Moral sentence example

moral
  • Our efforts sometimes produced moral dilemmas.
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  • Call it moral support.
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  • There was a moral behind it, one that terrified her.
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  • Their actions showed moral ambiguity.
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  • There was no way to defend her moral objections without seeding doubt in his mind.
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  • In spite of her strict moral standards on premarital relationships, Carmen was obviously stirred deeply by desire.
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  • Moral reform is the effort to throw off sleep.
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  • He had no faith in her self-control; her moral commitment.
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  • Drinking became more and more a physical and also a moral necessity.
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  • She was a master at building her own moral roadblocks, placing her goals frustratingly out of reach.
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  • He maintains the unity and freedom of the soul, and the absolute obligation of the moral law.
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  • Watching his retreating back, it occurred to her once again that she might lose him over moral issues.
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  • Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
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  • It was to prevent any falling off from this high moral standard till it should become part of his being that his father kept the boy so closely with himself.
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  • In spite of his inferior education, the contemporaries of Boniface trusted his prudence and moral character; yet when in financial straits he sold offices, and in 1399 transformed the annates into a permanent tax.
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  • But the prevalence of the worship of " other gods " and of graven images in these " high places," and the moral debasement of life which accompanied these cults, made it clear that the " high places " were sources of grave injury to Israel's social life.
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  • Vice and disease, which cast such a sombre moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any existence for him.
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  • This view seems to preserve all that is questionable in Libertarianism, while omitting its moral meaning.
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  • Yet it is a very grave question whether the idea of God's moral government admits of being argued as pure matter of fact.
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  • Mrs Stowe used the reputation thus won in promoting a moral and religious enmity to slavery.
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  • Unfortunately (perhaps) Butler prefers to argue on admitted principles; holds much of his own moral belief in reserve; tries to reduce everything to a question of probable fact.
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  • This gives a new and moral filling to the conception of " supernatural revelation."
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  • But hereafter it may not prove possible for the apologist to assume as unchallenged the Christian moral outlook.
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  • The economic and moral condition of the peasantry was little improved by freedom, and in many districts there were signs of positive impoverishment and demoralization.
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  • This promise he brilliantly fulfilled by routing the forces of the Argive confederacy at the battle of Mantinea (418), the moral effect of which was out of all proportion to the losses inflicted on the enemy.
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  • Kant, though pessimistic as regards the actual man, is optimistic regarding his moral capacity.
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  • There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
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  • Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.
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  • That moment of moral hesitation which decides the fate of battles had arrived.
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  • He plunked him­self down in the living room with a hit-me-with-your-best-shot look and lifted Mrs. Lincoln to his lap for moral support.
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  • It is sometimes levied as a reproach against Haggai that he makes no direct reference to moral duties.
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  • The whole moral world is reduced to a point.
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  • It would be wrong, however, to conclude that moral considerations have led up to this state of things.
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  • And, as the sympathizers with Hegel try to force mechanical necessity into the garb of absolute or ideal necessity, so they seek to show that moral necessity is only an inferior form of absolute or ideal or, we might say, mathematical necessity.
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  • Theists, on the other hand, will contend that the distinctiveness of moral necessity is vital to religion.
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  • All men may perhaps be aiming everywhere at the same moral ideal,' but it is absurd to.
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  • On the other hand, in discussing the ontological argument, Lotze commits himself to a moral a priori (below, ad fin.).
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  • We, from the altered modern point of view, may doubt whether Butler's curious account of the mechanism of moral psychology is a simple report of facts.
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  • Butler divests himself in this book .of the principles of " liberty " and " moral fitness " in which personally he believes.3 Part i.
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  • Butler is charged by Sir Leslie 'Stephen with arguing illegitimately - professing to make no appeal to " moral fitness," and yet contending that the facts of human life show (the beginnings of) moral retribution for good and evil.
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  • Assuredly Butler did not mean to give him his right of speaking about moral evil and good when he waived the " high priori method of vindicating their real existence.
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  • None the less, in the issue, it is the very element which goes beyond an appeal to facts - it is the depth and purity of Butler's moral nature - which fascinates the reader, and wins praise from Matthew Arnold or Goldwin Smith or even Leslie Stephen.
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  • Wherever moral postulates make their presence felt, Butler's doctrine of man, as of God, leaps into new vigour.
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  • The Three Sermons also point to a moral argument for theism, but forbear to press it (Sermon ii.; when the third sense of the word " Nature " is being explained).
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  • In the practical questions which arose, and in the great debate which was political, economical and moral, she took a very active part.
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  • The moral training which he received from his grandfather and his mother must have been all but perfect.
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  • Under Arnold's superintendence the school became not merely a place where a certain amount of classical or general learning was to be obtained, but a sphere of intellectual, moral and religious discipline, where healthy characters were formed, and men were trained for the duties, and struggles and responsibilities of life.
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  • His interest also in public matters was incessant, especially ecclesiastical questions, and such as bore upon the social welfare and moral improvement of the masses.
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  • The great peculiarity and charm of Dr Arnold's nature seemed to lie in the supremacy of the moral and the spiritual element over his whole being.
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  • In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
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  • But by treating the atonement simply as revealed (and unexplained) matter of fact - in spite of some partial analogies in human experience, a thing essentially anomalous - Butler repeats, and applies to the moral contents of Christianity, what Aquinas said of its speculative doctrines.
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  • Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent of the views of the newer school of Realists.
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  • The moral effect of the report, with the criticisms of the company's methods and recommendations appended thereto, is great, and it rarely happens that a company refuses to adopt, or at any rate to test, the recommendations so made.
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  • Of this tradition the Naboth incident in the time of Ahab furnishes a clear example which brings to light the contrast between the Tyrian Baal-cult, which was scarcely ethical, and of which Jezebel and Ahab were devotees, and the moral requirements of the religion of Yahweh of which Elijah was the prophet and impassioned exponent.
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  • See John Clarke, Examination of the Notion of Moral Good and Evil advanced in a late book entitled The Religion of Nature Delineated (London, 1725); Drechsler, Ober Wollaston's Moral-Philosophie (Erlangen, 1802); Sir Leslie Stephen's History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1876), ch.
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  • In 1851 he was made professor of moral philosophy at St Edmund's College, Ware, and was advanced to the chair of dogmatic theology in 1852.
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  • Being thus composed, he is neither able to eat flesh like his father, nor herbs like his mother; therefore he perisheth from inanition"; the moral follows.
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  • Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
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  • No community living in full accordance with that code could fail to reach a high moral and intellectual level.
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  • The insurgents, who received moral support from Dr Sphakianakis, proclaimed the union of the island with Greece (March 1905), and their example was speedily followed by the assembly at Canea.
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  • So, again, when Recejac defines mysticism as " the tendency to draw near to the Absolute in moral union.
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  • In this year, Reid succeeded Adam Smith as professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow.
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  • Yet it may be asserted that until the more durable and more reputable connexion with Mme de Nehra these love episodes were the most disgraceful blemishes in a life otherwise of a far higher moral character than has been commonly supposed.
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  • About this work he said little in the Autobiography, probably because his main concern there was to expound the influences that effected his moral and mental development.
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  • Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
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  • By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
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  • Be this as it may, enthusiastic as he was for a new logic that might give certainty to moral and social conclusions, Mill was no less resolute that the new logic should stand in no antagonism to the old.
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  • He distinguishes a threefold sense of scripture, a grammaticohistorical, a moral and a pneumatic - the last being the proper and highest sense.
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  • The pupils at Brienne, far from receiving a military education, were grounded in ordinary subjects, and in no very efficient manner, by brethren of the order, or society, of Minims. The moral tone of the school was low; and Napoleon afterwards spoke with contempt of the training of the "monks" and the manner of life of the scholars.
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  • Still more important, perhaps, was the change in moral which the Spanish rising brought about.
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  • Now he stood forth to the world as an unscrupulous aggressor; moral force, previously marshalled on the side of France, now began to pass to the side of his opponents.
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  • Treating of God in his various aspects "as a being of the understanding," "as a moral being or law," "as love" and so on, Feuerbach shows that in every aspect God corresponds to some feature or need of human nature.
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  • Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which not only injures the moral As feudalism passed from its age of supremacy into its age of decline, its customs tended to crystallize into fixed forms.
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  • His life, henceforth, was devoted to teaching (mainly philosophical) in the university - first as college tutor, afterwards, from 1878 until his death (at Oxford on the 26th of March 1882) as Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy.
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  • In the light of this knowledge we shall be able to formulate the moral code, which, in turn, will serve as a criterion of actual civic and social institutions.
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  • Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.
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  • The faculty employed in this further investigation is no "separate moral faculty," but that same reason which is the source of all our knowledge - ethical and other.
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  • As the result of this analysis, combined with an investigation into the surroundings man lives in, a "content" - a moral code - becomes gradually evolved.
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  • Moral goodness cannot be limited to, still less constituted by, the cultivation of self-regarding virtues, but consists in the attempt to realize in practice that moral ideal which self-analysis has revealed to us as our ideal.
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  • From this fact arises the ground of political obligation, for the institutions of political or civic life are the concrete embodiment of moral ideas in terms of our day and generation.
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  • It is obvious that the final moral ideal is not realized in any body of civic institutions actually existing, but the same analysis which demonstrates this deficiency points out the direction which a true development will take.
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  • He was remarkable for both his moral and physical courage, and in politics was notable for his independence of party.
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  • Left to itself, the native population lost physical and moral vigour.
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  • The natural outcome of these experiences of the author is that he cannot recognize a moral government of the world.
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  • Moral conduct is to be regulated not by divine law (of this nothing is said) but by human experience.
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  • Notwithstanding some obvious moral and intellectual defects, he was the most eminent and the most disinterested of those who had co-operated with William I.
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  • This was the problem that faced Ignatius, and in his endeavour to effect a needed reformation in the individual and in society his work and the success that crowned it place him among the moral heroes of humanity.
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  • In 1866 he became professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow, and in 1893 succeeded Benjamin Jowett as master of Balliol.
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  • In 1759 Ferguson was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, and in 1764 was transferred to the chair of "pneumatics" (mental philosophy) "and moral philosophy."
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  • Finding himself unequal to the labour of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, and devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published (1792) under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science.
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  • Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays.
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  • Despite the risks of failure and the probable consequences of such a failure, from the political and moral as well as the military point of view, it was considered essential both by Marshal Foch and Lord Haig that the attack on it should be carried out and that as soon as possible.
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  • At a very early age the boy showed remarkable mental vigour and moral independence.
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  • He claims for himself and his companions that they have lived a quiet and moral life, paying their dues and doing no wrong to their neighbours.
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  • His moral character was undoubtedly weak in other ways than this, but it is fair to remember that but for his astounding Confessions the more disgusting parts of it would not have been known, and that these Confessions were written, if not under hallucination, at any rate in circumstances entitling the self-condemned criminal to the benefit of considerable doubt.
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  • The reputation which he gained from this work won for him the chair of ancient philosophy at the College de France (1838) and a seat at the Academy of Moral and Political Science (1839).
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  • Great fluency and ease of diction, considerable warmth of imagination and moral sentiment, and a sharp eye to discover any oddity of style or violation of the accepted canons of good taste, made his criticisms pungent and effective.
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  • But the essential narrowness and timidity of his general outlook prevented him from detecting and estimating latent forces, either in politics or in matters strictly intellectual and moral; and this lack of understanding and sympathy accounts for his distrust and dislike of the passion and fancy of Shelley and Keats, and for his praise of the half-hearted and elegant romanticism of Rogers and Campbell.
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  • The struggle for freedom called forth a deeper sense of the unity of the people of the one Yahweh, and in so doing raised religion to a loftier plane; for a faith which unites a nation is necessarily a higher moral force than one which only unites a township or a.
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  • It is a proof of the strength of the moral instincts of mankind that the only phase of culture which we can survey in all its stages from beginning to end culminated not in materialism, but in the boldest idealism.
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  • He considered the incarnation of Christ as the necessary manifestation to man of an eternal sonship in the divine nature, apart from which those filial qualities which God demands from man could have no sanction; by faith as used in Scripture he understood to be meant a certain moral or spiritual activity or energy which virtually implied salvation, because it implied the existence of a principle of spiritual life possessed of an immortal power.
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  • He was accused by the archbishop of Armagh of serious moral delinquency, and his recall was demanded both by the primate and the bishop of Meath.
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  • Philip was by nature dull and phlegmatic. He had learnt morality from Fenelon's teaching, and showed himself throughout his life strongly adverse to the moral laxity of his grandfather and of most of the princes of his time.
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  • The interest of insects to the eastern races was, however,economic, religious or moral.
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  • Medical science has never gauged, perhaps never enough set itself to gauge the intimate connexion between moral fault and disease.
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  • To what extent or in how many cases what is called illness is due to moral springs having been used amiss, whether by being over-used, or by not being used sufficiently, we hardly at all know, and we too little inquire.
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  • Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).
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  • The moral therapeutics consists in the influence of a powerful will over others.
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  • Their moral quality must correspond with the character of God; and they must be connected with teaching which to reason and conscience approves itself divine.
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  • The existence of physical evil, and still more of moral evil, forbids the assumption without qualification that the real is the rational.
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  • Their representation of the moral character, the religious consciousness, the teaching of Jesus, inspires confidence.
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  • When the Church had established itself in the world, and possessed in its moral and religious.
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  • The a posteriori evidence as regards both its moral and religious quality and its date is altogether inferior to the evidence of the Gospels.
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  • The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
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  • Underlying all of these issues was of course the great moral and political problem as to whether slavery was to be confined to the south-eastern section of the country or be permitted to spread to the Pacific. The two questions not growing out of the Mexican War were in regard to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and the passage of a new fugitive slave law.
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  • Telramund, again, is no ordinary operatic villain; there is genuine tragedy in his moral ruin; and even the melodramatic Ortrud is a much more life-like intrigante than might be inferred from Wagner's hyperbolical stage-directions, which almost always show his manner at its worst.
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  • The brilliant success of Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, in which Wagnerian technique is applied to the diatonic style of nursery songs with a humorous accuracy undreamed of by Wagner's imitators, points a moral which would have charmed Wagner himself; but until the revival of some rudiments of musical common sense becomes widespread, there is little prospect of the influence of Wagner's harmonic style being productive of anything better than nonsense.
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  • The idea of this immense collection of ethical and moral precepts was first suggested to the poet by his favourite disciple Hasan, better known as Husam-uddin, who in 1258 became Jalal-uddin's chief assistant.
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  • Recognizing that the true aim of the scheme of church reform brought forward in parliament in 1529 was to put down the only moral force that could withstand the royal will, he energetically opposed the reformation of abuses, which doubtless under other circumstances he would have been the first to accept.
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  • Moralists generally, however, are agreed that in all moral judgments of this character there is an.
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  • The part played by conscience in relation to general moral laws and particular cases will vary according to the view taken of the character of the general laws.
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  • By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
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  • He was a type of the French revolutionists, excitable, warm-hearted, half-educated, who lost their mental and moral balance in the chaos of the revolutionary period.
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  • While not unaware that with this, as with all moral questions, there may be a certain borderland of practical difficulty, Friends endeavour to bring all things to the test of the Realities which, though not seen, are eternal, and to hold up the ideal, set forth by George Fox, of living in the.
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  • Educated at several schools in London, he went to Edinburgh University in 1792, where he attended Dugald Stewart's moral philosophy class.
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  • His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.
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  • When we consider its moral effects, whilst endeavouring to avoid exaggeration, we must yet pronounce its influence to have been profoundly detrimental.
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  • But it was in the 2nd century, as we have said, that " the victory of moral ideas " in this, as in other departments of life, became " decisive....
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  • But in the meantime much might be done towards further mitigating the evils of slavery, especially by impressing on master and slave their relative duties and controlling their behaviour towards one another by the exercise of an independent moral authority.
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  • All children under six years of age were to be at once free, and provision was to be made for their religious and moral instruction.
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  • Ethically, too, the new doctrine stands on a higher plane, and represents, in its moral laws, a superior civilization.
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  • On the whole, his moral attitude is cynical, and he is inclined to regard self-interest as the best criterion.
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  • From 1853 until his death, on the second of August 1859, he was president of the newly established Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology.
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  • With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
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  • As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World.
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  • The figurative nature of the language respecting the future makes it difficult to determine precisely the thought of the book on this point; but it seems to contemplate continued existence hereafter for both righteous and wicked, and rewards and punishments allotted on the basis of moral character.
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  • The reports of the earlier wise men, men of practical sagacity in political and social affairs, have come to us from unfriendly sources; it is quite possible that among them were some who took interest in life for its own sake, and reflected on its human moral basis.
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  • For some the influence of this association was of a general nature, merely modifying their conception of the moral life; others adopted to a greater or less extent some of the peculiar ideas of the current systems of philosophy.
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  • Lassalle, accused of moral complicity, was acquitted on appeal.
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  • Meanwhile the Russians had not lost a single gun and the moral of their men had been improved by the result of the many minor encounters with the enemy; further, the and then began a series of rearguard actions and nocturnal retreats which completely accomplished their purpose of wearing down the French army.
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  • Ultimately the sun went down on an undecided field on which 25,000 French and 38,000 Russians had fallen, but the, moral reaction on the former was far greater than on the latter.
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  • The material loss inflicted on the French was not very great, but its effect in raising the moral of the raw Prussian cavalry and increasing their confidence in their old commander was enormous.
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  • The moral effect, he promised himself, would be prodigious, and there was neither room nor food for these 100,000 elsewhere.
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  • From these reveries he was at length awakened by news which indicated that the consequences of Macdonald's defeat had been far more serious to the moral of that command than he had imagined.
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  • As a dramatist he worked more in the spirit of Plautus than of Ennius, Pacuvius, Accius or Terence; but the great Umbrian humorist is separated from his older contemporary, not only by his breadth of comic power, but by his general attitude of moral and political indifference.
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  • Clement thus looks entirely at the enlightened moral elevation to which Christianity raises man.
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  • For his moral doctrine he borrowed freely from Stoicism.
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  • The Greeks are of an especially fine type, physical and moral, and noted all through Anatolia for energy and stability.
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  • He was professor of moral philosophy at Bourges (1845-1848) and Strassburg (1848-- 1857), and of logic at the lycee Louis-le-Grand, Paris (1857-1864).
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  • In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, and elected a member of the academy of the moral and political sciences.
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  • The philosophy of history, by which Hebrew prophets could read a deep moral significance into national disaster and turn the flank of resistless attack, became one of the most important elements in the nation's faith.
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  • If the worldpowers were hard as flint in their dealings with Israel, the people of God were steeled to such moral endurance that each clash of their successive onsets kindled some new flame of devotion.
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  • God being what He is, at once moral and all-powerful, the immoral life is doomed to overthrow, whether the immorality consist in grasping rapacity, proud self-aggrandizement, cruel exaction, exulting triumph or senseless idolatry.
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  • He was also a member of the Academy, and of the Academy of Moral and Political Science, and curator of the Department of Antiquities at the Louvre (from 1870).
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  • In 1896 he succeeded Eduard Zeller as professor of moral philosophy at Berlin.
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  • It is, in short, applied morality; anybody is a casuist who reflects about his duties and tries to bring them into line with some intelligible moral standard.
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  • This concrete side of moral philosophy came specially into evidence when Stoicism was transplanted to Rome.
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  • Such advice could not be grateful to the philosophers themselves - then a definite professional class, not unlike the "spiritual directors" of a later Rome, who earned their bread by smoothing away the doubts of the scrupulous on all matters intellectual and moral.
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  • The Anglican casuists are discussed in Whewell, Lectures on Moral Philosophy (London, 1862).
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  • The tragedians used her story to point the moral of the instability of human happiness; Niobe became the representative of human nature, liable to pride in prosperity and forgetfulness of the respect and submission due to the gods.
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  • But he taught that the state may interfere with legal or public duties only, and not with moral or private ones; He would not have even atheists punished, though they should be expelled the country, and he came forward as an earnest opponent of the prosecution of witches and of the use of torture.
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  • The fundamental articles of Parker's religious faith were the three "instinctive intuitions" of God, of a moral law, and of immortality.
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  • The schochat or butcher must be a devout Jew and of high moral character, and be duly licensed by the chief rabbi.
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  • In this narrower sense the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental "affections" as in some sense a part of moral obligation.
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  • Other requirements were sound health, high moral character and an honourable calling.
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  • For the equites equo publico high moral character, good health and the equestrian fortune were necessary.
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  • Christians being released, in important particulars, from conformity to the Old Testament polity as a whole, a real difficulty attended the settlement of the limits and the immediate authority of the remainder, known vaguely as the moral law.
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  • Its obligation rests on the good faith of the parties to the reference, and on the fact that, with the help of a world-wide press, public opinion can always be brought to bear on any state that seeks to evade its moral duty.
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  • Each of the signatory powers is to designate within three months from the ratification of the convention four persons at the most, of recognized competence in international law, enjoying the highest moral consideration, and willing to accept the duties of arbitrators.
    0
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  • Lastly, there is the moral aspect of the problem.
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  • He was thus a deity of the realms of air and light, and, by transfer to the moral realm, the god of truth and loyalty.
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  • The necessity of moral rectitude was itself an incentive.
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  • The moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is probably largely due to their failings.
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  • Meanwhile the Jesuits undertook the moral and religious culture of the natives, and of the scarcely less savage colonists.
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  • While the population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to habits of violence and oppression.
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  • This union took place in defiance of a prohibition which had been promulgated, in 1049, by the papal council of Reims. But the affinity of William and Matilda was so remote that political rather than moral considerations may have determined the pope's action.
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  • During this period he published his poetical satire called Metamorphosis (1726), his Epistolae ad virum perillustrem (1727), his Description of Denmark and Norway (1729), History of Denmark, Universal Church History, Biographies of Famous Men, Moral Reflections, Description of Bergen (1737), A History of the Jews, and other learned and laborious compilations.
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  • The governor was strongly opposed to this step, as he was anxious to protect the coal supply, and also feared the moral effect of a withdrawal.
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  • Cobden's efforts in furtherance of free trade were always subordinated to what he deemed the highest moral purposes - the promotion of peace on earth and goodwill among men.
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  • The moral superiority of Christianity to paganism was speedily obvious.
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  • We cannot trace the gradations of this political revolution, but we know that it met with determined opposition from the crown, which resulted in the utter destruction of the Arpads, who, while retaining to the last their splendid physical qualities, now exhibited unmistakeable signs of moral deterioration, partly due perhaps to their too frequent marriages with semi-Oriental Greeks and semi-savage Kumanians.
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  • But the moral tone of the Magyar church at this period was very low.
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  • In these, as in many other of the romances of Josika, a high moral standard is aimed at.
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  • A similar series of excellent teachings on practical wisdom and the blessings of a virtuous life, only of a severer and more uncompromising character, is contained in the Sa`adatnama; and, judging from the extreme bitterness of tone manifested in the "reproaches of kings and emirs," we should be inclined to consider it a protest against the vile aspersions poured out upon Nasir's moral and religious attitude during those persecutions which drove him at last to Yumgan.
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  • He graduated at Western Reserve College in 1864 and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1869; preached in Edinburg, Ohio, in 1869-1871, and in the Spring Street Congregational Church of Milwaukee in 5875-5879; and was professor of philosophy at Bowdoin College in 58 791881, and Clark professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale from 1881 till 5905, when he took charge of the graduate department of philosophy and psychology; he became professor emeritus in 1905.
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  • However we may explain the inconsistency, we are precluded by the moral earnestness of the writer from assuming the visions to be pure inventions.
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  • Many proposals were made, none of them of practical value, until Savonarola, who had Savon- as a already made a reputation as a moral reformer, began states= his famous series of political sermons.
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  • His contributions to theological literature included treatises on Christian ethics and dogmatics, on moral philosophy, on baptism, and a sketch of the life of Jakob Boehme, who exercised so marked an influence on the mind of the great English theologian of the 18th century, William Law.
    0
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  • While this class of literature had devoted itself chiefly to the finesses of the language, another set of works was given to meeting the requirements of moral education and the training of a gentleman.
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  • Though the Nestorians were numerous, their moral influence and their church life had greatly deteriorated.
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  • In 1694 he was elected a master in the university of Glasgow - an office that was converted into the professorship of moral philosophy in 1727, when the system of masters was abolished at Glasgow.
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  • Comte at first fell in with the plan, but he speedily surprised and disconcerted Mill by boldly taking up the position of " high moral.
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  • Still this partial divorce of himself from the record of the social and scientific activity of his time, though it may save a thinker from the deplorable evils of dispersion, moral and intellectual, accounts in no small measure for the exaggerated egoism, and the absence of all feeling for reality, which marked Comte's later days.
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  • Their object is to constitute at length a real Providence in all departments, - moral, intellectual and material.
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  • Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
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  • A moral transformation must precede any real advance.
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  • The power of the priesthood rests upon special knowledge of man and nature; but to this intellectual eminence must also be added moral power and a certain greatness of character, without which force of intellect and completeness of attainment will not receivethe confidence they ought to inspire.
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  • As to later forms of religion, he appears to have held that they owe their vitality to their embodiment of the deep-seated moral feelings of our common humanity.
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  • His exposition of this religion in his sermons and writings was simply an unfolding of its moral side.
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  • It was a searching analysis of the financial and moral grounds on which the impost rested, and a historical justification and eulogy of it.
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  • First among his moral attributes must be placed his religiousness.
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  • The doctrine of emanation is thus to be distinguished from the cosmogonic theory of Judaism and Christianity, which explains human existence as due to a single creative act of a moral agent.
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  • The theory of emanation, which had its source in certain moral and religious ideas, aims first of all at explaining the origin of mental or spiritual existence as an effluence from the divine and absolute spirit.
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  • Here he " woke up to the interest of moral and metaphysical speculations."
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  • In 1840 he was appointed professor of mental and moral philosophy and political economy in Manchester New College, the seminary in which he had himself been educated, and which had now removed from York to the city after which it was named.
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  • And as these truths were self-evident, so the religion he deduced from them was sufficient, not only for his own moral and intellectual nature, but also for man as he conceived him, for history as he knew it, and for society as he saw it.
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  • And when in 1890 he began to gather together the miscellaneous essays and papers written during a period of sixty years, he expressed the hope that, though " they could lay no claim to logical consistency," they might yet show " beneath the varying complexion of their thought some intelligible moral continuity," " leading in the end to a view of life more coherent and less defective than was presented at the beginning."
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  • In the second of the above books his idea of religion is somewhat of an anachronism; as he himself confessed, he " used the word in the sense which it invariably bore half a century ago," as denoting " belief in an ever-living God, a divine mind and will ruling the universe and holding moral relations with mankind."
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  • One naturally expects to find, and one does find, that this moral sunshine is associated with good temper.
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  • Apart from philosophical researches and the development of the drama, as above related, the Tokugawa era is remarkable for folk-lore, moral discourses, fiction and a peculiar form of poetry.
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  • Nevertheless pleasure forms an "inexpugnable element" of the moral aim (§ 16).
    0
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  • If this is as rapid as (or more rapid than) the rate of adaptation, there will be no actual growth of adaptation and so no moral progress.
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  • In it, too, the sense of duty will have become otiose and have disappeared, being essentially a relic of the history of the moral consciousness.
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  • Hence the fear with which the political, religious and social controls were regarded came to be associated also with the specifically moral control of lower by higher feelings, and engendered the coercive element in the feeling of obligation.
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  • He subsequently professed himself a convert to the Anglican Church, and published a number of works, but was more esteemed for his ability than for his moral character.
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  • The character of Defoe, both mental and moral, is very clearly indicated in his works.
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  • His very anomalous position in regard to Mist is also indicative of a rather blunt moral perception.
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  • But Amy, scarcely by her own fault, is drawn into certain breaches of definite moral laws which Defoe did understand, and she is therefore condemned, with hardly a word of pity, to a miserable end.
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  • The same characteristics are curiously illustrated in his moral works.
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  • He is, in fact, an instance of the tendency, which has so often been remarked by other nations in the English, to drag in moral distinctions at every turn, and to confound everything which is novel to the experience, unpleasant to the taste, and incomprehensible to the understanding, under the general epithets of wrong, wicked and shocking.
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  • Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
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  • No one can doubt his real belief in religion in spite of many moral failings or weaknesses.
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  • Appius also published a collection of moral maxims and reflections in verse.
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  • Although Rome wanted creative force to add a great series of tragic dramas to the literature of the world, yet the spirit of elevation and moral authority breathed into tragedy by Ennius passed into the ethical and didactic writings and the oratory of a later time.
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  • The Roman oratory of the law courts had to deal not with petty questions of disputed property, of fraud, or violence, but with great imperial questions, with matters affecting the well-being of large provinces and the honour and safety of the republic; and no man ever lived who, in these respects, was better fitted than Cicero to be the representative of the type of oratory demanded by the condition of the later republic. To his great artistic accomplishment, perfected by practice and elaborate study, to the power of his patriotic, his moral, and personal sympathies, and his passionate emotional nature, must be added his vivid imagination and the rich and copious stream of his language, in which he had no rival among Roman writers or speakers.
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  • In his Commentaries, by laying aside the ornaments of oratory, he created the most admirable style of prose narrative, the style which presents interesting events in their sequence of time and dependence on the will of the actor, rapidly and vividly, with scarcely any colouring of personal or moral feeling, any oratorical passion, any pictorial illustration.
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  • Self-culture rather than the fulfilment of public or social duty, as in the moral teaching of Cicero, is the aim of his teaching; and in this we recognize the influence of the empire in throwing the individual back on himself.
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  • As Cicero tones down his oratory in his moral treatises, so Horace tones down the fervour of his lyrical utterances in his Epistles, and thus produces a style combining the ease of the best epistolary style with the grace and concentration of poetry - the style, as it has been called, of "idealized common sense," that of the urbanus and cultivated man of the world who is also in his hours of inspiration a genuine poet.
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  • The immorality of Roman society not lvew literary only affords abundant material to the satirist, but deepens the consciousness of moral evil in purer and more thoughtful minds.
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  • The literature of no time presents so powerfully the contrast between moral good and evil.
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  • The first three represent the spirit of their age by exhibiting the power of the Stoic philosophy as a moral, political and religious force; the last is the most cynical exponent of the depravity of the time.
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  • Iunius Iuvenalis or Juvenal (c. 47-130), sum up for posterity the moral experience of the Roman world from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Domitian.
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  • The completion of the second Temple (516 B.C.) has been followed by disillusionment as to the anticipated prosperity, by indifference to worship, scepticism as to providence, and moral laxity.'
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  • They had, in fact, no idea of doing wrong, and their moral feelings did not come into play.
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  • The burden of the new prophecy seems to have been a new standard of moral obligations, especially with regard to marriage, fasting and martyrdom.
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  • In place of an intense moral earnestness, we find in Tertullian a legal casuistry, a finical morality, from which no good could ever come.
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  • In 1866 Maurice was appointed professor of moral philosophy at Cambridge, and from 1870 to 1872 was incumbent of St Edward's in that city.
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  • So far as the numerous works are concerned it is evident that the writers who posed as Rosicrucians were moral and religious reformers, and utilized the technicalities of chemistry (alchemy), and the sciences.
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  • In the moral man these factors are duly balanced.
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  • Only when he has regulated his internal and his social relations by this ideal can he be regarded as truly moral.
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  • So also he has drawn a close parallel between the moral and the aesthetic criteria.
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  • From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.
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  • From these results we see that Shaftesbury, opposed to Hobbes and Locke, is in close agreement with Hutcheson, and that he is ultimately a deeply religious thinker, inasmuch as he discards the moral sanction of public opinion, the terrors of future punishment, the authority' of the civil authority, as the main incentives to goodness, and substitutes the voice of conscience and the love of God.
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  • The mere fact of the effort being made would have given the battle of Gravelotte the moral effect of a victory, and the reaction in the German ranks from the feeling of over-confidence, which had mastered them after the early successes of Spicheren and Woerth, must have had most far-reaching consequences.
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  • An ordinary commander would have avoided fighting altogether, but Marlborough saw beyond the material conditions and risked all on his estimate of the moral superiority of his army and of the weakness of the French leading.
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  • He had to face the dominant fact of the situation - the aggressive pressure of Germany at a time when Russia was drifting into an internal crisis of the first magnitude and was unable to concentrate the material and moral forces required in the coming conflict.
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  • Reinhard, author of the System der christlichen Moral (1788-1815), then court-preacher at Dresden, who became his warm friend and patron during the remainder of his life.
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  • It is true that states which have accepted the intervention of a mediator remain free to adopt or reject any advice he may give, but the advice of a disinterested power must always add considerable moral weight to the side towards which it inclines.
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  • He attacked it mainly on the score of the moral evils that must flow from any system of determinism, and exerted himself in particular to vindicate the freedom of the will.
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  • If Machiavelli had any moral object when he composed the Mandragola, it was to paint in glaring colours the corruption of Italian society.
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  • The obligations involved in the act of homage were more general than those associated with the oath of fealty, but they provided a strong moral sanction for more specific engagements.
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  • His increasing ill-health and a certain moral laxity (as shown in his judgment on Sappho) led to a quarrel with the consistory.
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  • In their places are put the moral virtues.
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  • Among the moral virtues which take the place of the beasts are Truth, Prudence, Wisdom, Law and Universal Judgment, and in the explanation of what these mean Bruno unfolds the inner essence of his system.
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  • Like so many of the Italians of that time, who were almost destitute of a moral sense, she looked upon statesmanship in particular as a career in which finesse, lying and assassination were the most admirable, because the most effective weapons.
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  • It effected a revolution in his mode of thinking; so completely did the Kantian doctrine of the inherent moral worth of man harmonize with his own character, that his life becomes one effort to perfect a true philosophy, and to make its principles practical maxims. At first he seems to have thought that the best method for accomplishing his object would be to expound Kantianism in a popular, intelligible form.
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  • The exposition of the conditions under which revealed religion is possible turns upon the absolute requirements of the moral law in human nature.
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  • Religion itself is the belief in this moral law as divine, and such belief is a practical postulate, necessary in order to add force to the law.
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  • The supernatural element in religion can only be the divine character of the moral law.
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  • In such a case it is conceivable that a revelation might be given in order to add strength to the moral law.
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  • In oral exposition the vigour of thought and moral intensity of the man were most of all apparent, while his practical earnestness completely captivated his hearers.
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  • He lectured not only to his own class, but on general moral subjects to all students of the university.
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  • As early as 1797 Fichte had begun to see that the ultimate basis of his system was the absolute ego, in which is no difference of subject and object; in 1800 the Bestimmung des Menschen defined this absolute ego as the infinite moral will of the universe, God, in whom are all the individual egos, from whom they have sprung.
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  • It seems a moral impossibility that between the age of fifteen and nineteen - i.e.
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  • The first novel printed in America was Franklin's reprint in 1744 of Pamela; and the first American translation from the classics which was printed in America was a version by James Logan (1674-1751) of Cato's Moral Distichs (173J).
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  • The title of philosopher as used in Franklin's lifetime referred neither in England nor in France to him as author of moral maxims, but to him as a scientist - a " natural philosopher."
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  • Beyond a doubt he was not without a certain moral timidity contrasting strangely with his eager temperament and alertness of intellect; but, though he was not cast in a heroic mould, he must have been one of the most amiable of men.
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  • The tone of the passage when compared with the disciplinary methods of the synagogue indicates that its purpose was to introduce elements of reason and moral suasion in place of sterner methods.
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  • The Baganda are not a very moral people, but they have an extreme regard for decency, and are always scrupulously clothed (formerly in bark-cloth, now in calico).
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  • He tells his fable and draws the moral with businesslike directness and simplicity; his language is terse and clear, but thoroughly prosaic, though it occasionally attains a dignity bordering on eloquence.
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  • This was the beginning of his connexion with John Stuart Mill, which led to a life-long friendship. In 1841 he became substitute for Dr Glennie, the professor of moral philosophy, who, through ill-health, was unable to discharge the active duties of the chair.
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  • He was examiner in logical and moral philosophy (1857-1862 and 1864-1869) to the university of London, and in moral science in the Indian Civil Service examinations.
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  • Accordingly in 1868, he published his Manual of Mental and Moral Science, mainly a condensed form of his treatises, with the doctrines re-stated, and in many instances freshly illustrated, and with many important additions.
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  • The Sokol societies, in collaboration with the army gymnastic clubs and with the Y.M.C.A., devote themselves systematically to the physical and moral welfare of the troops.
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  • The great Sokol union has a membership of over 300,000 in all, and the programme includes not only physical but also moral and disciplinary training, aiming at the production of citizens of character and patriotism.
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  • Masaryk's work, Spirit of Russia, is a close analysis of the Russian philosophy of history, and of the Russian religious, moral and political thought.
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  • But law may mean ethical rule, and the Antinomians so understood it, and interpreted Luther's declaration to mean that believers are not under the dominion of the moral law.
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  • This attitude of indifference to real knowledge passed in the younger and less reputable generation into a corroding moral scepticism which recognized no good but pleasure and no right but might.
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  • They spoke a dialect of Turkish preserved in the Kudatku Bilik, a moral treatise composed in 1065.
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  • In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
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  • He took pleasure in displaying his power over the great, and in punishing them in the spiritual courts for moral offences.
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  • In his own character it produced the somewhat blunted moral sense which led to the few incidents in his career which need moral defence, his performance of the marriage ceremony between his first patron Lord Devonshire and the latter's mistress, the divorced wife of Lord Rich, an act completely at variance with his principles; his strange intimacy with Buckingham; his love of power and place.
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  • This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
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  • In fundamental principles he follows almost entirely Locke and Pufendorf; but he works out with great skill the theory of moral obligation, referring it to the command or will of God.
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  • He indicates the distinction, developed more fully by Thomasius and Kant, between the legal and the moral qualities of action.
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  • As the word implies, secularism is based solely on considerations of practical morality with a view to the physical, social and moral improvement of society.
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  • The moral influence of the queen's personal character over the Castilian court was incalculably great; from the debasement and degradation of the preceding reign she raised it to being "the nursery of virtue and of generous ambition."
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  • The very sincerity of her piety and strength of her religious convictions led her more than once, however, into great errors of state policy, and into more than one act which offends the moral sense of a more refined age; her efforts for the introduction of the Inquisition into Castile, and for the proscription of the Jews, are outstanding evidences of what can only be called her bigotry.
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  • In the same century the monastery of Gandersheim, south of Hanover, was the retreat of the learned nun Hroswitha, who celebrated the exploits of Otho in leonine hexameters, and composed in prose six moral and religious plays in imitation of Terence.
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  • With Locke, the moral and practical qualities of virtue and prudence are of the first consideration.
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  • The fundametal difficulty which confronts those who would distinguish between pleasure and eudaemonia is that all pleasure is ultimately a mental phenomenon, whether it be roused by food, music, doing a moral action or committing a theft.
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  • While in this position he became convinced that the only permanent solution of the manifold difficulties which the freedmen encountered lay in their moral and industrial education.
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  • They were partly moral reformers, partly religious teachers, partly political advisers.
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  • The Wisdomliterature of the Hebrews concerned itself with what we should call the philosophy of human nature, and sometimes also of physical nature as well; its writers observed human character, studied action in its consequences, laid down maxims for education and conduct, and reflected on the moral problems which human society presents.
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  • The outline of Job's story was no doubt supplied by tradition; and a later poet has developed this outline, and made it a vehicle for expressing his new thoughts respecting a great moral problem which perplexed his contemporaries.
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  • The best way therefore of helping them to do this was to provide them with an outline of the characteristic teaching of Christ, which should be at the same time a clear statement of His moral demands.
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  • To us God's sovereignty over nature often seems the hardest thing to conceive; but to primitive peoples who know nothing of laws of nature, His moral sovereignty is a much more difficult conception.
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  • To the latter Hugh Blair seems to refer when, in his work on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres (1783), he acknowledges his obligations to a manuscript treatise on rhetoric by Smith, part of which its author had shown to him many years before, and which he hoped that Smith would give to the public. Smith had promised at the end of his Theory of Moral Sentiments a treatise on jurisprudence from the historical point of view.
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  • As a moral philosopher Smith cannot be said to have won much acceptance for his fundamental doctrine.
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  • This doctrine is that all our moral sentiments arise from sympathy, that is, from the principle of our nature "which leads us to enter into the situations of other men and to partake with them in the passions which those situations have a tendency to excite."
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  • It seems justly alleged against this system by Dr Thomas Brown that "the moral sentiments, the origin of which it ascribes to our secondary feelings of mere sympathy, are assumed as previously existing in the original emotions with which the secondary feelings are said to be in unison."
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  • The teaching of political ecomomy was associated in the Scottish universities with that of moral philosophy.
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  • The last two branches of inquiry are regarded as forming but a single body of doctrine in the well-known passage of the Theory of Moral Sentiments in which the author promises to give in another discourse "an account of the general principles of law and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society, not only in what concerns justice, but in what concerns police, revenue and arms, and whatever else is the subject of law."
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  • Neither in the plan of Smith's university course nor in the wellknown passage at the end of his Moral Sentiments is there any indication of his having conceived such a bipartite scheme.
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  • The object of the Wealth of Nations is surely in no sense psychological, as is that of the Moral Sentiments.
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  • In 1823, after eight years of work at high pressure, he was glad to accept the chair of moral philosophy at St Andrews, the seventh academic offer made to him during his eight years in Glasgow.
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  • In his lectures he excluded mental philosophy and included the whole sphere of moral obligation, dealing with man's duty to God and to his fellow-men in the light of Christian teaching.
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  • In ethics he made contributions to the science in regard to the place and functions of volition and attention, the separate and underived character of the moral sentiments, and the distinction between the virtues of perfect and imperfect obligation.
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  • He also introduced text-books, and came into stimulating contact with his people; perhaps no one has ever succeeded as he did by the use of these methods in communicating intellectual, moral and religious impulse to so many students.
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  • In 1832 he published a Political Economy, the chief purpose of which was to enforce the truth that the right economic condition of the masses is dependent on their right moral condition, that character is the parent of comfort, not vice versa.
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  • In 1833 appeared a treatise on The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man.
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  • The duties we are to perform (1) in regard to the moral law, (2) in regard to the gospel - (a) inward duties, i.e.
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  • Every act of every person has not only a moral value producing merit or demerit, but also an inherent power which works out its fitting reward or punishment.
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  • For the great festival of Tezcatlipoca, the handsomest and noblest of the captives of the year had been chosen as the incarnate representative of the god, and paraded the streets for public adoration dressed in an embroidered mantle with feathers and garlands on his head and a retinue like a king; for the last month they married him to four girls representing four goddesses; on the last day wives and pages escorted him to the little temple of Tlacochcalco, where he mounted the stairs, breaking an earthenware flute against each step; this was a symbolic farewell to the joys of the world, for as he reached the top he was seized by the priests, his heart torn out and held up to the sun, his head spitted on the tzompantli, and his body eaten as sacred food, the people drawing from his fate the moral lesson that riches and pleasure may turn into poverty and sorrow.
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  • The schools were extensive buildings attached to the temples, where from an early age boys and girls were taught by the priests to sweep the sanctuaries and keep up the sacred fires, to fast at proper seasons and draw blood for penance, and where they received moral teaching in long and verbose formulas.
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  • Old women were employed as go-betweens, and the marriage ceremony was conducted by a priest who after moral exhortations united the young couple by tying their garments together in a knot, after which they walked seven times round the fire, casting incense into it; after the performance of the marriage ceremony, the pair entered together on a four days' fast and penance before the marriage was completed..
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  • Nothing is known of the cause of the discontent; no moral offence is charged against the presbyters, and their dismissal is regarded by Clement as high-handed and unjustifiable, and as a revolt of the younger members of the community against the elder.
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  • In moral effect the battle proved anything but a defeat to the Americans, who now drew a cordon of works around Boston, hemming Howe's army in a contracted, and, as it proved, untenable, position.
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  • A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after examination comprised in five principal courses, mathematics, experimental science, classics, mental and moral science and Hebrew.
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  • But the wealth to which they attained in the Caucasus weakened for a time their moral fervour, and little by little they began to depart somewhat from the requirements of their belief.
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  • It should be observed, however, that this choice of pleasures by a hedonist is conditioned not by "moral" (absolute) but by prudential (relative) considerations.
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  • And cause all who communicate to receive a drug of life for healing of every disease and empowering of all moral advance and virtue."
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  • His popularity was probably due to the fact that in his sermons he lays little stress on dogmatic questions, but treats generally of moral subjects, in which the secrets of the human heart and the processes of man's reason are described with poetical feeling.
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  • He took from it the moral teaching of the Sermon on the Mount, and a criticism of the Old Testament and of Judaism so far as he required it.
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  • It offered revelation, redemption, moral virtue and immortality, spiritual benefits on the basis of the religion of nature.
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  • Both as preacher and as lecturer on literary topics George Macdonald's sincerity and moral enthusiasm exercised great influence upon thoughtful minds.
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  • In 1750 appeared his celebrated devotional book on the Glories of Mary; three years later came his still more celebrated treatise on moral theology.
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  • He argued that the determination of the tribunal must be grounded upon "the principles of right," that "by the rule or principle of right was meant a moral rule dictated by the general standard of justice upon which civilized nations are agreed, that this international standard of justice is but another name for international law, that the particular recognized rules were but cases of the application of a more general rule, and that where the particular rules were silent the general rule applied."
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  • Ferdinand refused to despoil his brother's infant son, and even if he did not act on the moral ground he alleged, his sagacity must have shown him that he would be at the mercy of the men who had chosen him in such circumstances.
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  • Tertullian's place in universal history is determined by (I) his intellectual and spiritual endowments, (2) his moral force and evangelical fervour, (3) the course of his personal development, (4) the circumstances of_ the time in the midst of which he worked.
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  • Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
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  • All these inspiring metaphysical and moral doctrines the pupil accepted from his master's dialogues, and throughout his life adhered to the general spirit of realism without materialism pervading the Platonic philosophy.
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  • Then at the end of the moral virtues justice is treated at inordinate length, and in a different manner from the others, which are regarded as means between two vices, whereas justice appears as a mean only because it is of the middle between too much and too little.
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  • As the Platonic philosophy was primarily moral, and its metaphysics a theory of the moral order of the universe, Aristotle from the first must have mastered the Platonic ethics.
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  • At first he adopted the somewhat ascetic views of his master about soul and body, and about goods of body and estate; but before Plato's death he had rejected the hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the form of the good identified with the one, by which Plato tried to explain moral phenomena; while his studies and teaching on rhetoric and poetry soon began to make him take a more tolerant view than Plato did of men's passions.
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  • At any rate, it was adopted in each of the three moral treatises which pass under the name of Aristotle.
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  • Moral virtue, which is that of the irrational desires so far as they are obedient to reason, is a purposive habit in the mean.
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  • The motive of the moral virtues is the honourable (TO eaXov, honestum).
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  • The right reason by which moral virtue is determined is prudence, which is determined in its turn by wisdom.
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  • It is more likely that Aristotle identified pleasure with activity in the De Anima, the Metaphysics and the three moral treatises, as we have seen; but that afterwards some subsequent Peripatetic, considering that the pleasure of perceiving or thinking is not the same as perceiving or thinking, declared the previous identification of pleasure with activity absurd.
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  • On the whole, the three moral treatises proceed on very similar lines down to the common identification of pleasure with activity, and then diverge.
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  • In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
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  • Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.
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  • In the Nicomachean as in the Eudemian Ethics the limit above moral virtue is right reason, or prudence, which is right reason on such matters; and above prudence wisdom, for which prudence gives its orders; while wisdom is the intelligence and science of the most venerable objects, of the most divine, and of God.
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  • Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
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  • Surely, the harmony of these three moral gospels proves that Aristotle wrote them, and wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as preludes to the Nicomachean Ethics.
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  • But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
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  • Music is a part of moral education; and for this end we should use the most moral harmonies.
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  • In 1795 he was ordained priest, and soon afterwards undertook the charge of the chairs of natural and moral philosophy.
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