On particular authors and subjects there are many excellent monographs in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (New York, 1901-6), to which the present article is much indebted.
Considerable diversity is to be noticed in details of structure within this group, and for an enumeration of all the various families which have been proposed and their distinguishing characters the reader is referred to one of the monographs mentioned below.
A great variety of monographs dealing with separate rivers and basins are available; e.g.
Sqq.); Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (1817-1885), professor of history at Kiev and St Petersburg, whose monographs and researches are collected in his Sobranye sochinenye (collected works, 21 vols., St Petersburg, 1903-6); V.
Gilbert's Lake Bonneville (U.S. Geological Survey, Monographs, No.
4; monographs by L.
Eisig, Die Capitelliden (Naples Monographs), and development of do.
For monographs on the grand masters, the various territories, and the different epochs in the history of the Order see the references in Loserth's work.
Much suggestive work on this subject of a general character is incorporated in economic books of the present day, but there is room for a whole series of careful monographs on a question of such fundamental importance.
On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.
Of monographs, the best and most complete is Redepenning, Origenes, eine Darstellung seines Lebens and seiner Lehre (2 vols., 1841, 1846).
The more important monographs will usually be found cited in the separate articles on birds contained in this work, though some, by reason of changed views of classification, have for practical purposes to be regarded now as general works.
More recent monographs have been more exact, and some of them equally sumptuous.
In 1827 Wagler brought out the first part of a Systema avium, in this form never completed, consisting of forty-nine detached monographs of as many genera, the species of which are most elaborately described.
These different memoirs, being technically monographs, have strictly no right to be mentioned in this place; but there is scarcely one of them, if one indeed there be, that does not deal with the generalities of the study; and the influence they have had upon contemporary investigation is so strong that it is impossible to refrain from noticing them here, though want of space forbids us from enlarging on their contents.
Full information about Justin's history and views may be had from the following monographs: C. Semisch, Justin der Martyrer (2 vols., 1840-1842); J.
Peter, Historicorum Romanorum fragmenta (1883); see also monographs by L.
Several weekly papers published on the continent of Europe devote a considerable portion of their space to dogs, and canine journals have been started in America, South Africa and even India: while apart from Lee's volumes and other carefully compiled works treating on the dog in general, the various breeds have been written about, and the books or monographs have large sales.
Together with these larger works Dahn wrote many monographs and studies upon primitive German society.
At Geneva are three large collections - Augustin Pyrame de Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the Prodromus, a large series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants.
Monographs: Much information on modern Turkish history and politics will be found in the works dealing primarily with topography, finance, law and defence, which have been cited above.
Yet even so the want of complete documentary evidence upon which to base conclusions has vitiated all but the most recent of the countless monographs and histories that have appeared on the subject.
Naevi Fabularum Reliquiae (1885), and (Bellum Punicum) in his edition of Ennius (1884) monographs by E.
Eaton and others have given us valuable works or monographs on the family; but the subject still remains little understood, partly owing to the great difficulty of preserving such delicate insects; and it appears probable they can only be satisfactorily investigated as moist preparations.
It would be impossible to enumerate here all the monographs describing, for example, the ruins of Carthage, those of the temple of the waters at Mount Zaghuan, the amphitheatre of El Jem (Thysdrus), the temple of Saturn, the royal tomb and the theatre of Dugga (Thugga), the bridge of Chemtu (Simitthu), the ruins and cemeteries of Tebursuk and Medeina (Althiburus), the rich villa of the Laberii at Wadna (Uthina), the sanctuary of Saturn Balcaranensis on the hill called Bu-KornaIn, the ruins of the district of Enfida (Aphrodisium, Uppenna, Segermes), those of Leptis minor (Lemta), of Thenae (near Sfax), those of the island of Meninx (Jerba), of the peninsula of Zarzis, of Mactar, Sbeitla (Sufetula), Gigthis (Bu-Grara), Gafsa (Capsa), Kef (Sicca Veneria), Bulla Regia, &c.
(b) Works: The modern literature of Hungary is very rich in historical monographs, of which a long list will be found in the Subject Index of the London Library.
As important original monographs we note-Az drapoly a Fiumei obolben (Ebb and Flow in the Gulf of Fiume), by Emil Stahlberger (1874); Magyarorszdg pokfaundja (The Arachnida of Hungary), by Otto Hermann (1876-1878); Magyarorszdg vaskovei es vastermenyei (The Iron Ores and 1 The translator of Macaulay.
On subjects of politics, amongst the more important works are the various monographs of Gustavus Beksics on the Dualism of AustriaHungary, on the " New Foundations of Magyar Politics " (A magyar politika uj alapjai, 1899), on the Rumanian question, &c.; the writings of Emericus Balint, Akos Beothy, Victor Concha (systematic politics), L.
One of the most useful monographs on " Magyar Literary History Writing " is that of J.
Several of them contain monographs on parts, or the whole, of the author's work, written with remarkable literary skill.
Among his works are Fasti Etonenses (1899) his father's Life (1899); The Schoolmaster (1902), a commentary on the aims and methods of an assistant schoolmaster in a public school; a study of Archbishop Laud (1887); monographs on D.
Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.
There are monographs by J.
A good bibliography of general works and monographs on the archaeology and the history of the town and diocese of Coutances is given in U.
Abu Mikhnaf left a great number of monographs on the chief events from the death of the Prophet to the caliphate of Walid II.
Of the secondary literature, the following histories and monographs should be named.
Of the numberless monographs on ii.
The noble poem Lucretius, one of the greatest of Tennyson's versified monographs, appeared in May 1868, and in this year The Holy Grail was at last finished; it was published in 1869, together with three other idyls belonging to the Arthurian epic, and various miscellaneous lyrics, besides Lucretius.
Mommseri, preface to his edition of the Variae; monographs by A.
The interest felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (Leipzig, 1876).
Monographs of most of the families of British Hymenoptera have now been published.
Monographs by L.
Wooten (ed.), A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685-1897 (2 vols., Dallas, 1898), contains a reprint of Yoakum with notes and several chapters by various writers on Anglo-American colonization, the revolution against Mexico, the land system, the educational system, &c. A series of monographs dealing mostly with the period before 1845 will be found in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association (Austin, 1897 sqq.).
Monographs on Huss are very numerous.
Mr Percy Fitzgerald's Life (2 vols., 1868; new edition, 1899) is full and spirited, and has been reprinted, with additions, among Sir Theodore Martin's Monographs (1906).
He also published a Jewish prayerbook (Israelitisches Gebetbuch) and a variety of minor monographs on historical and literary subjects connected with the fortunes of his people.
This is the standard Catholic treatment of the Reformation, and is being supplemented by a series of monographs, Ergcinzungen zu Janssens Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, which have been appearing since 1898 and correspond with the Protestant Schriften des Vereins fur Reformationsgeschichte (1883 sqq.).
Brown, in Monographs on Education in the United States prepared for the Paris Exposition of 1900 and edited by N.
The American Museum in New York has prepared a series of monographs on the tribes of the North Pacific coast, of northern Mexico, and of the Cordilleras of South America.
The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the Field Museum, Chicago; the California Academy and the California University, San Francisco; and the Canadian Institute, Toronto, publish monographs and lists.
Riese's edition of the fragments of the Menippean Satires of Varro of Reate; see also monographs by F.
See monographs by G.
Of detailed military histories the principal are the semi-official series of narratives and monographs produced by the Austrian military journal " Streffleur " (Einzelschriften fiber den russ.-japanischen Krieg); the volumes of lectures delivered at the Russian Staff College after the war, French translation (Conferences sur la guerre russo-japonaise faites it l'Academie Nicolas); British official History of the RussoJapanese War (1907-); German official Russisch japanischer Krieg (1906 -; English translation by K.