This was St Bernard's College, founded by Chicheley under licence in mortmain in 1437 for Cistercian monks, on the model of Gloucester Hall and Durham College for the southern and northern Benedictines.
The tax on property in mortmain, dues for the verification of weights and measures, the tax on royalties from mines, on horses, mules and carriages, on cycles, &c.
With regard to the land and the services due therefrom a beginning was made of the policy which culminated in the statutes of Mortmain and of Quia Emptores.
He appointed a commission to consider the question of draining the valley of Mexico, which adopted the plan ultimately carried out in 1890-1900; suppressed a Clerical rising in Puebla (March 1856), which was punished by a considerable confiscation of church property; sanctioned a law releasing church land from mortmain, by providing for its sale, for the benefit, however, of the ecclesiastical owners (called after its author Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, brother of the subsequent president), and a new draft constitution, largely modelled on that of the United States (Feb.
The province declined in wealth and population during the 18th and 19th centuries, a result due less to the want of activity on the part of the inhabitants than to the oppressive manorial and feudal rights and the strict laws of entail and mortmain, which acted as barriers to progress.
On the 30th of June he obtained licence in mortmain and on the 26th of November issued his charter of foundation of "Seynt Marie College of Wynchestre in Oxenford" for a warden and 70 scholars to study theology, canon and civil law and arts, who were temporarily housed in various old halls.
On the 6th of October 1382 the crown licence in mortmain was issued, on the loth-13th of October the site was conveyed, and on the 20th of October 1382 "Sancte Marie collegium" or in vulgar tongue "Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre by Wynchestre" was founded for a warden and "70 pore and needy scholars studying and becoming proficient in grammaticals or the art and science of grammar."
The council may borrow money for the erection of such buildings; they may acquire and hold land in mortmain by virtue of their charter, or with the consent of the Local Government Board.
Then he took the offensive himself, by persuading his parliament to pass the Statute of Mortmain (de religiosis).
The hitherto steady growth of clerical endowments began from this time, though licences in mortmain were by no means impossible to obtain.
This was the purely political feeling against the tyranny of the papacy, and the abuses of the national church, which in early ages had given supporters to William the Conqueror and Henry II., which had dictated the statutes of Mortmain and of Praemunire.
His reforms in church matters made a great stir at the time, for he curbed the power of the clergy, suppressed some religious houses, reduced the mortmain and rejected papal interference.
The council is a body corporate, may hold land in mortmain, and can appoint committees for its own parish or jointly with any other parish council.
The Statute of Mortmain forbade any man to alienate land to the church without royal licence.