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mongol

mongol

mongol Sentence Examples

  • China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.

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  • When the Mongol conquests threw Asia open to Frank travellers in the middle of the 13th century their minds were full of Prester John; they sought in vain for an adequate representative, nor was it in the nature of things that they should not find some representative.

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  • When the Mongol conquests threw Asia open to Frank travellers in the middle of the 13th century their minds were full of Prester John; they sought in vain for an adequate representative, nor was it in the nature of things that they should not find some representative.

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  • The Mongol race is represented in Russia by the Kalmucks, who inhabit the steppes of Astrakhan between the Volga, the Don and the Kuma.

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  • Uzbegs and Kirghiz have but small affinity with the Mongol element of Asia.

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  • Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic. In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the YueChi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion.

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  • There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.

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  • In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.

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  • First mentioned in 1155, Byelaya Tserkov was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of the 13th century.

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  • The Mongol or Tatar Domination, 1238-1462.

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  • In that year a horde, variously estimated at from two to four thousand souls, with their flocks and their slaves, driven originally from their Central Asian homes by the pressure of Mongol invasion, and who had sought in vain a refuge with the Seljukian sultan Ala-ud-din Kaikobad of Konia, were returning under their chief Suleiman Shah to their native land.

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  • The mission thus ended in complete failure; but, except for Carpini's (q.v.), it was the earliest Catholic embassy which reached any Mongol court, and its information must have been valuable.

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  • It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.

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  • BE.) History The history of Russia may be conveniently divided into four consecutive periods: (I) the period of Independent Principalities; (2) the Mongol Domination; (3) the Tsardom of Muscovy; and (4) the Modern Empire.

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  • Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.

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  • The second type is the Mongol.

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  • Like the Malay and the Mongol types they are short and thickly built, but unlike either they have prominent brows, bushy locks, round deep-set eyes, long divergent lashes, straight noses and much hair on the face and the body.

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  • The mysticism which took hold on Persia in the middle ages spread:also to Bokhara, and later, when the Mongol invasions of the 13th century laid waste Samarkand and other Moslem cities, Bokhara, remaining independent, continued to be a chief seat of Islamitic learning.

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  • It is a contracted form of khagan (khakan), a word equivalent to sovereign or emperor, used among the Mongol and Turki-nomad hordes.

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  • At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race.

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  • After the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 it became the chief town of a separate principality, and continued to be so until the end of the 13th century.

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  • Completely ruined by the Mongol prince Batu in 1240, it remained deserted for more than two centuries.

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  • Jenghiz Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, and the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili.

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  • interest depends on its resemblance to the calendar-system of central and eastern Asia, where among Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese, &c., series of signs are thus combined to reckon years, months and days;: for instance, the Mongol cycle of 60 years is recorded by the zodiac or series of 12 signs - mouse, bull, tiger, &c., combined.

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  • But Izz ed-din, intriguing with the Mameluke sultans of Egypt to expel his brother and gain his independence, was defeated by a Mongol army and obliged to flee to the imperial court.

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  • Rukneddin was only a nominal ruler, the real power being in the hands of his minister, Mu - in ed-din Suleiman, who in 1267 procured an order of the Mongol Khan Abaka for his execution.

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  • continued to reign in name till 1284, though the country was in reality governed by a Mongol viceroy.

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  • Masud, the son of Izz ed-din, who on the death of his father had fled from the Crimea to the Mongol khan and had received from him the government of Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum during the lifetime of Kaikhosrau III., ascended the Seljuk throne on the death of Kaikhosrau.

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  • But his authority was scarcely respected in his own residence, for several Turkish amirs assumed independence and could only be subdued by Mongol aid, when they retired to the mountains, to reappear as soon as the Mongols were gone.

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  • Pelto has ancient breakwaters for the protection of small boats, erected, as many believe, by the Mongol conqueror, Kublai Khan, who in 1273 built on Quelpart one hundred ships for the invasion of Japan.

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  • Other buildings are the Orthodox Greek monastery of the Trinity, and the Catholic Armenian church (founded in 1398), possessing a 14th-century missal and an image of the Virgin Mary that saw the Mongol invasion of 12 3912 4 2.

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  • Kamenets was laid waste by the Mongol leader Batu in 1240.

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  • The Ortokid dynasty survived the Mongol inundation, and it was in the 14th century that its laureate Safiy ad-Din al-Hilli flourished.

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  • From the Mongol invasions of the 13th century western Asia has never recovered.

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  • The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exemplified by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the Minnesinger, Henry IV.

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  • As separate publications there are several vocabularies of Chinese and Tibetan; Mongol and Tibetan; Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Oelot, Tibetan and Turkish; Tibetan, Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongol and Chinese.

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  • " Moon " is zlava in written and dawa in spoken language, in which -va is a suffix; the word itself is zla-, cognate to the Mongol ssara, Sokpa sara, Gyarung t-sile, Vayu cholo, &c. The common spoken word for " head " is go, written mgo, to which the Manipuri moko and the Mishmi mkura are related.

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  • Five years afterwards Kublai Khan conquered all the east of Tibet; and, after he had ascended the throne of China, the Mongol emperor invited to his court Phagspa Lodoi Gyaltshan, the nephew of the same Pandita.

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  • He remained twelve years with the emperor, and at his request framed for the Mongol language an alphabet imitated from the Tibetan, which, however, did not prove satisfactory, and disappeared after eightyfive years without having been very largely used.

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  • When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.

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  • This state of things, occurring just as the last rulers of the Ming dynasty of China were struggling against the encroachments of the Manchus, their future successors, favoured the interference of a Khoshot Mongol prince, Tengir To, called in the Tibetan sources king of Koko Nor.

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  • To Sodnam rGyamtso the Mongol khans gave the title of Vajra Dalai Lama in 1576, and this is the first use of the widely known title of Dalai Lama.

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  • During the minority of the fifth (really the third) Dalai Lama, when the Mongol king Tengir To, under the pretext of supporting the religion, intervened in the affairs of the country, the Pan-ch'en Lo-sang Ch'o-kyi Gyal-ts'ang lama obtained the withdrawal of the invaders by the payment of a heavy war indemnity, and then applied for help to the first Manchu emperor of China, who had just ascended the throne.

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  • The Mongol Khoshotes in 1706 and the Sungars in 1717 interfered again in the succession of the Dalai lama, but the Chinese army finally conquered the country in 1720, and the present system of government was established.

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  • After the Mongol invasion of 12 39-4 2 it rapidly declined, and in 1474 it was purchased by Ivan I.II.

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  • In 1245 the Roman pontiff sent two embassies - one, a party of four Dominicans, sought the commander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia; the second, consisting of Franciscans, made their way into Tartary, and sought to convert the successor of Oktai-Khan.

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  • Utterly defeated at Angora by the Mongol invader, Bayezid became his prisoner, and died in captivity some months later, in March 1403.

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  • As the 18th century progressed the use of tea in England rapidly increased, and by the close of the century the rate of consumption exceeded an average of 2 lb per person per annum, a rate in excess of that of to-day of all people except those of Mongol and Anglo-Saxon origin.

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  • The emperors attitude with regard to the Mongol invasion is explained by events in Italy where Frederick was engaged in a new and, if possible, a more virulent struggle with Frederick the Lombard cities and with Gregory IX.

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  • of Hungary, as the seat of a bishop; and on the expulsion of its Mongol colony, in 1242, it was raised to the rank of a royal free city.

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  • In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.

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  • This cabinet naturally split into rival camps, in consequence of which Kitboga, himself a Mongol, with the aid of other Mongols who had come into Egypt after the battle of Homs, succeeded in ousting his rivals, and presently, with the aid of the surviving assassins of the former sultan, compelling Malik al-N~ir to abdicate in his favor (December 1st, 1294).

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  • He paid exceptionally high prices for Mamelukes, many of whom were sold by their Mongol parents to his agehts, and accustomed them to greater luxury than was usual under his predecessors.

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  • (7) Period of Burji Mamelukes.BarkUk presently entered into relations with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I., and by slaying an envoy of Timur incurred the displeasure of the worldconqueror; and in 1394 led an army into Syria with the view of restoring, the Jelairid Ilkhan Abmad to Bagdad (as Barkks vassal), and meeting the Mongol invasion.

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  • In the same work interesting details are given as to the importance of salt in the financial system of the Mongol emperors (ii.

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  • The town was then much larger, as is shown by excavations in the neighbourhood made during the 19th century, and probably met its doom during the Mongol invasion of 1240.

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  • Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb.

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  • For a century and more after the Mongol invasion the whole of the Afghan countries were under Mongol rule; but in the middle of the 14th century a native dynasty sprang up in western Afghanistan, that of the Kurts, which extended its rule over Ghor, Herat and Kandahar.

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  • The history of the Afghan countries under the Mongols is obscure; but that regime must have left its mark upon the country, if we judge from the occurrence of frequent Mongol names of places, and even of Mongol expressions adopted into familiar language.

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  • It was not till 1522 that Baber succeeded in permanently wresting Kandahar from the Arghuns, a family of Mongol descent, who had long held it.

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  • In the year 624 (1227) Jenghiz Khan died, but the Mongol invasion continued to advance with immense strides.

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  • They are of the Mongol family; their language belongs to the so-called Turanian group, is polysyllabic, possesses an alphabet of 11 vowels and 14 consonants, and a script named En-mun.

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  • He next travelled into Kipchak (the Mongol khanate of Russia), and joined the camp of the reigning khan Mahommed Uzbeg, from whom the great and heterogeneous Uzbeg race is perhaps named.

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  • The emperor of China, last of the Mongol dynasty, had sent a mission to Delhi, and the Moor was to accompany the return embassy (1342).

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  • In the 14th century the district was subject to invasions of Rajput and Mongol clans who left permanent settlements in the country.

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  • His youth was passed in the troublous times of the Mongol advance into western Asia, and his father eventually retired to Antioch, where Bar-Hebraeus completed his education.

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  • The great lacustrine depression of the middle Volga was thus reached; and when the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 came, it encountered in the Oka basin a dense agricultural population with many fortified and wealthy towns - a population which the Mongols found they could conquer, indeed, but were unable to drive before them as they had done so many of the Turkish tribes.

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  • A theory which seems plausible is that which assumes them to have been a heterogenous collection of Mongol, Tungus, Turki and perhaps even Finnish hordes under a Mongol military caste, though the Mongolo-Tungus element probably predominated.

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  • Of its other neighbors, we must here mention the Sacae, a warlike equestrian people in the mountains of the pamir plateau and northward; who are probably of Mongol origin.

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  • The last ilnportant dynasty in Persia prior to the Mongol invasion was that of the Saigharids in Fars, founded by the descendants of a Turkish general Salaghar, who had formerly been a Turkoman leader and ultimately became chamberlain to Toghrul Beg.

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  • The fourth, Sad, became tributary to the Khwarizm shahs in, i9~, and the fifth acknowledged allegiance to the Mongol Ogotai and received the title Kutbegh K han.

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  • Before passing on to the Mongol conquerors of Persia it is necessary briefly to notice the shahs of Khwarizm, who have Khwarizm frequently been mentioned as overthrowing th~ininor dynasties which arose with the decay of the Stiljuks.

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  • The former of these subdued Khorasan, Rai and Isfahan, while the latter brought practically all Persia under his sway, conquered Bokhara, Samarkand and Otrar, capital of the Karakitai, and had even made himself master of Ghazni when his career was stopped by the hordes of the Mongol Jenghiz Khan.

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  • Jenghiz Khan died in 1272, and the Mongol it was this prince who destroyed the Ghorid dynasty, which claimed descent from the legendary Persian monarch Zohak.

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  • Abagha was a peaceful ruler and endeavoured by wise administration to give order and prosperity to a country torn asunder by a long period of intestine war and the Mongol invasion.

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  • The Mongol leaders put on the throne a son of Abagha, by name Arghun.

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  • But he committed the tactical error of appointing a disproportionate number of Jews and Christians as revenue officials, and thus made many enemies among the Mongol nobles, who had him assassinated in 1291 when Arghun was lying fatally ill.

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  • Ghazan fought with success against Egypt (which country had already from 1293 to December 1294 been ruled by a Mongol usurper Kitboga), and even held Damascus for a few months.

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  • In 1303, however, his troops were defeated at Merj al-Saffar, and Mongol daims on Syria were definitely abandoned.

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  • Ghazan is historically important, however, mainly as the first Mongol ruler who definitely adopted Islam with a large number of his subjects.

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  • Abu Said died of fever in 1335, and with him the first Mongol or Ilkhan dynasty of Persia practically came to an end.

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  • Fresh risings of the defeated dynasties followed each new enterprise, and he had also to deal with the Mongol hordes whose territory marched with northerii Persia.

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  • Meanwhile Jenghiz Khan had founded the Mongol empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan became a convert to the Buddhism of the Tibetan Lamas.

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  • He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.

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  • Even many of the original Tatar, Mongol and other nomad tribes (ilat), instead of leading their former roving and unsettled life of the sahara-nishin (dwellers in the desert), are settled and peaceful shahr-nishin (dwellers in towns).

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  • The name is derived from that of the Ta-ta Mongols, who in the 5th century inhabited the north-eastern Gobi, and, after subjugation in the 9th century by the Khitans, migrated southward, there founding the Mongol empire under Jenghiz Khan.

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  • (2) The Astrakhan Tatars (about 10,000) are, with the Mongol Kalmucks, all that now remains of the once so powerful Astrakhan empire.

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  • (8) The Cholym or Chulym Tatars on the Cholym and both the rivers Yus speak a Turkish language with many Mongol and Yakut words, and are more like Mongols than Turks.

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  • Their dress is that of their former rulers, the Kalmucks, and their language contains many Mongol words.

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  • It is evident from the above that the name Tatars was originally applied to both the Turkish and Mongol stems which invaded Europe six centuries ago, and gradually extended to the Turkish stems mixed with Mongol or Finnish blood in Siberia.

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  • In 1289 he revisited the Papal Court, and was sent out as Roman legate to the Great Khan, the Ilkhan of Persia, and other leading personages of the Mongol world, as well as to the emperor of Ethiopia " or Abyssinian Negus.

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  • Arriving at Tabriz, then the chief city of Mongol Persia, and indeed of all Western Asia, Monte Corvino moved down to India to the Madras region or " Country of St Thomas, " from which he wrote home, in December 1291 (or 1292), the earliest noteworthy account of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European.

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  • After this was destroyed by the Mongol prince Timur the Great in 1395, the existing city was built.

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  • In the upper, which may represent the city of Balanjar (Balansar, Belenjer), have been found gold and silver coins struck by Mongol rulers, as well as ornaments in the same metals.

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  • The bulk of the people of the cities are of Persian and Uzbeg stock, but interspersed with them are Mongol Hazaras and Hindus with Turkoman tribes in the Oxus plains.

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  • The Mongol branch is represented in Turkestan by Kalmucks (191,000) and Torgutes (Torgod) in the north-east and in Kulja, where they are intermingled with Solons, Sibos and Chinese.

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  • Soon Mongol hordes, the Kara-Kitais, entered East Turkestan (11th century), and then penetrated into West Turkestan.

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  • During the following century the Mongol conqueror Jenghiz Khan overran China, and Turkestan and Kashgaria fell under his rule in 1220, though not without strenuous resistance followed by massacres.

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  • The Mongol rule was, however, not very heavy, the Mongols merely exacting tribute.

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  • His son reigned at Samarkand, but was overthrown by Timur (Tamerlane), the Mongol sovereign of Samarkand, who, to put an end to the attacks of the wild Tianshan tribes, undertook in 1389 his renowned march to Dzungaria, which was devastated, East Turkestan also suffering severely.

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  • Vasilkov was founded in the 10th century, but laid waste during the Mongol invasion of 1239-42.

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  • The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • disintegration followed in the wake of the Mongol invasions.

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  • But her defenses were rock solid, the Great Wall of China against Mongol hordes.

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  • The first monarchic dynasty, which ruled until the Mongol invasion of the 13th century, built Kiev as its capital.

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  • By these means, the steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.

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  • steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.

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  • Specifically, it named the powerful typhoons that in 1274 and 1281 destroyed the Mongol fleets that were set to invade Japan.

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  • The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.

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  • He captured it in 1215, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol steppes by his grandson Kublai.

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  • Ta-tu continued to be the residence of the emperors till the fall of the Mongol power (1368).

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  • First mentioned in 1155, Byelaya Tserkov was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of the 13th century.

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  • The Bactrian camel is, if possible, of still more importance to many of the central Asian Mongol races, supplying them alike with food and raiment.

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  • The Mongol invasion, in the latter part of that century, wrought their ruin, however, and from that time to the present there has been a steady decline in the commercial importance of the Euphrates route, and consequently also of the towns along its course, until at the present time it is only an avenue of ruins.

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  • But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.

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  • The Mongol race is represented in Russia by the Kalmucks, who inhabit the steppes of Astrakhan between the Volga, the Don and the Kuma.

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  • BE.) History The history of Russia may be conveniently divided into four consecutive periods: (I) the period of Independent Principalities; (2) the Mongol Domination; (3) the Tsardom of Muscovy; and (4) the Modern Empire.

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  • The Mongol or Tatar Domination, 1238-1462.

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  • Here the commander of " the Golden Horde," as the western The section of the Mongol empire was called, fixed his Golden headquarters and represented the majesty of his Horde.

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  • The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, Character but in reality these barbarous invaders from the Far of Tatar East were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as rule.

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  • Ambitious members of the Rurik dynasty, instead of seeking to acquire territory by conquest in the field, now sought to attain their ends by intrigue and bribery at the Mongol court.

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  • They made themselves responsible for the tribute of The other principalities as well as of their own, and gradu- princes of ally they became lieutenants-general of their Mongol Moscow.

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  • So long as the Mongol empire remained united and strong, they were most submissive and 1362- obsequious, but as soon as it was weakened by internal 1389.

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  • dissensions and began to fall to pieces, they assumed airs of independence, intrigued with the insubordinate Tatar generals, retained for their own use the tribute collected for the grand khan, and finally put themselves at the head of the patriotic movement which aimed at throwing off completely the hated Mongol yoke.

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  • In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.

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  • The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.

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  • Uzbegs and Kirghiz have but small affinity with the Mongol element of Asia.

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  • Of the two divisions (Kara Kirghiz and Kassak Kirghiz) into which the Kirghiz tribes are divided by Russian authorities, the Kassak Kirghiz is the more closely allied to the Mongol type; the Kara Kirghiz, who are found principally in the valleys of the Tian-shan and Altai mountains, being unmistakably Turkish.

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  • Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.

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  • China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.

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  • The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.

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  • Andrew, who was now with St Louis, interpreted to the king David's message, a real or pretended offer of alliance from the Mongol general Ilchikdai (Ilchikadai), and a proposal of a joint attack upon the Islamic powers for the conquest of Syria.

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  • On arrival at the supreme Mongol court - either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikal - Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents.

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  • The regent-mother Ogul Gaimish (the "Camus" of Rubruquis) seems to have received and dismissed him with presents and a letter for Louis IX., the latter a fine specimen of Mongol insolence.

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  • On the other hand, the envoy's account of Tatar manners is fairly accurate, and his statements about Mongol Christianity and its prosperity, though perhaps exaggerated (e.g.

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  • In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism," but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early Nestorian missions to the far East.

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  • Once more, in spite of Mongol intervention, Damascus and Cairo were united, as they had been united in the hands of Saladin; once more they were united in the hands of a devout Mahommedan, who was resolved to extirpate the Christians from Syria.

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  • On a kingdom thus divided ' Though Europe indulged in dreams of Mongol aid, the eventual results of the extension of the Mongol Empire were prejudicial to the Latin East.

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  • In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.

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  • From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.

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  • A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.

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  • Until recently many eminent scientists held the theory that the Malayan peoples were merely an offspring of the Mongol stock, and that their advance into the lands they now in habit had takenlace from the cradle of the Monplace origin.

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  • In that year a horde, variously estimated at from two to four thousand souls, with their flocks and their slaves, driven originally from their Central Asian homes by the pressure of Mongol invasion, and who had sought in vain a refuge with the Seljukian sultan Ala-ud-din Kaikobad of Konia, were returning under their chief Suleiman Shah to their native land.

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  • Near the upper Orkhon was the permanent camp of Karakorum, from the 8th century down to the end of the 13th the centre of the Mongol power, especially under the sway of Jenghiz Khan and his son Ogotai or Ogdai in the 12th and 13th centuries.

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  • The papal letters were translated into Persian, and thence into Mongol, and so presented to Baiju; but the Tatars were greatly irritated by the haughtiness of the Dominicans.

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  • This reply complained of the high words of the Latin envoys, and commanded the pope to come in person and submit to the Master of all the Earth (the Mongol emperor).

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  • The mission thus ended in complete failure; but, except for Carpini's (q.v.), it was the earliest Catholic embassy which reached any Mongol court, and its information must have been valuable.

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  • On the death of the grandson of Jenghiz Khan Mer y was included (1380) in the possessions of Timur-iLeng (Tamerlane), Mongol prince of Samarkand.

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  • But the pure Laos are still distinguished by the high cheek-bones, small flat nose, oblique eyes, wide mouth, black lank hair, sparse beard, and yellow complexion of the Thai and other branches of the Mongol family.

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  • (1281-1317), which throws much light on the relations of the early Mongol kings with the heads of the church in their dominions.

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  • It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.

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  • The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?

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  • The legend of Prester John is based on the idea of the conversion of a Mongol tribe, the Karith, whose chieftain Ung Khan at baptism received the title Malek Juchana (King John).

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  • The second type is the Mongol.

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  • Like the Malay and the Mongol types they are short and thickly built, but unlike either they have prominent brows, bushy locks, round deep-set eyes, long divergent lashes, straight noses and much hair on the face and the body.

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  • Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic. In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the YueChi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion.

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  • There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.

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  • The mysticism which took hold on Persia in the middle ages spread:also to Bokhara, and later, when the Mongol invasions of the 13th century laid waste Samarkand and other Moslem cities, Bokhara, remaining independent, continued to be a chief seat of Islamitic learning.

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  • It is a contracted form of khagan (khakan), a word equivalent to sovereign or emperor, used among the Mongol and Turki-nomad hordes.

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  • At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race.

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  • After the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 it became the chief town of a separate principality, and continued to be so until the end of the 13th century.

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  • Completely ruined by the Mongol prince Batu in 1240, it remained deserted for more than two centuries.

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  • Among the ruins of old Tabriz the sepulchre of the Mongol king, Ghazan Khan (1295-1304), in a quarter once known as Shanb (generally pronounced Sham and Sham) i Ghazan, is no longer to be distinguished except as part of a huge tumulus.

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  • Jenghiz Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, and the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili.

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  • interest depends on its resemblance to the calendar-system of central and eastern Asia, where among Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese, &c., series of signs are thus combined to reckon years, months and days;: for instance, the Mongol cycle of 60 years is recorded by the zodiac or series of 12 signs - mouse, bull, tiger, &c., combined.

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  • But Izz ed-din, intriguing with the Mameluke sultans of Egypt to expel his brother and gain his independence, was defeated by a Mongol army and obliged to flee to the imperial court.

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  • Rukneddin was only a nominal ruler, the real power being in the hands of his minister, Mu - in ed-din Suleiman, who in 1267 procured an order of the Mongol Khan Abaka for his execution.

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  • continued to reign in name till 1284, though the country was in reality governed by a Mongol viceroy.

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  • Masud, the son of Izz ed-din, who on the death of his father had fled from the Crimea to the Mongol khan and had received from him the government of Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum during the lifetime of Kaikhosrau III., ascended the Seljuk throne on the death of Kaikhosrau.

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  • But his authority was scarcely respected in his own residence, for several Turkish amirs assumed independence and could only be subdued by Mongol aid, when they retired to the mountains, to reappear as soon as the Mongols were gone.

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  • Pelto has ancient breakwaters for the protection of small boats, erected, as many believe, by the Mongol conqueror, Kublai Khan, who in 1273 built on Quelpart one hundred ships for the invasion of Japan.

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  • Other buildings are the Orthodox Greek monastery of the Trinity, and the Catholic Armenian church (founded in 1398), possessing a 14th-century missal and an image of the Virgin Mary that saw the Mongol invasion of 12 3912 4 2.

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  • Kamenets was laid waste by the Mongol leader Batu in 1240.

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  • The Ortokid dynasty survived the Mongol inundation, and it was in the 14th century that its laureate Safiy ad-Din al-Hilli flourished.

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  • From the Mongol invasions of the 13th century western Asia has never recovered.

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  • The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exemplified by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the Minnesinger, Henry IV.

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  • As separate publications there are several vocabularies of Chinese and Tibetan; Mongol and Tibetan; Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Oelot, Tibetan and Turkish; Tibetan, Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongol and Chinese.

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  • " Moon " is zlava in written and dawa in spoken language, in which -va is a suffix; the word itself is zla-, cognate to the Mongol ssara, Sokpa sara, Gyarung t-sile, Vayu cholo, &c. The common spoken word for " head " is go, written mgo, to which the Manipuri moko and the Mishmi mkura are related.

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  • Five years afterwards Kublai Khan conquered all the east of Tibet; and, after he had ascended the throne of China, the Mongol emperor invited to his court Phagspa Lodoi Gyaltshan, the nephew of the same Pandita.

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  • He remained twelve years with the emperor, and at his request framed for the Mongol language an alphabet imitated from the Tibetan, which, however, did not prove satisfactory, and disappeared after eightyfive years without having been very largely used.

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  • When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.

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  • This state of things, occurring just as the last rulers of the Ming dynasty of China were struggling against the encroachments of the Manchus, their future successors, favoured the interference of a Khoshot Mongol prince, Tengir To, called in the Tibetan sources king of Koko Nor.

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  • To Sodnam rGyamtso the Mongol khans gave the title of Vajra Dalai Lama in 1576, and this is the first use of the widely known title of Dalai Lama.

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  • During the minority of the fifth (really the third) Dalai Lama, when the Mongol king Tengir To, under the pretext of supporting the religion, intervened in the affairs of the country, the Pan-ch'en Lo-sang Ch'o-kyi Gyal-ts'ang lama obtained the withdrawal of the invaders by the payment of a heavy war indemnity, and then applied for help to the first Manchu emperor of China, who had just ascended the throne.

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  • The Mongol Khoshotes in 1706 and the Sungars in 1717 interfered again in the succession of the Dalai lama, but the Chinese army finally conquered the country in 1720, and the present system of government was established.

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  • After the Mongol invasion of 12 39-4 2 it rapidly declined, and in 1474 it was purchased by Ivan I.II.

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  • In 1245 the Roman pontiff sent two embassies - one, a party of four Dominicans, sought the commander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia; the second, consisting of Franciscans, made their way into Tartary, and sought to convert the successor of Oktai-Khan.

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  • Utterly defeated at Angora by the Mongol invader, Bayezid became his prisoner, and died in captivity some months later, in March 1403.

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  • As the 18th century progressed the use of tea in England rapidly increased, and by the close of the century the rate of consumption exceeded an average of 2 lb per person per annum, a rate in excess of that of to-day of all people except those of Mongol and Anglo-Saxon origin.

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  • The emperors attitude with regard to the Mongol invasion is explained by events in Italy where Frederick was engaged in a new and, if possible, a more virulent struggle with Frederick the Lombard cities and with Gregory IX.

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  • of Hungary, as the seat of a bishop; and on the expulsion of its Mongol colony, in 1242, it was raised to the rank of a royal free city.

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  • On the roth of April 1257 Aibek was murdered by his wife Shajar al-durr, who was indignant at his asking for the hand of another queen: but Aibeks followers immediately avenged his death, placing on the throne his infant son Malik al-Man~iir, who, however, was almost immediately displaced by his guardian Koluz, on the plea that the Mongol danger necessitated thepresence of a grown man at the head of affairs.

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  • In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.

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  • The conversion to Islam of Nikudar Abmad, the third of the Ilkhan rulers of Persia, and the consequent troubles in the western Mongol empire, let to a suspension of hostilities between Egypt and the Ilkhans (see PERSIA: History, B), though the latter did not cease to agitate in Europe for a renewal of the Crusades, with little result.

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  • This cabinet naturally split into rival camps, in consequence of which Kitboga, himself a Mongol, with the aid of other Mongols who had come into Egypt after the battle of Homs, succeeded in ousting his rivals, and presently, with the aid of the surviving assassins of the former sultan, compelling Malik al-N~ir to abdicate in his favor (December 1st, 1294).

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  • He paid exceptionally high prices for Mamelukes, many of whom were sold by their Mongol parents to his agehts, and accustomed them to greater luxury than was usual under his predecessors.

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  • (7) Period of Burji Mamelukes.BarkUk presently entered into relations with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I., and by slaying an envoy of Timur incurred the displeasure of the worldconqueror; and in 1394 led an army into Syria with the view of restoring, the Jelairid Ilkhan Abmad to Bagdad (as Barkks vassal), and meeting the Mongol invasion.

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  • In the same work interesting details are given as to the importance of salt in the financial system of the Mongol emperors (ii.

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  • The town was then much larger, as is shown by excavations in the neighbourhood made during the 19th century, and probably met its doom during the Mongol invasion of 1240.

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  • Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb.

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  • His name and legends still filled the land, or at least the Buddhist portion of it, 600 years later, when the Chinese pilgrim, Hsiian Tsang, travelled in India; they had even reached the great Mahommedan philosopher, traveller and geographer, Abu-r-Raihan Muhammad al-Biruni (see Biruni), in the i, th century; and they are still celebrated in the Mongol versions of Buddhist ecclesiastical story.

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  • For a century and more after the Mongol invasion the whole of the Afghan countries were under Mongol rule; but in the middle of the 14th century a native dynasty sprang up in western Afghanistan, that of the Kurts, which extended its rule over Ghor, Herat and Kandahar.

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  • The history of the Afghan countries under the Mongols is obscure; but that regime must have left its mark upon the country, if we judge from the occurrence of frequent Mongol names of places, and even of Mongol expressions adopted into familiar language.

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  • It was not till 1522 that Baber succeeded in permanently wresting Kandahar from the Arghuns, a family of Mongol descent, who had long held it.

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  • In the year 624 (1227) Jenghiz Khan died, but the Mongol invasion continued to advance with immense strides.

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  • They are of the Mongol family; their language belongs to the so-called Turanian group, is polysyllabic, possesses an alphabet of 11 vowels and 14 consonants, and a script named En-mun.

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  • He next travelled into Kipchak (the Mongol khanate of Russia), and joined the camp of the reigning khan Mahommed Uzbeg, from whom the great and heterogeneous Uzbeg race is perhaps named.

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  • The emperor of China, last of the Mongol dynasty, had sent a mission to Delhi, and the Moor was to accompany the return embassy (1342).

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  • In the 14th century the district was subject to invasions of Rajput and Mongol clans who left permanent settlements in the country.

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  • His youth was passed in the troublous times of the Mongol advance into western Asia, and his father eventually retired to Antioch, where Bar-Hebraeus completed his education.

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  • The great lacustrine depression of the middle Volga was thus reached; and when the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 came, it encountered in the Oka basin a dense agricultural population with many fortified and wealthy towns - a population which the Mongols found they could conquer, indeed, but were unable to drive before them as they had done so many of the Turkish tribes.

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  • A theory which seems plausible is that which assumes them to have been a heterogenous collection of Mongol, Tungus, Turki and perhaps even Finnish hordes under a Mongol military caste, though the Mongolo-Tungus element probably predominated.

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  • Of its other neighbors, we must here mention the Sacae, a warlike equestrian people in the mountains of the pamir plateau and northward; who are probably of Mongol origin.

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  • The last ilnportant dynasty in Persia prior to the Mongol invasion was that of the Saigharids in Fars, founded by the descendants of a Turkish general Salaghar, who had formerly been a Turkoman leader and ultimately became chamberlain to Toghrul Beg.

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  • The fourth, Sad, became tributary to the Khwarizm shahs in, i9~, and the fifth acknowledged allegiance to the Mongol Ogotai and received the title Kutbegh K han.

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  • Before passing on to the Mongol conquerors of Persia it is necessary briefly to notice the shahs of Khwarizm, who have Khwarizm frequently been mentioned as overthrowing th~ininor dynasties which arose with the decay of the Stiljuks.

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  • The former of these subdued Khorasan, Rai and Isfahan, while the latter brought practically all Persia under his sway, conquered Bokhara, Samarkand and Otrar, capital of the Karakitai, and had even made himself master of Ghazni when his career was stopped by the hordes of the Mongol Jenghiz Khan.

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  • Jenghiz Khan died in 1272, and the Mongol it was this prince who destroyed the Ghorid dynasty, which claimed descent from the legendary Persian monarch Zohak.

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  • Abagha was a peaceful ruler and endeavoured by wise administration to give order and prosperity to a country torn asunder by a long period of intestine war and the Mongol invasion.

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  • The Mongol leaders put on the throne a son of Abagha, by name Arghun.

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  • But he committed the tactical error of appointing a disproportionate number of Jews and Christians as revenue officials, and thus made many enemies among the Mongol nobles, who had him assassinated in 1291 when Arghun was lying fatally ill.

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  • Ghazan fought with success against Egypt (which country had already from 1293 to December 1294 been ruled by a Mongol usurper Kitboga), and even held Damascus for a few months.

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  • In 1303, however, his troops were defeated at Merj al-Saffar, and Mongol daims on Syria were definitely abandoned.

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  • Ghazan is historically important, however, mainly as the first Mongol ruler who definitely adopted Islam with a large number of his subjects.

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  • Abu Said died of fever in 1335, and with him the first Mongol or Ilkhan dynasty of Persia practically came to an end.

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  • Fresh risings of the defeated dynasties followed each new enterprise, and he had also to deal with the Mongol hordes whose territory marched with northerii Persia.

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  • Meanwhile Jenghiz Khan had founded the Mongol empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan became a convert to the Buddhism of the Tibetan Lamas.

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  • He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.

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  • Even many of the original Tatar, Mongol and other nomad tribes (ilat), instead of leading their former roving and unsettled life of the sahara-nishin (dwellers in the desert), are settled and peaceful shahr-nishin (dwellers in towns).

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  • The majority - in European Russia - are remnants of the Mongol invasion of the 13th century (see Mongols), while those who inhabit Siberia are survivals of the once much more numerous Turkish population of the Ural-Altaic region, mixed to some extent with Finnish and Samoyedic stems, as also with Mongols.

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  • The name is derived from that of the Ta-ta Mongols, who in the 5th century inhabited the north-eastern Gobi, and, after subjugation in the 9th century by the Khitans, migrated southward, there founding the Mongol empire under Jenghiz Khan.

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  • (2) The Astrakhan Tatars (about 10,000) are, with the Mongol Kalmucks, all that now remains of the once so powerful Astrakhan empire.

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  • (8) The Cholym or Chulym Tatars on the Cholym and both the rivers Yus speak a Turkish language with many Mongol and Yakut words, and are more like Mongols than Turks.

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  • Their dress is that of their former rulers, the Kalmucks, and their language contains many Mongol words.

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  • It is evident from the above that the name Tatars was originally applied to both the Turkish and Mongol stems which invaded Europe six centuries ago, and gradually extended to the Turkish stems mixed with Mongol or Finnish blood in Siberia.

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  • In 1289 he revisited the Papal Court, and was sent out as Roman legate to the Great Khan, the Ilkhan of Persia, and other leading personages of the Mongol world, as well as to the emperor of Ethiopia " or Abyssinian Negus.

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  • Arriving at Tabriz, then the chief city of Mongol Persia, and indeed of all Western Asia, Monte Corvino moved down to India to the Madras region or " Country of St Thomas, " from which he wrote home, in December 1291 (or 1292), the earliest noteworthy account of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European.

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  • in perimeter, and on the south-eastern borders are set high on a mound or rampart, indicating a Mongol origin.

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  • After this was destroyed by the Mongol prince Timur the Great in 1395, the existing city was built.

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  • In the upper, which may represent the city of Balanjar (Balansar, Belenjer), have been found gold and silver coins struck by Mongol rulers, as well as ornaments in the same metals.

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  • The bulk of the people of the cities are of Persian and Uzbeg stock, but interspersed with them are Mongol Hazaras and Hindus with Turkoman tribes in the Oxus plains.

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  • The Mongol branch is represented in Turkestan by Kalmucks (191,000) and Torgutes (Torgod) in the north-east and in Kulja, where they are intermingled with Solons, Sibos and Chinese.

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  • Soon Mongol hordes, the Kara-Kitais, entered East Turkestan (11th century), and then penetrated into West Turkestan.

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  • During the following century the Mongol conqueror Jenghiz Khan overran China, and Turkestan and Kashgaria fell under his rule in 1220, though not without strenuous resistance followed by massacres.

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  • The Mongol rule was, however, not very heavy, the Mongols merely exacting tribute.

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  • His son reigned at Samarkand, but was overthrown by Timur (Tamerlane), the Mongol sovereign of Samarkand, who, to put an end to the attacks of the wild Tianshan tribes, undertook in 1389 his renowned march to Dzungaria, which was devastated, East Turkestan also suffering severely.

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  • Vasilkov was founded in the 10th century, but laid waste during the Mongol invasion of 1239-42.

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  • The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • Specifically, it named the powerful typhoons that in 1274 and 1281 destroyed the Mongol fleets that were set to invade Japan.

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  • The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.

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  • He captured it in 1215, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol steppes by his grandson Kublai.

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  • Ta-tu continued to be the residence of the emperors till the fall of the Mongol power (1368).

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  • The Bactrian camel is, if possible, of still more importance to many of the central Asian Mongol races, supplying them alike with food and raiment.

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  • The Mongol invasion, in the latter part of that century, wrought their ruin, however, and from that time to the present there has been a steady decline in the commercial importance of the Euphrates route, and consequently also of the towns along its course, until at the present time it is only an avenue of ruins.

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  • Here the commander of " the Golden Horde," as the western The section of the Mongol empire was called, fixed his Golden headquarters and represented the majesty of his Horde.

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  • The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, Character but in reality these barbarous invaders from the Far of Tatar East were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as rule.

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  • Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.

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  • Ambitious members of the Rurik dynasty, instead of seeking to acquire territory by conquest in the field, now sought to attain their ends by intrigue and bribery at the Mongol court.

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  • They made themselves responsible for the tribute of The other principalities as well as of their own, and gradu- princes of ally they became lieutenants-general of their Mongol Moscow.

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  • In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.

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  • The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.

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  • Of the two divisions (Kara Kirghiz and Kassak Kirghiz) into which the Kirghiz tribes are divided by Russian authorities, the Kassak Kirghiz is the more closely allied to the Mongol type; the Kara Kirghiz, who are found principally in the valleys of the Tian-shan and Altai mountains, being unmistakably Turkish.

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  • The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.

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  • Andrew, who was now with St Louis, interpreted to the king David's message, a real or pretended offer of alliance from the Mongol general Ilchikdai (Ilchikadai), and a proposal of a joint attack upon the Islamic powers for the conquest of Syria.

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  • On arrival at the supreme Mongol court - either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikal - Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents.

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  • In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism," but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early Nestorian missions to the far East.

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  • On a kingdom thus divided ' Though Europe indulged in dreams of Mongol aid, the eventual results of the extension of the Mongol Empire were prejudicial to the Latin East.

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  • From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.

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  • A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.

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  • Syria suffered severely from the Mongol invasions (1260), and it never recovered its former prosperity.

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  • Until recently many eminent scientists held the theory that the Malayan peoples were merely an offspring of the Mongol stock, and that their advance into the lands they now in habit had takenlace from the cradle of the Monplace origin.

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  • Near the upper Orkhon was the permanent camp of Karakorum, from the 8th century down to the end of the 13th the centre of the Mongol power, especially under the sway of Jenghiz Khan and his son Ogotai or Ogdai in the 12th and 13th centuries.

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  • The papal letters were translated into Persian, and thence into Mongol, and so presented to Baiju; but the Tatars were greatly irritated by the haughtiness of the Dominicans.

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  • This reply complained of the high words of the Latin envoys, and commanded the pope to come in person and submit to the Master of all the Earth (the Mongol emperor).

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  • On the death of the grandson of Jenghiz Khan Mer y was included (1380) in the possessions of Timur-iLeng (Tamerlane), Mongol prince of Samarkand.

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  • But the pure Laos are still distinguished by the high cheek-bones, small flat nose, oblique eyes, wide mouth, black lank hair, sparse beard, and yellow complexion of the Thai and other branches of the Mongol family.

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  • (1281-1317), which throws much light on the relations of the early Mongol kings with the heads of the church in their dominions.

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  • The city and the dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion(1284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan.

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  • The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?

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  • Among the ruins of old Tabriz the sepulchre of the Mongol king, Ghazan Khan (1295-1304), in a quarter once known as Shanb (generally pronounced Sham and Sham) i Ghazan, is no longer to be distinguished except as part of a huge tumulus.

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  • Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.

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  • Syria suffered severely from the Mongol invasions (1260), and it never recovered its former prosperity.

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  • The city and the dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion(1284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan.

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  • The legend of Prester John is based on the idea of the conversion of a Mongol tribe, the Karith, whose chieftain Ung Khan at baptism received the title Malek Juchana (King John).

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