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monasticism

monasticism

monasticism Sentence Examples

  • Like the new theology and the new science of law, the new monasticism was also rooted in Latin soil.

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  • The views of the new Protestantism concerning monasticism are probably no less excessive than those of the old.

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  • Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D.

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  • Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D.

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  • The inner spirit and working of the older monasticism is well portrayed in F.A.

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  • There were Christian monks as early as the 3rd century, and before the end of the 4th monasticism (q.v.) was an established institution both in East and West.

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  • The existence of monasticism made it possible at once to hold up a high moral standard before the world and to permit the ordinary Christian to be content with something lower.

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  • The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.

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  • Greek monachism underwent no development or change for four centuries, except the vicissitudes inevitable in all things human, which in monasticism assume the form of alternations of relaxation and revival.

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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.

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  • But when, in consequence of the Arab invasion, the monasticism of those countries was cut off from intercourse with the rest of Christendom, it decayed.

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  • Hannay's Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (1903).

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  • St Benedict's rule was a new creation in monastic history; and as it rapidly supplanted all other monastic rules in western Europe, and was for several centuries the only form of monasticism in Latin Christianity (outside of Ireland), it is necessary to speak in some little detail of its spirit and inner character.'

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  • In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined.

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  • This feeling is exhibited in the value set on fasting in the Christian church from the earliest times, and in an extreme form in the self-torments of later monasticism; while both tendencies, anti-worldliness and antisensualism, seem to have combined in causing the preference of celibacy over marriage which is common to most early Christian writers.'

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  • In all these lesser orders may be discerned the tendency of a return to the elements of Eastern monasticism discarded by St Benedict - to the eremitical life; to the purely contemplative life with little or no factor of work; to the undertaking of rigorous bodily austerities and penances - it was at this time that the practice of self-inflicted scourgings as a penitential exercise was introduced.

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  • - Up to this point we have met only with monasticism proper; and if the term were taken strictly, the remainder of this article would be concerned only with the later history of the institutes already spoken of; for neither canons regular, friars, nor regular clerks, are in the strict sense monks.

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  • The literature on monasticism is immense.

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  • That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.

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  • What may be called the inner side of Benedictine life and history is treated in the article Monasticism; here it is possible to deal only with the broad facts of the external history.

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  • On Benedictine nuns much will be found in the above-mentioned authorities, and also in Lina Eckenstein, Woman in Monasticism (1896).

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  • Indeed, the early conviction of the essential difference between the life of this world and that of the next lived on, and, as the Church became increasingly a worldinstitution, found vent in monasticism, which was simply the effort to put into more consistent practice the other-worldly life, and to make more thoroughgoing work of the saving of one's soul.

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  • It has been pointed out how Charlemagne pressed the monks into the service of his civilizing aims. We admire this; but it is certain that he thereby alienated monasticism from its original ideals.

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  • Eugenius retained the stoic virtues of monasticism throughout his stormy career, and was deeply reverenced for his personal character.

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  • In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the poor.

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  • However, the eastern hankering after the eremitical life long survived, and it was only by dint of legislation, both ecclesiastical (council of Chalcedon) and civil (Justinian Code), that the Basilian cenobitic form of monasticism came to prevail throughout the Greek-speaking lands, though the eremitical forms have always maintained themselves.

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  • The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.

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  • MONASTICISM (Gr.

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  • It is probable that Sozomen did not approve of Socrates's freer attitude towards Greek science, and that he wished to present a picture in which the clergy should be still further glorified and monasticism brought into still stronger prominence.

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  • Another view, promulgated like the above by Hector Boece in his Latin history of Scotland (1516), makes them the direct successors in the 9th to the 12th century of the organized Irish and Iona monasticism of the 6th to the 8th century.

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  • pp. 180-186 of Burkitt's Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904); articles on "Aphraates and Monasticism," by R.

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  • 22), it is but seldom that one could learn from the pages of Socrates that there was such a thing as monasticism in those days.

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  • - Monasticism is, as it has always been, an important feature in the Eastern Church.

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  • Lake in Early Days of Monasticism on Mount Athos (1909) traces the development through three well-defined stages in the 9th and 10th centuries - (a) the hermit period, (b) the loose organization of hermits in lauras, (c) the stricter rule of the monastery, with definite buildings and fixed rules under an ii-youµevos or abbot.

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  • The facts concerning the rise of the Orders of Mendicant Friars are related in the articles on the several orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, Augustinian Hermits), and in that On Monasticism (§ Ii), where the difference between friars and monks is explained.

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  • Great stress is laid upon virginity (although there is not a sign of monasticism), upon fasting (especially for the bishop), upon the regular attendance of the whole clerical body and the " more perfect " of the laity at the hours of prayer.

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  • (1870); Lina Eckenstein, Woman under Monasticism; Bishop Grafton, Vocation.

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  • MONASTICISM (Gr.

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  • Although thoroughly devoted to the ideals of monasticism, he discharged his episcopal duties with remarkable zeal and fidelity.

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  • It shows that the " sobriety " of the Antiochene scholars can be predicated only of their exegesis; their style of piety was as exaggerated in its devotion to the ideals of monasticism as was that of their monophysite opponents.

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  • In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.

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  • In 1881 he published a work on monasticism, Das M onchtum, seine Ideale and seine Geschichte (5th ed., 1900; English translation, 1901), and became joint-editor with Emil Schiirer of the Theologische Literaturzeitung.

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  • Lucius, Die Therapeuten and ihre Stellung), and accepted in England, to the effect that the De Vita Contemplativa is not a work of Philo's at all, but a forgery put forward about the end of the 3rd century and intended to procure the authority of Philo's name for the then rising monasticism of the Church.

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  • A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.

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  • The great church movement of his time - the reformation of English monasticism on Benedictine lines - found in him a sympathizer, but in no sense an active participant.

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  • Thus one of the most important of all medieval ecclesiastical institutions, monasticism, came to an end in England.

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  • A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.

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  • But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.

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  • In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.

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  • Lucius, Die Therapeuten and ihre Stellung), and accepted in England, to the effect that the De Vita Contemplativa is not a work of Philo's at all, but a forgery put forward about the end of the 3rd century and intended to procure the authority of Philo's name for the then rising monasticism of the Church.

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  • An old tower attributed to them is to be seen in the village, and in the surrounding mountains are many remains of early monasticism.

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  • About the same time a visit of Jerome to Aquileia led to a close friendship between the two, and shortly after Jerome's departure for the East Rufinus also was drawn thither (in 372 or 373) by his interest in its theology and monasticism.

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  • He was a generous patron of monasticism.

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  • The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Monasticism.

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  • Hermann, who became a monk of the famous abbey of Reichenau, is at once one of the most attractive and one of the most pathetic figures of medieval monasticism.

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  • Its economic influence was multiform and incalculable, owing to its vast property, its system of taxation and its encouragement of monasticism.

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  • The relation of St Benedict's Rule to earlier monastic rules, and of his institute to the prevailing monachism of his day, is explained in the article Monasticism.

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  • The first monk to become pope, Gregory was naturally a strong supporter of monasticism.

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  • As stated above, St Pachomius's monasteries formed an order - a curious anticipation of what six centuries later was to become the vogue in Western monasticism.

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  • But with the 10th century we reach the period of orders, and it is on this line that all subsequent developments in Western monasticism have run.

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  • - The 13th century was the heyday of monasticism in the West; the Mendicant orders were in their first fervour and enthusiasm; the great abbeys of Benedictines, Cistercians and Augustinian canons reflected the results of the religious reform and revival associated with Hildebrand's name, and maintained themselves at a high .and dignified level in things religious and secular; and under the Benedictine rule were formed the new congregations or orders of Silvestrines (1231), Celestines (c. 1260) and Olivetans (1319), which are described under their several headings.

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  • - In the foregoing sketch nothing has been said concerning the nuns; and yet in all ages women, hardly less than men, have played their part in monasticism.

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  • See the works of Helyot and Heimbucher, referred to below under " Literature "; also Lina Eckenstein, Woman under Monasticism (1896); and for information on the various orders of women, J N.

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  • - Few phenomena are more striking than the change that has come over educated Protestant opinion in its estimate of monasticism.

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  • It may perhaps be agreed that not the least of the services rendered to the Christian people at large by monasticism is this: Into every life the spirit.

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  • Beginnings of Christian Monasticism.

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  • It is at the great monastic settlements of Nitria and Scete that we are best able to study this kind of Egyptian monasticism.

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  • (See MONASTICISM.)

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  • The descendants of the wealthy Alaphion founded churches and convents in the district, and were particularly active in promoting monasticism.

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  • It has never been brought into cultivation; but in the first Christian centuries the caves in its valleys were the chosen refuge of Christian monasticism.

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  • But Severus was no indiscriminating adherent of monasticism.

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  • Pelagius declared the capacity of every man to become virtuous by his own efforts, and summoned the members of the Church in Rome to enter on the way of perfection in monasticism.

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  • The regular clergy are those attached to religious orders and to certain congregations (see Monasticism).

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  • He reformed and reorganized the Irish Church and brought it into subjection to Rome; like Boniface, he was a zealous reformer and a promoter of monasticism.

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  • See further, Monasticism.

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  • While favouring sacerdotal celibacy the council laid rather rigid restrictions on monasticism.

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  • But they were 2 It has been suggestively said that Cynicism was to Stoicism what monasticism was to early Christianity.

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  • A severer and more exclusive type of monasticism succeeded this primitive one, but apart from the separation of the sexes the general character never entirely changed.

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  • Monasticism was momentarily suppressed under Oliver Cromwell, but the Restoration brought the monks back to their old haunts.

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  • The revival of monasticism after the Conquest resulted in the erection of ten Benedictine monasteries, and a Benedictine nunnery at Stainfield.

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  • He had no difficulties in respect of the teaching and practice of his church, being in truth an ardent Ultramontane in doctrine, as was all but inevitable in his time and circumstances, and his great merit was the instinctive tact which showed him that the system of monasticism could never be the leaven of secular life, but that something more homely, simple, and everyday in character was needed for the new time.

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  • And any suggestion of monasticism is absolutely abhorrent to his teaching.

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  • He encouraged monasticism but was murdered by evildoers at Volvic in the Vosges.

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  • Bishop of Soissons in France, he did much to encourage monasticism.

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  • However, Edwy's brother Edgar admired and supported the reformed monasticism.

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  • It was founded by Aelred Carlyle, an Anglo-Catholic who was determined to restore Benedictine monasticism in the Anglican church.

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  • By these books, and by his two foundations, he introduced monasticism in the Western Church.

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  • monasticism in the early fourth century.

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  • medieval monasticism was one such effort to adapt Jesus ' apocalyptic agenda to the world.

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  • On the south side of the ambulatory is the Chapel of St. Benedict, Father of western monasticism.

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  • Was the seventh century ' the golden age of female monasticism '?

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  • What do these remains tell us about the operation of early Buddhist monasticism?

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  • Koevos, common, and (Los, life), one who shares this life of withdrawal with others in a community (see Asceticism and Monasticism).

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  • An old tower attributed to them is to be seen in the village, and in the surrounding mountains are many remains of early monasticism.

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  • Although thoroughly devoted to the ideals of monasticism, he discharged his episcopal duties with remarkable zeal and fidelity.

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  • It shows that the " sobriety " of the Antiochene scholars can be predicated only of their exegesis; their style of piety was as exaggerated in its devotion to the ideals of monasticism as was that of their monophysite opponents.

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  • About the same time a visit of Jerome to Aquileia led to a close friendship between the two, and shortly after Jerome's departure for the East Rufinus also was drawn thither (in 372 or 373) by his interest in its theology and monasticism.

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  • In 1881 he published a work on monasticism, Das M onchtum, seine Ideale and seine Geschichte (5th ed., 1900; English translation, 1901), and became joint-editor with Emil Schiirer of the Theologische Literaturzeitung.

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  • A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.

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  • He was a generous patron of monasticism.

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  • The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Monasticism.

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  • Hermann, who became a monk of the famous abbey of Reichenau, is at once one of the most attractive and one of the most pathetic figures of medieval monasticism.

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  • That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.

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  • The great church movement of his time - the reformation of English monasticism on Benedictine lines - found in him a sympathizer, but in no sense an active participant.

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  • Its economic influence was multiform and incalculable, owing to its vast property, its system of taxation and its encouragement of monasticism.

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  • Thus one of the most important of all medieval ecclesiastical institutions, monasticism, came to an end in England.

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  • What may be called the inner side of Benedictine life and history is treated in the article Monasticism; here it is possible to deal only with the broad facts of the external history.

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  • These various orders were also organized and governed according to the system of centralized authority devised by St Pachomius (see Monasticism) and brought into vogue by Cluny in the West.

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  • On Benedictine nuns much will be found in the above-mentioned authorities, and also in Lina Eckenstein, Woman in Monasticism (1896).

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  • The relation of St Benedict's Rule to earlier monastic rules, and of his institute to the prevailing monachism of his day, is explained in the article Monasticism.

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  • Indeed, the early conviction of the essential difference between the life of this world and that of the next lived on, and, as the Church became increasingly a worldinstitution, found vent in monasticism, which was simply the effort to put into more consistent practice the other-worldly life, and to make more thoroughgoing work of the saving of one's soul.

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  • There were Christian monks as early as the 3rd century, and before the end of the 4th monasticism (q.v.) was an established institution both in East and West.

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  • The existence of monasticism made it possible at once to hold up a high moral standard before the world and to permit the ordinary Christian to be content with something lower.

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  • But when, in consequence of the Arab invasion, the monasticism of those countries was cut off from intercourse with the rest of Christendom, it decayed.

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  • It has been pointed out how Charlemagne pressed the monks into the service of his civilizing aims. We admire this; but it is certain that he thereby alienated monasticism from its original ideals.

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  • A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.

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  • (See Cluny; Benedictines and Monasticism.) At the same time that Cluny began to grow into importance, other centres of the monastic reform movement were established in Upper and Lower Lorraine; and before long the activity of the Cluniac monks made itself felt in Italy.

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  • Like the new theology and the new science of law, the new monasticism was also rooted in Latin soil.

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  • Eugenius retained the stoic virtues of monasticism throughout his stormy career, and was deeply reverenced for his personal character.

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  • In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the poor.

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  • The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival.

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  • nonnus, nonna, familiar terms for an old man or woman), a member of a community of women, living under vows a life of religious observance (see Monasticism).

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  • The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.

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  • On leaving Athens Basil visited the monasteries of Egypt and Palestine; in the latter country and in Syria the monastic life tended to become more and more eremitical and to run to great extravagances in the matter of bodily austerities (see Monasticism).

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  • However, the eastern hankering after the eremitical life long survived, and it was only by dint of legislation, both ecclesiastical (council of Chalcedon) and civil (Justinian Code), that the Basilian cenobitic form of monasticism came to prevail throughout the Greek-speaking lands, though the eremitical forms have always maintained themselves.

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  • Greek monachism underwent no development or change for four centuries, except the vicissitudes inevitable in all things human, which in monasticism assume the form of alternations of relaxation and revival.

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  • Hannay's Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (1903).

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  • The first monk to become pope, Gregory was naturally a strong supporter of monasticism.

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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.

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  • The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.

    0
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  • But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.

    0
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  • St Benedict's rule was a new creation in monastic history; and as it rapidly supplanted all other monastic rules in western Europe, and was for several centuries the only form of monasticism in Latin Christianity (outside of Ireland), it is necessary to speak in some little detail of its spirit and inner character.'

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  • The only serious rival was the Irish rule of Columban; and here it will be in place to say a word on Irish monasticism, which, in its birthplace, stood aloof to the end from the general movement.

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  • As stated above, St Pachomius's monasteries formed an order - a curious anticipation of what six centuries later was to become the vogue in Western monasticism.

    0
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  • But with the 10th century we reach the period of orders, and it is on this line that all subsequent developments in Western monasticism have run.

    0
    0
  • In all these lesser orders may be discerned the tendency of a return to the elements of Eastern monasticism discarded by St Benedict - to the eremitical life; to the purely contemplative life with little or no factor of work; to the undertaking of rigorous bodily austerities and penances - it was at this time that the practice of self-inflicted scourgings as a penitential exercise was introduced.

    0
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  • - Up to this point we have met only with monasticism proper; and if the term were taken strictly, the remainder of this article would be concerned only with the later history of the institutes already spoken of; for neither canons regular, friars, nor regular clerks, are in the strict sense monks.

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  • But it is usual, and it will be convenient here, to use the term monasticism in a broader sense, as equivalent to the technical " religious life," and as embracing the various forms that have come into being so prolifically in the Latin Church at all periods since the middle of the r r th century.

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  • - The 13th century was the heyday of monasticism in the West; the Mendicant orders were in their first fervour and enthusiasm; the great abbeys of Benedictines, Cistercians and Augustinian canons reflected the results of the religious reform and revival associated with Hildebrand's name, and maintained themselves at a high .and dignified level in things religious and secular; and under the Benedictine rule were formed the new congregations or orders of Silvestrines (1231), Celestines (c. 1260) and Olivetans (1319), which are described under their several headings.

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  • - In the foregoing sketch nothing has been said concerning the nuns; and yet in all ages women, hardly less than men, have played their part in monasticism.

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  • See the works of Helyot and Heimbucher, referred to below under " Literature "; also Lina Eckenstein, Woman under Monasticism (1896); and for information on the various orders of women, J N.

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  • - Few phenomena are more striking than the change that has come over educated Protestant opinion in its estimate of monasticism.

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  • But now the view of the critico-historical school of Protestant thought, of which Dr Adolf Harnack is so representative a spokesman, is that the preservation of spiritual religion in Catholic Christianity, both Eastern and Western, has been mainly, if not wholly, due to monasticism (see Harnack's early tractate Das Monchtum, translated under the title Monasticism, by E.

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  • The views of the new Protestantism concerning monasticism are probably no less excessive than those of the old.

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  • It may perhaps be agreed that not the least of the services rendered to the Christian people at large by monasticism is this: Into every life the spirit.

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  • The literature on monasticism is immense.

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  • The inner spirit and working of the older monasticism is well portrayed in F.A.

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  • Feasy's Monasticism (1898), and F.

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  • (See Asceticism and Mysticism.) Indeed the history of religion shows that they are among the most deep-rooted and widespread instincts of the human soul; and monasticism is the attempt to develop and regulate their exercise.

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  • Thus monasticism is not a creation of Christianity; it is much older, and before the Christian era a highly organized monasticism existed in India.

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  • (See the articles on Brahmanism; Buddhism; and Lhasa.) Pre-Christian Monasticism.

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  • A general sketch of pre-Christian asceticism and monasticism, with indication of the chief authorities, is given in O.

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  • Hannay, Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (1903), app. i: the view now common among scholars is there maintained, that these pre-Christian realizations of the monastic idea had little, and indeed no, influence on the rise and development of Christian monasticism.

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  • Beginnings of Christian Monasticism.

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  • It is at the great monastic settlements of Nitria and Scete that we are best able to study this kind of Egyptian monasticism.

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  • (See MONASTICISM.)

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  • The descendants of the wealthy Alaphion founded churches and convents in the district, and were particularly active in promoting monasticism.

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  • It is probable that Sozomen did not approve of Socrates's freer attitude towards Greek science, and that he wished to present a picture in which the clergy should be still further glorified and monasticism brought into still stronger prominence.

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  • It has never been brought into cultivation; but in the first Christian centuries the caves in its valleys were the chosen refuge of Christian monasticism.

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  • We here catch a glimpse of the circumstances which were winning over good men to monasticism in the West, though the evidence of an enthusiastic votary of the solitary life, such as Severus was, is probably not free from exaggeration.

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  • But Severus was no indiscriminating adherent of monasticism.

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  • Pelagius declared the capacity of every man to become virtuous by his own efforts, and summoned the members of the Church in Rome to enter on the way of perfection in monasticism.

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  • Another view, promulgated like the above by Hector Boece in his Latin history of Scotland (1516), makes them the direct successors in the 9th to the 12th century of the organized Irish and Iona monasticism of the 6th to the 8th century.

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  • The regular clergy are those attached to religious orders and to certain congregations (see Monasticism).

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  • The Greek Cynics (see Cynics) played a great part in the history of Asceticism, and they were so much the precursors of the Christian hermits that descriptions of them in profane literature have been mistaken for pictures of early monasticism.

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  • pp. 180-186 of Burkitt's Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904); articles on "Aphraates and Monasticism," by R.

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  • He reformed and reorganized the Irish Church and brought it into subjection to Rome; like Boniface, he was a zealous reformer and a promoter of monasticism.

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  • 22), it is but seldom that one could learn from the pages of Socrates that there was such a thing as monasticism in those days.

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  • - Monasticism is, as it has always been, an important feature in the Eastern Church.

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  • Lake in Early Days of Monasticism on Mount Athos (1909) traces the development through three well-defined stages in the 9th and 10th centuries - (a) the hermit period, (b) the loose organization of hermits in lauras, (c) the stricter rule of the monastery, with definite buildings and fixed rules under an ii-youµevos or abbot.

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  • See further, Monasticism.

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  • The facts concerning the rise of the Orders of Mendicant Friars are related in the articles on the several orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, Augustinian Hermits), and in that On Monasticism (§ Ii), where the difference between friars and monks is explained.

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  • Great stress is laid upon virginity (although there is not a sign of monasticism), upon fasting (especially for the bishop), upon the regular attendance of the whole clerical body and the " more perfect " of the laity at the hours of prayer.

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  • In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined.

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  • After three or four years he was called (by an angel, says the legend) to establish a monastery of cenobites, or monks living in common (see Monasticism, § 4).

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  • (1870); Lina Eckenstein, Woman under Monasticism; Bishop Grafton, Vocation.

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  • While favouring sacerdotal celibacy the council laid rather rigid restrictions on monasticism.

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  • But they were 2 It has been suggestively said that Cynicism was to Stoicism what monasticism was to early Christianity.

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  • This feeling is exhibited in the value set on fasting in the Christian church from the earliest times, and in an extreme form in the self-torments of later monasticism; while both tendencies, anti-worldliness and antisensualism, seem to have combined in causing the preference of celibacy over marriage which is common to most early Christian writers.'

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  • A severer and more exclusive type of monasticism succeeded this primitive one, but apart from the separation of the sexes the general character never entirely changed.

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  • Monasticism was momentarily suppressed under Oliver Cromwell, but the Restoration brought the monks back to their old haunts.

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  • The revival of monasticism after the Conquest resulted in the erection of ten Benedictine monasteries, and a Benedictine nunnery at Stainfield.

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  • He had no difficulties in respect of the teaching and practice of his church, being in truth an ardent Ultramontane in doctrine, as was all but inevitable in his time and circumstances, and his great merit was the instinctive tact which showed him that the system of monasticism could never be the leaven of secular life, but that something more homely, simple, and everyday in character was needed for the new time.

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  • The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival.

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  • But it is usual, and it will be convenient here, to use the term monasticism in a broader sense, as equivalent to the technical " religious life," and as embracing the various forms that have come into being so prolifically in the Latin Church at all periods since the middle of the r r th century.

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  • Feasy's Monasticism (1898), and F.

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  • Thus monasticism is not a creation of Christianity; it is much older, and before the Christian era a highly organized monasticism existed in India.

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  • A general sketch of pre-Christian asceticism and monasticism, with indication of the chief authorities, is given in O.

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  • Hannay, Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (1903), app. i: the view now common among scholars is there maintained, that these pre-Christian realizations of the monastic idea had little, and indeed no, influence on the rise and development of Christian monasticism.

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  • The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.

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  • The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.

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