliant counter-attack from their main position between the farms of Leipzig and Moscow.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
In 1329 the sons of Prince Roman the Saint renounced their independence in favour of Moscow, and fifty years later the Uglich princes sold their rights to the great prince of Moscow.
from Moscow, with which it is connected by rail via Kharkov.
In Russia, besides the Polish field, there is an important one south of Moscow, and another in the lower valley of the Donetz, north of the Sea of Azov.
Vagin (St Petersburg, 1872 and Moscow, 1905).
He continued quietly to observe the course of events during the disastrous years r 8r 2-13; and even at the beginning of the Moscow campaign he summed up the situation in the words, "It is the beginning of the end."
and his Family (Rus.) (Moscow, 1874); V.
He was educated at the university of Moscow, and in 1859 became professor of mathematics in the university of St Petersburg, a position from which he retired in 1880.
(Moscow, 1858, &c.).
The latter range, the Chimen-tagh, is identical in its western parts with the Piazlik-tagh and in the east must be equated with the Tsaidam chain of Przhevalsky; and it is probably continued westwards by the range which the Russian explorers call the Moscow Range or the Achik-tagh, running north of the Achik-kol and, according to Przhevalsky, connecting on the west with the Tokuz-davan.
It is possible however that the Muzluk-tagh belongs more intimately to the Chimen-tagh system, that is, to the Moscow or Achik-kol ranges.
Indeed Bogdanovich considers that the Tokuz-davan, the Muzluktagh, the Moscow Range and the Chimen-tagh form one single closely connected chain, in which he also places Przhevalsky's isolated peak of Mount Kreml (15,055 ft.).
corps in the retreat from Moscow, and eventually became Vicomte Cavaignac and inspector-general of cavalry.
The left wing of the party,-22 deputies and 5 senators - after a somewhat violent quarrel, then broke away and formed an independent organization owing allegiance to the Third (Moscow) International.
He encouraged the Teutonic Order to rebel against Poland; he entertained at his court antiPolish embassies from Moscow; he encouraged the Tatars to ravage Lithuania; he thwarted Casimir's policy in Moldavia.
For instance, he was never misled by the successes of the false Demetrius in Muscovy, and wisely insisted on recovering the great eastern fortress of Smolensk rather than attempting the conquest of Moscow.
- The Grand Duchy of Warsaw perished with the Grand Army in the retreat from Moscow in 1812.
The Polish troops had taken a prominent part in the invasion of Russia, and their share in the plundering of Smolensk and of Moscow had intensified the racial hatred felt for them by the Russians.
of Moscow and 406 m.
His first considerable exploit was to destroy the "great water caravan" consisting of the treasury-barges and the barges of the patriarch and the wealthy merchants of Moscow.
After a three weeks' carnival of blood and debauchery Razin quitted Astrakhan with two hundred barges full of troops to establish the Cossack republic along the whole length of the Volga, as a preliminary step towards advancing against Moscow.
The emissaries of Razin, armed with inflammatory proclamations, had stirred up the inhabitants of the modern governments of Nizhniy-Novgorod, Tambov and Penza, and penetrated even so far as Moscow and Great Novgorod.
Even his own settlements at Saratov and Samara refused to open their gates to him, and the Don Cossacks, hearing that the patriarch of Moscow had anathematized Stenka, also declared against him.
In 1671 he was captured at Kagalnik, his last fortress, and carried to Moscow, where, on the 6th of June, after bravely enduring unspeakable torments, he was quartered alive.
PETER ALEXEIVICH KROPOTKIN, Prince (1842-), Russian geographer, author and revolutionary, was born at Moscow in 1842.
Before he left Moscow Prince Kropotkin had developed an interest in the condition of the Russian peasantry, and this interest increased as he grew older.
Meanwhile the war with Muscovy broke out, and Chodkiewicz was sent against Moscow with an army of 2000 men - though if there had been a spark of true patriotism in Poland he could easily have marshalled Ioo,000.
Coislinianus of the 6th century in Paris, Turin, Kiev, Moscow and Mt.
Five years previously he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which service he received the title of sluga, 1 Brough, Mine Surveying, pp. 276-278; Marriott, Trans.
See Platon Vasilievich Pavlov, On the Historical Significance of the Reign of Boris Godunov (Rus.) (Moscow, 1850); Sergyei Mikhailivich Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.) (2nd ed., vols.
He became professor of philosophy at Gottingen, Moscow (1840) and Brunswick.
(1839), each in his day metropolitan of Moscow, are bulky compilations which cannot be memorized, though there is a short introductory catechism prefaced to Philaret's volume (Eng.
Russia, which had been their warmest patron, drove them from St Petersburg and Moscow in 1813, and from the whole empire in 1820, mainly on the plea of attempted proselytizing in the imperial army.
bis zum Concil von Ferrara (Vienna, 1858); Gorski, of Moscow, 1847, The History of the Council of Florence, trans.
Up to comparatively recent times a priceless collection of classical manuscripts was preserved in the libraries; many of them were destroyed during the War of Greek Independence (1821-1829) by the Turks, who employed the parchments for the manufacture of cartridges; others fell a prey to the neglect or vandalism of the monks, who, it is said, used the material as bait in fishing; others have been sold to visitors, and a considerable number have been removed to Moscow and Paris.
Moscow is one of the principal seats for the weaving of these fabrics.
PETER I., called "the Great" (1672-1725), emperor of Russia, son of the tsar Alexius Mikhailovich and Natalia Naruishkina, was born at Moscow on the 30th of May 1672.
War against Turkey was resolved upon, and Azov, the chief Turkish fortress in those regions, which could be approached by water from Moscow, became the Russian objective.
On the 22nd of November Peter re-entered Moscow.
But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
But Peter had his way, and the ceremony took place at Moscow with extraordinary pomp and splendour on the 7th of May 17 24.
After the return from Moscow the emperor negotiated with his prisoner a new and more exacting concordat, but two months later the repentant pope abrogated this treaty and declared all the official acts of the new French bishops to be invalid.
ALEXANDER HERTZEN (1812-1870), Russian author, was born at Moscow, a very short time before the occupation of that city by the French.
A year later the family returned to Moscow, where Hertzen passed his youth - remaining there, after completing his studies at the university, till 1834, when he was arrested and tried on a charge of having assisted, with some other youths, at a festival during which verses by Sokolovsky, of a nature uncomplimentary to the emperor, were sung.
of Sevastopol and Boo from Moscow.
On the 28th of June 1744 she was received into the Orthodox Church at Moscow, and was renamed Catherine Alexeyevna.
and annexed to Moscow.
1514) and again in 1522 when Moscow was threatened by the Tatars.
He founded missions in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Kamtchatka and throughout Eastern Siberia, and established the Orthodox Missionary Society at Moscow.
of the city of St Petersburg, on the railway to Moscow, and on the Izhora river.
Looking eastward, towards central and northern Russia, we find a wider and much more open sea; but the continental type of deposit prevailed in the northern portion, and here, as in Scotland, we find coal-beds amongst the sediments (Moscow basin).
There are also important ore beds in the Urals, near the border of Finland, and at the south of Moscow.
The latitude is approximately that of Moscow, Berwickon-Tweed and Hopedale in Labrador.
Poland, with 193 (domiciled) inhabitants or 213 inhabitants in all to the square mile in 1897, and 240 to the square mile in 1904, has a denser population than any other region in the Russian empire, the next to it being the governments of Moscow, with 189 inhabitants to the square mile, Podolia with 186, and Kiev with 181.
In his reign occurred the invasion of Timur (1395), who ruined the Volgan regions, but did not penetrate so far as Moscow.
During the whole of this time no tribute was paid to the khan, though vast sums of money were collected in the Moscow treasury for military purposes.
In 1408 the Mirza Edigei ravaged Muscovite territory, but was unable to take Moscow.
Golubinskij, Istorija Kanonizagii sviatich v russko j gerkvi (Moscow, 1903).
Khalateants, arrives at a similar conclusion in his Armianskie Epos (Moscow, 1896).
The disastrous retreat of the French from Moscow in 1812 gave Germany the occasion she desired.
MIKHAIL Dimitrievich SKOBELEV (1843-1882), Russian general, was born near Moscow on the 29th of September 1843.
In the last years of his short life he engaged actively in politics, and made speeches in Paris and in Moscow in the beginning of 1882 in favour of a militant Panslavism, predicting a desperate strife between Teuton and Sla y.
He was staying at a Moscow hotel, on his way from Minsk to his estate close by, when he died suddenly of heart disease on the 7th of July 1882.
In the Greek Church the rite survives notably at Moscow, St Petersburg and Constantinople.
Seven years earlier (24th of January 1510) the last free republic of old Russia, Pskov, was deprived of its charter and assembly-bell, which were sent to Moscow, and tsarish governors were appointed to rule it.
Although in 1519 he was obliged to buy off the khan of the Crimea, Mahommed Girai, under the very walls of Moscow, towards the end of his reign he established the Russian influence on the Volga, and in 1530 placed the pretender Elanyei on the throne of Kazan.
Basil was the first grand-duke of Moscow who adopted the title of tsar and the double-headed eagle of the East Roman empire.
In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.
It was five times besieged by Moscow in 1500-18, and was taken by Ivan the Terrible in 1563.
It was the occupation of Moscow and the desecration of the Kremlin, the sacred centre of Holy Russia, that changed his sentiment for Napoleon into passionate hatred.
In vain the French emperor, within eight days of his entry into Moscow, wrote to the tsar a letter, which was one long cry of distress, revealing the desperate straits of the Grand Army, and appealed to " any remnant of his former sentiments."
At the burning of Moscow, he declared afterwards, his own soul had found illumination, and he had realized once for all the divine revelation to him of his mission as the peacemaker of Europe.
During the period when-his influence was supreme, the fateful years, that is, between the Moscow campaign and the close of the congress of Aix-laChapelle, it had been used largely in the interests of moderation and liberty.
He was opposed to the expedition sent to place the false Demetrius on the throne of Muscovy; but nevertheless accompanied the king to Smolensk and was sent thence with a handful of men against Moscow.
Zolkiewski then returned to the Polish camp and assisted in the reduction of Smolensk, but Moscow in the meantime drove out the Polish garrison and proclaimed a native dynasty under Michael Romanov.
He was thus engaged when the retreat from Moscow and the uprising of Prussia transferred the seat of war to central Germany.
(Moscow, 1893), which gives the texts of a series of Byzantine prophecies; E.
Istrin, The Apocalypse of Methodius of Patara and the Apocryphal Visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian Literature, Russian (Moscow, 1897); J.
Mme Pavlow, of Moscow, has brought to notice a fossil camel-skull of great interest, which was collected in the district Alexandrie, of the government of Kherson, Russia.
from the railway from Moscow to Warsaw, on the high craggy banks of the Shchara.
Baryatinski (Russ.) (Moscow, 1888-1891).
Thence he penetrated by land to the court of the grand-duke of Moscow, and laid the foundation of the Russia Company for carrying on the overland trade with India through Persia, Bokhara and Moscow.
21, 1727); but Peter only fell into the hands of the equally unscrupulous Dolgoruki, who carried him away from Petersburg to Moscow.
From its situation at the southern terminus of the navigable course of the Dnieper, and on the highway from Moscow to Odessa, it early acquired great commercial importance, and by 1655 it was a wealthy town.
It was just above Borizov that Napoleon's army forced the passage of the Berezina, with enormous losses, on the 26th-28th of November 1812, during the retreat from Moscow.
Feodor's grandson, Sakhariya Ivanovich, was a boyar of Vasilii V., grand-duke of Moscow at intervals between 1425 and 1462, and the family took its name from his grandson Roman, whose daughter Anastasia Rornanovna married the tsar Ivan the Terrible.
Philaret became patriarch of Moscow in 1619, and supported his son's government until his death in 1634.
In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle.
In another direction the plague spread over Little Russia in 1770, and desolated Kieff, while in the next year it broke out in Moscow and produced one of the most destructive epidemics of modern.
The railway from Moscow has its terminus close to the fair buildings, to the south of which is the suburb of Kunavino, widely known throughout the East as a place for amusements of the lowest kind during the fair.
In 1390 Prince Vasili of Moscow, in alliance with Toktamish, khan of the Golden Horde of the Mongols, took Nizhniy and established his own governors there; in 1417 it was definitely annexed to Moscow, becoming a stronghold for the further advance of that principality towards the east.
In1606-1611the trading classes of Nizhniy took an active part in the expeditions against the revolted serfs, and it was a Nizhniy dealer in cattle, Kozma Minin Sukhorukov, who took the initiative in sending an army for the delivery of Moscow from the Poles in 1612.
During the eight years following he was' T heard at all the principal centres - including London, Leipzig, Berlin, Copenhagen, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Constantinople, Lisbon and Madrid.
Soc. Moscow (1894); E.
BOGORODSK, a town of central Russia, in the government of Moscow, and 38 m.
of the city of Moscow, on the Klyazma.
It is connected by rail (186 m.) with Bologoye, on the line between St Petersburg and Moscow.
It rises in the government of Orel, among hills which also send tributaries to the Dnieper and the Don, and receives on the left the Upa, the Zhizdra, the Ugra (300 m.), the Moskva, on which steamers ply up to Moscow, the Klyazma (J95 m.), on whose banks arose the middle-Russian principality of Suzdal, and on the right the navigable Tsna (255 m.) and Moksha.
A few months later, the Swedes were compelled by the Russians to evacuate Marienburg, and Martha became one of the prisoners of war of Marshal Sheremetev, who sold her to Prince Menshikov, at whose house, in the German suburb of Moscow, Peter the Great first beheld and made love to her in his own peculiar fashion.
By the ukaz of 1722 Catherine was proclaimed Peter's successor, to the exclusion of the grand-duke Peter, the only son of the tsarevich Alexius, and on the 7th of May 1724 was solemnly crowned empress-consort in the Uspensky cathedral at Moscow, on which occasion she wore a crown studded with no fewer than 2564 precious stones, surmounted by a ruby, as large as a pigeon's egg, supporting a cross of brilliants.
A beginning was made by the siege and capture of Kexholm in Russian Finland (March 2, 1611); and, on the 16th of July, Great Novgorod was occupied and a convention concluded with the magistrates of that wealthy city whereby Charles IX.'s second son Philip was to be recognized as tsar, unless, in the meantime, relief came to Great Novgorod from Moscow.
MICHAEL NIKIFOROVICH KATKOV (1818-1887), Russian journalist, was born in Moscow in 1818.
At the beginning of 1863 he assumed the management and editorship of the Moscow Gazette, and he retained that position till his death in 1887.
During these twenty-four years he exercised considerable influence on public opinion and even on the Government, by representing with great ability the moderately Conservative spirit of Moscow in opposition to the occasionally ultra-Liberal and always cosmopolitan spirit of St Petersburg.
He won further distinction in the disastrous retreat from Moscow.
There were thirtythree incorporated cities, towns and villages, but only five had a population exceeding 2000; these were Boise (5957), Pocatello (4046), Lewiston (2425), Moscow (2484) and Wallace (2265).
Higher education is provided by the University of Idaho, established in 1899 at Moscow, Latah county, which confers degrees in arts, science, music and engineering, and offers free tuition.
This body now governs the Russian Church, and consists of a procurator representing the emperor, the metropolitans of Kiev, Moscow and St Petersburg, the exarch of Georgia and five or six other bishops appointed by the emperor.
It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.
long., at the junction of the navigable river Mukhovets with the Bug, and at the intersection of railways from Warsaw, Kiev, Moscow and East Prussia.
Riga consists of four parts - the old town and the St Petersburg and Moscow suburbs on the right bank of the Dvina, and the Mitau suburb on the left bank, the two sides being connected by a floating bridge, which is removed in winter, and by a viaduct, 820 ft.
Besides the well-known works of Castren, which are a very rich source of information on the subject, Schiefner (St Petersburg academy of science), Donner, Ahlqvist and other explorers of the Ural-Altaians, as also those of the Russian historians Soloviev, Kostomarov, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Schapov, and Ilovaiskiy, the following containing valuable information may be mentioned: the publications of the Russian Geographical Society and its branches; the Russian Etnographicheskiy Sbornik; the Izvestia of the Moscow society of the amateurs of natural science; the works of the Russian ethnographical congresses; Kostrov's researches on the Siberian Tatars in the memoirs of the Siberian branch of the geographical society; Radlov's Reise durch den Altai, Aus Sibirien; " Picturesque Russia" (Zhivopisnaya Rossiya); Semenov's and Potanin's "Supplements" to Ritter's Asien: Harkavi's report to the congress at Kazan; Hartakhai's "Hist.
SOPHIE KOVALEVSKY (1850-1891), Russian mathematician, daughter of General Corvin-Krukovsky, was born at Moscow on the 15th of January 1850.
Soon after this she returned to Russia with her husband, who was appointed professor of palaeontology at Moscow, where he died in 1883.
P. Pogodin, The First Seventeen Years of the Life of Peter the Great (Rus.) (Moscow, 1875).
LEVSHIN PLATON (1737-1812), Russian divine, was born at Chashnikovo near Moscow, and educated in the academy of that city.
Three years afterwards Platon was appointed archimandrite of the monastery of the Trinity (Troitskaya Lavra) near Moscow, in 1770 archbishop of Tver, and in 1787 archbishop of Moscow and metropolitan.
There is more than one meaning of Moscow discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
See P. Kulish, On the Defection of Malo-Russia from Poland (Rus.) (Moscow, 1890); S.
He was attached to Lord Granville's mission to Moscow, as British representative at the coronation of Alexander II.
The year 1812 saw Napoleons invasion of Russia, and the disastrous Liverpool ministry, retreat from Moscow.
Syevertsov's "Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Turkestan Animals," in Izvestia of the Moscow Soc. of Amateurs of Nat.
of Moscow (1873); L.
He returned to Russia a few months previously to his death, which took place at Moscow in 1780.
The same year he went into retirement and settled at Moscow.
ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw.
from Moscow and 61o S.
In return for these favours Frederick joined Napoleon in his campaigns against Prussia, Austria and Russia, and of 16,000 of his subjects who marched to Moscow only a few hundreds returned.
AMBROSE (ANDREY SERTIS-KAMENSKIY) (1708-1771), arch bishop of Moscow, was born at Nezhine in the government of Chernigov, and studied in the school of St Alexander Nevskiy, where he afterwards became a tutor.
From this post he was transferred as bishop, first to the diocese of Pereyaslav, and afterwards to that of Krusitsy near Moscow, finally becoming archbishop of Moscow in 1761.
He was famous not only for his interest in schemes for the alleviation of poverty in Moscow, but also as the founder of new churches and monasteries.
A terrible outbreak of plague occurred in Moscow in 1771, and the populace began to throng round an image of the Virgin to which they attributed supernatural healing power.
In May 1648 the people of Moscow rose against them, and the young tsar was compelled to dismiss both them and their patron Morozov.
The successful issue of the Moscow riots was the occasion of disquieting disturbances all over the tsardom culminating in dangerous rebellions at Pskov and Great Novgorod, with which the government was so unable to cope that they surrendered, practically granting the malcontents their own terms. One man only had displayed equal tact and courage at Great Novgorod, the metropolitan Nikon, who in consequence became in 1651 the tsar's chief minister.
On the 1st of October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it on, and in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon (now patriarch).
Her girlhood was passed at Ismailovo near Moscow, with her mother, an ignorant, bigoted tsaritsa of the old school, who neglected and even hated her daughters.
On the 26th of February she made her public entry into Moscow under strict surveillance.
(Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).
Regel, Reisebriefe aus Turkestan (Moscow, 1876); and G.
Marengo inaugurated the political idea which was to continue its development until his Moscow campaign.
suffered his first and greatest reverse in the retreat from Moscow and the destruction of his grand army.
These and other antiquities collected here (1722) are preserved in museums at Kazan, Moscow and St Petersburg.
Penguine, Moscow, 1887) took a similar view; M.
of the city of Vladimir by the railway from Moscow to Nizhniy-Novgorod, and on the Klyazma River.
In 1815 he was with the Allies in Paris, and in the following year set out on the grand tour, visiting Moscow and the western provinces of Russia, Berlin (where his engagement to Princess Charlotte Louise, daughter of Frederick William III., was arranged) and England, where his handsome presence and charming address created a profound impression.'
The Moscow regiment refused to take the oath, and part of it marched, shouting for Constantine and " Constitution," 2 to the square before the Senate House, where they were joined by a company of the Guard and the sailors from the warships.
A military rising on a large scale in the south was only averted by the news of the failure of the mutiny at St Petersburg; and at Moscow there were many arrests, including that of Colonel Paul Pestel, the chief of the revolutionary southern league.
befriended an American girl whose father was a pastor in Moscow.
centrethere are other lesser historic centers - Rome, Constantinople, Kiev, Moscow.
If you want to become a complete Islamic radical and are ready to undergo circumcision, then I invite you to Moscow.
Sure of Moscow and the CP de Gaulle threatened civil war.
Washington and Moscow should also consider pursuing other means of enhanced international cooperation in the missile defense arena.
deformitythe Moscow operations have been carried out to correct jaw or skull deformities.
Did valuable mineral deposits belong to Moscow or the locality?
east side, the Moscow River flows past its south side.
embalmed corpse of Lenin, which lies in state in Moscow's Red Square.
A special emissary from the Communist International came to China to interview Chen and bring him back to Moscow.
entreatyurces said Moscow has ignored entreaties from senior Bush administration officials concerned about the threat to U.S. forces.
The Russian envoy said the results of his meeting with Milosevic would be analyzed in Moscow over the weekend.
The lightning conclusion of the Western campaign, however, robbed the Moscow overlords of their hope of an early flagging of German power.
The Our Ukraine party went even further yesterday, accusing Moscow of directly fomenting the crisis.
Surrounded by birch and spruce forest, Murmansk is almost halfway between Moscow and the North Pole.
frail to travel from Moscow.
Moscow Mule 5cl vodka 1cl fresh lime juice ginger beer Pour the vodka and the lime juice into a highball filled with ice.
They were led by the wealthy industrialist Guchkov, director of the Moscow Discount Bank.
Q, the eccentric inventor of British spy gadgets in the James Bond movies, would be proud of that Moscow rock.
For something a little more serious, it's all about Bond in Moscow - champagne, vodka and blackberry liqueur.
One of the major tourist sights in Moscow, however, is a somewhat macabre reminder of communist Russia's heyday.
Stretching altest 6,000 miles from Moscow to Vladivostok, the very name of this engineering marvel evokes images of exotic, adventurous, travel.
midweek clash with CSKA Moscow to check on Anderson's progress.
mineral deposits belong to Moscow or the locality?
Sitting at the G8 finance ministers meeting in Moscow, Gordon Brown said nothing about the campaign he had led to disaster.
munitions factory south of Moscow.
pulsating neons and billboard hoardings are proof Moscow has embraced capitalism.
Between 1961 and 1968 he studied in Moscow with the renowned pedagogues Heinrich and Stanislav Neuhaus.
Yandarbiyev says he is ready to talk peace with Moscow, but not as an election ploy.
In 1979 Davis visited the Soviet Union where she was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize and made a honorary professor at Moscow State University.
Instead of venerating holy relics in Moscow, they began venerating the rotting mommy of their tyrant.
This cultural renaissance under the slogan ' away from Moscow ' became the engine of efforts to assert Ukrainian autonomy.
Generally, given the emphasis on formalistic ritualism, we may call these tendencies of the Moscow Patriarchate a ' High Church ' .
scavenge for food on a rubbish tip near Moscow, Russia.
Moscow worries that separatism inside Russia and radical Islamic movements beyond their borders might threaten stability in Southern Russia.
Red Square lies along its east side, the Moscow River flows past its south side.
slavish adherence to Moscow.
Despite its overwhelming force, Moscow is in a military stalemate with the rebels, facing constant guerrilla attacks.
The brigade was not part of WGF, but had been directly subordinate to the Warsaw Pact, i.e. the Russians, and Moscow.
tainted by the fact that he half believed the accusations in the first Moscow Trial.
topless weather girls on Moscow TV.
The political turmoil of Moscow sees both brothers arrested.
venerated of venerating holy relics in Moscow, they began venerating the rotting mommy of their tyrant.
But the restored governments in their terror of revolution would not realize that the late rgime had wafted a breath of new life over the country and left ineffaceable traces in the way of improved laws, efficient administration, good roads and the sweeping away of old abuses; while the new-born idea of Italian unity, strengthened by a national pride revived on many a stricken field from Madrid to Moscow, was a force to be reckoned with.
Moscow (1896), pp. 3 2 3-355, 4 pls.; 28.
Nikon was himself tried for abdicating his see, causing disorder in the realm, oppression and violence, first before a synod of Moscow composed of his suffragans and some Greek bishops, and afterwards before another synod in which sat the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, the metropolitans of Servia and Georgia, the archbishops of Sinai and Wallachia, and the metropolitans of Nice, Amasis, Iconium, Trebizond, Varna and Scio, besides the Russian bishops.
Soc., Moscow, xvi., 1900, pp. 1 -63, pls.
The few books accessible to him he almost learned by heart; and, seeing that there was no chance of increasing his stock of knowledge in his native place, he resolved to betake himself to Moscow.
It is presided over by a lay procurator, representing the emperor, and consists, for the rest, of the three metropolitans of Moscow, St Petersburg and Kiev, the archbishop of Georgia, and a number of bishops sitting in rotation.
125,640,020 The ecclesiastical heads of the national Orthodox Greek Church consist of three metropolitans (St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev), fourteen archbishops and fifty bishops, all drawn from the ranks of the monastic (celibate) clergy.
In the same way certain governments become famous for certain commodities, as Moscow for osier baskets, flower baskets, wicker furniture and lace; Kostroma for lace, wooden utensils, toys, wooden spoons, cups and bowls, bast sacks and mats, bast boots and garden products; Yaroslavl for furniture, brass samovars, saucepans, spurs, rings, &c.; Vladimir for furniture, osier baskets and flower-stands and sickles; NizhniyNovgorod for bast mats and sacks, knives, forks and scissors; Tver for lace, nails, sieves, anchors, fish-hooks, locks, coarse clay pottery, saddlery and harness, boots and shoes, and so on.
(See also Poland: History.) Before the Eastern menace had been entirely removed the ambitious Moscow princes had begun to look with envious eyes beyond their western frontier.
for the creation of a great navy, indulging publicly Bacchanalian revels and boisterous amusements not at all to the taste of his pious countrymen, and appearing in Moscow as Orthodox tsar only on great ceremonial occasions.
in 1730 they offered the throne to Anne, duchess of Courland, a daughter of Ivan V., elder brother of Peter the Great, on condition of her signing a formal document by which the seat of government should be transferred from St Petersburg to Moscow, and the autocratic power should be limited and controlled by a grand council composed of their own faction.
Some of the more oppressive measures of the previous reign were abolished; the clergy, the nobles and the merchants were exempted from corporal punishment; the central organs of administration were modernized and the Council of the Empire was created; the idea of granting a constitution was academically discussed; great schemes for educating the people were entertained; parish schools, gymnasia, training colleges and ecclesiastical seminaries were founded; the existing universities of Moscow, Vilna and Dorpat were reorganized and new ones founded in Kazan and Kharkov; the great work of serf-emancipation was begun in the Baltic provinces.
Mutinies occurred, it is true, during the next few weeks in Kronstadt and Sevastopol, and in December there was streetfighting for several days in Moscow, but such serious disorders were speedily suppressed, and thereafter the revolutionary manifestations were confined to mass meetings, processions with red flags, attempts on the lives of officials and policemen, robberies under arms and agrarian disturbances.
The revolutionary terrorists took advantage of the situation to multiply outrages; popular agitation was fomented by a multitude of new journals preaching every kind of extravagant doctrine, now that the censor no The longer dared to act; in December the trouble "union culminated in a formidable rising in Moscow.
Karamzin (12 vols., St Petersburg, 1818-29; French translation, Ii vols., 1819-26), which, though reactionary in tone and largely superseded, remains a classic. The next monumental history of Russia, that of Sergei Mikhailovich Soloviev (29 vols., Moscow, 1863-75), marks the enormous advance made since Karamzin's day in historical method and research.
Petersburg, and he worked a good deal behind the scenes, inciting to violence, advising a boycott of the Duma, hostility to the Cadets, etc. But he did not play any part in the Soviet of workmen, and disappeared as soon as it became clear, after the crushing of the outbreak in Moscow, that the troops and the people were not on the side of the revolutionaries.
Supposing that the Porte would yield to diplomatic pressure and menace so far as to make some reasonable concessions, he delivered his famous Moscow speech, in which he declared that if Europe would not secure a better position for the oppressed Sla y s he would act alone.
After thus forging the first link of the partition treaty, Patkul proceeded to Moscow, and, at a secret conference held at Preobrazhenskoye, easily persuaded Peter the Great to accede to the nefarious league (Nov.
The Epic Songs of Ancient Armenia (Arm.) (Moscow, Etudes sur les chants historiques et les traditions populaires de l'ancienne Armenie," in the Journ.
The Romanovs descended from Andrei, surnamed Kobyla, who is said to have come to Moscow from Prussia about 1341 to enter the service of the grand-duke Semen (d.
The first legislative measures of the Moscow rulers directed towards the establishment of a servile class similar to the Roman coloni fall into the first years of the r7th century (A.D.
Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.) (Moscow, 1857, &c.), vol.
Despite his victorious advance, the taking of Smolensk, the victory on the Moskwa, and the entry into Moscow, he was vanquished by Russian patriotism and religious fervour, by the country and the climate, and by Alexanders refusal to make terms. After this came the lamentable retreat, while all Europe was concentrating against him.
This stout young man was an illegitimate son of Count Bezukhov, a well-known grandee of Catherine's time who now lay dying in Moscow.
One has so many relatives in Moscow!
When her confinement is due, send to Moscow for an accoucheur....
In Petersburg, as in Moscow, Pierre found the same atmosphere of gentleness and affection.
I traveled from Moscow with Prince Vasili.
Denisov was going home to Voronezh and Rostov persuaded him to travel with him as far as Moscow and to stay with him there.
Meeting a comrade at the last post station but one before Moscow, Denisov had drunk three bottles of wine with him and, despite the jolting ruts across the snow-covered road, did not once wake up on the way to Moscow, but lay at the bottom of the sleigh beside Rostov, who grew more and more impatient the nearer they got to Moscow.
On his return to Moscow from the army, Nicholas Rostov was welcomed by his home circle as the best of sons, a hero, and their darling Nikolenka; by his relations as a charming, attractive, and polite young man; by his acquaintances as a handsome lieutenant of hussars, a good dancer, and one of the best matches in the city.
The Rostovs knew everybody in Moscow.
His passion for the Emperor had cooled somewhat in Moscow.
During Rostov's short stay in Moscow, before rejoining the army, he did not draw closer to Sonya, but rather drifted away from her.
Gallop off to our Moscow estate, he said to the factotum who appeared at his call.
A light footstep and the clinking of spurs were heard at the door, and the young count, handsome, rosy, with a dark little mustache, evidently rested and made sleeker by his easy life in Moscow, entered the room.
Reasons were found for the incredible, unheard- of, and impossible event of a Russian defeat, everything became clear, and in all corners of Moscow the same things began to be said.
What also conduced to Bagration's being selected as Moscow's hero was the fact that he had no connections in the city and was a stranger there.
All Moscow repeated Prince Dolgorukov's saying: "If you go on modeling and modeling you must get smeared with clay," suggesting consolation for our defeat by the memory of former victories; and the words of Rostopchin, that French soldiers have to be incited to battle by highfalutin words, and Germans by logical arguments to show them that it is more dangerous to run away than to advance, but that Russian soldiers only need to be restrained and held back!
Pierre recalled how Helene had smilingly expressed disapproval of Dolokhov's living at their house, and how cynically Dolokhov had praised his wife's beauty to him and from that time till they came to Moscow had not left them for a day.
But on entering Moscow he suddenly came to and, lifting his head with an effort, took Rostov, who was sitting beside him, by the hand.
In Moscow, I know.
Rostov went on ahead to do what was asked, and to his great surprise learned that Dolokhov the brawler, Dolokhov the bully, lived in Moscow with an old mother and a hunchback sister, and was the most affectionate of sons and brothers.
Both in Petersburg and in Moscow their house was always full of visitors.
That I shall be the laughingstock of all Moscow, that everyone will say that you, drunk and not knowing what you were about, challenged a man you are jealous of without cause.
"But how is it the doctor from Moscow is not here yet?" said the princess.
(In accordance with Lise's and Prince Andrew's wishes they had sent in good time to Moscow for a doctor and were expecting him at any moment.)
As a result he could not go to the country with the rest of the family, but was kept all summer in Moscow by his new duties.
In the autumn the Rostovs returned to Moscow.
The first half of the winter of 1806, which Nicholas Rostov spent in Moscow, was one of the happiest, merriest times for him and the whole family.
Everywhere Bonaparte was anathematized and in Moscow nothing but the coming war was talked of.
For the Rostov family the whole interest of these preparations for war lay in the fact that Nicholas would not hear of remaining in Moscow, and only awaited the termination of Denisov's furlough after Christmas to return with him to their regiment.
"Oh, those Moscow gossips!" said Dolokhov, and he took up the cards with a smile.
He did not wish to stay another day in Moscow.
After Denisov's departure, Rostov spent another fortnight in Moscow, without going out of the house, waiting for the money his father could not at once raise, and he spent most of his time in the girls' room.
My dear fellow, what have you been up to in Moscow?
She is living in Moscow and you are here.
He liked Petersburg and despised Moscow.
About 80,000 went in payments on all the estates to the Land Bank, about 30,000 went for the upkeep of the estate near Moscow, the town house, and the allowance to the three princesses; about 15,000 was given in pensions and the same amount for asylums; 150,000 alimony was sent to the countess; about 70,000 went for interest on debts.
I had such moments myself not long ago, in Moscow and when traveling, but at such times I collapsed so that I don't live at all--everything seems hateful to me... myself most of all.
On approaching it, Rostov felt as he had done when approaching his home in Moscow.
Joseph Alexeevich was not in Petersburg--he had of late stood aside from the affairs of the Petersburg lodges, and lived almost entirely in Moscow.
Without replying either to his wife or his mother-in-law, Pierre late one night prepared for a journey and started for Moscow to see Joseph Alexeevich.
I wished to meditate, but instead my imagination pictured an occurrence of four years ago, when Dolokhov, meeting me in Moscow after our duel, said he hoped I was enjoying perfect peace of mind in spite of my wife's absence.
I saw that I was in Moscow in my house, in the big sitting room, and Joseph Alexeevich came in from the drawing room.
In Petersburg they were provincials, and the very people they had entertained in Moscow without inquiring to what set they belonged, here looked down on them.
Since Boris left Moscow in 1805 to join the army he had not seen the Rostovs.
One morning Colonel Berg, whom Pierre knew as he knew everybody in Moscow and Petersburg, came to see him.
"Oh, undoubtedly!" said Prince Andrew, and with sudden and unnatural liveliness he began chaffing Pierre about the need to be very careful with his fifty-year-old Moscow cousins, and in the midst of these jesting remarks he rose, taking Pierre by the arm, and drew him aside.
You ask whether we shall spend next winter in Moscow.
Rostov had become a bluff, good-natured fellow, whom his Moscow acquaintances would have considered rather bad form, but who was liked and respected by his comrades, subordinates, and superiors, and was well contented with his life.
Natasha and Nicholas often noticed their parents conferring together anxiously and privately and heard suggestions of selling the fine ancestral Rostov house and estate near Moscow.
The countess had written direct to Julie's mother in Moscow suggesting a marriage between their children and had received a favorable answer from her.
She invited Nicholas to come to Moscow.
At other times she praised Julie to him and advised him to go to Moscow during the holidays to amuse himself.
Nicholas did not go to Moscow, and the countess did not renew the conversation with him about marriage.
The governesses were discussing whether it was cheaper to live in Moscow or Odessa.
There was still no improvement in the countess' health, but it was impossible to defer the journey to Moscow any longer.
So the countess remained in the country, and the count, taking Sonya and Natasha with him, went to Moscow at the end of January.
Pierre felt that she was right, and to avoid compromising her went away to Moscow.
In Moscow he felt at peace, at home, warm and dirty as in an old dressing gown.
Moscow society, from the old women down to the children, received Pierre like a long-expected guest whose place was always ready awaiting him.
For Moscow society Pierre was the nicest, kindest, most intellectual, merriest, and most magnanimous of cranks, a heedless, genial nobleman of the old Russian type.
Pierre was one of those retired gentlemen-in-waiting of whom there were hundreds good-humoredly ending their days in Moscow.
But instead of all that--here he was, the wealthy husband of an unfaithful wife, a retired gentleman-in-waiting, fond of eating and drinking and, as he unbuttoned his waistcoat, of abusing the government a bit, a member of the Moscow English Club, and a universal favorite in Moscow society.
For a long time he could not reconcile himself to the idea that he was one of those same retired Moscow gentlemen-in-waiting he had so despised seven years before.
We all profess the Christian law of forgiveness of injuries and love of our neighbors, the law in honor of which we have built in Moscow forty times forty churches--but yesterday a deserter was knouted to death and a minister of that same law of love and forgiveness, a priest, gave the soldier a cross to kiss before his execution.
At the beginning of winter Prince Nicholas Bolkonski and his daughter moved to Moscow.
Julie, with whom she had corresponded for the last five years, was in Moscow, but proved to be quite alien to her when they met.
In Moscow Princess Mary had no one to talk to, no one to whom to confide her sorrow, and much sorrow fell to her lot just then.
In 1811 there was living in Moscow a French doctor--Metivier--who had rapidly become the fashion.
He was enormously tall, handsome, amiable as Frenchmen are, and was, as all Moscow said, an extraordinarily clever doctor.
Nicholas' Day and the prince's name day--all Moscow came to the prince's front door but he gave orders to admit no one and to invite to dinner only a small number, a list of whom he gave to Princess Mary.
Because I have noticed that when a young man comes on leave from Petersburg to Moscow it is usually with the object of marrying an heiress.
To please Moscow girls nowadays one has to be melancholy.
Boris had not succeeded in making a wealthy match in Petersburg, so with the same object in view he came to Moscow.
That winter the Karagins' house was the most agreeable and hospitable in Moscow.
"My dear," said Anna Mikhaylovna to her son, "I know from a reliable source that Prince Vasili has sent his son to Moscow to get him married to Julie.
Boris began, wishing to sting her; but at that instant the galling thought occurred to him that he might have to leave Moscow without having accomplished his aim, and have vainly wasted his efforts--which was a thing he never allowed to happen.
At the end of January old Count Rostov went to Moscow with Natasha and Sonya.
One thing has come on top of another: her rags to buy, and now a purchaser has turned up for the Moscow estate and for the house.
Around him thronged Moscow's most brilliant young men, whom he evidently dominated.