Monism Sentence Examples
His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile monism (Hegel) and individualism (Herbart) by means of theism (Leibnitz).
Anyhow, whatever the method or interpretation is to be, idealism, even more fully than materialism, is pledged to monism and to the rejection of dualism.
To this extent monism is justified; but it becomes mischievous if it prompts us to ignore important differences in facts as they present themselves to our intelligence.
The doctrine of Schopenhauer and von Hartmann is a monism of cosmic will which submerges the individual no less completely than Hegelianism, though in a different manner.
Hence the theory is a kind of monism, inasmuch as it confessedly does not assert the existence of matter save as an intellectual postulate for the thinking mind.Advertisement
Materialism supposes that this mechanical order is the real world and the only real world - mechanical monism.'
Hegel's is an intellectualist monism, explaining matter, sensation, personal individuality and will as forms of thought.
Haeckel's monism is mere materialism dignified by a higher title.
It is generally admitted that he had no accurate knowledge either of Spinoza, whose monism he advocated, or of Kant, whose critical philosophy he so fiercely attacked.
But with these advances came the danger of falling into error from which common-sense dualism and naturalistic monism were free.Advertisement
They also exhibit a variation from the characteristic dualism of Gnosticism into monism, in their conception of the fall of Sophia and their derivation of matter from the passions of the fallen Sophia.
Moreover, there is no real opposition between monism and dualism, for there can very well be one kind of being, without being all body or all soul; and as a matter of fact, Aristotelian realism is both a monism of substance and a dualism of body and soul.
It is in any case unfair to decide questions by disparaging terms, and to argue as if the whole choice were between materialistic or idealistic monism, leaving realism out of court.
In this case metaphysics generally will have to recognize three monisms, a materialistic monism of body, an idealistic monism of soul, and a realistic monism of substance, which is also a dualism of substances.
But a term so equivocal, leading to an antithesis so misleading as that between monism and dualism, can never represent the real difference between metaphysical schools.Advertisement
But if a philosophy makes force an attribute of matter only, as his does, it will recognize nothing but matter possessing force, and will therefore be materialism as well as monism, and in short materialistic monism.
Metaphysical dualism postulates the eternal coexistence of mind and matter, as opposed to monism both idealistic and materialistic. Two forms of this dualism are held.
It accounts, too, for his polemic on the one hand against a Substantial Soul, a Buddhistic Absolute, an Infinite Spiritual Substance; on the other hand against the no less mysterious material or dynamic substratum by which naturalistic Monism explains the world.
But until dualism had been thought out, as in the Peripatetic school, it was impossible that monism (or at any rate materialistic monism) should be definitely and consciously maintained.
Its most valuable lessons to the world were preserved in Christianity; but the grand simplicity of its monism slumbered for fifteen centuries before it was revived by Spinoza.Advertisement
By his recognition of an apparent plurality supplementary to the real unity, he effected the transition from the " monism " or " henism " of the first physical succession to the " pluralism " of the second.
Here he postulates force and mind as emanating from original matter - a materialistic monism.
Both the systems which are handed down under his name by Irenaeus and Hippolytus, that of emanations and the monistic-evolutionary system, represent further developments of his ideas with a tendency away from dualism towards monism.
Curiously enough, he supposes that by making mind a universal attribute of matter he has made his philosophy not materialism, but monism.
It follows that philosophy is in a sense both dualist and monist; it is a cosmic dualism inasmuch as it admits the possible existence of matter as a hypothesis, though it denies the possibility of any true knowledge of it, and is hence in regard of the only possible knowledge an idealistic monism.Advertisement
To speak technically, it is an idealist monism."
Is Davidson's anomalous monism a form of epiphenomenalism?
A methodological monism of empirical science assumes that everything is essentially matter.
Using this argument it is possible to take a materialist stance whilst rejecting the implication of materialist monism that our minds are purely reactive.
This primitive hylozoism reappeared in modified forms in medieval and Renaissance thought, and in modern times the doctrine of materialistic monism is its representative.
We see it in Huxley, and still more in Haeckel, whose materialism (which he chooses to term "monism") is evidently conditioned by ignorance of the history and present position of speculation.
But we cannot classify metaphysics by the antithesis of monism and dualism without making confusion worse confounded.
Like all true followers of Kant, Riehl prefers epistemology to metaphysics; yet in reality he founds a metaphysics on epistemology, which he calls " critical realism," so far as it asserts a knowledge of things beyond phenomena, and " critical monism," so far as it holds that these things are unlike both physical and psychical phenomena, but are nevertheless the common basis of both.
In order to establish this paradox of " critical monism," he accepts to a certain extent the psychophysical philosophy of Fechner.
Afterwards, when the lecture was published in Mind and Motion and Monism (1895), this work also contained a chapter on " The World as an Eject," in which Romanes again contended against Clifford that the world does admit of being regarded as an eject, that is, as a mind beyond one's own.
This blind dualism found its natural consequence in the revolt of the Renaissance thinkers, Bruno and Paracelsus, who asserted the unity of mind and matter in all existence and were the precursors of the more intelligent monism of Leibnitz and the scientific metaphysics of his successors.
It is a self-destructive dualism, a confessedly one-sided monism, agnostic as to the fundamental problem.
Nichiren taught a philosophical monism in the 13th century which is the basis of a vigorous sect at the present day; and the " True Sect of the Pure Land," founded by his older contemporary Shin-ran, and now the most numerous, wealthy and powerful of the Buddhist denominations, has dropped the original Gotama altogether out of sight, and permits worship to Amida alone, the sublime figure of " Boundless Light," whose saving power is appropriated by faith.
But in other parts of his works he suggests that mind and matter are two different aspects of that which is the basis of all things - a monism which is not necessarily materialistic, and which, in the absence of further explanation, constitutes a confession of failure.
All forms of monism from Plotinus downwards tend to ignore personal individuality and volition, and merge all finite existence in the featureless unity of the Absolute; this, indeed, is what inspires the passion of the protest against monism.
So far true metaphysics is a monism of substance, in the sense that all things are substances and that all substances, however different, are members of one substance, the whole universe of body and spirit.
To Xenophanes, the founder of Eleaticism - whom he must have known, even if he was never in any strict sense of the word his disciple - Parmenides was, perhaps, more deeply indebted, as the theological speculations of that thinker unquestionably suggested to him the theory of Being and Not-Being, of the One and the Many, by which he sought to reconcile Ionian " monism," or rather " henism," with Italiote dualism.