Monoxide Sentence Examples
Lead monoxide is dimorphous, occurring as cubical dodecahedra and as rhombic octahedra.
Hot concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes allantoin, with production of ammonia, and carbon monoxide and dioxide.
In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).
In de Lambilly's process air and steam is led over white-hot coke, and carbon dioxide or monoxide removed from the escaping gases according as ammonium formate or carbonate is wanted.
Haemoglobin is composed of a basic albumin and an acid substance haematin; it combines readily with oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to form loose compounds.Advertisement
When kept fused in the presence of air lead readily takes up oxygen, with the formation at first of a dark-coloured scum, and then of monoxide PbO, the rate of oxidation increasing with the temperature.
It ignites when heated in air with the formation of the monoxide; dilute acids convert it into metallic lead and lead monoxide, the latter dissolving in the acid.
A hydrated oxide, 2PbO H 2 O, is obtained when a solution of the monoxide in potash is treated with carbon dioxide.
It is decomposed by acids into a mixture of lead monoxide and dioxide, and may thus be regarded as lead metaplumbate, PbPbO 3.
The anhydrous chloride is formed by heating strontium or its monoxide in chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.Advertisement
Cobalt monoxide, CoO, is prepared by heating the hydroxide or carbonate in a current of air, or by heating the oxide C0304 in a current of carbon dioxide.
For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.
Later, while attempting to utilize the gas for the production of electricity by means of a Grove gas battery, he noticed that the carbon monoxide contained in it combined with nickel.
It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
Molybdenum monoxide, MoO.n(H 2 O), is a black powder obtained when the dichloride is boiled with concentrated potash solution.Advertisement
Natural gas is found to consist mainly of the lower paraffins, with varying quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, in some cases also sulphuretted hydrogen and possibly ammonia.
It follows therefore that two hydrocarbon radicals are bound to the carbon monoxide residue with the same strength as they combine to form a paraffin.
In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.
Titanium monoxide, TiO, is obtained as black prismatic crystals by heating the dioxide in the electric furnace, or with magnesium powder.
Phosphorus pentachloride decomposes it into carbon monoxide and dioxide, the reaction being the one generally applied for the purpose of preparing phosphorus oxychloride.Advertisement
Graham showed that gold is capable of occluding by volume 0.48% of hydrogen, 0.20% of nitrogen, 0.29% of carbon monoxide, and 0.16% of carbon dioxide.
Two oxides of the element are definitely known, viz., the dioxide, Te02, and the trioxide, Te03, whilst a monoxide, TeO, has also been described.
Liebreich having apparently shown that it acts upon the blood in the same way as carbon monoxide to form a stable com pound.
Crismer, and others, all conclusively show that acetylene is much less toxic than carbon monoxide, and indeed than coal gas.
When, however, the air is present in much smaller ratio the combustion is incomplete, and carbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water vapour are produced.Advertisement
Carbon monoxide, CO, is found to some extent in volcanic gases.
As an example of the use of Ostwald's energy-equations for the indirect determination we may take the case of carbon monoxide.
If now it is required to find the heat of formation of the compound CO, which cannot be directly ascertained, we have merely to subtract the second equation from the first, each symbol representing constant intrinsic energy, and thus we obtain C+0 - 00= 26300 cal., or C+0=C0+26300 cal., that is, the heat of formation of a gramme-molecule of carbon monoxide is 26300 cal.
When heated in a current of carbon dioxide it forms the oxychloride CbOC1 3, and carbon monoxide.
The simplest syntheses are undoubtedly those in which a carboxyl group is obtained directly from the oxides of carbon, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
If now, after a few moments' interval to allow some air to diffuse into the cylinder, a taper again be applied, an explosion takes place, due to a mixture of carbon monoxide and air.
The monoxide and its hydrate are more familiarly known as lime (q.v.) and slakedlime.
Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
Three oxides of carbon are known, namely, carbon suboxide, C,02, carbon monoxide, CO, and carbon dioxide, C02.
The volume composition of carbon monoxide is established by exploding a mixture of the gas with oxygen, two volumes of the gas combining with one volume of oxygen to form two volumes of carbon dioxide.
It was found, however, that if the cooling be not sufficiently rapid explosions occurred owing to the combination of the metal with carbon monoxide (produced in the oxidation of the charcoal) to form the potassium salt of hexaoxybenzene.
It is a dark yellow powder, which fuses at a high temperature, the liquid on cooling depositing shining tabular crystals; at a white heat it loses oxygen and yields the monoxide.
The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon dioxide.
Concentrated sulphuric acid converts them into sulphates, with simultaneous liberation of carbon monoxide.
Everybody agrees that carbon is necessary for its appearance, but some believe it to be due to a hydrocarbon, others to carbon monoxide, and others to volatilized carbon.
When heated in a current of carbon monoxide or dioxide, it is converted into oxide, some carbon and cyanogen being formed at the same time.
The operation is essentially a dissociation of alumina into aluminium, which collects at the cathode, and into oxygen, which combines with the anodes to form carbon monoxide, the latter escaping and being burnt to carbon dioxide outside.
Lead peroxide is reduced to the monoxide.
Hydrochloric acid gives thallous chloride and chlorine; sulphuric acid gives off oxygen; and on heating it first gives the trioxide and afterwards the monoxide.
It is reduced to the monoxide when heated in a current of hydrogen.
Manganous Sulphide, MnS, found native as manganese glance, may be obtained by heating the monoxide or carbonate in a porcelain tube in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour.
Cerous chloride, CeC1 3, is obtained when the metal is burned in chlorine; when a mixture of cerous oxide and carbon is heated in chlorine; or by rapid heating of the dioxide in a stream of carbon monoxide and chlorine.
The inflammable gas is carbon monoxide, which, however, does not burn with its proper purple flame, but with a flame tinged bright yellow by the sodium present.
This carbon monoxide is formed by the action of coal on the lime, formed at this stage from the original limestone.
When the " candles " of carbon monoxide appear, the pasty mass is quickly drawn out of the furnace into iron " bogies," where it solidifies into a grey, porous mass, the " black-ash."
The monoxide, NiO, occurs naturally as bunsenite, and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulphate is heated.
A hydrated form, Ni 3 0 4 ..2H 2 O, is obtained when the monoxide is fused with sodium peroxide at a red heat and the fused mass extracted with water.
Nickel Salts.-Only one series of salts is known, namely those corresponding to the monoxide.
Cyanogen iodide and iodine monoand tri-chloride effect similar decompositions with simultaneous liberation of iodine; sulphuric acid reacts slowly, forming nickel sulphate and liberating hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.
Chlorine monoxide results on passing chlorine over dry precipitated mercuric oxide.
Hypochlorous acid is formed when chlorine monoxide dissolves in water, and can be prepared (in dilute solution) by passing chlorine through water containing precipitated mercuric oxide in suspension.
Molten copper absorbs carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulphur dioxide; it also appears to decompose hydrocarbons (methane, ethane), absorbing the hydrogen and the carbon separating out.
Cuprous oxide is reduced by hydrogen, carbon monoxide, charcoal, or iron, to the metal; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid forming cuprous chloride, and in other mineral acids to form cupric salts, with the separation of copper.
Its solution in hydrochloric acid readily absorbs carbon monoxide and acetylene; hence it finds application in gas analysis.
It carbonizes when heated with strong sulphuric acid, giving, among other products, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide, Ba02, and a suboxide, obtained by heating Ba0 with magnesium in a vacuum to 110o (Guntz, loc. cit., 1906, p. 359).
The monoxide is formed when the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated.
It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.
Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2, is a white powder that can be obtained by slaking the monoxide with the requisite quantity of water, but it is usually made on the large scale by heating heavy spar with small coal whereby a crude barium sulphide is obtained.
In the Brin process for the manufacture of oxygen, barium dioxide is obtained as an intermediate product by heating barium monoxide with air under pressure.
Barium sulphide, BaS, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen over heated barium monoxide, or better by fusion of the sulphate with a small coal.
At the temperature of the furnace the silica (sand) attacks the calcium phosphate, forming silicate, and setting free phosphorus pentoxide, which is attacked by the carbon, forming phosphorus and carbon monoxide.
It is reduced when heated with carbon to phosphorus, carbon monoxide being formed simultaneously.
Attempts to eliminate water from this acid and so produce an unsaturated acid were unsuccessful; on warming with sulphuric acid, carbon monoxide is eliminated and cyclo-butanone (keto-tetramethylene) is probably formed.
Carbon monoxide is absorbed by a solution of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid or, better, in ammonia.
Coke or anthracite is heated to incandescence by an air blast in a generator lined with fire-brick, and the heated products of combustion as they leave the generator and enter the superheaters are supplied with more air, which causes the combustion of carbon monoxide present in the producer gas and heats up the fire-brick baffles with which the superheater is filled.
The public at first strongly opposed its introduction on the ground of the poisonous properties of the carbon monoxide, which is present in it to the extent of about 28 to 30%.
Still when this comes to be diluted with 60 to 75% of ordinary coal gas, containing as a rule only 4 to 6% of carbon monoxide, the percentage of poisonous monoxide in the mixture falls to below 16%, which experience has shown to be a fairly safe limit.
In all the attempts to make water gas, up to that date, the incandescence of the fuel had been obtained by" blowing "so deep a bed of fuel that carbon monoxide and the residual nitrogen of the air formed the chief products, this mixture being known as" producer "gas.
The effect of this arrangement is that the great body of coal reaches a higher temperature than in an ordinary fireplace, and this, together with the reduction of the carbon dioxide formed immediately above the grate by the red-hot coal in the upper part of the furnace, leads to the formation of carbon monoxide which later on, on the spot where the greatest heat is required, is burned into dioxide by admitting fresh air, preferably pre-heated.
Thisas, which is made for 10 or I I minutes, contains from 23 to 32% carbon monoxide, 7 to I 5% carbon dioxide, 2 to 3% hydrogen, a little methane, 64 to 66% nitrogen, and has a heating value of 950 calories per cub.
The water-gas itself is made for 7 minutes, and has an average composition of 3.3% carbon dioxide, 44% carbon monoxide, o 4% methane, 48.6% hydrogen, 3.7% nitrogen, and a heating value of 2970 calories per cub.
The blowing-up gas contains 17 or 18% carbon dioxide and 1.5% oxygen, with mere traces of carbon monoxide.
The water-gas shows 4 to 5% carbon dioxide, 40% carbon monoxide, o 8% methane, 48 to 51% hydrogen, 4 or 5% nitrogen.
The halogens give ferrous and ferric haloids and carbon monoxide; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids have no action, but hydriodic decomposes it.
A typical member is nitric oxide; carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide may also be put in this class, but it must be remembered that these oxides may be regarded, in some measure at least, as the anhydrides of formic and hyponitrous acid, although, at the same time, it is impossible to obtain these acids by simple hydration of these oxides.
In iron-smelting the ore is laid in a heap upon the fuel (charcoal) filling up the hearth, and is gradually brought to the metallic state by the reducing action of the carbon monoxide formed at the tuyere.
Six weeks of smoking abstinence was confirmed by expired carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide can escape from any fuel-burning appliance, furnace, water heater, fireplace, woodstove, or space heater.
Gas stunning or killing, using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide.
Cooking ranges, heaters, and charcoal grills also produce carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide detectors detect carbon monoxide detectors detect carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas with no smell, taste or color.
Know that the products from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons include carbon monoxide.
For live aboard's the use of a solid fuel cabin heater should be treated with caution as all wood smoke contains carbon monoxide.
Red blood cells transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon monoxide.
Identifies the presence of any gas leaks or poisonous carbon monoxide.
Gas installations can leak deadly carbon monoxide (CO ).
Cars with LPG engines give out 75% less carbon monoxide than normal gasoline engines and its 50% cheaper than gasoline.
Too much carbon monoxide makes a person dead, not drunk.
Reciprocating engines uniformly produce much more carbon monoxide in their exhaust than the modern jet engine.
Once inhaled, carbon monoxide combines with oxygen carrying hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin.
Among the latter is chlorine monoxide, which initiates ozone destruction in the presence of sunlight.
Where was our carbon monoxide detector, you ask?
They protect the environment by using oxygen to convert poisonous carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons into harmless carbon dioxide and water.
It may also occur as a result of the toxic effects of manganese, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, and other chemicals.
Carbon monoxide related cerebral edema can cause irreversible damage to the brain which in turn can effect the nervous system.
The concentration of carbon monoxide in exhaled air is then measured.
A blocked flue can lead to carbon monoxide leaking into your home.
Leaflet - ' Preventing carbon monoxide fumes ' Security Checklist Do not leave any cash around your home.
Biomimetic sensors utilize a material that mimics the response of human hemoglobin to carbon monoxide.
They deal with carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons which react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in the bloodstream causing hypoxia, an abnormal reduction of oxygen in the body tissues also called oxygen deficiency.
Carbon monoxide detectors detect carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas with no smell, taste or color.
Nearly all gasoline oxygenated to reduce carbon monoxide during winter months contains ethanol, although this is a relatively small market.
An Appeal A ban is called for on that ' lethal ' chemical - dihydrogen monoxide.
Air Pollution The principal pollutants from road transport include nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulates.
Emissions dangerous to health include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, lead and particulates.
Produced by smoldering fires, carbon monoxide reduces concentrations of reactive atmospheric chemicals called hydroxyl radicals that remove methane from the air.
Gasoline engines produce more carbon monoxide but much less soot than diesel engines.
Characterizing the catalyst using BET nitrogen sorption, carbon monoxide or hydrogen pulse chemisorption, and FTIR analysis.
There is no evidence that carbon monoxide is ever produced, indeed there are strong reasons for disbelieving in its occurrence.
In contact with chlorine monoxide it forms carbonyl chloride and thionyl chloride (P. Schiitzenberger, Ber., 1869, 2, p. 219).
Haemoglobin is composed of a basic albumin and an acid substance haematin; it combines readily with oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to form loose compounds (see Nutrition).
Moissan (Comptes rend., 1902, 134, p. 261) prepared potassium formate by passing a current of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide over heated potassium hydride, KH+CO 2 = Khco 2 and KH-F2CO = Khco2+C.
In the Dellwik process, however, the main point is the adjustment of the air supplied to the fuel in the generator in such a way that carbon dioxide is formed instead of carbon monoxide.
During hydrogen production, sorbent materials are used to remove gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Install battery-operated carbon monoxide alarms or plug-in CO alarms with battery back-up.
Remember, the proper installation, operation and maintenance of all of fuel-burning appliances is the most important factor in reducing the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
A trailer that is shaped with a raised front will allow exhaust to escape freely, freeing you from the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
Produces less unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide than diesel when used in a diesel engine; is sulfur free and carbon-neutral.
Among the long list of pollutants that the burning of fossil fuels emits into the air are sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
Carbon monoxide is poisonous to humans and animals, and carbon dioxide is a primary greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming.
Noxious gases and fumes include all chemical vapors that aren't naturally found in the air like carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and others.
Hours After Your Last Cigarette - By this point, the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in your bloodstream will have returned to normal.
Plus, you get the added bonus of being more environmentally friendly because burning a fire with an insert means you're burning a cleaner fire and not releasing so much carbon monoxide into the atmosphere.
While a propane heater is a great tool to have for a number of reasons, bear in mind that propane is flammable and can give off carbon monoxide.
Make sure the space is well ventilated to avoid carbon monoxide build up.
Install a carbon monoxide alarm if the heater will be used frequently indoors.
Carbon Monoxide poisoning is responsible for approximately 25 percent of all propane-related deaths so it is very important for the water heater to be properly configured for the ideal burn.
When adjusted properly, these units present no danger of carbon monoxide poisoning.The three things a propane heater needs to work are fuel, air and ignition.
Run the car's engine only 10 to 15 minutes each hour for heat, and keep a window slightly cracked to minimize the risk of carbon monoxide buildup.
Cigarettes also contain carbon monoxide.
The Classic plan also includes fire protection, protection against carbon monoxide gas poisoning and a 911 cell phone for emergencies that may occur away from home.
A gas that is odorless and colorless, carbon monoxide can kill residents in their homes if levels become too high.
Members of the Classic plan have carbon monoxide detectors that work in a similar way as smoke detectors do.
One of the main dangers of a faulty furnace is the emittance of deadly carbon monoxide fumes.
Make sure to check your carbon monoxide detector on a regular basis.
Many people change the batteries in their carbon monoxide detectors and smoke detectors when they turn their clocks back at the start of Daylight Saving Time.
Always check your carbon monoxide detector and smoke alarms after you install the new batteries.
Heating the home is a necessity in many areas; fall home safety includes keeping family members safe from fire and carbon monoxide poisoning.
All homes need to be equipped with fire and carbon monoxide detection alarms.
Make sure you test your carbon monoxide detector to make sure it is working properly at the start of the winter season.
As a bonus, they protect from multiple dangers, including fire and critical conditions such as carbon monoxide.
As part of the check up, verify that the heating system is fully functional and that your carbon monoxide detectors are in order, as well as ensuring that the propane tanks are full.
One group consists of products that were never meant to be ingested or inhaled, such as shampoo, paint thinner, pesticides, houseplant leaves, and carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide causes death by binding with hemoglobin that would normally transport oxygen throughout the body.
Carbon monoxide is the most common form of inhaled poison.
Unattended children can quickly die from heat stroke or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Children are at risk of poisoning from household and personal care products, medicines, vitamins, indoor plants, lead, and carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide detectors/alarms should be installed in homes and recreational vehicles.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning occurs when carbon monoxide gas is inhaled.
Carbon monoxide, sometimes called coal gas, has been known as a toxic substance since the third century B.C.
Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of accidental poisoning in the United States.
Inhaling carbon monoxide gas interferes with this oxygen transport system.
A healthcare professional should be consulted whenever more than passing exposure to carbon monoxide is suspected.
Immediate treatment for CO poisoning is to remove the victim from the source of carbon monoxide gas and into fresh air.
The speed and degree of recovery from CO poisoning depends on the length of exposure to the gas and the concentration of carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide poisoning is preventable.
Portable and permanently installed carbon monoxide detectors that sound a warning similar to smoke detectors are available for under $50.
Carboxyhemoglobin-Hemoglobin that is bound to carbon monoxide instead of oxygen.
M. "Exposure to carbon monoxide from material handling equipment."
Rostrup. "Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent."
Smoke from a cigarette, pipe, or cigar is made up of many additional toxic chemicals, including tar and carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide limits the amount of oxygen that the red blood cells can convey throughout the body.
Besides tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke contains 4,000 different chemicals.
He or she may also check for smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning, other event-related trauma, or, if suspected, evidence of child abuse.
Use a carbon monoxide detector outside each sleeping area and near appliances which burn fuel.
Parents should place carbon monoxide detectors near all sleeping areas in the home, especially if the house uses gas or oil heat or if it has an attached garage.
In institutions where it is available, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to treat smoke inhalation, resulting in severe carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning.
Industrial or environmental chemicals such as carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, fertilizers, styrene, and some containing lead can cause loss of color vision.
While home inspectors should be knowledgeable of state and local laws such as the placement of carbon monoxide and smoke detectors, inspectors are not required to report code violations.
Smoking while pregnant is a bad idea because expectant mothers pass the nicotine and carbon monoxide from cigarettes on to the baby through the placenta.
Nicotine and carbon monoxide are both poisons that limit the absorption of nutrients and oxygen by the fetus during this vital time in his development.
The less nicotine and carbon monoxide you introduce into your body, the better the odds that you will give birth to a healthy baby.
Propane heaters, while clean-burning, do produce carbon monoxide emissions and like most combustible fuels, they require a lot of oxygen.
A battery-operated carbon monoxide detector should be in the same room as the heater.
Unvented gas heaters require no vent and can only be used in well ventilated areas due to the risk of carbon monoxide build up in the area where they are located.
If a heater is not working properly or is not vented correctly, a high level of carbon monoxide can be present which can cause sickness and even death.
Make sure all smoke detectors and carbon monoxide monitors have working batteries before leaving your home.
For example, manufacturing of one kilogram of PET involves releasing 40 grams of hydrocarbons, 25 grams of sulfur oxides, 18 grams of carbon monoxide, 20 grams of nitrogen oxides, and 2.3 kilograms of carbon dioxide.
Otherwise, you will run the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
Fireplaces and gas heaters that are not properly maintained also carry a risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
The fact that your engine sounds louder when you accelerate not only implies that you have a noise leak, but you could also have an exhaust leak, which could lead to elevated levels of carbon monoxide inside your vehicle.
Three characteristic oxides of cobalt are known, the monoxide, CoO, the sesquioxide, C0203, and tricobalt tetroxide, C0304; besides these there are probably oxides of composition Co02, Co 8 0 9, C0607 and C0405.
On heating in hydrogen, ammonia or carbon monoxide, or with carbon or sodium, it is reduced to the metallic state.
Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide have the value 1.4; these gases have diatomic molecules, a fact capable of demonstration by other means.
The value of d can be evaluated by considering the combustion of amorphous carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
The monoxide, PbO, occurs in nature as the mineral lead ochre.
Acids decompose it into lead dioxide and monoxide, and the latter may or may not dissolve to form a salt; red lead may, therefore, be regarded as lead orthoplumbate, Pb2Pb04.
The charging operation being completed, the temperature is raised, and as a consequence an evolution of carbon monoxide soon begins, and becomes visible by the gas bursting out into the characteristic blue flame.
The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.
It is probable that when a flame is smoking badly, distinct traces of carbon monoxide are being produced, but when an acetylene flame burns properly the products are as harmless as those of coal gas, and, light for light, less in amount.
Although at the present time a marvellous improvement has taken place all round in the quality of the carbide produced, the acetylene nearly always contains minute traces of hydrogen, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted hydrogen, silicon hydride, nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes minute traces of carbon monoxide and dioxide.
The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.
Under very great pressures carbon monoxide, steam and nitrogen are the main products, but nitric oxide never quite disappears.
The gases produced by such fire-damp or dust explosions contain carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in large proportion, and the majority of the deaths from such explosions are due to this " after-damp " rather than to the explosion itself.
Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.
It is probable that the carbon monoxide seriously affects the general health and vitality of the men, and renders them more likely to succumb to phthisis.