Monuments sentence example

monuments
  • The island contains a very large number of important prehistoric monuments.
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  • The monuments of many of his successors have been discovered by de Morgan and their inscriptions deciphered by v.
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  • Many are concerned about the monuments of the West and the East--to know who built them.
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  • The old church of Mortlach, though restored and almost renewed, still contains some lancet windows and a round-headed doorway, besides monuments dating from 1417.
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  • His German sermons, of which seventy-one have been preserved, are among the most powerful in the language, and form the chief monuments of Middle High German prose.
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  • Several interesting monuments of this period remain at Trebizond in the form of churches in the Byzantine style of architecture.
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  • The church, which contains numerous interesting monuments, possesses also the unusual feature of an apsidal Decorated chapel.
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  • The Old Church, founded in the 11th century, but in its present form dating from 1476, contains the monuments of two famous admirals of the 17th century, Martin van Tromp and Piet Hein, as well as the tomb of the naturalist Leeuwenhoek, born at Delft in 1632.
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  • A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
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  • It contains a few handsome monuments to its former bishops, but until 1890, when a monument was erected, had nothing to preserve the memory of the illustrious Dr George Berkeley, who held the see from 1734 to 1753.
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  • There are two granite quarries in the township immediately north-west of the Blue Hills; the granite is of the "dark Quincy" variety-dark bluish grey in colour-and is used chiefly for monuments.
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  • The Keftiu who represented Minoan culture in Egypt in the concluding period of the Cnossian palace (Late Minoan II.) cease to appear on Egyptian monuments towards the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty (c. 1350 B.C.), and their place is taken by the "Peoples of the Sea."
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  • At Cnossus, save some blocks of the amphitheatre, the Roman monuments visible in Venetian times have almost wholly disappeared.
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  • Arles still possesses many monuments of Roman architecture and art, the most remarkable being the ruins of an amphitheatre (the Arenes), capable of containing 25,000 spectators, which, in the 11th and 12th centuries, was flanked with massive towers, of which three are still standing.
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  • In later ages the representations of birds of one sort or another in Egyptian paintings and sculptures become countless, and the bassi-rilievi of Assyrian monuments, though mostly belonging of course to a subsequent period, are not without them.
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  • It is rich in ancient brasses and monuments, including a brass to Sir John Daundelyon (1443), whose family occupied a manor in the neighbourhood as early as the 13th century.
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  • Among the monuments of this age discovered in the surrounding districts are the rock hewn tombs of Spata, accidentally revealed by a landslip in 1877, and the domed sepulchre at Menidi, near the ancient Acharnae, excavated by Lolling in 1879.
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  • Are the Monuments Hittite ?
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  • The collegiate church (Stiftskirche) dates from about 1340, and contains a number of fine ducal monuments.
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  • Some notion of the personal appearance of Alexander may be got from the literature and the surviving monuments.
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  • The island first attracted the notice of archaeologists by the remarkable archaic Greek bronzes found in a cave on Mount Ida in 1885, as well as by epigraphic monuments such as the famous law of Gortyna; but the first undoubted Aegean remains reported from it were a few objects extracted from Cnossus by Minos Kalokhairinos of Candia in 1878.
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  • There is also a certain amount of external evidence to be gathered from (I) Monuments and records of other contemporary civilizations, e.g.
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  • History of an inferential and summary sort only can be derived from monuments in the absence of written records.
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  • There are a number of old monuments.
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  • Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.
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  • The most successful Venetian sculpture is to be found in the many noble sepulchral private monuments.
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  • The jealousy of the Venetian republic forbade the erection of monuments to her great men.
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  • Among modern monuments the most successful is that to Goldoni at San Bartolomeo near the Rialto.
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  • Pisano's building sheds, nine in a row, with peculiarly shaped roofs, were still standing intact - one of the most interesting medieval monuments of Venice - until recently, but they have been modified past recognition.
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  • Commemorative monuments have been erected in both places.
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  • From the Egyptian and Assyrio-Babylonian monuments we learn that in ancient times one of the principal exports of Syria was timber; this has now entirely ceased.
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  • The celebrated Rosetta Stone which supplied Champollion with the key for the decipherment of the ancient monuments of Egypt was found near Fort St Julien, 4 m.
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  • There are a number of modern monuments in the city, the most important being that set up to the memory of the Swiss who fell in the battle of St Jakob (1444), won by the French.
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  • We must here group these important epochs together, as distinguished from the later period of Roman rule, and confine ourselves to a brief notice of their principal monuments and a record of the discoveries by which they have been illustrated in recent years.
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  • Among the monuments of their rule, in addition to the enlarged Agora and the Lyceum.
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  • Of the great monuments of this epoch few traces remain except on the Acropolis.
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  • In one of these monuments was the famous Satyr of Praxiteles.
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  • The capture and sack of Athens by Sulla (March 1, 86 B.e.) seems to have involved no great injury to its architectural monuments beyond the burning of the Odeum of mom,.
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  • One of the principal monuments of Hadrian's munificence was the sumptuous library, in all probability a vast rectangular enclosure, immediately north of the New Agora, the eastern side of which was explored in 1885-1886.
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  • The Stadium had been already completed and the Odeum had not yet been built when Pausanias visited Athens; these buildings were the last important additions to the architectural monuments of the ancient city.
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  • The monuments of the Byzantine epoch have latterly occupied a prominent place in its investigations.
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  • The sultan entered Athens in the following month; he was greatly struck by its ancient monuments and treated its inhabitants with comparative leniency.
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  • The principal interest of the following centuries lies in the researches of successive travellers, who may be said to have rediscovered the city, and in the fate of its ancient monuments, several of which were still in fair preservation at the beginning of this period.
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  • Several ancient monuments were sacrificed to provide material for a new wall with which the Turks surrounded the city in 1778.
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  • The church contains various monuments of the 18th century.
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  • The most important building is the Groote Kerk, of St Walpurgis, which dates from the 12th century and contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a 13th-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font (1527), and a fine modern monument to the van Heeckeren family.
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  • Among the many interesting monuments is the imposing tomb of the stadtholder Count Engelbert of Nassau and his wife.
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  • The supposition that the hieroglyphic system belongs to a late age, because it is chiefly found in the 10th and 9th century monuments of Carchemish, is improbable, as it bears all the characteristic marks of Hethitic nationalism, and is evidently a native invention.
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  • We now know something of the early history of Assyria and of the succession of Mer kings from monuments found at Sherqat.
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  • Greyhounds have been bred from time immemorial in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, while unmistakable representatives are figured on the monuments of ancient Egypt.
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  • St Mary's, the ancient parish church, has an elaborate 14th-century font and some monuments of interest.
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  • The tomb of Humayun is one of the finest Mogul monuments in the neighbourhood of Delhi, and it was here that the last of the Moguls, Bahadur Shah, was captured by Major Hodson in 1857.
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  • Their remains were deposited in the family tomb of their master, who sometimes erected monuments in testimony of his affection and regret.
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  • The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fallen to ruin.
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  • The cathedral also contains works by Peter Vischer and Lucas Cranach and several other interesting monuments.
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  • The rocks of which these various monuments are composed is the ordinary granite of the district, and most of them present a strange appearance from their coating of white lichens.
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  • These boats have been employed from the remotest antiquity through all this region, and are often depicted on the old Assyrian monuments.
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  • In the interior there are a number of interesting monuments, among which the most noticeable are those of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, and of Henry Howard, the famous earl of Surrey, who was beheaded by Henry VIII.
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  • The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
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  • Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal; while the Pearl Mosque at Agra and the palace and great mosque at Delhi also commemorate him.
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  • There are monuments to the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (born here in 1729), to the poet Wilhelm Muller, father of Professor Max Muller, also a native of the place, to the emperor William I., and an obelisk commemorating the war of 1870-71.
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  • It has a fine Perpendicular church dedicated to St Mary, with a lofty, well-proportioned tower and many interesting monuments.
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  • The rock bas-reliefs and other monuments showing native divinities are rare, and give only very summary representations.
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  • Each of these ruins has been visited by archaeologists who have copied inscriptions, described the temples, triumphal arches, porticos, mausoleums and the other monuments which are still standing, collected statues or other antiquities; and in many cases they have actually excavated.
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  • Among many places of worship may be mentioned the restored parish church of Holy Trinity, which dates from the 12th century and contains some interesting monuments and brasses; and the Perpendicular Hermitage or Tory chapel, with a 15th or 16th century chantry-house.
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  • The church of St Helen is a fine Perpendicular building, restored and enlarged (1880); it contains monuments of the Huntingdon family, and an old finger-pillory for the punishment of misbehaviour in church.
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  • His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
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  • A well-preserved gateway of red sandstone and portions of two towers of the castle are included in the buildings of the present gaol, and the old parish church of St Peter contains some interesting monuments, amongst them being the altar tomb (of the 6th century) of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, K.G., and his wife, which was removed hither for safety at the Reformation from the desecrated church of the neighbouring Priory of St John.
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  • It throve especially among military posts, and in the track of trade, where its monuments have been discovered in greatest abundance.
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  • The monuments comprise the remains of nearly a score of temples and about 400 statues and bas reliefs.
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  • See Franz Cumont, Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (Brussels, 1896, 1899), which has superseded all publications on the subject; Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903).
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  • Edinburgh is particularly rich in monuments of every description and quality.
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  • On Calton Hill are a number of finely placed monuments.
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  • In Greyfriars' churchyard the Solemn League and Covenant was signed, and among its many monuments are the Martyrs' monument, recording the merits of the murdered covenanters, and the tomb of " Bluidy " Mackenzie.
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  • Nergal was pictured as a lion and on boundary-stone monuments his symbol is a mace surmounted by the head of a lion.
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  • His learning was not drawn from books only; he was also an archaeologist, and frequently went on expeditions in France, always on foot, in the course of which he examined the monuments of architecture and sculpture, as well as the libraries, and collected a number of notes and sketches.
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  • In Abyssinia, at Axum and elsewhere, there is a marvellous series of obelisk-like monuments, probably sepulchral.
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  • After visiting and examining the principal churches, first of Normandy, then of central and southern France, he was on his return appointed by Guizot secretary to the Historical Committee of Arts and Monuments (1835); and in the following years he delivered several courses of lectures on Christian iconography at the Bibliotheque Royale.
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  • Martha, L' Art etrusque, gives reproductions of the most important monuments.
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  • He became a member of the Committee of Public Instruction early in 1793, and after carrying many useful decrees on the preservation of national monuments, on the military schools, on the reorganization of the Museum of Natural History and other matters, he brought forward on the 26th of June his Projet d'education nationale (printed at the Imprimerie Nationale), which proposed to lay the burden or primary education on the public funds, but to leave secondary education to private enterprise.
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  • Till this period the greater part of Annam had been occupied by the Chams, a nation of Hindu civilization, which has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries at last left to it only a small territory in the south of the country.
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  • Probably nowhere can the actual historical progress from the primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of ancient Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date.
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  • The kings of Assyria united in themselves the royal and priestly offices, and on the monuments they erected they are generally represented as offering incense and pouring out wine to the Tree of Life.
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  • The monuments of Persepolis and the coins of the Sassanians show that the religious use of incense was as common in ancient Persia as in Babylonia and Assyria.
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  • The enormous quantities of Roman coins may be accounted for by consideration of the well-known practice of the Romans to make these imperishable monuments subservient towards perpetuating the memory, not only of their conquests, but also of those public works which were the natural result of their successes in remote parts of the world.
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  • And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
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  • The double-handled blue-glass vase in the British Museum,dating from the 5th century, is probably a chalice, as it closely resembles the chalices represented on early Christian monuments.
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  • He devoted himself in_ 1335 to the completion of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral, the enormous windows of which were filled with the richest glass, But this building activity, which has left one of the most notable Gothic monuments in Europe, was broken into by the Hundred Years' War.
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  • There are interesting monuments of members of the Fairfax family and others.
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  • The neighbouring church contains a noteworthy series of monuments of the 15th century in alabaster.
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  • The authenticity of his list of 10 antediluvian kings who reigned for 120 sari or 432,000 years, has been partially confirmed by the inscriptions; but his 8 postdiluvian dynasties are difficult to reconcile with the monuments, and the numbers attached to them are probably corrupt.
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  • Meanwhile (1877-1881) the French consul, de Sarzec, had been excavating at Tello, the ancient Lagash, and bringing to light monuments of the pre-Semitic age, which included the diorite statues of Gudea now in the Louvre, the stone of which, according to the inscriptions upon them, had been brought from Magan, the Sinaitic peninsula.
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  • It was in the north, however, that the Semites first appear on the monuments.
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  • Their power extended to the Mediterranean, and we possess a large number of contemporaneous monuments in the shape of contracts and similar business documents, as well as chronological tables, which belong to their reigns.
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  • It remains to consider in the light of the foregoing evidence a class of monuments to which attention began to be called about 1870.
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  • Jerablus was confidently identified with Carchemish (but without positive proof to this day), and the occurrence of Hamathite monuments there was held to confirm the Hittite theory.
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  • Hittite, cuneiform and old Aramaean monuments were found with many small objects, most of which have been taken to Berlin; but no Hittite inscriptions came to light.
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  • Ball (based on Hittite names recorded on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments, and applied to word-groups on the Hittite monuments).
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  • Almost all " Hittitologues " assume a connexion between the monuments and the Kheta-Khatti-Hittites, but in various degrees; e.g.
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  • Syrian monuments, holding these of too late a date (judged by their Assyrian analogies) for the flourishing period of the Kheta-Khatti, as known from Egyptian and Assyrian records.
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  • Since all the Syrian monuments of the Hittite class, so far known, seem comparatively late (most show such strong Assyrian influence that they must fall after 110o B.C. and probably even considerably later), while the North Cappadocian monuments (as Sayce, Ramsay, Perrot and others saw long ago) are the earlier in style, we are bound to ascribe the origin of the civilization which they represent to the Cappadocian Hatti.
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  • In any case the connexion of the Hatti with the peculiar class of monuments which we have been describing, can hardly be further questioned; and it has become more than probable that the Hatti of Cappadocia were responsible in the beginning for the art and script of those monuments and for the civilization of which they are memorials.
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  • Herodotus divides them into two main groups, a straight-haired race and a woolly-haired race, dwelling respectively to the East and West, and this distinction is confirmed by the Egyptian monuments.
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  • To judge by the monuments it is possible that there were queens who reigned alone.
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  • In the Episcopal cemetery two monuments mark the graves of Charles Louis Napoleon Achille Murat (1801-1847), the eldest son of Joachim Murat, and of his wife Catherine (1803-1867), the daughter of Col.
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  • We have no clue to the ethnic character and relations of the Pisidians, except that we learn from Strabo that they were distinct from the neighbouring Solymi, who were probably a Semitic race, but we find mention at an early period in these mountain districts of various other tribes, as the Cabali, Milyans, &c., of all which, as well as the neighbouring Isaurians and Lycaonians, the origin is wholly unknown, and the absence of monuments of their languages must remain so.
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  • It is a matter of common observation that stones of monuments, walls or buildings which are exposed to the air sooner or later become eaten away or broken up into small fragments under the influence of the weather.
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  • Towards the west is the Si-hu or Western Lake, a beautiful sheet of water, with its banks and islands studded with villas, monuments and gardens, and its surface traversed by gaily-painted pleasure boats.
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  • Exclusive of extensive and flourishing suburbs, the city has a circuit of 12 m.; its streets are well paved and clean; and it possesses a large number of arches, public monuments, temples, hospitals and colleges.
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  • To illustrate the antiquities described in this work he published a large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh (1849).
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  • His record of this expedition, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, which was illustrated by another folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, was published in 1853.
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  • Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying districts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments.
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  • Augustus gave it the name of Colonia Julia Pisana; his grandsons Gaius and Lucius were patrons of the colony, and after their death monuments were erected in their honour, as is recorded in two long inscriptions still extant.
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  • Not far from these ancient monuments is the new Raetian Museum, which contains a great collection of objects relating to Raetia (including the geological collections of the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus a Spescha (1752-1833), who explored the high snowy regions around the sources of the Rhine).
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  • The Glyptothek, a building by Klenze in the Ionic style, and adorned with several groups and single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by Thorwaldsen and other modern masters.
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  • Among the numerous monuments with which the squares and streets are adorned, the most important are the colossal statue of Maximilian II.
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  • The brick enclosure wall of the temple is still plainly visible near the little village of Sa el hagar (Sa of stone) on the east bank of the Rosetta branch, but the royal tombs and other monuments of Sais, some of which were described by Herodotus, and its inscribed records, have all gone.
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  • These monuments were originally natural grottoes, which tradition assigned as habitations to the local nymphs.
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  • The new town, which lies on the flat expanse adjoining the crescent-shaped bay, partly on ground that has been reclaimed from the sea, has large and regularly built streets, and several large squares adorned with artistic monuments.
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  • The ecclesiastical organization of Lycaonia and the country round Iconium on all sides was complete in the early 4th century, and monuments of later 3rd and 4th century Christianity are extremely numerous.
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  • There are very numerous representations on the monuments; in some the censer appears as a small cup or bowl held by a human hand to which a long handle is attached on which is a small box to hold the incense.
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  • The stele of Jehawmelek, king of Gebal, found here, is one of the most important of Phoenician monuments.
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  • Among the more important are Certayne Reasons why Cntholiques refuse to goe to Church (Douai, 1580), A Christian Directorie guiding Men to their Saluation (London, 1583-1591, 2 parts), A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crowne of Ingland (1594), Treatise of the Three Conversions of England (1603-1604, 3 parts), an answer to Foxe's Acts and Monuments.
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  • In architectural merits its monuments, though not so extensive, are worthy of comparison with those of Granada.
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  • They left some fine monuments of the period of their ascendancy, which lasted twentytwo years.
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  • See Les Monuments arabes de Tlemcen, by William Marcais and Georges Marcais (Paris, 1903).
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  • This accurate and finely-illustrated work, one of the publications of the Service des monuments historiques de l'Alge'rie, cites the principal works dealing with Tlemcen, and gives a critical estimate of their value.
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  • It was destroyed by the Lombards with fire and sword, and it was then that it lost practically all its monuments of the Roman period.
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  • Of memorial monuments the largest and most elaborate in Frankfort is that erected in 1858 in honour of the early German printers.
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  • Many European travellers have given descriptions of its monuments, though none of them has stayed there more than a few days.
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  • The fall of many of the monuments, according to Bent, was caused by the washing away of the foundations by the stream called Mai Shum, and indeed the native tradition states that " Gudert, queen of the Amhara," when she visited Axum, destroyed the chief obelisk in this way by digging a trench from the river to its foundation.
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  • Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, "by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal."
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  • This building contains an archaeological museum with a collection of Roman stone monuments; the archives of the town; and the principal museum, which, besides valuable paintings and other works of art, contains the magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy.
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  • There are also monuments to those inhabitants of Dijon who fell in the engagement before the town in 1870, and to President Carnot and Garibaldi.
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  • For the decoration of the palace and other monuments built by them, eminent artists were gathered from northern France and Flanders, and during this period the town became one of the great intellectual centres of France.
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  • Chabeuf, Dijon a travers les ages (Dijon, 1897), and Dijon, monuments et souvenirs (Dijon, 1894).
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  • The fashion of illustrated serials was introduced in the Semanario pintoresco espanol (1836-1857), noticeable for its biographies and descriptions of Spanish monuments.
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  • Barre is an important seat of the granite industry, and manufactures monuments and tombstones, stone-cutting implements and other machinery.
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  • In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,373,046, of which 86.9% was the value of the monuments and tombstones manufactured.
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  • How far the Phoenicians had any effective control over it is unknown; the absence of their monuments does not argue much real jurisdiction.
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  • In describing the monuments discovered by the French excavators, the simplest plan is to follow the route of Pausanias.
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  • Britton was an earnest advocate of the preservation of national monuments, proposing in 1837 the formation of a society such as the modern Society for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments.
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  • Richardson, have brought to light important monuments of the ancient city, both Greek and Roman.
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  • The first object was the locating of the agora, or public square, first because Pausanias says that most of the important monuments of the city were either on or near the agora; and secondly because, beginning with the agora, he mentions, sometimes with a brief description, the principal monuments in order along three of the principal thoroughfares radiating from it.
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  • Of the surviving monuments of the Greek city the most important is the temple of Apollo.
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  • It is not surprising that monuments were found of which there is no record in ancient writings.
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  • Public monuments are few, but include a statue of Queen Victoria (1903) and a South African War memorial (1905) in front of the city hall; the Albert Memorial (1870), in the form of a clock-tower, in Queen Street; a monument to the same prince in High Street; and a statue in Wellington Place to Dr Henry Cooke, a prominent Presbyterian minister who died in 1868.
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  • The earliest inhabitants of Malta (Melita) and Gozo (Gaulos) belonged to a culture-circle which included the whole of the western Mediterranean, and to a race which perhaps originated from North Africa; and it is they, and not the Phoenicians, who were the builders of the remarkable megalithic monuments which these islands contain, the Gigantia in Gozo, Hagiar Kim and Mnaidra near Crendi, the rock-cut hypogeum of Halsaflieni,' and the megalithic buildings on the hill of Corradino in Malta, being the most noteworthy.
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  • The huge scale of many of his conceptions can be compared only with that of antique Oriental monuments.
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  • In the southwest corner of the town is the esplanade, with an equestrian statue of the emperor William I., and monuments to Prince Frederick Charles and Marshal Ney, commanding a fine view of the "pays messin," a fertile plain lying to the south.
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  • If at one time the monuments of Greece and Rome claimed the almost undisputed attention of the archaeologist, that time has long since passed.
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  • The answer to that question must come, if it come at all, from what we now speak of as prehistoric archaeology; the monuments from Memphis and Nippur and Nineveh, covering a mere ten thousand years or so, are the records of recent history.
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  • Considering the important part played by the Egyptian sojourn of the Hebrews, as narrated in the Scriptures, it was certainly not an overenthusiastic prediction that the Egyptian monuments when fully investigated would divulge important references to Joseph, to Moses, and to the all-important incidents of the Exodus; but half a century of expectant attention in this direction has led only to disappointment.
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  • It is, however, his works in pure mathematics that are the permanent monuments of his fame.
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  • It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
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  • Among its principal buildings are the church of St Andrew (Andreaskirche), which contains numerous monuments of the counts of Mansfeld; the church of St Peter and St Paul (Peter-Paulkirche), containing the font in which Luther was baptized; the royal gymnasium (classical school), founded by Luther shortly before his death in 1546; and the hospital.
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  • The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces.
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  • Among the megalithic monuments of Cher, the most notable is that at Villeneuve-sur-Cher, known as the Pierre-de-la-Roche.
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  • It has monuments to Patrick Hamilton, the martyr, and Thomas Hog (1628-1692), the Scottish divine, for some time a prisoner on the Bass.
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  • Their monuments were erected by Queen Elizabeth, who found the choir and tombs in ruins.
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  • In its centre lies the Markt Kirche, a red-brick edifice of the 14th century, containing interesting monuments and some fine stained-glass windows, and with a steeple 3 10 ft.
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  • It is used principally for monuments.
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  • At intervals are circular spaces, called " glorietas," with statues (the famous bronze equestrian statue of Charles IV., and monuments to Columbus, Cuauhtemoc the last of the Aztec emperors, and Juarez).
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  • Among other institutions are the new post office, begun in 1902 and finished in 1907; the Mineria, occupied by the schools of mining and engineering; the military school, occupying a part of the castle of Chapultepec; the Iturbide palace, now occupied as a hotel; the Iturbide theatre, occupied by the chamber of deputies, for which a new legislative palace to cost 2,500,000 pesos was under construction in 1909; the new palace of justice; the old mint, dating from 1537; the new penitentiary, completed in 190o; the Panteon, with its monuments to the most celebrated Mexicans; the new general hospital; the jockey club on Plaza Guardiola, a new university (1910) and new school edifices of modern design.
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  • The Egyptian monuments represent the Purasati with a very distinctive feather head-dress resembling that of the Lycians and Mycenaeans.
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  • Sun-dials and calendar monuments were known among the more advanced tribes.
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  • The traditions agree with the monuments, whatever may be objected to assigning any one ruin to the Toltec, the Chichimec or the Nahuatl, that there are distinct varieties in ground-plan, motives, stone-craft, wall decorations and sculptures.
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  • There are several handsome public monuments, notably that to Duke Leopold of Brunswick, who was drowned in the Oder while attempting to save life, on the 27th of April 1785.
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  • It seems that representations of deities, and indeed any representations at all, were rare upon the polished walls of the great monuments of the fourth dynasty, and Petrie thinks that he can trace a violent religious revolution with confiscation of endowments at this time in the temple remains at Abydos; but none the less the wants of the deities were then attended to by priests selected from the royal family and the highest in the land.
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  • In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
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  • Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
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  • The church of All Saints is Perpendicular, with an Early English tower, and contains some interesting monuments.
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  • Monuments of the tragic story were shown by the Romans in the time of Livy (the altar of Janus Curiatius near the sororium tigillum, the "sister's beam," or yoke under which Horatius had to pass; and the altar of Juno Sororia).
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  • Some ancient frescoes and numerous monuments are preserved.
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  • The power of these old sovereigns extended far beyond Ma'rib, for their names are found on buildings and monuments in the Jauf.
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  • The most noticeable of the modern public monuments are those to the emperor William I.
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  • The building is the property of the Commission of Historical Monuments, which has carried on the work of restoration with great architectural and antiquarian ability.
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  • The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
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  • The monuments at Sanchi are now under the charge of the archaeological department; they are being well cared for, and valuable photographs have been taken of the bas-reliefs and inscriptions.
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  • Hape is named on very early monuments, but little is known of the divine animal before the New Kingdom.
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  • The Greek signs of the zodiac, including Libra, are obvious upon both these monuments, which have thrown useful light upon the calendar system and method of stellar grouping of the ancient Egyptians.16 Planispheres.
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  • The current Siamese characters are derived from the more monumental Cambodian alphabet, which again owes its origin to the alphabet of the inscriptions, an offshoot of the character found on the stone monuments of southern India in the 6th and 8th centuries.
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  • There are some fine monuments, especially one to the duke de Croy who died in 1624.
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  • Outside Brussels at Evere is the chief cemetery, with fine monuments to the British officers killed at Waterloo (removed from the church in that village), to the French soldiers who died on Belgian soil in 1870-71, and another to the Prussians.
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  • There is also a fine cemetery, containing some remarkable monuments.
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  • The means at his disposal were inadequate, his excavations were incomplete and also unscientific in that his prime object was the discovery of inscriptions and museum objects; but he was wonderfully successful in achieving the results at which he aimed, and the numerous statues, monuments, inscribed stones, bronze objects and the like found by him in the ruins of Calah are among the most precious possessions of the British Museum.
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  • Of modern sculptors the works of Myslbek and Sucharda are prominent in the public monuments at Prague.
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  • The parish church of St Mary, Hornsey, retains its Perpendicular tower (c. 1500) and a number of interesting monuments.
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  • Such a system would be sure to stifle all national outgrowth, and accordingly we have among the Poles none of those early monuments of the language which other countries boast.
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  • The town is divided by the Savoureuse into a new quarter, in which is the railway station on the right bank, and the old fortified quarter, with the castle, the public buildings and monuments, on the left bank.
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  • The two chief monuments commemorate the defence of Belfort in the war of 1870-1871.
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  • It contains many handsome monuments and private mausoleums, and a beautiful mortuary chapel in the Norman style.
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  • There are numerous sepulchral and other monuments, which are generally believed to be of prehistoric origin.
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  • Near Jelfa, in the Great Atlas, and at Mechera-Sfa (" ford of the flat stones"), a peninsula in the valley of the river Mina not far from Tiaret in the department of Oran, are vast numbers of megalithic monuments.
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  • The name is given to a number of sepulchral monuments placed on hill-tops.
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  • Algeria contains many Roman remains besides those mentioned and is also rich in monuments of Saracenic art.
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  • Stephane Gsell's Les monuments antiques de l'Algerie (2 vols., Paris, 1901), one of the publications of the Service des monuments historiques of the colony, is an authoritative and finely illustrated work on the antiquities of Algeria.
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  • There is a sulphur bath in the neighbourhood, situated in a pleasant park, in which there are monuments to those who fell in the war of 1866.
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  • The exact dates of events in Hebrew history can be determined only when the figures given in the Old Testament can be checked and, if necessary, corrected by the contemporary monuments of Assyria and Babylonia, or (as in the post-exilic period) by the knowledge which we independently possess of the chronology of the Persian kings.
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  • Many monuments and inscriptions of other kings in Babylonia, between 4000 and 2000 B.C., are also known.
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  • The recently-discovered contemporary monuments have fully established the accuracy of the Canon.
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  • The lengths of the reigns of Nebuchadrezzar and his successors on the throne of Babylon, and also, after the conquest of Babylon, of Cyrus and the following Persian kings, are known from the " Canon of Ptolemy," referred to above, the particulars in which, for the earlier part of this period, are also confirmed by the testimony of the monuments.
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  • In some of the Caroline Islands, again, there are extensive remains of stone buildings, and in the Marianas stone monuments occur.
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  • Its monuments and brasses are of much interest.
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  • He is pictured on monuments and seal cylinders with the lightning and the thunderbolt, and in the hymns the sombre aspects of the god on the whole predominate.
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  • Of the numerous churches the chief are the Hooglandsche Kerk, or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and restored in 18851 9 02, containing the monument of Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, and the Pieterskerk (1315) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars.
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  • Oppert (24) concludes from inscriptions that there was in Assyria a royal cubit (7/6)ths of the U cubit, or 25.20; and four monuments show (25) a cubit averaging 25.28.
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  • There, under the monuments of its glorious past, Hellenism found its last retreat.
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  • His early mastery of classical literature led him to the study of classic monuments in classic lands, while his equally conspicuous talent for mathematics gave him the laws of form and proportion in architectural design.
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  • Cumont, Textes et monuments rel.
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  • Though the Central American native kings have too little interest for traditions of them to be dwelt on here, they bring into view one important historical point - that the ruined cities of this region are not monuments of a forgotten past, but that at least some of them belong to history, having been inhabited up to the conquest, apparently by the very nations who built them.
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  • Alexander von Humboldt's Vues des Cordilleres et monuments des peuples indigenes de l'Amerique was published in Paris in 1816.
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  • Another early explorer was the French artist Frederic de Waldeck, who published Voyage pittoresque et archeologique dans la province d'Yucatan (Paris, 1838), and whose collection of drawings appeared in 1866, with the descriptive text by Brasseur de Bourbourg, under the title Monuments anciens du Mexique.
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  • The church, chiefly late Perpendicular, contains a large number of monuments of the Sidney family and an effigy of Sir Stephen de Penchester, Warden of the Cinque Ports in the time of Edward I.
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  • Roman remains are to be seen, but the place owes its celebrity to the megalithic monuments in the vicinity, some of which are among the largest extant.
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  • The transcriber was in all probability a certain Murdoch Nisbet, who also showed his reforming tendencies by adding to it a rendering of Luther's Prologue to the New Testament.4 2 See Foxe, Acts and Monuments, iv.
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  • The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
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  • Among the monuments is that of Strongbow, the invader of Ireland, to whom the earlier part of the superstructure (1170) is due.
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  • This cathedral contains the monuments of several illustrious persons, amongst which the most celebrated are those of Swift (dean of this cathedral), of Mrs Hester Johnson, immortalized under the name of "Stella"; of Archbishop Marsh; of the first earl of Cork; and of Duke Schomberg, who fell at the battle of the Boyne.
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  • Though planetae decorated with narrow orphreys are occasionally met with in the monuments of the early centuries, these vestments were until the 10th century generally quite plain, and even at the close of this century, when the custom of decorating the chasuble with orphreys had become common, there was no definite rule as to their disposition; sometimes they were merely embroidered borders to the neck-opening or hem, sometimes a vertical strip down the back, less often a forked cross, the arms of which turned upwards over the shoulders.
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  • This, the greatest of all the monuments of the wealth and artistic taste of the Norman kings in northern Sicily, was begun about 1170 by William II., and in 1182 the church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III., elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral.
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  • His assumed memoir was printed for English readers in 1597 by William Ponsonby under the title of a Historie of the Great Emperor Tamerlan, drawn from the ancient monuments by Messire Jean du Bec, Abbot of Mortimer; and another version of the same book is to be found in the Histoire du Grand Tamerlan, by De Sainctyon, published at Amsterdam in 1678.
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  • We may thus hope to recover some priceless monuments of early Christianity, hymns and treatises perhaps of Marcion and Bardesanes, the Gospel of Peter, and even the Diatessaron.
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  • There are two Italian marble monuments in honour of Confederate soldiers, and monuments to the Southern poets, Paul Hamilton Hayne and Richard Henry Wilde (1789-1847).
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  • The parish church of St Martin contains several monuments and an ancient stone altar bearing a Latin inscription.
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  • Neither had civilization anything to fear from them, since they represented a strong neutral power, which made the intimate union of Persian and Arabian elements possible, almost at the expense of the national Turkish - literary monuments in that language being during the whole period of the Seljuk rule exceedingly rare.
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  • Consisting of a chancel, clerestoried nave, and aisles, it is Early English and Perpendicular in style, and contains a beautiful 13th-century oak roof of 350 panels, each with a different design; a 15th-century pulpit of carved stone; and some interesting old monuments of the Strode, Mallet and Gournay families.
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  • No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments.
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  • This is confirmed by the monuments as far back as the age of Rameses II.
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  • There are many modern public monuments - considerably more than in other Italian towns - and some of them are fine.
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  • The most recent monograph is Edouard, Fontevrault et ses monuments (1875); for the later history see art.
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  • The principal monuments of the Lusignan period are the fine cathedral church of St Sophia, an edifice of French Gothic, at once solid and elegant (the towers were never completed); the church of St Catherine, an excellent example of the last years of the 14th century (both these are now mosques); and the church of St Nicolas of the English (now a grain store), built for the order of the Knights of St Thomas of Acre.
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  • Adjoining it is the Forest Lawn cemetery, in which are monuments to President Millard Fillmore, and to the famous Seneca chief Red Jacket (1751-1830), a friend of the whites, who was faithful when approached by Tecumseh and the Prophet, and warned the Americans of their danger; by many he has been considered the greatest orator of his race.
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  • The public monuments of Dresden also include the Moritz Monument, a relief dedicated by the elector Augustus to his brother Maurice, a statue of Weber the composer by Rietschel, a bronze statue of Theodor Korner by Hahne', the Rietschel monument on the Briihl Terrace by Schilling, a bust of Gutzkow, and a statue of Bismarck on the promenade.
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  • The Repertoire as a whole contains an enormous mass of useful information, and is one of the most important bibliographical monuments ever devoted to the study of medieval history.
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  • There are a number of monuments of historical and antiquarian interest.
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  • The church of St Andrew is mainly Perpendicular, but has Early English portions; it contains several ancient monuments and brasses, and flanks the market-place, with its modern cross.
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  • After having been employed for some time in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the French embassy at Constantinople; and in 1673 he travelled in Syria and the Levant, where he copied a great number of inscriptions, and sketched, and in some cases removed historical monuments.
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  • It contains several interesting monuments.
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  • In 1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo.
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  • The parish church of St John (1747) has several monuments of eminent persons.
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  • The parish church of St Mary is a fine Decorated building, containing monuments of the L'Estrange family, whose mansion, Hunstanton Hall, is a picturesque Tudor building of brick in a well-wooded park.
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  • Its beautiful cathedral church contains several old monuments.
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  • Welcker, and the provincial museum, standing near the railway station, which contains a collection of medieval stone monuments and works of art, besides a small picture gallery.
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  • The columns of Trajan and Antoninus were restored and bedecked with gilded statues of the Apostles; nor was this the only case in which the high-minded pope made the monuments of antiquity subservient to Christian ideas.
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  • There are a museum and monuments to Dolgoruki, conqueror of the Crimea, and to the empress Catherine II.
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  • In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 50o Danes in the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by the same sculptor.
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  • The ruins suffered greatly from vandalism during the early period of French rule, many portable objects being removed to museums in Paris or Algiers, and most of the monuments destroyed for the sake of their stone.
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  • There are also monuments to Kings Louis I.
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  • Egyptian monuments frequently mention the vessels of gold and silver, iron and copper, made by the Dahi, i.e..
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  • Within are monuments to the Glanville and Bourchier families, besides some good stained glass, one window being the work of William Morris.
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  • It contains the early 14th-century tomb of Santa Eulalia, the patron saint of the city, besides many other monuments of artistic or historical interest.
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  • In 1860 a large cemetery, the Cimitero Monumentale, was opened, but found to be insufficient, it is reserved for important monuments, that of Musocco, 3 m.
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  • Herodotus relates that under his prudent administration Egypt reached the highest pitch of prosperity; he adorned the temples of Lower Egypt especially with splendid monolithic shrines and other monuments (his activity here is proved by remains still existing).
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  • The people of Amar are represented on the Egyptian monuments with yellow skin, blue eyes, red eyebrows and beard, whence it has been conjectured that they were akin to the Libyans (Sayce, Expositor, July 1888).
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  • The church of St Lawrence is of Perpendicular and earlier date, largely restored; it contains fine woodwork and some interesting monuments.
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  • It contains a large number of interesting monuments, including a brass with the date 873 (supposed to mark the restingplace of King !Ethelred I.), a lunar orrery of the 14th century and an octagonal Norman font of Purbeck marble.
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  • It retains Perpendicular portions, a south porch of brick of the 16th century and numerous ancient monuments and brasses.
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  • Both the church and chapels contain several ancient monuments.
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  • The large castle chapel, dedicated to the Virgin, has some fine monuments.
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  • It was not, however, till the XVIIIth Dynasty, the beginning of the New Empire, that the whole site began to be occupied by monuments which have survived to the present day.
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  • The city and its monuments now covered an area about three miles square.
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  • He moved his capital northward to Akhetaton (El Amarna) and strove to suppress the worship of Ammon, doing infinite damage to the monuments of Thebes by defacing his name and figure.
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  • Of the Persians, however, not even Darius is traceable at Thebes; on the other hand, there is no support for the tradition that Cambyses destroyed its monuments.
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  • We will now briefly enumerate the principal groups of monuments.
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  • In the choir the heart of Marie de' Medici is buried; and in the adjoining side-chapels are monuments of the founder and other archbishops of Cologne, and the shrine of the Three Kings, which is adorned with gold and precious stones.
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  • Like all important German towns, Cologne contains many fine monuments.
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  • There are also monuments to Moltke (1881), to Count Johann von.
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  • The earliest known natives of this region were the Celtic Rutheni, to whom the numerous megalithic monuments found in the department are attributed.
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  • In addition to this, modern study of monuments and inscriptions has recovered the names, and to a certain extent the records, of a succession of dynasties ruling in the Deccan; of these the most conspicuous are the Cholas, the Andhras or Satavahanas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas of Devagiri (Deogiri).
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  • These tombs are in many instances monuments of considerable pretension, and of a highly ornamental character, and naturally present in the highest degree the peculiar advantage common to all that remains of Pompeii, in their perfect preservation.
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  • The name of the larger group of monuments close by, called the Countless Stones, is due to the popular belief, which occurs elsewhere, that they are not to be counted.
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  • The church of St Mary was rebuilt c. 1850, though the ancient monuments preserved give it an appearance of antiquity.
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  • The practice of pulling down the ancient monuments to be used as building material, which was connived at by venal officials, was strictly prohibited.
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  • The details of this contest, of his relations with the caliph Ma'mun, and of his many travels - including a journey to Egypt, on which he viewed with admiration the great Egyptian monuments, - are to be found in the Ecclesiastical Chronicle of Barhebraeus.
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  • Numerous quarries, which supply the North German cities with stone for buildings and monuments, have been opened along the valley.
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  • These schools are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the more promising pupils are thus from the first assured of a career, especially in connection with the decoration of public buildings and monuments.
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  • The church of St Augustine, Broxbourne, is a fine example of Perpendicular work, and contains interesting monuments, including an altar tomb with enamelled brasses of 1473.
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  • In conformity with the decrees of the council of Trent, he cleared the cathedral of its gorgeous tombs, rich ornaments, banners, arms, sparing not even the monuments of his own relatives.
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  • Monuments commemorate the actions at El Caney and San Juan Hill.
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  • The church of St Mary is of Norman and later date; it contains some interesting early stone-carving, and monuments to the family of Cavendish, who acquired the castle in the 16th century.
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  • A large class of monuments was afterwards attributed to the Hyksos, probably in error.
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  • Khyan's monuments, inconspicuous as they are, actually extend over a wider area - from Bagdad to Cnossus - than those of any other Egyptian king.
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  • The parish church of St Nicholas, an antiquated cruciform structure with curious Elizabethan work in the north transept, and monuments of the Chichester family, was originally a chapel or oratory dependent on a Franciscan monastery.
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  • Many senators were put to death, and their places remained unfilled; the lower classes were deprived of their arms and employed in erecting splendid monuments, while the army was recruited from the king's own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies.
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  • Within are a priest's chamber over the porch, a handsome oak ceiling, a 15th-century pulpit, and some curious monuments and brasses.
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  • The Liber jurium reipublicae Genuensis was edited by Ricotti in the 7th, 8th and 9th volumes of the Monuments historiae patriae (Turin, 1854-1857).
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  • The architecture and sculpture of this age have also left some of their most remarkable monuments among the Greek cities of Sicily.
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  • A few years after the reformer's death, the old cults were re-established and the monuments of Aton studiously defaced.
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  • The principal extant monuments are a triple triumphal arch, with inscription, through which ran the road to Xanthus, and the walls, discernible on either hand of it; the theatre, 265 ft.
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  • After centuries of neglect efforts are now made to preserve the monuments of Arabic art, a commission with that object having been appointed in 1881.
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  • Arrangements were made in 1902 for the systematic repair and preservation of Coptic monuments.
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  • They furnished the chief material for the ancient monuments.
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  • Both varieties are depicted on the ancient monuments; the whitef rooted goose being commonly shown.
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  • Ancient Cities and Monuments.M any of the modern cities of Egypt are built on the sites of ancient cities, and they generally contain some monuments of the time of the Pharaohs, Greeks or Romans.
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  • There are, besides the more ancient cities and monuments, a number of Coptic towns, monasteries and churches in almost every part of Egypt, dating from the early centuries of Christianity.
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  • It is especially those long ages, during which Egypt was an independent centre of culture and government, before its absorption in the Persian empire in the 6th century B.C., that make the most powerful appeal to the imagination and can often justify this appeal by the splendour of the monuments representing them.
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  • Its labors embraced not only Egypt and Nubia (as far as Khartum) but also the Egyptian monuments in Sinai and Syria; its immense harvest of material is of the highest value, the new device of taking paper impressions or squeezes giving Lepsius a great advantage over his predecessors, similar to that which was later conferred by the photographic camera.
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  • A new period was opened in Egyptian exploration in 1858 when Mariette was appointed director of archaeological works In Egypt, his duties being to safeguard the monuments and prevent their exploitation by dealers.
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  • In Nubia, owing to the poverty of the country and its scanty population, the proportion of monuments surviving is infinitely greater than in Egypt.
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  • Consequently the information derived from their monuments, in spite of their great abundance, is of a fortuitous character.
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  • There may seem to be a great abundance of Egyptian monuments, but they have to cover an enormous space of time, and even in the periods which are best represented, gravestones recording the names of private persons with a prayer or two are scarcely material for history.
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  • A scrap of annals has been found extending from the earliest times to the Vth Dynasty, as well as a very fragmentary list of kings reaching nearly to the end of the Middle Kingdom, to help out the scattered data of the other monuments.
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  • The Syrians and the, Keftiu, the latter now identified with the Cretans and other representatives of the Aegean civilization, are the only peoples who by their elaborate clothing and artistic products reveal themselves upon the ancient Egyptian monuments as the equals in culture of the Egyptian nation.
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  • In temples of Ptolemaic and Roman age the full series is figured presenting their tribute to the god, and this series approximately agrees with the scattered data of early monuments.
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  • Their training consisted of gymnastic and warlike exercises which developed strength and discipline that would be as useful in executing public works and in dragging large monuments as in strictly military service.
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  • Egyptian cavalry are not represented upon the monuments, and we hear little of such at any time.
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  • C. Proportions of pyramids and other monuments with sloping sides.
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  • It is as such, in opposition to Buto the goddess of the north, that she is most often named on the monuments.
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  • On the earliest monuments she is represented by a shield transfixed by arrows.
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  • But, generally speaking, he was abominated IS a power of evil, and his figure was often obliterated on the monuments.
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  • But the study of this with the other scanty monuments and imperfect copies of inscriptions that were available enabled the celebrated physicist Thomas Young (1773-1829) to make a beginning.
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  • Apart from their philological interest, as giving the history of a remarkable language during a period of several thousand years, the grammatical studies of the last quarter of the I9th century and afterwards are beginning to bear fruit in regard to the exact interpretation of historical documents on Egyptian monuments and papyri.
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  • The ordinary literary language of the later monuments is modelled on Old Egyptian.
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  • That the artists were conscious of their poverty of thought is shown by some precise imitations of the style of early monuments.
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  • Monuments.The principal monuments that are yet remaining to illustrate the art and history of Egypt may be best taken in historical order.
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  • Elsewhere are but few other monuments; at Wadi Maghara in Sinai is a rock sculpture of Semcrkhet of the 1st Dynasty in perfect state, at Giza is a group of tombs of a prince and retinue of the 1st Dynasty, and at GIza and Bet Khallaf are two large brick mastabas with extensive passages closed by trap-doors, of kings of the IIIrd Dynasty.
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  • Beyond these tombs, and the temples attached to them, there are very few fixed monuments; of Cheops and Pepi I.
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  • In the XVIIIth to XXth Dynasties we reach the great period of monuments.
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  • The rock-cut shrine at Speos Artemidos, and the temple of Serabit in Sinai are the only other large monuments of this queen yet remaining.
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  • Akhenaton has been so consistently eclipsed by the later kings who destroyed his work, that the painted pavement and the rock tablets of Tell el Amarna are the only monuments of his still in position, beside a few small inscriptions.
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  • Yet very few great monuments were originated by him; even the Ramesseum, his funerary temple, was begun by his father.
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  • Of the Saite kings there are very few large monuments.
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  • The Persians kept up Egyptian monuments.
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  • Beside the great monuments, which we have now noticed, the historical material is found on several other classes of remains.
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  • On the oldest monuments the years in a reign were not numbered consecutively but were named after events; thus in the 1st Dynasty we find the year of smiting the Antiu-people, in the beginning of the IIIrd Dynasty the year of fighting and smiting the people of Lower Egypt.
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  • The duration of the reigns in several dynasties is fairly well known from the incontrovertible evidence of contemporary monuments.
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  • The succession and number of the kings are also ascertained for other dynasties, together with many regnal dates, but very serious gaps exist in the records of the Egyptian monuments, the wo,rst being between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties, between the XIth and the VIth, and at Dynasties 1.-Ill.
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  • Until 1895 there seemed little hope of reaching the records of those remote times, although it was plain that the civilization had developed in the Nile valley for many centuries before the IVth Dynasty, beyond which the earliest known monuments scarcely reached.
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  • Monuments of the XIIth Dynasty are abundant and often of splendid design and workmanship, whereas previously there had been little produced since the VIth Dynasty that was not half barbarous.
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  • His monuments are widespread in Egypt, the quarries and mines in the desert as far as Sinai bear witness to his great activity, and we know of an expedition which he made against the Nubians.
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  • The obelisk of Heliopolis is amongst his best-known monuments, and the damming of the Lake of Moeris (q.v.) must have been in progress in his reign.
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  • The Turin Papyrus preserves many names on its shattered fragments, and the monuments are for ever adding to the list, but it is difficult to assign them accurately to their places.
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  • The monuments and scarabs of the Hyksos kings are found throughout Upper and Lower Egypt; those of Khian somehow spread as far as Crete and Bagdad.
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  • After her husbands death the ambitious Hatshepsut assumed the full regal power; upon her monuments she wears the masculine garb and aspect of a king though the feminine gender is retained for her in the inscriptions.
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  • Her cartouches began to be defaced or her monuments hidden up by other buildings, and the same rage pursued some of her most faithful servants in their tombs.
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  • Then came the religious fanaticism of Akhenaton, mutilating all figures of Ammon and all inscriptions containing his name; this made havoc of the exquisite monuments of Hatshepsut; and the restorers of the XIXth Dynasty, refusing to recognize the legitimacy of the queen, had no scruples in replacing her names by those of the associate kings Tethmosis I., II.
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  • He changed his own name from Amenhotp, Ammon is satisfied, to Akhenaton, pious to Aton, erased the name and figure of Ammon from the monuments, even where it occurred as part of his own fathers name, abandoned Thebes, the magnificent city of Ammon, and built a new capital at El Amarna in the plain of Hermopolis, on a virgin site upon the edge of the desert.
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  • There are signs also that the polytheistic word gods was obliterated on many of the monuments, but other divine names, though almost entirely excluded from Akhenatons work, were left untouched where they already existed.
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  • Two sons-in-law followed him with brief reigns; but the second, Tutenkhaton, soon changed his name to Tutenkhamfin, and, without abandoning Ekhaton entirely, began to restore to Karnak its ancient splendour, with new monuments dedicated to Ammon.
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  • At length a general named Harmahib, who had served under Akhenaton,came to the throne as a whole-hearted supporter of the old religion; soon Aton and his royal following suffered the fate that they had imposed upon Ammon; their monuments were destroyed and their names and figures erased, while those of Ammon were restored.
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  • Meanwhile the great work at Karnak projected by his father was going forward, and throughout Egypt the injuries done to the monuments by Akhenaton were thoroughly repaired; the erased inscriptions and figures were restored, not without many blunders.
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  • Mineptah was one of the most unconscionable usurpers of the monuments of his predecessors, including those of his own father, who, it must be admitted, had set him the example.
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  • It may be questioned whether it was due to a wave of enthusiasm amongst the priests and people, leading them to rededicate the monuments in the name of their deliverer, or a somewhat insane desire of the king to perpetuate his own memory in a singularly unfortunate manner.
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  • Mineptah, the thirteenth son in the huge family of Rameses, must have been old when he ascended the throne; after his first years of reign his energies gave way, and he was followed by a quick succession of inglorious rulers, Seti II., the queen Tuosri, Amenmesse, Siptah; the names of the last two were erased from their monuments.
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  • Monuments of the Persian rule in Egypt are exceedingly scanty.
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  • Monuments of all these kings are known, and art flourished particularly under the MendesiankingsNekhtharheb (Nectanebes or Nectanebus I.) and Nekhtnebf (Nectanebes II.).
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  • On the monuments there is no other sign of traces, from the want of which wheeling round must have been difficult.
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  • Patria (TO, IIaTpca Ti - js Kcvvaravnvov1r6XEcos), treating of the history, topography, and monuments of Constantinople.
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  • It undoubtedly belongs to the Indo-European family, but its earlier forms cannot, unfortunately, be ascertained owing to the absence of literary monuments.
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