The effects of morphine are much more deleterious than those of opiumsmoking.
The remedy most trusted to in this disease is opium and its alkaloids, morphine and codeine.
In some abdominal conditions, for instance, opium is still preferred by the majority of practitioners, though certainly not in gastric cases, where morphine gives the relief for which opium often increases the need, owing to the irritant action of some of its constituents.
It is worse even than opium-eating, in proportion as morphine is more active than opium.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
The sale and use of morphine in India and Burma is now restricted.
The condition may even go on to a fatal result should morphine be continuously withheld, but injection of even a small quantity of morphine causes these symptoms to cease abruptly.
(4) Isoquinoline group. The opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotine, narceine, &c.; and the complicated substances hydrastine and berberine.
Irritation of sensory nerves tends to cause contraction of the vessels, and to raise the blood pressure, and where pain is ffi, present opium or morphine is the most efficient sedative.
opium remade into cakes, at the port of shipment, to contain 7, 8, 9, or 10% of morphine, are chiefly sold.
This tincture contains chloroform, morphine and prussic acid, and must be used with the greatest care.
It is to be noted that children, who are particularly susceptible to the influence of certain of the other potent alkaloids, such as morphine and strychnine, will take relatively large doses of atropine without ill-effect.
Opium is obtained from the latex of the opium poppy (Pa paver somniferum), which contains the alkaloid morphine.
The sudden withdrawal of morphine should therefore never be practised with takers of large quantities of the drug, but gradually diminishing doses given by the physician should be substituted.
For the successf ul treatment of morphinism, complete isolation of the patient is necessary in a place where he is supervised so that he can obtain no morphine.
Irritation is lessened by lotions containing substances that will diminish irritability of the nerve-endings and skin, such as carbolic acid, hydrocyanic acid, morphine or opium, cocaine, belladonna or atropine.
Amongst those which lessen excitability of the brain-cells are opium, morphine, hyoscyamus, chloral, sulphonal, trional, paraldehyde, chloralamide, chloralose, hop and many others.
At this meeting it was resolved that it was the duty of the respective governments to prevent the export of opium to any countries prohibiting its importation; that drastic measures should be taken against the use of morphine; that anti-opium remedies should be investigated; and that all countries having concessions in China should close the opium divans in their possessions.
A good deal of morphine is exported to Japan from Europe, and generally passes into China by way of Manchuria, where Japanese products have a virtual monopoly.
Browne finds that after smoking " chandoo," containing 8.98% of morphine, 7.63% was left in the dross, so that only 1.35% of morphia was carried over in the smoke or decomposed by the heat.
A small amount of morphine and codeine is also manufactured in India for medicinal use.
The quantity of morphine that any one may legally possess, and then only for medicinal purposes, is in India 10 grams, and in Burma five.
The possession of morphine by medical practitioners is also safeguarded by well-defined limitations.
Druggists' opium includes the kinds purchased for use in medicine, which for Great Britain should, when dried and powdered, contain 92-101% of morphine.
The softer varieties of opium are preferred in the American market, as being richer in morphine.
Manufacturers' opium includes any grade yielding not less than 102% of morphine, but the Yoghourma or " pudding " opium, on account of its paste being more difficult to work, is not used for the extraction of the active principles.
But codeine can also be made from morphine.
produced at Istip, is very pure, and is considered equal to the Malatia opium, containing about II% of morphine.
The amount manufactured in 1906-1907 was 346 lb of morphine hydrochlorate, 12 lb of the acetate and 61 lb of codeia.
The alkaloids fall into two chemical groups: (i) derivatives of isoquinoline, including papaverine, narcotine, gnoscopine (racemic narcotine), narceine, laudanosine, laudanine, cotarnine, hydrocotarnine (the last two do not occur in opium), and (2) derivatives of phenanthrene, including morphine, codeine, thebaine.
Cotarnine IV.Narceine The chemistry of morphine, codeine and thebaine is exceedingly complicated, and the literature enormous.
Formulae have been proposed by Pschorr and Knorr explaining this and other decompositions (in Pschorr's formula the morphine ring system is a fusion of a phenanthrene and pyridine nucleus); another formula, containing a fusion of a phenanthrene with a pyrrol ring, was proposed by Bucherer in'1907.
Soc. Morphine, or morphia, crystallizes in prisms with one molecule of water; it is soluble in woo parts of cold water and in 160 of boiling water, and may be crystallized from alcohol; it is almost insoluble in ether and chloroform.
Distilled with zinc dust morphine yields phenanthrene, pyridine and quinoline; dehydration gives, under certain conditions, apomorphine, C17H17N02, a white amorphous substance, readily soluble in alcohol, either and chloroform.
- Of the opium alkaloids only morphine and codeine are used to any extent in medicine.
The pharmacology of opium differs from that of morphine (q.v.) in a few particulars.
The chief difference between the action of opium and morphine is due to the presence in the former of thebaine, which readily affects the more irritable spinal cord of very young children.
When given by the mouth, opium has a somewhat different action from that of morphine.
Often it relieves vomiting, though in a few persons it may cause vomiting, but in far less degree than apomorphine, which is a powerful emetic. Opium has a more marked diaphoretic action than morphine, and is much less certain as a hypnotic and analgesic. There are a few therapeutic indications for the use of opium rather than morphine, but they are far less important than those which make the opposite demand.
Opium is often preferred to morphine in cases of diabetes, where prolonged administration is required.
Chronic opium poisoning by the taking of laudanum - as in the familiar case of De Quincey - need not be considered here, as the hypodermic injection of morphine has almost entirely supplanted it.
Potassium permanganate decomposes morphine by oxidation, the action being facilitated by the addition of a small quantity of mineral acid to the solution.
The only alkaloids likely to remain in the prepared opium, and capable of producing well-marked physiological results, are morphine, codeine and narceine.
Morphine, in the pure state, can be sublimed, but codeine and narceine are said not to give a sublimate.
Even if sublimed in smoking opium, morphine would, in M'Callum's opinion, probably be deposited in the pipe before it reached the mouth of the smoker.
The bitter taste of morphine is not noticeable when smoking opium, and it is therefore possible that the pleasure derived from smoking the drug is due to some product formed during combustion.
Morphine may be given hypodermically to mitigate the pain.
By the middle of the 19th century there were many workers on the subject, and the actions of such drugs as digitalis, morphine, alcohol, and many others had been frequently and minutely investigated.
Morphine and the other opium alkaloids (codeine, narcotine, laudanine, &c.) have two prominent actions - a narcotic followed by a tetanic action.
In morphine, on the higher animals at least, the narcotic action is very marked, the tetanizing action slightly so; while in thebaine there is little narcotic effect, but a tetanizing action like that of strychnine.
Morphine exercises its effects chiefly upon the cerebrum and the medulla oblongata in man.
Compared with morphine, codeine and the other alkaloids are only slightly narcotizing.
The bridged ring fragment is common to morphine and related alkaloids of pharmacological importance.
analgesia compared with morphine.
Driving ability in cancer patients receiving long-term morphine analgesia.
Opium is very strong as it contains codeine and morphine.
It is from the opiate family, which also includes codeine and morphine.
Precautions All patients who have been given morphine must be carefully observed for evidence of respiratory depression.
Additional research was conducted at Aushwitz, using a range of chemicals including various barbiturates and morphine derivatives.
dose of morphine.
She was put on a morphine drip for the pain tho.
Figure 3. Lack of effect of morphine on the responses of the longitudinal smooth muscle of a segment of guinea pig ileum in vitro.
Should paralytic ileus be suspected or occur during use, morphine tablets should be discontinued immediately.
intramuscular morphine about 53% of patients get more than 50% pain relief.
An opiate receptor ligand, would then only attach to the perfect opiate group, like endorphins, morphine or heroine.
injected morphine in postoperative pain: a quantitative systematic review.
morphine administered by his doctor.
I am prescribed morphine, slow release which I have taken for two years.
In two of six trials there was no internal sensitivity and no difference between intra-articular morphine and saline.
For comparison, with 10 mg intramuscular morphine about 53% of patients get more than 50% pain relief.
A single dose of epidural morphine may relieve pain for 12-24 hours.
For the painful bone crises, analgesics (pain relief ), usually intravenous morphine, were the only choice.
The oral morphine can be slowly stopped once the battery has been replaced.
Pain is controlled by strong pain killing drugs delivered continuously via a drip (e.g. morphine ).
morphine sulfate during the day (three to four times ).
morphine drip for the pain tho.
morphine infusion was significantly impaired.
morphine addict into withdrawal.
Apply 10 mg morphine once or twice a day.
At all times be gentle and consider using sedation such as low dose diazepam and/or morphine to help you.
As with modified release morphine this is not suitable for use if the patient has unstable pain.
morphine in the body tissues.
morphine for the pain?
Titrate small doses of intravenous opioid (morphine, pethidine) to control pain.
opium alkaloid, with activity similar to, but weaker than morphine.
In the same year, her husband died from a morphine overdose.
For example, elderly people are particularly susceptible to the side effects of opioid painkillers such as morphine and sleeping tablets such as diazepam.
paralytic ileus be suspected or occur during use, morphine tablets should be discontinued immediately.
potent than morphine.
Which famous psychoanalyst committed suicide with a morphine overdose?
unremitting pain receiving morphine?
Beside her bed I saw two empty vials of morphine.
It is a physiological antagonist of chloral hydrate, morphine and physostigmine, and may be given in poisoning by these drugs.
The sudden withdrawal of the drug from a morphine habituÃ© is followed by a train of alarming symptoms. As the time approaches for the usual dose there is marked restlessness, followed by excitement and later by chills, pallor, sinking, nausea, with perhaps vomiting and diarrhoea.
This supposition is rendered probable by the fact that the opiums most prized by smokers are not those containing most morphine, and that the quality is judged by the amount of soluble matter in the opium, by its tenacity or " touch," and by peculiarities of aroma - the Indian opium, especially the Patna kind, bearing much the same relation to the Chinese and Persian drug that champagne does to y in ordinaire.
Morphine and similar drugs titrated up for pain control, and even sedatives in the terminal phase of illness, do not shorten life.
Maybe you have the image of a terminally ill patient with chronic unremitting pain receiving morphine?
In the early 20th century, trainers gave race horses goldenseal in the hopes of masking the use of morphine and pain killers, but the narcotics were always detectable in urine tests.
Commonly abused prescription opioids include morphine, codeine, Vicodin, and Demerol.
Opiate-based drug addictions that are effectively treated by with this method of detoxification include addictions to heroin, codeine, Vicodin, morphine, Demerol, Lorcet, and Percocet.
Opioids include pain medication like morphine, codeine, and oxycodone.
Naltrexone can also block the effects of morphine, heroin, and other opiates.
Heroin, which comes from an opium gum from the poppy plant, was originally developed as a "safe" alternative to morphine.
He tested it on himself and on animals, and proclaimed the drug to be safer and less toxic than morphine.
Because heroin is much more addictive than morphine, a significant problem was noticed from almost the start.
Once it gets to a "refinery," a chemical process turns it into morphine bricks, and more chemicals are used to make it into the final product.
Heroin is an illegal drug that is derived from morphine, a powerful pain reliever.
Morphine is made from the seeds of Asian poppies.
Narcotics (opioids): Veterinarians will sometimes use narcotics, such as morphine, codeine, hydrocodone, fentanyl or buprenorphine, for controlling severe pain when other medications are not strong enough.
Drug-Induced: Another form of central apnea is caused by medications such as oxycodone, codeine, or morphine (or others) that cause breathing to become irregular.
Potential poisons in this category include anesthetics (e.g. ether and chloroform), opiates (e.g., morphine and codeine), and barbiturates.
The class includes morphine, codeine, and a number of semi-synthetics including meperidine (Demerol), propoxyphen (Darvon), and others.
Although the term can refer to any drug that deadens sensation or produces stupor, it is commonly applied to the opioids-that is, to all natural or synthetic drugs that act like morphine.
Opium latex contains between 10 and 20 percent morphine, which in its purified form is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste.
Natural derivatives of opium: Narcotics in this group include morphine itself and codeine.
Partially synthetic drugs derived from morphine: These drugs include heroin, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and oxymorphone (Numorphan).
Synthetic compounds that resemble morphine in their chemical structure: Narcotics in this group include fentanyl (Duragesic), levorphanol (Levo-Dromoran), meperidine (Demerol), methadone, and propoxyphene (Darvon).
Opium latex-The milky juice or sap of the opium poppy, used to produce morphine.
If an epidural or spinal were used, Duramorph (a pain medication similar to morphine) is often administered through these catheters just prior to completion of surgery.
For example, people who are given morphine or other opioid medications for pain relief after surgery sometimes feel nauseated by the drug.
The medication works like morphine and it can help wean opiate-addicted patients.
They offer what's called the "Salomon Morphine Trunk"- quite a name, but you'll love the look and the pocket details.
The effect isn't just psychological either; the workout triggers a burst of endorphins, similar in nature to morphine, raising all-around well-being.
Endorphins, the body's "happy drugs" responsible for the euphoria, are similar to morphine and brings about a strong feeling of general wellness.
It is formed when the vapours of toluene, stilbene, dibenzyl, ortho-ditolyl, or coumarone and benzene are passed through a red-hot tube; by distilling morphine with zinc dust; and, with anthracene, by the action of sodium on ortho-brombenzyl bromide (C. L.
Do not employ such physiological antagonists as pilocarpine or morphine, for the lethal actions of all these drugs exhibit not mutual antagonism but coincidence.
MORPHINE, the chief alkaloid of opium, to which the medicinal action of the former is mainly due.
The preparations of morphine are incompatible with salts of iron, copper and mercury, also with lime water and alkaline earths and substances containing tannin.
The preparations of morphine in the British Pharmacopoeia are as follow: from Morphinae Hydrochloridum are made five subpreparations: (1) Liquor Morphinae Hydrochloridi, strength 1% or about 44 grs.
of morphine hydrochloride in each; (3) Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae, strength gr.
of morphine hydrochloride and gr.
From Morphinae Tartras, a white crystalline powder, are prepared, Injectio Morphinae Hypodermica, containing 5% of morphine tartrate, and Liquor Morphinae Tartratis.
Hypodermic tabloids of morphine sulphate either alone or combined with atropine are much in use.
Various non-official preparations of morphine are in use, such as dionin, heroin, glycaphorm and peronin.
Morphine is an analgesic and hypnotic, relieving pain and producing deep sleep. As contrasted with opium it differs in being less astringent and constipating.
Morphine is the greatest anodyne we possess, and no drug yet discovered equals it in pain-relieving power.
In pain due to violent sciatica relief and even permanent cure has been obtained by the injection of morphine directly into the muscle of the affected part, and in the treatment of renal and hepatic colic morphine given subcutaneously will relieve the acute pain consequent on the passage of biliary and urinary calculi.
A violent paroxysm of asthma may be arrested by the administration of morphine subcutaneously, but the practice should not be continued, as there is great danger in a chronic disease that the patient may become the victim of morphinism.
Morphine is recognized as one of the most useful drugs in the treatment of eclampsia, early injection often arresting the fits.
In the cough of phthisis minute doses are of service, but in this particular disease morphine is frequently better replaced by codeine or by heroin, which checks irritable coughs without the narcotism following upon the administration of morphine.
In bronchitis with profuse expectoration the use of morphine is particularly dangerous, as it is likely to check the cough so necessary for getting rid of the secretion, but in the converse condition it usefully allays the harassing cough by diminishing the excitability of the respiratory centre.
In the dyspnoea of advanced valvular disease of the heart morphine relieves the distress and restlessness, and induces sleep. It should however be withheld if the heart has undergone fatty degeneration.
Morphine is a sheet anchor in the later stages of cancer and other painful diseases, rendering the life of the patient one of comparative comfort.
It is also excreted in the milk; hence the danger in the administration of large doses of morphine to nursing mothers.
Morphinism (Morphinomania).-Chronic morphine poisoning is very common, as morphine taken constantly creates a habit.
The total amount of morphine indulged in by the habitual morphinist may reach an astonishing figure; 15 grs.
The sudden withdrawal of the drug from a morphine habitué is followed by a train of alarming symptoms. As the time approaches for the usual dose there is marked restlessness, followed by excitement and later by chills, pallor, sinking, nausea, with perhaps vomiting and diarrhoea.
Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.
Under the name of anti-opium cure various remedies containing morphine in the form of powder, or of little pills, have been introduced, as well as the subcutaneous injection of the alkaloid, so that the use of morphine is increasing in China to an alarming extent, and considerable difficulty is experienced in controlling the illicit traffic in it, especially that sent through the post.
Unless the indirect importation of morphine into China from Europe and the United States is stopped, a worse habit and more difficult to cure than any other (except perhaps that.
Of the other alkaloids narceine is hypnotic, like morphine and codeine, whilst thebaine, papaverine and narcotine have an action which resembles that of strychnine, and is, generally speaking, undesirable or dangerous if at all well marked.
The tincture often known as " paregoric " is also largely used in bronchial conditions, and morphine shows no sign of displacing it in favour.
Opium rather than morphine is also usually employed to relieve the pain of haemorrhoids or fissure of the rectum.
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