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mongolia

mongolia

mongolia Sentence Examples

  • side of Mongolia, and, since 1904-5, it has skirted the N.

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  • the high tableland of Tibet and Pamir to the lower plateaus of Mongolia, and thence N.E.

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  • Mongolia, not far apart in 101° E.

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  • Pozdneeff, Towns of North Mongolia (1880); Mongolia and the Mongols (1896 and 1899); and the article " Mongolia " in Russian Encycl.

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  • above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-Ong Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li.

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  • Rockhill's Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and 1892 (Washington, 1894); M.

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  • above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-Ong Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li.

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  • The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.

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  • -A Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia (2 vols., London, 1870); S.

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  • Asia is divided laterally along the parallel of 40° north by a depression which, beginning on the east of the desert of Gobi, extends westwards through Mongolia to Chinese Turkestan.

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  • From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.

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  • From the western end of the Yablonoi range, on the 115th meridian, a mountainous belt extends along a somewhat irregular line to the extremity of Pamir, known under various names Mongolia.

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  • Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.

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  • Its eastern part is nearly conterminous with south Mongolia, its western forms Chinese or eastern Turkestan.

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  • The more northern parts of Mongolia are between 4000 and 6000 ft., and no portion of the route across the desert between the Chinese frontier and Kiakhta is below 3000 ft.

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  • In Mongolia the population is essentially nomadic, its wealth consisting in herds of horned cattle, sheep, horses and camels.

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  • Krishna's remarkable journey in 1879-1882 extended from Lhasa northwards through Tsaidam to Sachu, or Saitu, in Mongolia.

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  • i Tbet and Mongolia.

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  • The position of Sachu (or Saitu) in Mongolia may be taken as an obligatory point in modern map construction.

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  • Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.

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  • North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.

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  • South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.

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  • at Urga in northern Mongolia.

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  • The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.

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  • In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.

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  • Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.

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  • Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.

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  • and between 116° and 134° E., and is wedged in between China and Mongolia on the west and north-west, and Korea and the Russian territory on the Amur on the east and north.

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  • by Chih-li and Mongolia.

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  • by Mongolia, and on the E.

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  • by the Nonni and Mongolia.

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  • One of the most noticeable of the birds is the Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolicd), which is found in a wild state both in Manchuria and in the desert of Mongolia.

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  • Nurhachu played with skill and daring the role which had been played by Jenghiz Khan more than three centuries before in Mongolia.

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  • With even greater success than his Mongolian counterpart, Nurhachu drew tribe after tribe under his sway, and after numerous wars with Korea and Mongolia he established his rule over the whole of Manchuria.

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  • as far as their confluence near Kiakhta, on the frontier of Mongolia and Siberia, at the eastern extremity of the Sayan Mountains.

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  • In the plateau there are in reality two terraces - a higher and a lower, both very well defined in Transbaikalia and in Mongolia.

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  • Both rise very gently above it, but have steep slopes towards the lower terrace, which is occupied by the Nerchinsk steppes in Transbaikalia and by the great desert of Gobi in Mongolia (2000 to 2500,ft.

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  • Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.

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  • de Koulomzine, Le Trans-siberien (Paris, 1904); Bishop of Norwich, My Life in Mongolia and Siberia (London, 1903); S.

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  • MONGOLIA, a vast territory belonging to the Chinese empire, the administrative limits of which cannot be determined with precision.

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  • the boundary line which separates Mongolia from Manchuria runs past Dalai-nor and Lake Buir, crossing the Great Khingan in 47° 30' N., towards Tsit g ihar in Manchuria; then, crossing the Nonni river, it strikes the Sungari at Khulanchen, where it turns westwards up this river, reaching the Shara-muren river in 123° 30' E.

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  • Thence it turns north-west, following the Great Wall for over 300 m.; it then crosses the plateau so as to separate Mongolia from the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang (Hari-su-sin-tsiang, which includes the Nan-shan highlands and eastern Turkestan), and from Dzungaria, reaching the Chinese or Ektagh Altai in 46° 30' N., 92° 50' E.

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  • Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.

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  • Broadly speaking, Mongolia may be divided naturally into three parts: (1) north-western Mongolia, which occupies the high terrace of the plateau; (2) the Gobi, in its wide sense, covering the lower terrace of the plateau, together with a slightly more elevated and better-watered zone along the western slope of the Great Khingan and its south-western continuation; and (3) southeastern Mongolia, on the eastern slope of the Khingan.

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  • North-western Mongolia was formerly represented as a region intersected by lofty mountain chains.

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  • Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.

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  • to E.S.E., border another slightly higher terrace of the same great plateau of north-west Mongolia, upon which Lake Kossogol lies, at an altitude of 5320 ft.

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  • The conception of north-west Mongolia as a.

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  • - North-western Mongolia is well watered, and has in its western part a group of lakes which possess no outlet to the ocean, being in reality the rapidly desiccating remains of what were formerly much larger basins.

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  • A very large portion of north-west Mongolia constitutes a high plain, 3000 to 4200 ft.

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  • Owing to its high altitude, north-western Mongolia is very cold, and the severity of the winter is intensified by the prevalence of cold but dry north-western winds.

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  • Thomsen, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900) they are dried before they reach north-western Mongolia.

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  • The chief towns of north-west Mongolia are Urga, Ulyasutai, Kobdo and Ulankom.

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  • Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.

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  • This portion of Mongolia is also much better watered, namely, by the Khatsyr, the Lao-ho and the Shara-muren, all flowing from the Khingan Mountains eastwards, and the last making the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese province of Chihli.

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  • The population of the whole of Mongolia is estimated at about 5,000,000.

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  • The Mongols proper, with the exception of those who inhabit north-west Mongolia, may be divided into northern and southern (more properly north-western and southeastern) Mongols.

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  • The former, belonging to the Khalkas, occupy the Gobi and the regions of the Kentei Mountains and Khingan Mountains, while the second, divided into numerous minor branches, roam over south-eastern and southern Mongolia.

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  • The trade is chiefly concentrated at Urga, Ulyasutai and Kobdo in north-west Mongolia; Kalgan, Kuku-khoto, Kuku-erghi, Dolon-nur and Biru-khoto in southern and south-eastern Mongolia; and at Kerulen in the north-east.

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  • Mongolia is now administered by a Lifan Yuen or superin tendency with headquarters at Peking.

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  • Excluding the territory to which the name of Mongolia is geographically applied, but which is included in the provinces of Shansi and Chihli, Mongolia is divided into inner and outer divisions.

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  • Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.

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  • Outer Mongolia, the remainder of the territory, has 4 aimaks, three of which are under hereditary khans.

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  • - The following works in Russian are the most important: Prjevalsky, Mongolia and the Land of the Tanguts (1875), and his Third and Fourth Journey (1883 and 1888); G.

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  • Potanin, Sketches of North-West Mongolia (1881-1883); The Tangut-Tibet Border of China and Central Mongolia (1893 seq.); V.

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  • Pyevtsoff, Sketch of a Journey to Mongolia, &c. (Omsk, 1883); D.

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  • Woyeikoff, Climates of the Earth (1884); Mongolia and Kham (Imperial Russian Geographical Society's Expedition, 1899-1901).

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  • Rockhill, Journey through Mongolia and Thibet (1894); F.

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  • There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m.

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  • Four high roads radiate from Peking, one leading to Urga by way of Shan-hwa Fu, which passes through the Great Wall at Chang-kiu K`ow; another, which enters Mongolia through the.

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  • That it also possessed adherents in southern Siberia we gather from the inscriptions of Semiryetchensk, and in the beginning of the 11th century it found its way even into Mongolia.

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  • There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.

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  • 7, 8), an oakfeeding species, native of Mongolia, from which is derived the greater part of the so-called tussur silk now imported intoEurope.

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  • He at first superintended a Christian mission in the southern provinces, and then passing to Peking, where he perfected his knowledge of the language, eventually settled in the Valley of Black Waters or He Shuy, a little to the north of the capital, and just within the borders of Mongolia.

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  • The assiduity with which Huc devoted himself to the study of the dialects and customs of the Tatars, for whom at the cost of much labour he translated various religious works, was an admirable preparation for undertaking in 1844, at the instigation of the vicar apostolic of Mongolia, an expedition whose object was to dissipate the obscurity which hung over the country and habits of the Tibetans.

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  • Mongolia - the former on the S.

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  • This territory came to be known to Europeans as " Tibet " evidently because the great plateau with its uplands bordering the frontiers of China, Mongolia and Kashmir, through which travellers communicated with this country, is called by the natives T o-bhot (written stod-bod) or " High Bod" or " Tibet," which designation in the loose orthography of travellers assumed a variety of forms. Thus in Chinese annals are found T'u-bat (5th century, A.D.), Tu-po-te, Tie-bu-te, T'u-bo-te (loth and firth centuries) and at the present day T'u-fan (fan, as Bushell shows, being the same.

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  • Among the Mongols, Tibetans are called Tangutu and the country Barontala or the " right side," in contradistinction to Dzontala or " left side," which was their own name for Mongolia itself.

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  • Professor Maximowicz concludes from an analysis of the Prjevalsky collection that the flora of Tibet is extremely ancient, and that it is chiefly composed of immigrants from the Himalaya and Mongolia.

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  • Tibet produces a large number of medicinal plants much prized by the medical profession in China and Mongolia, among others the Cordyceps sinensis, the Coptis teeta, Wall., and Pickorhiza kuwoa, Royle, &c. Rhubarb is also found in great quantities in eastern Tibet and Amdo; it is largely exported for European use, but does not appear to be used medicinally in the country.

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  • Yet Tsaidam is geographically but a northern extension of the great Tibetan plateau, and in most of its essential physical features it is more closely allied to the Chang-t'ang of the south than to the great sandy depressions of Chinese Turkestan or Mongolia on the north.

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  • From Mongolia come leather, saddlery, sheep and horses, with coral, amber and small diamonds from European sources; from Kham perfumes, fruits, furs and inlaid metal saddlery; from Sikkim and Bhutan rice, musk, sugar-balls and tobacco; from Nepal broadcloth, indigo, brasswork, coral, pearls, sugar, spices, drugs and Indian manufactures; from Ladak saffron, dried fruits and articles from India.

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  • No great armies have ever crossed Tibet to invade India; even those of Jenghiz Khan took the circuitous route via Bokhara and Afghanistan, not the direct route from Mongolia across Tibet.

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  • - Missions: Mongolia, Kang-Su (China), Belgian Congo.

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  • Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, and James Gilmour, the apostle of Mongolia, are pre-eminent.

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  • Tigers are found throughout India, Turkestan, China, Mongolia and the East Indies.

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  • In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.

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  • This route has displaced much of the protracted caravan business through Manchuria and Mongolia.

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  • The former takes its rise in Mongolia, and after running an easterly course for about 400 m., turns S.W., and empties into the Gulf of Liao-tung, in the neighbourhood of Ying-tsze, up to which town, 20 m.

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  • to Fakumen, thence through Mongolia to Pe-tu-na, and then to Tsi-tsi-har, Mergen, and the Amur.

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  • Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.

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  • On the death of his father (1246) Alexander and his younger brother Andrew went on a two years' journey into Mongolia to obtain their yarluiki, or letters of investiture, from the Grand Khan, who then disposed of the fate of all the Russian princes.

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  • In addition to the provinces of Yunnan, Kwang-si and Kwang-tung in southern China, plague is reported to have been present for several years in a district in Mongolia to the north of Peking, and distant about " twelve days' ride."

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  • More recently several localities in Mongolia and Manchuria have been affected.

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  • It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain.

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  • Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia.

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  • Religiously it is the corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia.

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  • Their number is very large; there are few monasteries in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to possess one of these living Buddhas.

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  • The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China.

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  • by Mongolia, E.

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  • The Altai region, in West Siberia and Mongolia, is similar in character to Switzerland, but covers a very much greater area.

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  • On the east and south-east this range is flanked [by the great plateau of Mongolia, the transition being effected gradually by means of several minor plateaus, such as Ukok (7800 ft.), Chuya (6000 ft.), Kendykty (8200 ft.), Kak (8270 ft.), Suok (850o ft.), and Juvlu-kul (7900 ft.).

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  • The Ek-tagh or Mongolian Altai, which separates the Kobdo basin on the north from the Irtysh basin on the south, is a true border-range, in that it rises in a steep and lofty escarpment from the Dzungarian depression (1550 to 3000 ft.), but descends on the north by a relatively short slope to the plateau (4000-5500 ft.) of north-western Mongolia.

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  • All this produce is exported partly to Tomsk and partly to Kobdo in Mongolia.

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  • The Soyotes, or Soyons, of the Sayan mountains (estimated at 8000), who are Finns mixed with Turks the Uryankhes of north-west Mongolia, who are of Turkish origin but follow Buddhism, and the Karagasses, also of Turkish origin and much like the Kirghizes, but reduced now to a few hundreds, are akin to the above.

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  • The work in which he embodied his researches was immediately translated into all civilized languages, the English version, Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (1876), being edited by Sir Henry Yule.

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  • In1883-1885he undertook a fourth journey of exploration in the wild mountain regions between Mongolia and Tibet.

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  • ammon hodgsoni), and by a second in Mongolia.

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  • and Tibet, India and Afghanistan on the S., the western limit being the Caspian Sea and the eastern Mongolia and the Desert of Gobi.

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  • When the Huns (Hiung-nu) occupied west and east Mongolia in 177-165 B.C., they drove before them the Yue-chi (Yutes, Yetes or Ghetes), who divided into two hordes, one of which invaded the valley of the Indus, while the other met the Sacae in East Turkestan and drove them over the Tian-shan into the valley of the Ili.

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  • Soon afterward, their empire disintegrates, and over the passage of time Outer Mongolia becomes an aphorism for obscurity.

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  • I have had a long-time infatuation with Kenya, and more recent dalliances with Mongolia and Portugal.

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  • And Mongolia is represented with by a nobleman's costume that includes a robe made of yellow Russian silk damask.

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  • fermented mare 's milk, which is horrible, is the number one drink, the champagne of Mongolia.

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  • fermented mare 's milk, which is horrible, is the number one drink, the champagne of Mongolia.

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  • Today Mongolia's economy is in transition from the centrally planned system of the socialist period to the competitive environment of the globalized marketplace.

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  • As well as Korea, the drought has hit much of Northeast Asia including northern China and Mongolia.

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  • We follow him starting in Mongolia as part of a duo with a young percussionist Jamie Harris.

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  • side of Mongolia, and, since 1904-5, it has skirted the N.

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  • the high tableland of Tibet and Pamir to the lower plateaus of Mongolia, and thence N.E.

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  • The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.

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  • -A Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia (2 vols., London, 1870); S.

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  • He rode alone on horseback through Mongolia to western Siberia, and narrowly escaped being slaughtered by a mob.

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  • Asia is divided laterally along the parallel of 40° north by a depression which, beginning on the east of the desert of Gobi, extends westwards through Mongolia to Chinese Turkestan.

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  • From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.

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  • From the western end of the Yablonoi range, on the 115th meridian, a mountainous belt extends along a somewhat irregular line to the extremity of Pamir, known under various names Mongolia.

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  • Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.

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  • Its eastern part is nearly conterminous with south Mongolia, its western forms Chinese or eastern Turkestan.

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  • The more northern parts of Mongolia are between 4000 and 6000 ft., and no portion of the route across the desert between the Chinese frontier and Kiakhta is below 3000 ft.

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  • In Mongolia the population is essentially nomadic, its wealth consisting in herds of horned cattle, sheep, horses and camels.

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  • The Turki tribes, occupying western Mongolia, are among the least civilized of human beings, and it is chiefly to their extreme barbarity and cruelty that our ignorance of central Asia is due.

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  • While at the close of the 19th century western Asia (exclusive of Arabia) may be said to have been freed from all geographical perplexity, China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia still include enormous areas of which geographical knowledge is in a primitive stage of nebulous uncertainty.

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  • Krishna's remarkable journey in 1879-1882 extended from Lhasa northwards through Tsaidam to Sachu, or Saitu, in Mongolia.

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  • i Tbet and Mongolia.

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  • The position of Sachu (or Saitu) in Mongolia may be taken as an obligatory point in modern map construction.

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  • Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.

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  • North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.

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  • South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.

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  • at Urga in northern Mongolia.

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  • The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.

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  • In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.

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  • Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.

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  • Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.

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  • and between 116° and 134° E., and is wedged in between China and Mongolia on the west and north-west, and Korea and the Russian territory on the Amur on the east and north.

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  • by Chih-li and Mongolia.

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  • Next in importance to these rivers are the Liao and Ya-lu, the former of which rises in Mongolia, and after running in an easterly direction for about 400 m.

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  • by Mongolia, and on the E.

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  • by the Nonni and Mongolia.

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  • One of the most noticeable of the birds is the Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolicd), which is found in a wild state both in Manchuria and in the desert of Mongolia.

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  • Nurhachu played with skill and daring the role which had been played by Jenghiz Khan more than three centuries before in Mongolia.

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  • With even greater success than his Mongolian counterpart, Nurhachu drew tribe after tribe under his sway, and after numerous wars with Korea and Mongolia he established his rule over the whole of Manchuria.

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  • Mongolia, not far apart in 101° E.

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  • as far as their confluence near Kiakhta, on the frontier of Mongolia and Siberia, at the eastern extremity of the Sayan Mountains.

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  • In the plateau there are in reality two terraces - a higher and a lower, both very well defined in Transbaikalia and in Mongolia.

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  • Both rise very gently above it, but have steep slopes towards the lower terrace, which is occupied by the Nerchinsk steppes in Transbaikalia and by the great desert of Gobi in Mongolia (2000 to 2500,ft.

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  • at Urga in Mongolia, turning north in the Amur region and reaching the Pacific at Nikolayevsk.

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  • Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.

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  • de Koulomzine, Le Trans-siberien (Paris, 1904); Bishop of Norwich, My Life in Mongolia and Siberia (London, 1903); S.

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  • MONGOLIA, a vast territory belonging to the Chinese empire, the administrative limits of which cannot be determined with precision.

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  • the boundary line which separates Mongolia from Manchuria runs past Dalai-nor and Lake Buir, crossing the Great Khingan in 47° 30' N., towards Tsit g ihar in Manchuria; then, crossing the Nonni river, it strikes the Sungari at Khulanchen, where it turns westwards up this river, reaching the Shara-muren river in 123° 30' E.

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  • Mongolia is separated by a line running in a south-westward direction up the Shara-muren and across the Mongolian plateau to the bending of the Hwang-ho or Yellow river in about 40° N.

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  • Thence it turns north-west, following the Great Wall for over 300 m.; it then crosses the plateau so as to separate Mongolia from the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang (Hari-su-sin-tsiang, which includes the Nan-shan highlands and eastern Turkestan), and from Dzungaria, reaching the Chinese or Ektagh Altai in 46° 30' N., 92° 50' E.

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  • Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.

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  • Broadly speaking, Mongolia may be divided naturally into three parts: (1) north-western Mongolia, which occupies the high terrace of the plateau; (2) the Gobi, in its wide sense, covering the lower terrace of the plateau, together with a slightly more elevated and better-watered zone along the western slope of the Great Khingan and its south-western continuation; and (3) southeastern Mongolia, on the eastern slope of the Khingan.

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  • North-western Mongolia was formerly represented as a region intersected by lofty mountain chains.

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  • At any rate, throughout the whole of north-west Mongolia, which covers an area of nearly 370,000 sq.

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  • Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.

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  • In the same way the Kentei (or Gentei) Mountains, as they are called, to the north of Urga, and the Yablonoi Mountains of Transbaikalia, separate the higher terrace of north-west Mongolia (drained by the tributaries of the Selenga) from the lower terrace of the Gobi, which is drained by the upper tributaries of the Onon and the Kerulen, both belonging to the basin of the Amur.

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  • to E.S.E., border another slightly higher terrace of the same great plateau of north-west Mongolia, upon which Lake Kossogol lies, at an altitude of 5320 ft.

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  • The conception of north-west Mongolia as a.

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  • - North-western Mongolia is well watered, and has in its western part a group of lakes which possess no outlet to the ocean, being in reality the rapidly desiccating remains of what were formerly much larger basins.

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  • A very large portion of north-west Mongolia constitutes a high plain, 3000 to 4200 ft.

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  • Owing to its high altitude, north-western Mongolia is very cold, and the severity of the winter is intensified by the prevalence of cold but dry north-western winds.

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  • Thomsen, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900) they are dried before they reach north-western Mongolia.

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  • The chief towns of north-west Mongolia are Urga, Ulyasutai, Kobdo and Ulankom.

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  • South-eastern Mongolia is the part of Mongolia which lies on the eastern slope of the Great Khingan Mountains, entering like a wedge between the lower course of the Nonni river and the middle Sungari.

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  • Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.

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  • This portion of Mongolia is also much better watered, namely, by the Khatsyr, the Lao-ho and the Shara-muren, all flowing from the Khingan Mountains eastwards, and the last making the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese province of Chihli.

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  • The population of the whole of Mongolia is estimated at about 5,000,000.

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  • The Mongols proper, with the exception of those who inhabit north-west Mongolia, may be divided into northern and southern (more properly north-western and southeastern) Mongols.

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  • The former, belonging to the Khalkas, occupy the Gobi and the regions of the Kentei Mountains and Khingan Mountains, while the second, divided into numerous minor branches, roam over south-eastern and southern Mongolia.

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  • The trade is chiefly concentrated at Urga, Ulyasutai and Kobdo in north-west Mongolia; Kalgan, Kuku-khoto, Kuku-erghi, Dolon-nur and Biru-khoto in southern and south-eastern Mongolia; and at Kerulen in the north-east.

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  • Mongolia is now administered by a Lifan Yuen or superin tendency with headquarters at Peking.

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  • Excluding the territory to which the name of Mongolia is geographically applied, but which is included in the provinces of Shansi and Chihli, Mongolia is divided into inner and outer divisions.

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  • Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.

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  • Outer Mongolia, the remainder of the territory, has 4 aimaks, three of which are under hereditary khans.

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  • - The following works in Russian are the most important: Prjevalsky, Mongolia and the Land of the Tanguts (1875), and his Third and Fourth Journey (1883 and 1888); G.

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  • Potanin, Sketches of North-West Mongolia (1881-1883); The Tangut-Tibet Border of China and Central Mongolia (1893 seq.); V.

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  • Pyevtsoff, Sketch of a Journey to Mongolia, &c. (Omsk, 1883); D.

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  • Pozdneeff, Towns of North Mongolia (1880); Mongolia and the Mongols (1896 and 1899); and the article " Mongolia " in Russian Encycl.

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  • Woyeikoff, Climates of the Earth (1884); Mongolia and Kham (Imperial Russian Geographical Society's Expedition, 1899-1901).

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  • Rockhill, Journey through Mongolia and Thibet (1894); F.

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  • He mentions, however, a brother of this John called Unc who ruled over the Crit and Merkit (or Kerait and Mekrit, two of the great tribes of Mongolia), whose history he associates with that of Jenghiz Khan.

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  • There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m.

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  • Four high roads radiate from Peking, one leading to Urga by way of Shan-hwa Fu, which passes through the Great Wall at Chang-kiu K`ow; another, which enters Mongolia through the.

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  • Rockhill's Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and 1892 (Washington, 1894); M.

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  • That it also possessed adherents in southern Siberia we gather from the inscriptions of Semiryetchensk, and in the beginning of the 11th century it found its way even into Mongolia.

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  • There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.

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  • 7, 8), an oakfeeding species, native of Mongolia, from which is derived the greater part of the so-called tussur silk now imported intoEurope.

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  • He at first superintended a Christian mission in the southern provinces, and then passing to Peking, where he perfected his knowledge of the language, eventually settled in the Valley of Black Waters or He Shuy, a little to the north of the capital, and just within the borders of Mongolia.

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  • The assiduity with which Huc devoted himself to the study of the dialects and customs of the Tatars, for whom at the cost of much labour he translated various religious works, was an admirable preparation for undertaking in 1844, at the instigation of the vicar apostolic of Mongolia, an expedition whose object was to dissipate the obscurity which hung over the country and habits of the Tibetans.

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  • Mongolia - the former on the S.

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  • This territory came to be known to Europeans as " Tibet " evidently because the great plateau with its uplands bordering the frontiers of China, Mongolia and Kashmir, through which travellers communicated with this country, is called by the natives T o-bhot (written stod-bod) or " High Bod" or " Tibet," which designation in the loose orthography of travellers assumed a variety of forms. Thus in Chinese annals are found T'u-bat (5th century, A.D.), Tu-po-te, Tie-bu-te, T'u-bo-te (loth and firth centuries) and at the present day T'u-fan (fan, as Bushell shows, being the same.

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  • Among the Mongols, Tibetans are called Tangutu and the country Barontala or the " right side," in contradistinction to Dzontala or " left side," which was their own name for Mongolia itself.

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  • Professor Maximowicz concludes from an analysis of the Prjevalsky collection that the flora of Tibet is extremely ancient, and that it is chiefly composed of immigrants from the Himalaya and Mongolia.

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  • Tibet produces a large number of medicinal plants much prized by the medical profession in China and Mongolia, among others the Cordyceps sinensis, the Coptis teeta, Wall., and Pickorhiza kuwoa, Royle, &c. Rhubarb is also found in great quantities in eastern Tibet and Amdo; it is largely exported for European use, but does not appear to be used medicinally in the country.

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  • Yet Tsaidam is geographically but a northern extension of the great Tibetan plateau, and in most of its essential physical features it is more closely allied to the Chang-t'ang of the south than to the great sandy depressions of Chinese Turkestan or Mongolia on the north.

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  • From Mongolia come leather, saddlery, sheep and horses, with coral, amber and small diamonds from European sources; from Kham perfumes, fruits, furs and inlaid metal saddlery; from Sikkim and Bhutan rice, musk, sugar-balls and tobacco; from Nepal broadcloth, indigo, brasswork, coral, pearls, sugar, spices, drugs and Indian manufactures; from Ladak saffron, dried fruits and articles from India.

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  • No great armies have ever crossed Tibet to invade India; even those of Jenghiz Khan took the circuitous route via Bokhara and Afghanistan, not the direct route from Mongolia across Tibet.

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  • Rockhill, The Land of the Lamas (London, 1891); Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet (Washington 1895); Geographical Journal, vol.

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  • - Missions: Mongolia, Kang-Su (China), Belgian Congo.

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  • Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, and James Gilmour, the apostle of Mongolia, are pre-eminent.

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  • Tigers are found throughout India, Turkestan, China, Mongolia and the East Indies.

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  • In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.

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  • This route has displaced much of the protracted caravan business through Manchuria and Mongolia.

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  • The former takes its rise in Mongolia, and after running an easterly course for about 400 m., turns S.W., and empties into the Gulf of Liao-tung, in the neighbourhood of Ying-tsze, up to which town, 20 m.

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  • to Fakumen, thence through Mongolia to Pe-tu-na, and then to Tsi-tsi-har, Mergen, and the Amur.

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  • Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.

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  • On the death of his father (1246) Alexander and his younger brother Andrew went on a two years' journey into Mongolia to obtain their yarluiki, or letters of investiture, from the Grand Khan, who then disposed of the fate of all the Russian princes.

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  • In addition to the provinces of Yunnan, Kwang-si and Kwang-tung in southern China, plague is reported to have been present for several years in a district in Mongolia to the north of Peking, and distant about " twelve days' ride."

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  • More recently several localities in Mongolia and Manchuria have been affected.

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  • It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain.

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  • Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia.

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  • Religiously it is the corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia.

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  • Their number is very large; there are few monasteries in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to possess one of these living Buddhas.

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  • The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China.

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  • by Mongolia, E.

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  • The Altai region, in West Siberia and Mongolia, is similar in character to Switzerland, but covers a very much greater area.

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  • On the east and south-east this range is flanked [by the great plateau of Mongolia, the transition being effected gradually by means of several minor plateaus, such as Ukok (7800 ft.), Chuya (6000 ft.), Kendykty (8200 ft.), Kak (8270 ft.), Suok (850o ft.), and Juvlu-kul (7900 ft.).

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  • The Ek-tagh or Mongolian Altai, which separates the Kobdo basin on the north from the Irtysh basin on the south, is a true border-range, in that it rises in a steep and lofty escarpment from the Dzungarian depression (1550 to 3000 ft.), but descends on the north by a relatively short slope to the plateau (4000-5500 ft.) of north-western Mongolia.

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  • All this produce is exported partly to Tomsk and partly to Kobdo in Mongolia.

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  • The Soyotes, or Soyons, of the Sayan mountains (estimated at 8000), who are Finns mixed with Turks the Uryankhes of north-west Mongolia, who are of Turkish origin but follow Buddhism, and the Karagasses, also of Turkish origin and much like the Kirghizes, but reduced now to a few hundreds, are akin to the above.

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  • The work in which he embodied his researches was immediately translated into all civilized languages, the English version, Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (1876), being edited by Sir Henry Yule.

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  • In1883-1885he undertook a fourth journey of exploration in the wild mountain regions between Mongolia and Tibet.

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  • ammon hodgsoni), and by a second in Mongolia.

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  • and Tibet, India and Afghanistan on the S., the western limit being the Caspian Sea and the eastern Mongolia and the Desert of Gobi.

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  • When the Huns (Hiung-nu) occupied west and east Mongolia in 177-165 B.C., they drove before them the Yue-chi (Yutes, Yetes or Ghetes), who divided into two hordes, one of which invaded the valley of the Indus, while the other met the Sacae in East Turkestan and drove them over the Tian-shan into the valley of the Ili.

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  • c.celticus) of Iceland, the Hebrides, &c., and the wild pony of Mongolia (E.

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  • The first and largest has two races, the chigetai (Equus hemionus) of Mongolia, and the kiang (E.

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  • Some cruises even travel through Mongolia, Hong Kong and Tibet.

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  • The trees are natives of temperate countries in Asia, and their number is likely to be added to as soon as more of China, Mongolia, and countries near are opened up.

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  • In Asian cultures, particularly in China but also in Japan, Korea, Thailand and Mongolia, the dragon is seen as a friend to humanity.

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  • He rode alone on horseback through Mongolia to western Siberia, and narrowly escaped being slaughtered by a mob.

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  • The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.

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  • Next in importance to these rivers are the Liao and Ya-lu, the former of which rises in Mongolia, and after running in an easterly direction for about 400 m.

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  • at Urga in Mongolia, turning north in the Amur region and reaching the Pacific at Nikolayevsk.

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  • In the same way the Kentei (or Gentei) Mountains, as they are called, to the north of Urga, and the Yablonoi Mountains of Transbaikalia, separate the higher terrace of north-west Mongolia (drained by the tributaries of the Selenga) from the lower terrace of the Gobi, which is drained by the upper tributaries of the Onon and the Kerulen, both belonging to the basin of the Amur.

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  • South-eastern Mongolia is the part of Mongolia which lies on the eastern slope of the Great Khingan Mountains, entering like a wedge between the lower course of the Nonni river and the middle Sungari.

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  • He mentions, however, a brother of this John called Unc who ruled over the Crit and Merkit (or Kerait and Mekrit, two of the great tribes of Mongolia), whose history he associates with that of Jenghiz Khan.

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  • The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.

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