How to use Monks in a sentence
The law includes with clerics, monks, deaconesses, nuns, ascetics; and the word " clerics " covered persons in minor orders, down to doorkeepers.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
In 1086 the bishop of Sarum and the monks of Sherborne held the place, which seems to have been of fair size and an agricultural centre.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
In later times his regulations enjoyed a high reputation, and were adopted by the monks and nuns of Port Royal.Advertisement
In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).
Thirteen churches, including the Troitskiy (Trinity) and Uspenskiy cathedrals, a bell-tower, a theological academy, various buildings for monks and pilgrims, and a hospital stand within the precincts, which are two-thirds of a mile in circuit.
In1608-1609it withstood a sixteen months' siege by the Poles; at a later date the monks took a lively part in the organization of the army which crushed the outbreak of the peasants.
The abbey church was partly burnt in 1437, in a riot due to the monks' refusal to recognize the town's chapel of All Hallowes as the parish church, though they had restricted their use of the abbey church for parochial purposes.
A mile south are the green mounds marking the site of the abbey of Saulseat, founded for Premonstratensian monks by Fergus, "king" of Galloway, early in the 12th century.Advertisement
Its chief interest is the beautiful remains of the Priory of St John, founded in 1230 by John Bisset of the Aird, for Cistercian monks.
Apart from these missions, his activities were devoted to the composition of history, a pursuit for which the monks of St Albans had long been famous.
In Egypt, if not even before leaving Italy, he had become intimately acquainted with Melania, a wealthy and devout Roman widow; and when she removed to Palestine, taking with her a number of clergy and monks on whom the persecutions of the Arian Valens had borne heavily, Rufinus (about 378) followed her.
While his patroness lived in a convent of her own in Jerusalem, Rufinus, at her expense, gathered together a number of monks in a monastery on the Mount of Olives, devoting himself at the same time to the study of Greek theology.
Invectivarum in Hieronymum Libri II; (4) Apologia pro Fide Sua ad Anastasium Pontificem; (5) Historia Eremitica - consisting of the lives of thirty-three monks of the Nitrian desert; 1 (6) Expositio Symboli, a commentary on the creed of Aquileia comparing it with that of Rome, which is valuable for its evidence as to church teaching in the 4th century.Advertisement
Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.
And this is true not only of the dogmatic parties; solitary monks and ambitious priests, hard-headed critical exegetes,' allegorists, mystics, all found something congenial in his writings.
The monophysite monks appealed to his authority, but could not prevent Justinian and the fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople (553) from anathematizing his teaching.
The pupils at Brienne, far from receiving a military education, were grounded in ordinary subjects, and in no very efficient manner, by brethren of the order, or society, of Minims. The moral tone of the school was low; and Napoleon afterwards spoke with contempt of the training of the "monks" and the manner of life of the scholars.
About the year 585 he left Ireland together with twelve other monks, and established himself in the Vosges, among the ruins of an ancient fortification called Anagrates, the present Anegray in the department of Haute-Saone.Advertisement
In September of the same year the see of Durham fell vacant, and the king overruled the choice of the monks, who had elected and actually installed their sub-prior, Robert de Graystanes, in favour of Aungervyle.
He sent far and wide in search of manuscripts, rescuing many treasures from the charge of ignorant and neglectful monks.
The manor of West Ham was settled upon Stratford-Langthorne Abbey, founded by William de Montfichet in 1135 for monks of the Cistercian order.
Of this kind of retribution Scott in The Abbot gives a vivid picture, the Protestants interrupting the mass celebrated by the trembling remnant of the monks in the ruined abbey church, and insisting on substituting the traditional Feast of Fools.
Besides the silver shrine of St Simeon, many gold and silver ornaments, church vessels and old manuscripts, there are a set of vestments and a reliquary, believed by the monks to have been the property of St Sava.Advertisement
It was thus called Munchen-Gladbach or Monks' Gladbach, to distinguish it from another town of the same name.
After the religious services of the morning the Brothers scattered for the day's work, the artisans going to the workshops in the city, - for the idea was to live and work in the world, and not separated from it, like the monks.
Crusaders themselves kept diaries or itineraria; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West - monks like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like Balderich of Dol - found a fertile subject for their pens in the history of the Crusades.
Eusebius was so much struck by the likeness of the Therapeutae to the Christian monks of his own day as to claim that they were Christians converted by the preaching of St Mark.
He soon distinguished himself both as scholar and preacher, and had every inducement to remain in his monastery, but in 716 he followed the example of other Saxon monks and set out as missionary to Frisia.Advertisement
As he had done in Bavaria, he organized the east Frankish church into four bishoprics, Erfurt, Wurzburg, Buraburg and Eichstadt, and set over them his own monks.
The missionary movement which until his day had been almost independent of control, largely carried on by schismatic Irish monks, was brought under the direction of Rome.
But in spite of the severity with which the resolution was enforced, the resistance to iconoclasm continued, chiefly owing to the attitude of the monks, who exercised great influence over the common people.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
The chief result of the alliance with the latter was the conversion of the Moravians to Christianity by two Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, despatched from Constantinople (863).Advertisement
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
His main offence was that he attacked the monks and clergy, and that he advocated the reading of the Scriptures by the people in the vulgar tongue.
In 1219 the prior secured the right of holding a court there for all crown pleas and of sitting beside the justices itinerant, .and this led to serious collision between the monks and burgesses.
He is an earnest worshipper of the Virgin, but a bold and vigorous hater of monks and abbots.
Dmitri of Rostov, was welcomed with enthusiasm by the monks of the monasteries of St.Advertisement
The monks appealed against this to the Holy Synod; but the synod declared against them and ordered the abbots to repress the heresy.
The monks thereupon expelled the abbots by force, and their action was approved by the monastery of Vatopedi, the Greek parent house of St.
This failed to subdue the monks, whom the Archbishop of Volinsk described as "a band of soft-brained idiots led by a vainglorious hussar."
On June 24, 200 Russian soldiers landed on Mount Athos, and a month later 600 of the monks were deported to Russia, where they were distributed as prisoners in various monasteries.
The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Monasticism.Advertisement
Though the usage is not accurate, friars, and also canons regular, are often spoken of as monks and included among the monastic orders.
Its dedication recalls the transportation of the body of the saintly bishop of Lindisfarne from its shrine at Durham by the monks of that foundation to Lindisfarne, when in fear of attack from William the Conqueror.
Nevertheless, the monks continued to be subjected to insults as followers of a heretic, until they obtained from Honorius III.
In his opinion - which is, in form at least, perfectly orthodox - the church of Peter will be, not abolished, but purified; actually, the hierarchy effaces itself in the third age before the order of the monks, the viri spirituales.
In Palestine the fanatical monks led by Theodosius captured Jerusalem and expelled the bishop, Juvenal.Advertisement
When he was restored, after an exile of twenty months, Theodosius fled to Sinai and continued his agitation among the monks there.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
The quarrels of these monks might have been left to the contempt they deserved, had not Napoleon III.
Nor is it possible to mention here all the intrigues and quarrels that arose during three and a half years among the crowd of prelates, monks, doctors, simple clerks, princes and ambassadors composing this tumultuous assembly - perhaps the greatest congress of people the world has ever seen.
The last distinctive epithet was derived from the little hamlet in the vicinity which furnished shelter, not only to the workmen, but to the monks of St Jerome who were afterwards to be in possession of the monastery; and the hamlet itself is generally but perhaps erroneously supposed to be indebted for its name to the scoriae or dross of certain old iron mines.
In 1885 the conventual buildings were occupied by Augustinian monks.
Monks or bonzes are very numerous; they live by alms and in return they teach the young to read, and superintend coronations, marriages, funerals and the other ceremonials which play a large part in the lives of the Cambodians.
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
In the parish of Ardchattan, on the north shore, stands the beautiful ruin of St Modan's Priory, founded in the 13th century for Cistercian monks of the order of Vallis Caulium.
The ordinary minister of orders is a bishop. The tonsure and minor orders are, however, still sometimes conferred by abbots, who, though simple priests, have special faculties for the ordination of their monks.
The monks cleared the forests, cultivated the recovered land, and built villages for the colonists who flocked to them, teaching the people western methods of agriculture and western arts and handicrafts.
To these monks the first extant Magyar version of part of the Scriptures (the Vienna or Revai Codex') is directly assigned by Dobrentei, but the exact date either of this copy or of the original translation cannot be ascertained.
In the Hesychast controversy he took the side of the monks of Athos, but refused to agree to the theory of the uncreated light.
All chief writers were bishops, inferior clergy or monks, and their readers belonged to the same classes.
These palimpsests had originally belonged to the famous convent of St Columba at Bobbio, and had been written over by the monks with the acts of the first council of Chalcedon.
The popularity of Caelius is evidenced by the fact that in the 6th century an abridgment of his larger work was recommended by Cassiodorus to the Benedictine monks for the study of medicine.
In course of time there was a widespread desire in Europe for a stricter rule among the monks, and reforms of the Benedictine rule were instituted at Cluni (910), Chartreuse (about 1080) and Citeaux (1098).
The great Benedictine monastery of Black Monks was situated away from the city at Westminster, and it was the only monastic house subject to the rule of St Benedict in the neigh roofing tenements.
The Benedictine monks preferred secluded sites; the Augustinians did not cultivate seclusion so strictly; but the friars chose the interior of towns by preference.
When we remember that more than half of the area of London was occupied by these establishments, and that about a third of the inhabitants were monks, nuns and friars, it is easy to imagine how great must have been the disorganization caused by this root and branch reform.
In almost every village in the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one or more of the resident pongyis, or Buddhist monks, is the instruction free of charge of the children of the village.
According to tradition Iestynap-Gwrgan, the last prince of Glamorgan, had a residence somewhere near the present town, but Fitzhamon, on his conquest of Glamorgan, gave the district between the Neath and the Tawe to Richard de Granaville (ancestor of the Granvilles, marquesses of Bath), who built on the west banks of the Neath first a castle and then in 112 9 a Cistercian abbey, to whose monks he later gave all his possessions in the district.
As his explanations were not considered satisfactory, the council deposed him from his priestly office and excommunicated him; but in 449, at a council held in Ephesus convened by Dioscurus of Alexandria and overawed by the presence of a large number of Egyptian monks, not only was Eutyches reinstated in his office, but Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, and the Alexandrine dcctrine of the "one nature" received the sanction of the church.
It was with the aid of these youthful enthusiasts that Savonarola arranged the religious carnival of 1496, when the citizens gave their costliest possessions in alms to the poor, and tonsured monks, crowned with flowers, sang lauds and performed wild dances for the glory of God.
The monks and their few remaining friends made a most desperate defence.
In these spaces certain monks briefly noted the important events of the year.
The monks must prepare all their food with their own hands, and no lay person, male or female, may enter their houses.
Education is in the hands of the monks and priests, and is confined to boys.
He also collected and emended valuable MSS., which his monks were instructed to copy, and superintended the translation of various Greek works into Latin.
From Strido he went to Aquileia, where he formed some friendships among the monks of the large monastery, notably with Rufinus, with whom he was destined to quarrel bitterly over the question of Origen's orthodoxy and worth as a commentator; for Jerome was a man who always sacrificed a friend to an opinion, and when he changed sides in a controversy expected his acquaintances to follow him.
Great numbers of monks, each in solitary cell, spent lonely lives, scorched by the sun, ill-clad and scantily fed, pondering on portions of Scripture or copying MSS.
When they returned to Palestine they all settled at Bethlehem, where Paula built four monasteries, three for nuns and one for monks.
The French plundered the churches, abolished monks, nuns and nobles, and set up forthwith the ways and doings of the French Revolution.
Among other laws Bonaparte enacted that French should at once be the official language, that 30 young men should every year be sent to France for their education; that all foreign monks be expelled, that no new priests be ordained before employment could be found for those existing; that ecclesiastical jurisdiction should cease; that neither the bishop nor the priests could charge fees for sacramental ministrations, &c. Stoppage of trade, absence of work (in a population of which more than half had been living on foreign revenues of the knights), and famine, followed the defeat of Bonaparte at the Nile, and the failure of his plans to make Malta a centre of French trade.
The name of the city was taken from that of the river, which in turn is supposed to represent a corruption by the French of the original Indian name, Moingona, - the French at first using the abbreviation "moire," and calling the river "la riviere des moires" and then, the name having become associated with the Trappist monks, changing it into "la riviere des moines."
The monks are stigmatized as pedants who would destroy the joy of life on earth, who are avaricious, dissolute and the breeders of eternal dissensions and squabbles.
This is addressed from Shoa by the king Zara Jacob in the eighth year of his reign (1442) to the Abyssinian monks, dwellers at Jerusalem.
After proving that the secular rulers were free and in duty bound to correct the evils of the Church, Luther sketches a plan for preventing money from going to Italy, for reducing the number of idle, begging monks, harmful pilgrimages and excessive holidays.
During his absence two priests from parishes near Wittenberg married; while several monks, throwing aside their cowls, left their cloisters.
The priests were to receive fixed salaries; begging, even by monks and poor students, was pr01522.
Saxony, hibited; the poor, including the monks, were to be supported from the common chest.
To marry, to do away with images, to become monks and nuns, or for monks and nuns to leave their convent, to eat meat on Friday or not to eat it, and other like things - all these are open questions, and should not be forbidden by any man.
Doubtless the king's sore financial needs had much to do with the dissolution of the abbeys and the plundering of the shrines, but there is no reason to suppose that he was not fully convinced that the monks had long outlived their usefulness and that the shrines were centres of abject superstition and ecclesiastical deceit.
In the 10th century Count Bernard of Armagnac founded the Benedictine abbey of St Orens, the monks of which, till 1308, shared the jurisdiction over Auch with the archbishops - an arrangement which gave rise to constant strife.
Boys were educated in Benedictine houses from the beginning, but at first they were destined to be monks.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
The general tendency of these Benedictine offshoots was in the direction of greater austerity of life than was practised by the Black Monks or contemplated by St Benedict's Rule - some of them were semi-eremitical; the most important by far were the Cistercians, whose ground-idea was to reproduce exactly the life of St Benedict's own monastery.
The English monks took the lead in carrying out this legislation, and in 1 218 the first chapter of the province of Canterbury was held at Oxford, and up to the_ dissolution under Henry VIII.
In Mary's reign some of the surviving monks were brought together, and Westminster Abbey was restored.
Of the monks professed there during this momentary revival, one, Sigebert Buckley, lived on into the reign of James I.; and being the only survivor of the Benedictines of England, he in 1607 invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines in the Italian congregation.
By this act the old English Benedictine line was perpetuated; and in 1619 a number of English monks professed in Spain were aggregated by pontifical act to these representatives of the old English Benedictines, and thus was constituted the present English Benedictine congregation.
The individual monks, too, belong not to the order or the congregation, but each to the monastery in which he became a monk.
The chief external work of the Benedictines at the present day is secondary education; there are 114 secondary schools or gymnasia attached to the abbeys, wherein the monks teach over 12,000 boys; and many of the nunneries have girls' schools.
Montalembert's Monks of the West gives the early history very fully; the later history, to the beginning of the 18th century, may be found in Helyot, Hist.
They resembled the monks in so far as they lived in community and took religious vows; but their state of life remained essentially clerical, and as clerics their duty was to undertake the pastoral care and serve the parish churches in their patronage.
They were bound to the choral celebration of the divine office, and in its general tenor their manner of life differed little from that of monks.
After this period of formation his fame began to spread abroad, and the monks of a neighbouring monastery induced him to become their abbot; but their lives were irregular and dissolute, and on his trying to put down abuses they attempted to poison him.
He returned to his cave, but disciples flocked to him, and in time he formed twelve monasteries in the neighbourhood, placing twelve monks in each, and himself retaining a general control over all.
In time patricians and senators from Rome entrusted their young sons to his care, to be brought up as monks; in this manner came to him his two best-known disciples, Maurus and Placidus.
His monks were allowed proper clothes, sufficient food, ample sleep. The only bodily austerities were the abstinence from flesh meat and the unbroken fast till mid-day or even 3 P.M., but neither would appear so onerous in Italy even now, as to us in northern climes.
The "work" contemplated by St Benedict was ordinarily field work, as was natural in view of the conditions of the time and best suited to the majority of the monks; but the principle laid down is that the monks should do whatever work is most useful.
There were from the beginning young boys in the monastery, who were educated by the monks according to the ideas of the time.
Thus the germs of all the chief works carried on by his monks in later ages were to be found in his own monastery.
The most remarkable chapters, in which St Benedict's wisdom stands out most conspicuously, are those on the abbot (2, 3, 2 7, 64) The abbot is to govern the monastery with full and unquestioned patriarchal authority; on important matters he must consult the whole community and hear what each one, even the youngest, thinks; on matters of less weight he should consult a few of the elder monks; but in either case the decision rests entirely with him, and all are to acquiesce.
He must, however, bear in mind that he will have to render an account of all his decisions and to answer for the souls of all his monks before the judgment seat of God.
Moreover, he has to govern in accordance with the Rule, and must endeavour, while enforcing discipline and implanting virtues, not to sadden or "overdrive" his monks, or give them cause for "just murmuring."
On St Benedict's life and Rule see Montalembert, Monks of the West, bk.
In 1622 the Benedictine monks of Mont St Michel were replaced by monks of the Congregation of St Maur.
In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and in 1495 began a wandering life, studying and then teaching and preaching in Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg.
He sent monks to Constantinople to negotiate with the Greeks for church unity, but without result.
The earliest were the priory of Christ's Church and the abbey of St Peter and St Paul, now called St Augustine's, both at Canterbury, founded by Augustine and the monks who accompanied him to England.
Some of these were refounded, and the principal monastic remains now existing are those of the Benedictine priories at Rochester (1089), Folkestone (1095), Dover (1140); the Benedictine nunneries at Malling (time of William Rufus),Minster-in-Sheppey (1130), Higham (founded by King Stephen), and Davington (I 153); the Cistercian Abbey at Boxley (1146); the Cluniac abbey at Faversham (1147) and priory at Monks Horton (time of Henry II.), the preceptory of Knights Templars at Swingfield (time of Henry II.); the Premonstratensian abbey of St Radigund's, near Dover (1191); the first house of Dominicans in England at Canterbury (1221); the first Carmelite house in England, at Aylesford (1240); and the priory of Augustinian nuns at Dartford (1355).
On Saturday the 8th of June he was able, with the help of one of his monks, to ascend a little hill above the monastery and to give it his farewell blessing.
Few more brilliant pieces of historical writing exist than his description of the coronation procession of Anne Boleyn through the streets of London, few more full of picturesque power than that in which he relates how the spire of St Paul's was struck by lightning; and to have once read is to remember for ever the touching and stately words in which he compares the monks of the London Charterhouse preparing for death with the Spartans at Thermopylae.
He was taken prisoner by the Blemmyes, a nomad tribe that gave much trouble to the empire in Africa, and when they set him free in the Thebaid near Panopolis (Akhmim) c. 450, they exposed him to further persecution from Schenute the great hero of the Egyptian monks.
He had employed all his resources of wit and satire against the priests and monks, and the superstitions in which they traded, long before Luther's name was heard of.
There were Christian monks as early as the 3rd century, and before the end of the 4th monasticism (q.v.) was an established institution both in East and West.
The monks and nuns were looked upon as the most consistent Christians, and were honoured accordingly.
In the 5th and 6th centuries Egypt and Palestine had been the classic lands of monks and monasteries.
Celtic monks worked as missionaries in this part of the country side by side with Franks.
It was Boniface, too, who, with the aid of numerous English priests, monks and nuns, introduced the literary culture of England into Germany.
It has been pointed out how Charlemagne pressed the monks into the service of his civilizing aims. We admire this; but it is certain that he thereby alienated monasticism from its original ideals.
The energy of a succession of distinguished abbots and the disciples whom they inspired succeeded in bringing about the victory of the reforming ideas in the French monasteries; once more the rule of St Benedict controlled the life of the monks.
From the earliest times the monks had renounced all private property, and no individual monk, but only the order to which he belonged, could acquire possessions.
Contemporary with him were Hugh of St Victor and his pupil Richard of St Victor, both monks of the abbey of St Victor at Paris, the aim of whose teaching, based on that of the PseudoDionysius, was a mystical absorption of thought in the Godhead and the surrender of self to the Eternal Love.
In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.
Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
His Monachomachia is in six cantos, and is a satire upon the monks.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
A fair held on the festival of St Margaret (July 20) was included in the grant to the monks of Norwich about 110o.
This has been mostly rebuilt, and but little now remains except ruins of some of the towers, a great part of the monks' dormitory and frater, and the splendid cloister, completed about 1200.
At one angle, a square pillared projection contains the marble fountain or monks' lavatory, evidently the work of Moslem sculptors.
As for the Greeks, the union met with much opposition, particularly from the monks, and was rejected by three Oriental patriarchs at a synod of Jerusalem in 1443; and after various ineffective attempts to enforce it, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 put an end to the endeavour.
But some irregular forms of reservation still continued; the prohibition as regards the lay people was not extended, at any rate with any strictness, to the clergy and monks; the Eucharist was still carried on journeys; occasionally it was buried with the dead; and in a few cases the pen was even dipped in the chalice in subscribing important writings.
At the instance of the emperor Justinian he adopted the proposition unus de Trinitate passus est in carne as a test of the orthodoxy of certain Scythian monks accused of Nestorian tendencies.
The Church when it had once conquered the world allowed such precepts to lapse and fall into the background, and no one save monks or Manichaean heretics remembered them any more; indeed modern divines affect to believe that marriage rites and family ties were the peculiar concern of the Church from the very first; and few moderns will fail to sympathize with the misgivings of the barbarian chief who, having been converted and being about to receive Christian baptism, paused as he stepped down into the font, and asked the priests if in the heaven to which their rites admitted him he would meet and converse with his pagan ancestors.
Cracow has 39 churches - about half the number it formerly had - and 25 convents for monks and nuns.
We have here essentially the same condition of things as in the Catholic Church, where a twofold morality was also in force, that of the religious orders and that of secular Christians - only that the position of the electi in Manichaeism was a more distinguished one than that of the monks in Catholicism.
For, after all, the Christian monks never quite forgot that salvation is given by God through Christ, whereas the Manichaean electi were actually themselves redeemers.
Later on Zarvan was elevated to the position of supreme principle, creator of Ormazd and Ahriman, and, long 1 Analogous to this is the veneration in which the Catholic monks and the Neoplatonic "` philosophers" were held; but the prestige of the Manichaean electi was greater than that of the monks and the philosophers.
Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 monks.
The monks spent all the time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual labour.
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and by him shipped to Alexandria.
The monks lived in separate huts, KaX631a, forming a religious hamlet on the mountain side.
The inner court is surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells (II).
This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells.
It lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince.
It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits.
The infirmary for sick monks, with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the east.
The buildings devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups, - one for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the monastery, - the hospitium for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the farm buildings.
The monks are lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the church.
One of these diminutive convents is appropriated to the "oblati" or novices (Q), the other to the sick monks as an "infirmary" (R).
There is also an "hospitium" for strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y).
To this officer was committed the provision of the monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests.
A passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm monks.
Beneath the dormitory, looking out into the green court or herbarium, lies the "pisalis" or "calefactory," the common room of the monks.
Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and after taking food.
The first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay of discipline was so complete in France that the monks are said to have been frequently unacquainted with the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were bound by any rule at all.
To the south was the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged monks.
The large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls.
The stalls of the monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the nave.
Round the cloister (B) were ranged the buildings connected with the monks' daily life.
This was sometimes known as the parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of conversation here.
Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at dinner-time.
The buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to the S.W.
Detached from these, and separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various workshops, which convenience required to be banished to the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.
After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he numerary monks.
The long gabled building on the east side of the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter-house and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above (M), communicating with the south transept of the church.
Above this whole range of building runs the monks' dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the church.
The monks' dormitory was in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the south of the transept.
As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large congregations.
It was enriched by Charles the Bald with two castles, and a Benedictine abbey dedicated to Saint Corneille, the monks of which retained down to the 18th century the privilege of acting for three days as lords of Compiegne, with full power to release prisoners, condemn the guilty, and even inflict sentence of death.
He spent large sums upon new buildings and in endowing the monks, and in his endeavour to relieve the pressure of taxation disorganized the finances of the state.
Ruins are also seen of a Franciscan foundation attributed to the 13th century; it was a celebrated seat of learning and an extant memorial of the work of its monks is the Book of Ballymote (c. 1391) in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy, a miscellaneous collection in prose and verse of historical, genealogical and romantic writings.
For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.
The Order of Fontevrault was founded about 1too by Robert of Arbrissel, who was born in the village of Arbrissel or Arbresec, in the diocese of Rennes, and attained great fame as a preacher and ascetic. The establishment was a double monastery, containing a nunnery of 300 nuns and a monastery of 200 monks, separated completely so that no communication was allowed except in the church, where the services were carried on in common; there were, moreover, a hospital for 120 lepers and other sick, and a penitentiary for fallen women, both worked by the nuns.
The special feature of the institute was that the abbess ruled the monks as well as the nuns.
The legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in historical documents of the 9th century.
The taking of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204 brought persecution and pillage on the monks; this reminded them of earlier Saracenic invasions, and led them to appeal for protection to Pope Innocent III., who gave them a favourable reply.
The monasteries, with the exception of Rossikon (St Panteleimon) and the Serbo-Bulgarian Chiliandari and Zographu, are occupied exclusively by Greek monks.
Furnished with ample means, the Russian monks neglect no opportunity of adding to their possessions on the holy mountain; their encroachments are resisted by the Greek monks, whose wealth, however, was much diminished by the secularization of their estates in Rumania(1864).
The population of the holy mountain numbers from 6000 to 7000; about 3000 are monks (KaX6yEpoc), the remainder being lay brothers (Koo utKoi).
A large academy, founded by the monks of Vatopedi in 1 749, for a time attracted students from all parts of the East, but eventually proved a failure, and is now in ruins.
Up to comparatively recent times a priceless collection of classical manuscripts was preserved in the libraries; many of them were destroyed during the War of Greek Independence (1821-1829) by the Turks, who employed the parchments for the manufacture of cartridges; others fell a prey to the neglect or vandalism of the monks, who, it is said, used the material as bait in fishing; others have been sold to visitors, and a considerable number have been removed to Moscow and Paris.
The first mention of Hull occurs under the name of Wykeupon-Hull in a charter of 1160 by which Maud, daughter of Hugh Camin, granted it to the monks of Meaux, who in 1278 received licence to hold a market here every Thursday and a fair on the vigil, day and morrow of Holy Trinity and twelve following days.
Shortly afterwards Edward I., seeing its value as a port, obtained the town from the monks in exchange for other lands in Lincolnshire and changed its name to Kingston-upon-Hull.
In the vicinity are a monks' well and a ruined chapel of the 16th century.
In this he failed, but two Persian monks who had long resided in China, and there learned the whole art and mystery of silkworm rearing, arrived at Constantinople and imparted their knowledge to the emperor.
The original text and arrangements were probably made by the monks of Ettal, a monastery a little higher up the valley; but they were carefully remodelled by the parish priest at the beginning of the present century, when the Oberammergau play obtained exemption from the general suppression of such performances by the Bavarian government.
In 1231 he was chosen archbishop by the monks of Canterbury, but the election was not ratified by the pope.
Through his machinations the crucifixion took place, and Satan was the originator of the whole Orthodox community with its churches, vestments, ceremonies, sacraments and fasts, with its monks and priests.
To place itself in a better posture for combating the simoniacal and concubinary prelates, the court of Rome had had to multiply exemptions and accelerate the movement which impelled the monks to make themselves independent of the bishops.
Mistress of the entire Christian organism, Rome thus gained control of international education, and the mendicant monks who formed her devoted militia lost no time in monopolizing the professorial chairs.
Not only did the monks continue to seek from the papacy the confirmation of their privileges and property, but they also referred almost all their disputes to the arbitration of the pope.
Their elections gave rise to innumerable lawsuits, which all terminated at the court of Rome, and in most cases it was the pope himself who designated the monks to fill vacant posts in the abbeys.
The enclosure is divided into two courts, of which the eastern court, surrounded by a cloister, from which the cottages of the monks (I) open, is much the larger.
The two courts are divided by the main buildings of the monastery, including the church, the sanctuary (A), divided from B, the monks' choir, by a screen with two altars, the smaller cloister to the south (S) surrounded by the chapter-house (E), the refectory (X) - these buildings occupying their normal position - and the chapel of Pontgibaud (K).
This consists of one long narrow range of building, of which the eastern part formed the chapel and the western contained the apartments of the handful of monks of which it was the home.
These Cluniac obedientiae differed from the ordinary Benedictine cells in being also places of punishment, to which monks who had been guilty of any grave infringement of the rules were relegated as to a kind of penitentiary.
The monks were, strictly speaking, penitents wearing the cowl, and not allowed to take a part in church government.
A synod of bishops, monks and doctors meets regularly to transact under his eye the business of the convent and the oecumenical affairs of the church; but its decisions are subject to the veto of a Russian procurator.
Egyptian monks gradually won over the country folk, and in 402, under the influence of Theodosius and Porphyry the local bishop, the Marneion was destroyed and the cross made politically supreme.
It may be mentioned that in the time of Justinian the word hesychast was applied to monks in general simply as descriptive of the quiet and contemplative character of their pursuits.
The little Skell descends from the uplands of Pateley Moor to the west a clear swift stream, traversing a valley clothed with woods, conspicuous among which are some ancient yew trees which may have sheltered the monks who first sought retreat here.
In 1132 the prior and twelve monks of St Mary's abbey, York, being dissatisfied with the easy life they were living, left the monastery and with the assistance of Thurstan, archbishop of York, founded a house in the valley of the Skell, where they adopted the Cistercian rule.
While building their monastery the monks are said to have lived at first under an elm and then under seven yew trees called the Seven Sisters.
These monks, it would appear, though under the authority of a prior, had no rule.
He took a keen interest in the secular quarrels of the Canterbury monks with their archbishops, and his earliest literary efforts were controversial tracts upon this subject.
The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.
A novitiate had to be passed, and young boys were to be educated in the monastery, but were not expected to become monks.
One kind of work practised with great zeal and success by the Studite monks, was the copying of manuscripts, so that to them and to the schools that went forth from them we owe a great number of existing Greek MSS.
There was a division of the monks into two classes, similar to the division in vogue in later time in the West into choir-monks and lay-brothers.
There is little or no evidence of works of charity outside the monastery being undertaken by Studite monks.
Vows had been imposed on monks by the council of Chalcedon (451).
They were known to St Benedict, who refers his monks to "the Rule of our holy Father Basil," - indeed St Benedict owed more of the ground-ideas of his Rule to St Basil than to any other monastic legislator.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
Greek monks played a considerable part in the evangelization of the Sla y s, and the first Russian monastery was founded;at Kiev (c. 1050) by a monk from Mount Athos.
Greek and Slavonic monks wear a black habit.
The ecclesiastical importance of the monks in the various branches of the Orthodox Church lies in this, that as bishops must be celibate, whereas the parochial clergy must be married, the bishops are all recruited from the monks.
There are many theatres, the two most important being the Teatro Principal, and the Teatro del Liceo, a very fine building, originally erected in 1845 on the site of a convent of Trinitarian monks.
But the members of these orders were not less monks than knights, their statutes embodied the rules of the cloister, and they were bound by the ecclesiastical vows of celibacy, poverty and obedience.
At the time of the Domesday survey Ilbert de Lacy held Barnsley by gift of William the Conqueror as part of the honour of Pontefract, and the overlordship remained in his family until the reign of Stephen, when it was granted by Henry de Lacy to the monks of Pontefract.
Besides these charters and others granting land in Barnsley to the monks of Pontefract there is very little history of the town, since it was not until after the introduction of the linen manufacture in 1744 that it became really important.
According to Roger of Wendover in his Flores historiarum under the year 1228, an Armenian archbishop, then visiting England, was asked by the monks of St Albans about the well-known Joseph of Arimathaea, who had spoken to Jesus and was said to be still alive.
In 1246 Reginald de Mohun, then lord of the manor, founded a Cistercian abbey at Newenham within the parish of Axminster, granting it a Saturday market and a fair on Midsummer day, and the next year made over to the monks from Beaulieu the manor and hundred of Axminster.
Having banished all lay attendants from his palace, he surrounded himself with clerics and monks, with whom he lived as though he were still in a monastery.
Gregory sought to protect the monks from episcopal oppression by issuing privilegia, or charters in restraint of abuses, in accordance with which the jurisdiction of the bishops over the monasteries was confined to spiritual matters, all illegal aggressions being strictly prohibited.
The documents are interesting as marking the beginning of a revolution which eventually emancipated the monks altogether from the control of their diocesans and brought them under the direct authority of the Holy See.
Moreover Gregory strictly forbade monks to minister in parish churches, ordaining that any monk who was promoted to such ecclesiastical cure should lose all rights in his monastery and should no longer reside there.
Not long after the bishop and monks of Lindisfarne had settled at Durham in 995, Styr the son of Ulf gave them the vill of Darlington (Dearthington, Darnington), which by 1083 had grown into importance, probably owing to its situation on the road from Watling Street to the mouth of the Tees.
The abbey was founded in 1163 as a Cluniac monastery by Walter Fitzalan, first High Steward of Scotland, the ancestor of the Scottish royal family of Stuart, and dedicated to the Virgin, St James, St Milburga of Much Wenlock in Shropshire (whence came the first monks) and St Mirinus (St Mirren), the patron-saint of Paisley, who is supposed to have been a contemporary of St Columba.
But the element of work has decreased, and Greek and Slavonic monks give themselves up for the most part to devotional contemplation.
The knowledge of the monastic life was carried to western Europe by St Athanasius, who in 340 went to Rome accompanied by two monks.
It has to be emphasized at the outset that the monasteries in which the Benedictine rule was the basis of the life did not form a body or group apart within the great " monastic order," which embraced all monasteries of whatever rule; nor had Benedictine monks any special work or object beyond that common to all monks - viz.
St Benedict introduced too into the monastic life the idea of law and order, of rule binding on the abbot no less than on the monks; thus he reduced almost to a vanishing point the element of arbitrariness, or mere dependence on the abbot's will and whim, found in the earlier rules.
It will be in place here to explain the difference between friars, monks, and canons regular.
Thus among monks and canons regular each monastery has its own fixed community, which is in a real sense a family; and the monk or canon, no matter where he may be, looks on his monastery as his " home," like the ancestral home of a great family.
They carry still further the tendencies that differentiate the friars from the monks; and in particular, in order to be more free in devoting themselves to their special works, the orders of regular clerks have commonly given up the choral celebration of the canonical office, which had been maintained by the friars.
It is a curious coincidence that the sister of each of the three great cenobitical founders, Pachomius, Basil and Benedict, was a nun and ruled a community of nuns according to an adaptation of her brother's rule for monks.
The party of travellers whose journey in 394 is narrated in the Historia monachorum found at the chief towns along the Nile from Lycopolis (Assiut or Siut) to Alexandria, and in the deserts that fringed the river, monastic habitations, sometimes of hermits, sometimes of several monks living together but rather the life of hermits than of cenobites.
Here in one portion of the desert, named Cellia, the monks lived a purely eremitical life; but in Nitria (the Wadi Natron) they lived either alone, or two or three together, or in communities, as they preferred.
Palladius tells us that c. 410 the Pachomian or Tabennesiot monks numbered some seven thousand.
The work was an integral part of the life, and was undertaken for its own sake and not merely for an occupation, as among the Antonian monks.
He had one long dispute with the monks of Worcester, another with the abbot of Westminster, and was vigilant in guarding his material interests.
About 580-590 it was sacked by the Lombards, and the monks fled to Rome, where they were established at the Lateran basilica.
The monastery became a national monument and the monks were recognized as custodians.
In 1198 Hubert, who had inherited from his predecessors in the primacy a fierce quarrel with the Canterbury monks, gave these enemies an opportunity of complaining to the pope, for in arresting the London demagogue, William Fitz Osbert, he had committed an act of sacrilege in Bow Church, which belonged to the monks.
Most of the monks were massacred in the first heat of the assault; those who survived fled to Tibet, Nepal and the south.
By the end of this period Christianity had been firmly established among most of the German tribes; the monks were the trustees of the new learning, and we must look mainly, although not exclusively, to the monasteries for our authorities.
The work of the monks generally took the form of Annales or Chronica, and among the numerous German monasteries which are famous in this connection maybe mentioned Fulda, Reichenau, St Gall and Lorsch.
Something is learned, too, from biographies written by the monks, of which Einhards Vita Karoli Magni is the greatest and the best, and Wipos life of the emperor Conrad II.
It was so obvious that several of the names had no right to figure on the roll, that Camden, as did Dugdale after him, held them to have been interpolated at various times by the monks, "not without their own advantage."
There are about 125 monks in all, 54 being priests.
The monks whose task it was to perfect the adaptation of the alphabet to the dialects of Egypt and translate the Scriptures out of the Greek, flung away all pagan traditions.
So large a proportion of the population had taken religious vows that under Valens it became necessary to abolish the privilege of monks which exempted them from military service.
The development of the poll-tax imposed on members of tolerated cults seems to be due to various causes, chief of them the acquisition of land by Moslems, who were not at first allowed to possess any, the conversion of Coptic landowners to Islam, and the enforcement (towards the end of the 1st century of Islam) of the poll-tax on monks.
Under the auspices of Archbishop Absalon the monks of Sorb began to compile the annals of Denmark, and at the end of the 12th century Svend Aagesen, a cleric of Lund, compiled from Icelandic sources and oral tradition his Compendiosa historic regum Daniae.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
The manor, which had belonged to the Cluniac monks of Bermondsey, passed through various hands to Edward Alleyn in 1606.
Fragments of the monastic buildings remain, and west of the churchyard is the monks' park, known as the Seal, and now a promenade, commanding beautiful views.
In 1572 the monks of the abbey of Ste Croix at Quimperle ceded the island to the Retz family, in whose favour it was raised to a marquisate in the following year.
But the recognition of the royal supremacy could only be enforced at the cost of the heads of Sir Thomas More, Bishop Fisher and a number of monks and others among whom the Carthusians signalized themselves by their devotion (1535-1536).
Fordun, in the 14th century, supposed that the clergy, before Palladius, were presbyters or monks.
Siricius was averse from countenancing the influence of the monks, and did not treat Jerome with the favour with which he had been honoured by preceding popes, with the result that Jerome left Rome and settled at Bethlehem.
After the 4th century, monks and nuns begin to form no inconsiderable part of the pilgrimages - a fact which is especially manifest from the numerous notices to be found in Jerome, and the narratives of Theodoret in the Historia religiosa.
Owing to the confined area, the buildings are closely packed together; but each monastery contains beside the monks' cells and water-cisterns, at least one church and a refectory, and some also a library.
At one time they were fourteen in number, but now not more than four (the Great Monastery, Holy Trinity, St Barlaam's and St Stephen's) are inhabited by more than two or three monks.
Founded about 1140 by Hugh de Morville, lord of Cunninghame, for Tyronensian monks of the Benedictine order, it was dedicated to St Winnin, who lived on the spot in the 8th century and has given his name to the town.
Other pirates appeared in 793 on a different coast, Northumbria, attacked a monastery on Lindisfarne (Holy Island), slaying and capturing the monks; the following year they attacked and burnt Jarrow; after that they were caught in a storm, and all perished by shipwreck or at the hands of the countrymen.
The number of the monks, which amounted to over a hundred at the beginning of the 18th century, is now much reduced.
As a man he retained the impressions of his youth, and his great work was to be also a monument of his reverence for the monks in general and for the disciples of Hilarion in particular.
Perhaps also he wrote for the monks in Palestine, and could be sure that the work of his predecessor would not be known.
The ecclesiastics who were parted at his command from the laysisters (whom they kept ostensibly as servants), the thirteen bishops whom he deposed for simony and licentiousness at a single visitation, the idle monks who thronged the avenues to the court and found themselves the public object of his scorn - all conspired against the powerful author of their wrongs.
A favourable pretext for gratifying their revenge was discovered in the shelter which Chrysostom had given to four Nitrian monks, known as the tall brothers, who had come to Constantinople on being excommunicated by their bishop, Theophilus of Alexandria, a man who had long circulated in the East the charge of Origenism against Chrysostom.
In crowds they besieged the palace, and had already begun to take vengeance on the foreign monks and sailors who had come from Chalcedon to the metropolis, when, at the entreaty of Eudoxia, the emperor consented to his recall.
He was hurried away to the desolate town of Cucusus (Cocysus), among the ridges of Mount Taurus, with a secret hope, perhaps, that he might be a victim to the Isaurians on the march, or to the more implacable fury of the monks.
The Chinese traveller, Hsuan Tsang, in the 7th century, found 20 Buddhist temples with 3000 monks at Ajodhya among a large Brahmanical population.
Originally he intended it as an Oxford house for the monks of St Swithin's, Winchester; but he is said to have been dissuaded by Bishop Oldham, who denounced the monks and foretold their fall.
In 1508 he was sent with some other monks to Wittenberg to assist the small university which had been opened there in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony.
It was there that Luther began to preach, first in a small chapel to the monks of his order; later taking the place of one of the town's clergy who was in ill-health.
The pope thinking that the whole dispute was a monkish quarrel, contented himself with asking the general of the Augustinian Eremites to keep his monks quiet.
Luther's friends had been provokingly silent about the Theses; but in April 1518, at the annual chapter of the Augustinian Eremites held at Heidelberg, Luther heard his positions temperately discussed, and found somewhat to his astonishment that his views were not acceptable to all his fellow monks.
As one result of the subsequent investigations, Latin monks of other countries were assigned to the protection of the consuls of those countries.
Here was the burial-place of all the monks whose friends could afford to go thither with their bodies.
Roads to Bardsey - with the monks' wells, found at intervals of 7 to 9 m.
Perhaps the most interesting incident in his primacy was when he drove the secular clergy from their college of Canterbury Hall, Oxford, and filled their places with monks.
Even at the present day knowledge of reading and writing is, owing to the teaching of Buddhist monks, as widely diffused throughout Burma as it is in some countries of Europe.
He found Brahman priests equally honoured with Buddhist monks, and temples to the Indian gods side by side with the religious houses of his own faith.
Throughout north-western India he found Buddhist convents and monks surrounded by " swarms of heretics."
In Kashmir king and people were devout Buddhists, under the teaching of five hundred monasteries and five thousand monks.
It was far easier for the monks to learn the native dialects than to teach their parishioners Spanish.
This was founded shortly after the Conquest and originated from the endowment which the monks of Lyre near Evreux held in Bowcombe, including the church, mill, houses, land and tithes of the manor.
In the Lauras the young monks lived a cenobitical life, but the elders a semi-eremitical one, each in his own hut within the precincts of the Laura, attending only the solemn church services.
His Laura long continued to be the most influential monastery in those parts, and produced several distinguished monks, among 1 hem St John of Damascus.
It was long believed by the Armenian monks that no one was permitted to reach the "secret top" of Ararat with its sacred remains, but on the 27th of September 1829, Dr. Johann Jacob Parrot (1792-1840) of Dorpat, a German in the employment of Russia, set foot on the "dome of eternal ice."
The archbishop opposed this plan, and by his orders his vicar-general, John of Pomuk - son of a German named WSlfel, a citizen of Pomuk - advised the monks to elect a new abbot immediately after Racek's death.
Shortly after the accession of Cyril to the patriarchate of Alexandria in 412, owing to her intimacy with Orestes, the pagan prefect of the city, Hypatia was barbarously murdered by the Nitrian monks and the fanatical Christian mob (March 415).
But a majority of the theologians and all the monks opposed these measures with uncompromising hostility, and in the western parts of the empire the people refused to obey the edict.
Afterwards it was remodelled by Roger de Montgomery for Cluniac monks.
Meanwhile the Jesuit property in the Peninsula had been turned over to Franciscan monks, but in 1772 the Dominicans took over the missions, and the Franciscans not unwillingly withdrew to Upper California, where they were to thrive remarkably for some fifty years.
At some of the missions the monks acted later as temporary curates for the civil authorities, until in 1845-1846 all the missions were sold by the government.
The learned men were monks and priests, the universities were Church institutions, and theology was the queen of the sciences.
Early in the 10th century the monastery was reformed by introducing monks from Scotland, who were responsible for restoring in its old strictness the Benedictine rule.
The Carthusian monks, to whom the monastery was entrusted by the founder, were bound to employ a certain proportion of their annual revenue in prosecuting the work till its completion, and even after 1542 the monks continued voluntarily to expend large sums on further decoration.
Two miles to the east in a ravine below Monte Subasio is the hermitage delle Carceri (2300 ft.), partly built, partly cut out of the solid rock, given to St Francis by Benedictine monks as a place of retirement.
The monks of Cluny were at work.
The term seems, like the Latin vir dei, to have been applied generally to monks and hermits.
They seem especially to have had the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the musical part of worship. Meanwhile in Scotland the Iona monks had been expelled by the Pictish king Nechtan in 717, and the vacancies thus caused were by no means filled by the Roman monks who thronged into the north from Northumbria.
At Brechin, famous like Abernethy for its round tower, the Culdee prior and his monks helped to form the chapter of the diocese founded by David I.
But as the Premonstratensians were not monks but canons regular, their work was preaching and the exercise of the pastoral office, and they served a large number of parishes incorporated in their monasteries.
It embraced an establishment for monks and (until the Conquest) for nuns of the Benedictine order, and under Hilda, a grand-niece of Edwin, a former king of Northumbria, acquired high celebrity.
Later in his reign, probably in 614, he defeated the Welsh in a great battle at Chester and massacred the monks of Bangor who were assembled to aid them by their prayers.
Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical self-culture.
The abbess Hild and her monks recognized that the illiterate herdsman had received a gift from heaven, and, in order to test his powers, proposed to him that he should try to render into verse a portion of sacred history which they explained to him.
In practice the lives of Buddhist monks are not so squalid as these rules would lead us to suppose.
Thanks to the reverent charity of the laymen, they do not live much worse than Benedictine monks.
Madonna (now in Dresden) was sold by the monks in 1754 to Frederick Augustus III.
Since the expulsion of the religious orders from France in 1903 several communities of French monks and nuns have taken up their abode in the Principality.
His body is said, on doubtful authority, to have been buried honourably by the monks of Abbey Cwm Hir, near Rhayader.
The modern Greek custom is "(a) that most candidates for Holy Orders are dismissed from the episcopal seminaries shortly before being ordained deacons, in order that they may marry (their partners being in fact mostly daughters of clergymen), and after their marriage, return to the seminaries in order to take the higher orders; (b) that, as priests, they still continue the marriages thus contracted, but may not remarry on the death of their wife; and (c) that the Greek bishops, who may not continue their married life, are commonly not chosen out of the ranks of the married secular clergy, but from among the monks."
In the days of medieval abbeys, when the provident Cistercian monks attached great importance to pond culture, they gave the first place to the tench and bream, the carp still being unknown in the greater part of Europe.
The suffragans of Canterbury claimed a share in choosing the new primate, although that right had been exclusively reserved to the monks of Canterbury by a papal privilege; and John supported the bishops since they were prepared to give