In the latter half of the century large colonies of Tosks were planted in the Morea by the despots of Mistra, and in Attica and Boeotia by Duke Nerio of Athens.
Southwards it extends to Sardinia, Sicily and the Morea.
They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, and in the Morea, with various success.
Yet she kept the Adriatic free of pirates, notably by suppressing the sea-robbers called Uscocchi (1601-1617), maintained herself in the Ionian Islands, and in 1684 added one more to the series of victorious episodes which render her annals so romantic. In that year Francesco Morosini, upon whose tomb we still may read the title Peloponnesiacus, wrested the whole of the Morea from the Turks.
Leake, Travels in the Morea, i.
of Cape Malea in the Morea.
Palaeologus and his son Theodore, despot of the Morea; W.
Leopardo was also the creator (1505) of the three handsome bronze sockets in front of St Mark's which held the flagstaffs of the banners of Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic was mistress of those territories.
The fifth Turkish war (1645-1668) entailed the loss of Crete; and though Morosini reconquered the Morea for a brief space in 1685, that province was finally lost to Venice in 1716.
The Chronicle of the Morea (as this work is generally called) is written from the Frankish point of view, in spite of its Greek verse; and the Byzantine point of view must be sought in Nicetas.'
The people are industrious, and many of them seek employment as labourers in the Morea and Asia Minor.
The port and the capital are now connected by railway with Corinth and the principal towns of the Morea; the line opening up communication with northern Greece and Thessaly, when its proposed connexion with the Continental railway system has been effected, will greatly enhance the importance of the Peiraeus, already one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the Levant.
KALAMATA (officially Kaaaµae, from an ancient town near the site), chief town of the modern Greek nomarchy of Messenia in the Morea, situated on the left bank of the Nedon, about m.
In 1685 Kalamata was captured by the Venetians; in 1770, and again in 1821, it was the revolutionary headquarters in the Morea.
1652-1697), " a religious maiden," visited Smyrna, the Morea and the court of Mahommed IV.
There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
The latter withdrew on the viceroy's promise that Ibrahim should evacuate the Morea.
Salonica, Thessaly, Athens and the Morea were under independent Greek princes.
In 1446 Corinth, Patras and the north of the Morea were added to the Turkish dominions.
Venice having adopted a hostile attitude since Turkey's conquests in the Morea, greater attention was devoted to the fleet; Mytilene was captured and the entrance to the straits fortified.
Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.
One after another the Hungarian forts were captured by the Austrians; the Venetians were equally successful in Greece and the Morea; the Russians pressed on the Crimea, and Sobieski besieged Kamenets.
The main provisions of these were, that Turkey retained the Banat, while Austria kept Transylvania; Poland restored the places captured in Moldavia, but retained Kamenets, Podolia and the Ukraine; Venice restored her conquests north of Corinth, but kept those in the Morea and Dalmatia.
compensation for the loss of the Morea.
England and Holland now urged their mediation, and after negotiations the treaty of Passarowitz (Pozharevats in Servia) was signed (July 21, 1718); Venice ceded the Morea to Turkey but kept the strongholds she had occupied in Albania and Dalmatia; Belgrade, Temesvar and Walachia as far as the Olt were retained by Austria.
They were hampered, moreover, by an insurrection in the Morea, where a Russian expedition under Orlov had stirred up the' Mainotes, and by risings in Syria and Egypt.
It was far otherwise with the insurrection which broke out at the beginning of April in the Morea.
The Mussulman population of the Morea, taken unawares, was practically exterminated during the fury of the first few days; and, most fatal of all, the defection of the Greeks of the islands crippled the Ottoman navy by depriving it of its only effective sailors.
Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.
The Morea was quickly overrun; in April 1826 Missolonghi fell, after a heroic defence; in June 1827 Athens was once more in the hands of the Turks.
In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
On the 16th of November a protocol of the London conference placed the Morea, with the neighbouring islands and the Cyclades, under the guarantee of the powers; and on the 22nd of March 1829 another protocol extended the frontier thus guaranteed to the line Arta-Volo and included the island of Euboea.
He settled in the island of Hydra on the east of the Morea, and when the Greek War of Independence began was known among his fellow townsmen as a trader in corn who had gained wealth, and who made a popular use of his money.
It was abandoned during the middle ages; its inhabitants took posession of the promontory of Minoa, turned it into an island, and built and fortified thereon the city of Monembasia, which became the most flourishing of all the towns in the Morea, and gave its name to the well-known Malmsey or Malvasia wine.
His instructions were to demand an armistice, to intercept all supplies coming to the Turkish forces in the Morea from Africa or Turkey in general, and to look for directions to Stratford Canning (Lord Stratford de Redcliffe), the British ambassador at Constantinople.
Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1830), cc. iv.-viii., xxii., xxiii.; E.
The threat of the growing power in the Aegean of Venice, which had acquired Cyprus in 1489, at last roused him to a more serious effort; and in 1499 the war broke out with the republic, which ended in 1502 by the annexation to Turkey of Lepanto and Modon, Coron and Navarino in the Morea.
When Amadeus succeeded to the throne these were divided into the county of Savoy (his own territory), the princi pality of Piedmont ruled by his nephew Philip, prince of Achaea (a title acquired through his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin, heiress of Achaea and the Morea), and Vaud ruled by his brother Louis.
In 1210 it was joined to the Latin duchy of the Morea, and subsequently was contended for by various Italian pretenders.
Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1830), i.
During the earlier stages of the war he served in the Morea, and had a somewhat discreditable share in the intrigues which divided the Greek leaders.
It is believed that the vine was introduced into this region by colonists from Italy and Morea in 1241.
If we exclude the abortive invasion of the Danubian principalities by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (March 1821), which collapsed ignominiously as soon as it was disavowed by the tsar, the theatre of the war was confined to continental Greece, the Morea, and the adjacent narrow seas.
When, on the 2nd of April 1821, Archbishop Germanos, head of the Hetaeria in the Morea, raised the standard of the cross at Kalavryta as the signal for a general rising of the Christian population, the circumstances were highly favourable.
In the Morea, meanwhile, a few Mussulman fortresses still held out: Coron, Modon, Navarino, Patras, Nauplia, Monemvasia, Tripolitsa.
This completed the success of the insurrection in the Morea, where only Patras, Nauplia, and one or two lesser fortresses remained to the Turks.
The threatened breach with Russia had been avoided by Metternich's influence on the tsar Alexander; the death of Ali of Iannina had set free the army of Khurshid Pasha, who now, as seraskier of Rumelia, was charged with the task of reducing the Morea.
Here he completed his preparations, and, on the 24th of February 1825, landed at Modon in the Morea with a force of 4000 regular infantry and soo cavalry.
On the 21 st of March Ibrahim Morea.
Had Reshid at once advanced over the Isthmus, the Morea also must have been subdued; but he was jealous of Ibrahim, and preferred to return to Iannina to consolidate his conquests.
To put a stop to this the Powers decided to intervene by means of a joint demonstration of their fleets, in order to enforce an armistice and compel Ibrahim to evacuate the Morea (Treaty of London, July 6, 1827).
Other brothers were Demetrius, prince of the Morea until 1460, and Thomas, prince of Achaia, who died at Rome in 1465.
I speak of the natural Turks, who trade either into the black Sea or some part of the Morea, or between Constantinople and Alexandria, and not of the Pyrats of Barbary, who are for the most part Renegado's, and learnt their skill in Christendom..
Orlov tempted the Greeks of the Morea to take up arms, and then left them in the lurch.
In 1263 and 1264 respectively, Michael, with the help of Urban IV., concluded peace with Villehardouin, prince of Achaia, and Michael, despot of Epirus, who had previously been incited by the pope to attack him, but had been decisively beaten at Pelagonia in Thessaly (1259); Villehardouin was obliged to cede Mistra, Monemvasia and Maina in the Morea.
In the autumn of 1824 a fleet of sixty Egyptian war-ships carrying a large force of disciplined troops concentrated in Suda Bay, and, in the following March, Ibrahini as commander-in-chief landed in the Morea.
In 1803 the Suliot stronghold fell; and he was undisputed master of Epirus, Albania and Thessaly, while the pashalik of the Morea was held by his son Veli, and that of Lepanto by his son Mukhtar.
He struck the name of Alexander Ypsilanti from the Russian army list, and directed his foreign minister, Count Capo d'Istria, himself a Greek, to disavow all sympathy of Russia with his enterprise; and, next year, a deputation of the Greeks of the Morea on its way to the congress of Verona was turned back by his orders on the road.
In the 6th century the Sla y s penetrated to the Morea, where a Slavonic dialect was spoken down to the middle of the 15th century.
by the Morea, or in other words the ancient provinces, including Constantinople and Salonica, of Thrace and Macedonia.
Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1835), ii.
Tetrasi, 5210 ft.) and their westerly extension, on the west by the mountains of Cyparissia (4000 ft.), a southern continuation of which forms the south-west peninsula of the Morea, attaining its greatest height in Mt Mathia (mod.
It was overrun by Slavic hordes, who have left their traces in many village names, and was one of the chief battlefields of the various powers - Byzantines, Franks, Venetians and Turks - who struggled for the possession of the Morea.
Before the war of independence it was the capital of the Morea and the seat of a pasha, with about 20,000 inhabitants; but in 1821 it was taken and sacked by the insurgents, and in 1825 its ruin was completed by Ibrahim Pasha.
The immediate price was the pashalik of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, that of the Morea to his son Ibrahim.
In 1828 an isolated epidemic appeared in Greece in the Morea, supposed to have been brought by troops from Egypt.
Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1830), iii.
The fruit is smaller than that of the Morea, and has a peculiar flavour; it finds a market mainly in Holland, Belgium and Germany.
Demetrios Ypsilanti (1793-1832), second SOD of Prince Constantine, distinguished himself as a Russian officer in the campaign of 1814, and in the spring of 1821 went to the Morea, where the war of Greek independence had just broken out.
After going through the usual course of study for the military profession, he entered the army as an engineer officer in 1824, and served in the Morea in 1828, becoming captain in the following year.
In 1715 the Morea was taken from the Venetians.
Cousin procured him a post on a government mission to the Morea in 1829, and on his return he published in 1830 a book on La Grece moderne.
From Italy the use of the title spread - first, with the Crusaders, to the Holy Land, where Bohemund, son of Tancred, took the style of prince of Antioch; next, with the Latin conquerors, into the East Roman Empire, where in 1205 William de Champlette, a cadet of the house of Champagne, founded the principality of Achaea and the Morea.
POROS, or Poro ("the Ford"), an island off the east coast of the Morea, separated at its western extremity by only a narrow channel from the mainland at Troezen, and consisting of a mass of limestone rock and of a mass of trachyte connected by a slight sandy isthmus.
See Chandler, Travels; Leake, Morea; Le Bas, Voyage arche- ologique; Curtius, Peloponnesos; Pouillon-Boblaye, Recherches; Bursian, Geographic von Griechenland; Rangabe "Ein Ausflug nach Poros," in Deutsche Revue (1883); and S.
The mythic importance of the town revived in the middle ages, when it became one of the chief cities of the Morea.
Leake, Travels in the Morea (London, 1830), chs.
In 1460 it was conquered, with the rest of the Morea, by the Turks.
Their Uniat propaganda encountered the opposition of the Armenians and they were compelled to move to the Morea, at that time Venetian territory, and there built a monastery, 1706.
When in 1824 Mehemet Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by the sultan, who desired his help against the insurgent Greeks, he sent Ibrahim with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men.
The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea.
He remained in the Morea till the capitulation of the 1st of October 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.
Ibrahim's operations in the Morea were energetic and ferocious.
Patras was at length, in 1687, surrendered by the Turks to the Venetians, who made it the seat of one of the seven fiscal boards into which they divided the Morea.
In 1714 it again fell, with the rest of the Morea, into Turkish hands.
Leake, Morea, chs.
Returning to his own people, he had died in the Morea.
He therefore took service with the Venetians, and in 1464 had the command of an expedition to the Morea.
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Under Turkish rule the city was for nearly four centuries the residence of the beylerbey or governor-general of the whole Balkan Peninsula except Bosnia and the Morea.
The first Turkish war lasted from 1464 to 1479, and ended in the loss of Negropont and several places in the Morea, and the payment by Venice of an annual tribute for trading rights.
The Venetians had been driven from the Morea and the islands of the Archipelago; and, except a strip of the Dalmatian coast and the little mountain state of Montenegro, the whole of the Balkan peninsula was in Turkish hands.
The result was the stamping out of the insurrection in Montenegro and the capture of the whole of the Morea.
The tsar consented, and proposed that the coercion should take the form of a pacific blockade of the Morea, so as to force Ibrahim, by cutting off his supplies, to evacuate the country.
In 1821 occurred the abortive raid of Alexander Ypsilanti into the Danubian principalities, and in May of the same year the revolt of the Greeks of the Morea began the war of Greek Independence (see Greece: History).
In the Morea itself, in spite of plentiful warning, the Turks were wholly unprepared; while the bulk of the Ottoman army, under the seraskier Khurshid Pasha, was engaged in the long task of reducing the intrepid Ali, pasha of Iannina (see ALI, pasha of Iannina).
(See Turkey.) Slight successes in Syria and the Morea against rebellious outbreaks there could not compensate for the loss of the Crimea, which Russia soon showed that she meant to absorb entirely.
The history of the events that led up to the battle of Navarino and the liberation of Greece is told elsewhere (see NAVARINO and GREEK INDEPENDENCE, WAR OF); the withdrawal of the Egyptians from the Morea was ultimately due to the action of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, who early in August 1828 appeared before Alexandria and induced the pasha, by no means sorry to have a reasonable excuse, by a threat of bombardment, to sign a convention undertaking to recall Ibrahim and his army.
The Peninsula in its general contour resembles an inverted pyramid or triangle, terminating at its apex in a subsidiary peninsula, the Peloponnesus or Morea.
The Franks on their arrival in the Morea found a fortified city named Lacedaemonia occupying part of the site of ancient Sparta, and this continued to exist, though greatly depopulated, even after Guillaume de Villehardouin had in1248-1249founded the fortress and city of Misithra, or Mistra, on a spur of Taygetus some 3 m.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.