Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
In 1849 exclusive Moravian control of Salem's industries and trades was abolished; in 1856 land was first sold to others than Moravians, and in the same year the town was incorporated.
On the west side are the institution of the sisters of St Vincent; the Ratisbon school; the Montefiore hospice; the British ophthalmic hospital of the knights of St John; the convent and church of the Clarisses; and the Moravian leper hospital.
(1) Ma.hrisch-Ostrau (Moravian Ostrau), a town in Moravia, 95 m.
MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or Moravian CHu4cH, a Christian communion founded in the east of Bohemia.
The revival of the Moravian Brethren was German in origin.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
In form the Moravian Church was soon restored.
In this way the Moravian orders were maintained; the "ecclesiola" became an independent body, and the British parliament recognized the Brethren as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church" (1 749, 22 Geo.
I); and the idea underlying this word is that the Brethren minister to the "scattered" in other Churches without drawing them into the Moravian Church.
In reply to the very natural question why the Moravians began their work in England, the answer given by history is that John Wesley, on his voyage to Georgia (1735) met some Moravian emigrants; that on his return he met Peter Boehler, who was on his way to North Carolina; that through Boehler's influence both John and Charles Wesley were "converted" (1738).
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
In Germany the official title of the Church is Evangelische BruderUniteit; in Austria, Evangelische Bruder-Kirche; in England and America, Moravian Church.
Schulze, Abrisz einer Geschichte der Bruder-Mission (1901); Seifferth, Church Constitution of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (1866); De Schweinitz, History of the Unitas Fratrum (1885); Wauer, Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England (1901); Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church in the 28th and 19th Centuries (1900); Hutton, History of the Moravian Church (1909); Moravian Church Book (1902); Moravian Almanac (annual).
He as vainly sought to secure Luther's adoption of a strict rule of church discipline, after the manner of the Moravian Brethren.
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
The most noticeable feature of recent Moravian history has been the active sympathy of its inhabitants with the anti-Teutonic home-rule agitation of the Bohemian Czechs.
Moravian Brethren >>
John Gambold, a member of the Holy Club, who afterwards became a Moravian bishop, says "he was blest with such activity as to be always gaining ground, and such steadiness that he Iost none.
The calm confidence of their Moravian fellow-passengers amid the Atlantic storms convinced Wesley that he did not possess the faith which casts out fear.
Wesley spent some time during the summer of 1738 in visiting the Moravian settlement at Herrnhuth and returned to London on September 16, 1738, with his faith greatly strengthened.
The Moravian mission, which had worked in Greenland for a century and a half, retired from the country in 1900.
North of this line is the low hilly country, known as the Waldviertel, which lies at the foot and forms the continuation of the Bohemian and Moravian plateau.
It is chiefly known as the principal seat of the Moravian or Bohemian brotherhood, the members of which 1,re called Herrnhuter.
It is the seat of a Moravian mission, and has a good harbour, with regular steamship services to Greytown in Nicaragua, and to New Orleans.
The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great central mountain system of Europe.
Five miles east of Utrecht is the village of Zeist, the seat of a Moravian settlement established here in 1746.
Viadua; Slavonic, Vjodr), a river of Germany, rises in Austria on the Odergebirge in the Moravian tableland at a height of 1950 ft.
but, after passing through the gap between the Moravian mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain,, its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low.
Among the smaller religious sects the Moravian Brethren, whose chief seat is at Herrnhut, are perhaps the most interesting.
Johann Friedrich Bbttger made his famous discovery in 1710, and the manufacture of porcelain was begun at Meissen, and in this reign the Moravian Brethren made their settlement at Herrnhut.
It is not without interest to note that the three principal leaders of the movement for independence were a Moravian of Slovak descent (i?'Iasaryk), a Slovak (Gen.
The great majority of the landlords were nobles of foreign origin who acquired their 'estates at the hands of the Habsburg conqueror from 1621 onwards, when, after the battle of the White Mountain, the lands of the Czech nobles and yeomen were confiscated, the owners being executed or, as adherents of the Moravian Brotherhood and other Protestant churches, preferring to pass into exile rather than surrender their faith.
(962-992), wrested from the vast but tottering Moravian Empire the province of Chrobacyja (extending from the Carpathians to the Bug), and that Christianity was first preached on the Vistula by Greek Orthodox missionary monks.
At the main entrance are bronze doors, decorated in relief with scenes from the state's history; the floor of the rotunda is of tiles made at Doylestown, in the style of the pottery made by early Moravian settlers, and illustrating the state's resources; the Senate Chamber and the House Chamber have stained-glass windows by W.
Prossnitz is a town of ancient origin, and in the 16th century was one of the chief seats of the Moravian Brethren.
AUGUST GOTTLIEB SPANGENBERG (1704-1792), Count Zinzendorf's successor, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren, was born on the 15th of July 1704 at Klettenberg, on the south of the Harz Mountains, where his father, Georg Spangenberg, was court preacher and ecclesiastical inspector of the countship of Hohenstein.
In 1728 Count Zinzendorf visited Jena, and Spangenberg made his acquaintance; in 1730 he visited the Moravian colony at Herrnhut.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
The second thirty years of his work (1762-1792) were devoted to the consolidation of the German Moravian Church.
In 1777 Spangenberg was commissioned to draw up an idea fidei fratrum, or compendium of the Christian faith of the United Brethren, which became the accepted declaration of the Moravian belief.
In addition to the Idea fidei fratrum, Spangenberg wrote, besides other apologetic books, a Declaration fiber die seither gegen uns ausgegangenen Beschuldigungen sonderlich die Person unseres Ordinarius (Zinzendorf) betreffend (Leipzig, 1751), an Apologetische Schlussschrift (1752), Leben des Grafen Zinzendorf (r77 2-1775); and his hymns are well known beyond the Moravian circle.
" Spangenberg"; the article by Ledderhose, in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; also Moravian Brethren.
There is a large number of the smaller religious sects in the state; the principal denominations, with the number of communicants of each in 1906, are: Metho dist (363,443), Lutheran (335,643), Presbyterian (322,542), Reformed Church (177,270), Baptist (141,694), Protestant Episcopalian (99,021), United Brethren (55,574), United Evan gelical Church (45,480), Disciples of Christ (26,458), German Baptist Brethren (23,176), Eastern Orthodox Churches (22,123), Mennonites (16,527), Congregational (14,811), Evangelical Association (13,294), Friends (12,457), Church of God or " Winnebrennerians " (11,157), and Moravian (5322).
There are theological seminaries at Pittsburg, the Allegheny Seminary (United Presbyterian, 1825), Reformed Presbyterian (1856), and Western Theological Seminary (Presbyterian, 1827); at Lancaster (German Reformed, 1827); at Meadville (Unitarian, 18 44); at Bethlehem (Moravian, 1807); at Chester, the Crozer Theological Seminary (Baptist, 1868); at Gettysburg (Lutheran, 1826); and in Philadelphia several schools, notably the Protestant Episcopal Church divinity school (1862) and a Lutheran seminary (1864), at Mount Airy.
Jeaschke of the Moravian mission which was established in Ladak in 1857.
In 1902 was brought out at Calcutta Sarat Chandra Das's Tibetan English Dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, a massive volume compiled with the aid of Tibetan lamas and edited by Graham Sandberg and the Moravian missionary A.
Prerau was at one time the chief seat of the Moravian Brethren.
worked through the Moravian and Basel societies until 1862, when it began independent work and concentrated on the Tamil population of South India.
The Moravian Church, whose missions are the oldest (1732), is itself a missionary organization in a sense in which no 3.
They were followed by the Glasgow Missionary Society (1821), the Paris Evangelical Society (1829), the Moravian, Rhenish and Berlin Societies, and the American Board.
The Paris Society, represented especially by Francois Coillard, has been successful along the Zambezi, and Scottish, German, Moravian and Jesuit agencies are also well represented.
Geographers style this the Moravian Gate.
Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there were: Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679; Masuran, 142,049; Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305; Cassubian, 100,213; Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80,36,; Italian, 65,961; Moravian, 64,382; Czech, 43,016; Frisian, 20,677; English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841.
According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German empire- 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other confessions, 586,948 Jews, f 1,597 members of other sects and 5938 unclassified, The Christians belonging to other confessions include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900.
Among those who sought refuge here was a colony of Moravian Brethren; they still occupy a separate quarter of the town, where they carry on manufactures of porcelain stoves and deerskin gloves.
The first settlement in the vicinity was made in May 1772, when Moravian Indian converts migrated from Pennsylvania (Friedenshiitten, Bradford county, and Friedenstadt, Lawrence county) to Schoenbrunn, called by the Indians Welhik-Tuppeek, a spring (now dry) a little south of the present New Philadelphia.
See Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for April 1909 (Columbus, Ohio) for several articles on the early settlement by Moravian Indians.
The Moravian Anabaptists, says Rost, went bare-footed, washed each other's feet (like the Fraticelli), had all goods in common, worked everyone at a handicraft, had a spiritual father who prayed with them every morning and taught them, dressed in black and had long graces before and after meals.
Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
COMENIUS (or [[Komensky), Johann Amos]] (1592-1671), a famous writer on education, and the last bishop of the old church of the Moravian and Bohemian Brethren, was born at Comna, or, according to another account, at Niwnitz, in Moravia, of poor parents belonging to the sect of the Moravian Brethren.
The same sect that erected these buildings, the Moravians, or United Brethren, maintain here the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, and a well-known school for girls (the Moravian Seminary), founded as a church boarding school in 1749 and reorganized in 1785, for girls of all denominations.
From its roof the famous Moravian trombones were long played on festal or funeral occasions, and later summoned the people to musical festivals.
s From the annals of the Moravian community of Sarepta on the Volga, Geschichte der Brider-Gemeinde Sarepta, by A.
A Moravian mission to the Hottentots was begun in 1737, continued to 1744 and was re-established - against the wishes of the colonists - in 1792.
The Latrobes were of Huguenot extraction, and belonged to the Moravian community, of which the father and grandfather of C. J.
See Brief Notices of the Latrobe Family (1864), a privately printed translation of an article revised by members of the family in the Moravian Briederbote (November 1864).
At Lindsey House Count Zinzendorf established a Moravian Society (c. 1750).
Near St Thomas's church on the Green stands an old Moravian chapel which is closely associated with the great scholar and divine, Bishop John Gambold (1711-1771).
There are, besides, several foreign missions in the colony, the most important being the Moravian, London and Rhenish missionary societies.
In 1792 Moravian missions had been established for the benefit of the Hottentots, 2 and in 1799 the London Missionary Society began work among both Hottentots and Kaffirs.
Among its greatest achievements, apart from the philanthropic institutions founded at Halle, were the organization of the Moravian Church in 1727 by Count von Zinzendorf, Spener's godson and a pupil in the Halle Orphanage, and the establishment of the great Protestant missions, Ziegenbalg and others being the pioneers of an enterprise which until this time Protestantism had strangely neglected.
In 1815 he went with his family to Sarepta, where he joined the Moravian community and again became strongly orthodox.
Gracehill, however, a Moravian settlement, was founded in 1746.
His father was a minister of the Moravian Church, who had taken the name of Peter Figulus on his baptism; the son, however, preferred the Bohemian family name of Jablonski.
1670), was a bishop of the Moravian Church.
Having studied at Frankfort-on-the-Oder and at Oxford, Jablonski entered upon his career as a preacher at Magdeburg in 1683, and then from 1686 to 1691 he was the head of the Moravian college at Lissa, a position which had been filled by his grandfather.
In 1693 he was transferred to Berlin as court preacher, and in 1699 he was consecrated a bishop of the Moravian Church.
He was educated in a Moravian school at Niesky in upper Lusatia, and at Barby near Halle.
Moravian theology, however, soon ceased to satisfy him, and his doubts rapidly took definite shape.
The Italians are chiefly confined to the coast; the Germans congregate at Semlin and Warasdin; the Slovenes are settled along the north-western frontier, where they have introduced their language, and so greatly modified the local dialect; the gipsies wander from city to city, as horse-dealers, metal workers or musicians; there are numerous Moravian and Bohemian settlements; and near Mitrovica there is a colony of Albanians.
Originally a member of a Moravian congregation, she attached herself to the Methodists after her husband's death.
There is an extensive wine list that includes Moravian wines and a large selection of foreign wines, chosen by distinguished Czech sommeliers.
By resolution 68 the conference stated its desire to "maintain and strengthen the friendly relations" between the Churches of the Anglican Communion and "the ancient Church of Holland" (Jansenist, see Utrecht) and the old Catholic Churches; and resolutions 70-73 made elaborate provisions for a projected corporate union between the Anglican Church and the Unitas Fratrum (Moravian Brethren).
The town was to be the centre of this colony, where missionary work and religious liberty were to be promoted, and it remained the home of the governing board of the Moravian Church in the South.
He was a fervent Lutheran of the Pietist type; he believed in Spener's "ecclesiola" conception; and now he tried to apply the conception to the Moravian refugees.
13, 1727), had such a powerful unifying experience that modern Moravians regard that day as the birthday of the renewed Moravian Church.
Episcopacy in a stricter sense is the system of the Moravian Brethren and the Methodist Episcopal Church of America (see Methodism).
If we were in Vienna it would be easy, but here, in this wretched Moravian hole, it is more difficult, and I beg you all to help me.
Many of them come from Pennsylvania and New York, as well as Moravian settlements in the North East.
Digital transcription of the Bethlehem Moravian Congregation marriage records from 1742 through 1854.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.