Monastic Sentence Examples
The number of monastic institutions in the island is very small.
A monastic library was the proper place for this gentle emotional dreamer, who clung so fondly to the ancient traditions.
Coptic papyri mainly contain Biblical or religious texts or monastic deeds.
In the literature as it survives many different branches of writing are represented - homilies in prose and verse, hymns, exposition and commentary, liturgy, apocryphal legends, historical romance, hagiography and martyrology, monastic history and biography, general history, dogmatics, philosophy and science, ecclesiastical law, &c. But the whole is dominated by the theological and ecclesiastical interest.
In the 2nd half of the 4th century lived the monk Gregory, who wrote a treatise on the monastic life.Advertisement
Opposite is the Bishop's Palace, and not far off is the Episcopal Seminary (built on the ruins of a 6th-century monastic foundation).
Monasteries and nunneries are numerous, dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, but their influence is now less potent than in those days and the monastic population is not so large.
There is no evidence to show that the Vincent who was sub-prior of this foundation in 1246 is the encyclopaedist; nor indeed is it likely that a man of such abnormally studious habits could have found time to attend to the daily business routine of a monastic establishment.
The citizens were growing weary of the monastic austerities imposed on them, and Alexander foresaw that his revenge was at hand.
On the death of the childless tsar, he was the popular candidate for the vacant throne; but he acquiesced in the election of Boris Godunov, and shared the disgrace of his too-powerful family three years later, when Boris compelled both him and his wife, Xenia Chestovaya, to take monastic vows under the names of Philaret and Martha respectively.Advertisement
There is a monastic system, introduced it is said in the 4th century A.D.
He was the author of notes on Cluvier's Italia antiqua (1624); an edition of portions of Porphyrius (1630), with a dissertation on his life and writings, described as a model of its kind; notes on Eusebius Against Hierocles (1628), on the Sayings of the later Pythagoreans (1638), and the De diis et mundo of the neo-Platonist Sallustius (1638); Notae et castigationes in Stephani Byzantini ethnica (first published in 1684); and Codex regularum, Collection of the Early Rules of the Monastic Orders (1661).
In the course of 1842 an attack of illness led to his making a journey in Italy, where he spent some time in a monastery belonging to one of the strictest of all the monastic orders, the Passionists, brethren addicted to wearing hair shirts and scourging themselves without mercy.
He was a zealous defender of that monastic life which was beginning to take such a large place in the church of the 4th century, and he found enthusiastic disciples among the Roman ladies.
Within four years there rose upon its site a pile of stately buildings under the title of St Benedict's Abbey and school, a monastic and collegiate institution intended for the higher education of the sons of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry.Advertisement
The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.
The rise of London as a port, the prohibition of the export of wool, the loss of the Winchester market after the suppression of the monastic institutions, and the withdrawal of the court led to the gradual decline of trade from the 16th century onwards until railway facilities and the opening of new dockyards gave Southampton the position it holds to-day.
The civil government recognized monastic vows by regarding a professed monk as civilly dead and by pursuing him and returning him to his monastery if he violated his pledges of obedience and ran away.
Luther's colleague at Wittenberg, Carlstadt, began denouncing the monastic life, the celibacy of the clergy, the veneration of images; and before the end of 1521 we find the first characteristic outward symptoms of Protestantism.
His principal efforts as a reformer were directed towards the improvement of the liturgy, and the reformation of the monastic orders of the East.Advertisement
It is now commonly recognized by scholars that when Gregory the Great became a monk and turned his palace on the Caelian Hill into a monastery, the monastic life there carried out was fundamentally based on the Benedictine Rule.
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
In the middle ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments, the oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170).
In 692 or 694 Sebbe abdicated and received the monastic vows from Waldhere, the successor of Erconwald at London.
The monastic estates passed at the Dissolution to the Thynne family, who built Longleat.Advertisement
He heard from this same teacher bold criticisms of Romish teaching concerning the sacraments, monastic vows and papal indulgences, and unconsciously he was thus trained for the great remonstrance of his maturer life.
Among the rocks on the side of the valley opposite the palace he found a cave in which he took up his abode, unknown to all except one friend, Romanus, a monk of a neighbouring monastery, who clothed him in the monastic habit and secretly supplied him with food.
The relation of St Benedict's Rule to earlier monastic rules, and of his institute to the prevailing monachism of his day, is explained in the article Monasticism.
The floor of the church, built partly on the rock, partly upon foundations, and, at the east end, over a crypt, is on a level with the uppermost storey of the monastic buildings.
The crime of "plurality," the holding by one cleric of two or more benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life.
Benedict made appointments carefully, reformed monastic orders and consistently opposed nepotism.
As was to he expected from its connexion with the early history of England, and from its beauty and fertility, Kent possessed a larger than average number of monastic foundations.
Some of these were refounded, and the principal monastic remains now existing are those of the Benedictine priories at Rochester (1089), Folkestone (1095), Dover (1140); the Benedictine nunneries at Malling (time of William Rufus),Minster-in-Sheppey (1130), Higham (founded by King Stephen), and Davington (I 153); the Cistercian Abbey at Boxley (1146); the Cluniac abbey at Faversham (1147) and priory at Monks Horton (time of Henry II.), the preceptory of Knights Templars at Swingfield (time of Henry II.); the Premonstratensian abbey of St Radigund's, near Dover (1191); the first house of Dominicans in England at Canterbury (1221); the first Carmelite house in England, at Aylesford (1240); and the priory of Augustinian nuns at Dartford (1355).
Here, apart from the monastic remains, there may be seen portions of the church founded by 2Ethelburga, wife of Edwin, king of Northumberland, and rebuilt, with considerable use of Roman material, in 965 by St Dunstan.
Nurses were provided by the male and female monastic orders, an arrangement which still continues in most Roman Catholic countries, though it is gradually being abandoned through the increasing demands of medical science, which have led the hospitals to establish training schools of their own.
Almost as a matter of course, under such circumstances, he embraced the monastic life.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
By these means, and with regular government supervision and control, the monastic schools are being brought into line with the government educational organization.
The result of the widespread monastic school system is that almost all men can read and write a little, though the women are altogether illiterate.
But his ardent spirit could not long be content with monastic life.
In place of the monastic judicature a jury of six bachelors and six maidens appear in the 16th century.
Those who did not adopt the monastic life endeavoured on a lower plane and in a less perfect way to realize the common ideal, and by means of penance to atone for the deficiencies in their performance.
With the growth of clerical sacerdotalism the higher standard was demanded also of the clergy, and the principle came to be generally recognized that they should live the monastic life so far as was consistent with their active duties in the world.
On Mount Athos the first monastery was founded in the year 963, and in 1045 the number of monastic foundations had reached 180.
Finally, the property and the whole social status of the Church and of the hierarchy remained unchanged, as did also the conviction that the perfection of the Christian life was to be sought and found in the monastic profession.
Even a certain number of the monastic establishments came in this way into the possession of the feudal landowners, who nominated abbots and abbesses as they appointed the incumbents of their churches.
The monastic reform movement was essentially Latin in origin; and even more significant was the fact that scholasticism, the new theology, had its home in the Latin countries.
In the first of the new orders, that of the Cistercians (1098), the old monastic ideal set forth in the Rule of Benedict of Nursia still prevailed; but in the constitution and government of the order new ideas were at work.
He laboured to reform the monastic orders, especially the Franciscan, and was never guilty of nepotism.
The term prior was most commonly used to denote the superiors in a monastery, at first with an indefinite significance, but later, as monastic institutions crystallized, describing certain definite officials.
As Ignatius said, the ancient monastic communities were the infantry of the Church, whose duty was to stand firmly in one place on the battlefield; the Jesuits were to be her light horse, capable of going anywhere at a moment's notice, but especially apt and designed for scouting and skirmishing.
He, and his successor, Vice-President Gomez Farias (1833), assailed the exemption of the clergy and of military officers from the jurisdiction of the civil courts, and the latter attempted to laicize higher education and to relax monastic bonds.
In the next year,, however, laws were passed repeating in a stronger form the attacks of 1857 on the supremacy of the Church, and prohibiting monastic life.
In 1 2 17 the fee farm of the city was granted to the citizens at a rent of 200 marks per annum; and about this period many monastic buildings were founded.
Remains of the monastic buildings are to be found in every direction in the shape of raised stone platforms, foundations and stone pillars.
The archiepiscopal palace and monastic buildings on the south side were of great size and magnificence, and were surrounded by a massive precinct wall, crowned at intervals by twelve towers.
The monastic library contains some valuable MSS., especially a number of bilingual documents in Greek and Arabic, the earliest being dated 1144.
The archbishop now occupies the eastern part of the monastic buildings, the original palace being destroyed.
Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
The establishment of conventual or monastic institutions is prohibited.
Thus arose the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living each in his own little dwelling, united together under one superior.
The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of space and convenience of access from one part of the community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium.
In closest connexion with the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the monastic life and its daily requirements - the refectory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary conference.
These essential elements of monastic life are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded by a covered arcade, affording communication sheltered from the elements between the various buildings.
The group of buildings connected with the material wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west of the church, and is distinctly separated from the monastic buildings.
A passage at the other end leads to the "necessarium" (I), a portion of the monastic buildings always planned with extreme care.
From some local reasons, however, the cloister and monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more commonly the case, on the south of the church.
In immediate contact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the group of buildings devoted to the monastic life.
To the north a large open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, intentionally placed as remote as possible from the 1 The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of the Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury.
The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted to monastic life.
Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and after taking food.
The cloister and monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church.
The reformation of abuses generally took the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural arrangements.
The monastic establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France.
The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, and a Cistercian.
Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D.
To the south was the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged monks.
Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish.
Detached from these, and separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various workshops, which convenience required to be banished to the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.
Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the original abbot's house (N),with its dining-hall (P).
Closely adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of the whole establishment should be constantly over those who stood the most in need of his watchful care, - those who were training for the monastic life, and those who had worn themselves out in its duties, - was a fourth cloister (0), with annexed buildings, devoted to the aged and infirm members of the establishment.
At H, also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest-house.
The arrangement of the monastic buildings followed the ordinary type.
With the exception of a crypt, the monastic buildings have disappeared.
Lingard wrote The Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church (1806), of which a third and greatly enlarged addition appeared in 1845 under the title The History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church; containing an account of its origin, government, doctrines, worship, revenues, and clerical and monastic institutions; but the work with which his name is chiefly associated is A History of England, from the first invasion by the Romans to the commencement of the reign of William III., which appeared originally in 8 vols.
There was formerly an archiepiscopal palace in the town, built by Archbishop Hampton about 1620; and the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Augustinians, the Carmelites and the knights of St John have monastic establishments.
Besides several other churches and two monastic houses, the principal buildings include the handsome palace of the primate, erected in 1883; the archiepiscopal library, with valuable incunabula and old MSS.; the seminary for the education of Roman Catholic priests; the residences of the chapter; and the town-hall.
For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
In 1060 the community was withdrawn from the authority of the patriarch of Constantinople, and a monastic republic was practically constituted.
It consists of an outer court entered through a gatehouse, the church and chapter-house, with other buildings lying on the north side, partly surrounded by monastic dwellinghouses.
The family name was Howman, but, according to the English custom, Feckenham, on monastic profession, changed it for the territorial name by which he is always known.
He introduced many reforms in the various monastic orders and took vigorous measures against the heresies of the time.
The manor, royal demesne in 1086, was granted by Edmund Plantagenet in 1285 to the house of Ashridge, and the town developed under monastic protection.
Among ecclesiastical buildings are remains of two monastic foundations - the priory of St Botolph, founded early in the 12th century for Augustinian canons, of which part of the fine Norman west front (in which Roman bricks occur), and of the nave arcades remain; and the restored gateway of the Benedictine monastery of St John, founded by Eudo, steward to William II.
One of the most conspicuous features of Bonn, viewed from the river, is the pilgrimage (monastic) church of Kreuzberg (1627), behind and above Poppelsdorf; it has a flight of 28 steps, which pilgrims used to ascend on their knees.
The episcopate and the great monastic prelacies continued to lose their independence, as was shown by Honorius II.
In 1566 he gave publicity to the Tridentine catechism; in 1568 he introduced the amended Roman breviary; everywhere he insisted on strict monastic discipline, and the compulsory residence of bishops within their sees.
An article on monastic arrangements would be incomplete without some account of the convents of the Mendicant or Preaching Friars, including the Black Friars or Domini cans, the Grey or Franciscans, the White or Carmelites, Y Friars.
The arrangement of the monastic buildings is equally peculiar and characteristic. We miss entirely the regularity of the buildings of the earlier orders.
The cloister and monastic buildings remain tolerably perfect to the north.
These cells were monastic colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and planted on some outlying estate.
The outlying farming establishments belonging to the monastic foundations were known as villae or granges.
None but a scion of a priestly family could become a deacon, elder or bishop. Accordingly the primacy remained in the family of Gregory until about 374, when the king Pap or Bab murdered Nerses, who had been ordained by Eusebius of Caesarea (362-370) and was over-zealous in implanting in Armenia the canons about celibacy, marriage, fasting, hospices and monastic life which Basil had established in Cappadocia.
Monastic institutions were hardly introduced in Armenia before the 5th century, though Christian rest-houses had been erected along the high-roads long before and are mentioned in the Disputation of Archelaus.
In the crisis of 1808 Llorente identified himself with the Bonapartists, and was engaged for a few years in superintending the execution of the decree for the suppression of the monastic orders, and in examining the archives of the Inquisition.
He took a narrow and monastic view of current politics; he was seldom in touch with the leading statesmen of his day.
The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.
He declared that the cenobitical life is superior to the eremitical; that fasting and austerities should not interfere with prayer or work; that work should form an integral part of the monastic life, not merely as an occupation, but for its own sake and in order to do good to others; and therefore that monasteries should be near towns.
The so-called Rules (the Longer and the Shorter) are catechisms of the spiritual life rather than a body of regulations for the corporate working of a community, such as is now understood by a monastic rule.
Apparently no vows were taken, but obedience, personal poverty, chastity, self-denial, and the other monastic virtues were strongly enforced, and a monk was not free to abandon the monastic life.
Thus to this day the Rules of Basil and the Constitutions of Theodore the Studite, along with the canons of the Councils, constitute the chief part of Greek and Russian monastic law.
They were known to St Benedict, who refers his monks to "the Rule of our holy Father Basil," - indeed St Benedict owed more of the ground-ideas of his Rule to St Basil than to any other monastic legislator.
The monastic institute had a great development in Russia, and at the present day there are in the Russian empire some 400 monasteries of men and Ioo of women, many of which support hospitals, almshouses and schools.
It seems likely enough therefore that there should grow up bodies of knights banded together by engagements of fidelity, although free from monastic obligations; wearing a uniform or livery, and naming themselves after some special symbol or some patron saint of their adoption.
Outside the town are the Frauenberg and the Johannesberg, on both of which are monastic ruins.
He received several grants of monastic estates, including the priory of Christ Church in London and the abbey of Walden in Essex, where his grandson, Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, built Audley End, doubtless named after him.
It is therefore very improper that one man should be considered fit to discharge the duties of both, and that by this means the ecclesiastical order should interfere with the monastic life, and the rule of the monastic life in turn interfere with the interests of the churches."
Of the monastic buildings of medieval Copenhagen various traces are preserved in the present nomenclature of the streets.
About the year 1170 Lambert le Begue, a priest of Liege, who had devoted his fortune to founding the hospital and church of St Christopher for the widows and children of crusaders, conceived the idea of establishing an association of women, who, without taking the monastic vows, should devote themselves to a life of religion.
Besides the regular clergy there are the members of the numerous monastic and conventual houses established in Belgium.
Boniface at length put him in prison for safe keeping; he died in a monastic cell in the castle of Fumone near Anagni on the 19th of May 1296.
The once monastic church of St Mary is rebuilt, excepting the central tower and part of the chancel.
The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.
The knowledge of the monastic life was carried to western Europe by St Athanasius, who in 340 went to Rome accompanied by two monks.
The Vita Antonii was at an early date translated into Latin and propagated in the West, and the practice of monastic asceticism after the Egyptian model became common in Rome and throughout Italy, and before long spread to Gaul and to northern Africa.
The monastic ideals prevalent were those of the Antonian monachism, with its hankering after the eremitical life and the practice of extreme bodily austerities.
Hence it came to pass that by the end of the 5th century the monastic institute in western Europe, and especially in Italy, was in a disorganized condition, sinking under the weight of traditions inherited from the East.
It was St Benedict who effected a permanently working adaptation of the monastic ideal and life to the requirements and conditions of the western races.
St Benedict's rule was a new creation in monastic history; and as it rapidly supplanted all other monastic rules in western Europe, and was for several centuries the only form of monasticism in Latin Christianity (outside of Ireland), it is necessary to speak in some little detail of its spirit and inner character.'
It has to be emphasized at the outset that the monasteries in which the Benedictine rule was the basis of the life did not form a body or group apart within the great " monastic order," which embraced all monasteries of whatever rule; nor had Benedictine monks any special work or object beyond that common to all monks - viz.
St Benedict introduced too into the monastic life the idea of law and order, of rule binding on the abbot no less than on the monks; thus he reduced almost to a vanishing point the element of arbitrariness, or mere dependence on the abbot's will and whim, found in the earlier rules.
It is easy to understand that a form of monastic life thus emptied of distinctively Oriental features and adapted to the needs of the West.
The Benedictine rule supplanted the Irish so inevitably that the personnel ceased to be Irish, that even in St Columban's own monastery of Luxeuil his rule was no longer observed, and by Charlemagne's time all remembrance of any other monastic rule than the Benedictine had died out.
All this was a reaction from St Benedict's reconstruction of the monastic life - a reaction which in the matter of austerities .nd individualistic piety has made itself increasingly felt in the later manifestations of the monastic ideal in the West.
As contrasted with the friars they are counted among the monastic orders.
As the various monastic and mendicant orders arose, a female branch was in most cases formed alongside of the order; and so we find canon.esses, and hermitesses, and Dominicanesses, and Franciscan nuns [or Clares (q.v.)] - requisite information will be found in the respective articles.
The older Protestantism uncompromisingly judged the monastic ideal and life to be both unchristian and unnatural, an absolute perversion deserving nothing but condemnation.
But this was a single case which does not affect the fixed tradition of monastic Egypt in the 4th century that Anthony was the father of Christian monachism.
The form of monastic life directly derived from St Anthony was the type that prevailed in middle and northern Egypt up to the middle of the 5th century.
The party of travellers whose journey in 394 is narrated in the Historia monachorum found at the chief towns along the Nile from Lycopolis (Assiut or Siut) to Alexandria, and in the deserts that fringed the river, monastic habitations, sometimes of hermits, sometimes of several monks living together but rather the life of hermits than of cenobites.
It is at the great monastic settlements of Nitria and Scete that we are best able to study this kind of Egyptian monasticism.
This marks a distinctly new departure in the monastic ideal.
The monastic institute was imported early in the 4th century from Egypt into Syria and the Oriental lands.
Though Eustathius of Sebaste was the first to introduce the monastic life within the confines of what may be called Greek Christianity in Asia Minor (c. 340), it was St Basil who adapted it to Greek and European ideas and needs.
His monastic legislation is explained and the history of his institute sketched in the article BASILIAN
The old monastic orders had had attached to their abbeys confraternities of lay men and women, going back in some cases to the 8th century.
He effected some reforms in the monastic orders; urged the conversion of the sectaries in Bohemia; and sent missionaries to America, India, Abyssinia and the Congo.
They are local, they are monastic, and they are partisan.
Then the Annals are monastic. To their writers the affairs of the great world are of less importance than those of the monastery itself.
Otto was also related to the great house of Hohenstaufen, a relationship which gave him access to sources of information usually withheld from the ordinary monastic annalist, and his work is very valuable for the earlier part of the career of Frederick I.
The monastic writers remain our chief authorities until the great change brought about by the invention.
Parallel with this event the revival of learning was producing a great number of men who could write, and, more important still, of men who were throwing off the monastic habits of thought and passing into a new intellectual atmosphere.
Portions of the monastic buildings remain as picturesque fragments in and near the modern mansion called Lacock Abbey.
The Benedictine Rule was taken as the basis of the life; but austerities were introduced beyond what St Benedict prescribed, and the government was framed on the mendicant, not the monastic, model, the superiors being appointed only for a short term of years.
Innocent was a strong and earnest man of monastic temperament, but not altogether free from nepotism.
His crucifix is treasured among the monastic archives, which also contain a charter signed by Peter the Great of Russia (1672-1725).
Within the curtain stand the monastic buildings, a large garden and a cruciform chapel, with many curious old stone carvings, half hidden beneath whitewash.
In the Roman Catholic Church the word is also applied to the renunciation of monastic vows (apostasis a monachatu), and to the abandonment of the clerical profession for the life of the world (apostasis a clericatu).
Fragments of the monastic buildings remain, and west of the churchyard is the monks' park, known as the Seal, and now a promenade, commanding beautiful views.
Conciliation was also tried with some success; plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in 1542 that the lord-deputy could send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.
The most worthy efforts of Innocent were directed to the reform of monastic discipline (1652).
The ecclesiastical constitution thus introduced was one of missionary monastic stations, settled in fortified villages.
At the time when the Ancren Riwle was addressed to them the anchoresses did not belong to any of the monastic orders, but the monastery was under the Cistercian rule before 1266.3 There are extant seven English MSS.
In the course of a generation almost all the monastic communities in western Scotland had been destroyed.
All these were originally monastic churches.
On the archiepiscopal throne Chrysostom still persevered in the practice of monastic simplicity.
In 1451 he was sent to Germany and the Netherlands to check ecclesiastical abuses and bring back the monastic life to the original rule of poverty, chastity and obedience - a mission which he discharged with welltempered firmness.
His earliest extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, whither he was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he spent all the opening years of his monastic life.
After allowing for this, Angelico should nevertheless be accepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical painter according to his own range of conceptions, consonant with his monastic calling, unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness.
In cathedrals, monastic churches and the larger parish churches the stalls are fixed seats enclosed at the back and separated at the sides by high projecting arms, and placed in one or more rows on the north and south sides of the choir or chancel, running from the sanctuary to the screen or chancel arch.
Two or possibly more Spanish expeditions followed, and a monastic mission was established, but at the close of the 14th century the Guanches remained unconquered and unconverted.
He expressed himself as being as anxious for the reformation of the clergy as Simeon for the coming of the Messiah; but while he welcomed Wolsey's never-realized promises, he was too old to accomplish much himself in the way of remedying the clerical and especially the monastic depravity, licence and corruption he deplored.
It was the momentary power of the second which drove him into the convent, and he selected the monastic order which represented all that was best in the revival of the latter half of the 15th century - the Augustinian Eremites.
He denounced monastic vows, a distinctive dress for the clergy, the thought of a propitiatory mass, and the presence of images and pictures in the churches.
Luther's writings, circulating through Saxony, had penetrated the convent walls and had convinced most of the inmates of the unlawfulness of monastic vows.
It contains a lofty Doric column and a detached chapel and banqueting hall, and in the vicinity are picturesque fragments of the monastic chapel of Friarside, and of the manor house of Hollinside.
Wine is manufactured by several of the German and Jewish colonies, and by some of the monastic establishments.
The latter half of the 19th century is mainly occupied with the record of a very remarkable process of colonization and settlement - French and Russian monastic and other establishments, some of them semi-religious and semi-political; German colonies; fanatical American communities; Jewish agricultural settlements - all, so to speak, " nibbling " at the country, and each so intent upon gaining a step on its rivals as to be forgetful of the gathering storm.
D own to the time of Mehemet Ali the only foreigners permanently resident in the country were the members of various monastic orders, and a few traders, such as the French merchants of Acre.
In the 18th century there were no fewer than seven monastic buildings in Beaune, besides a Bernardine abbey, a Carthusian convent and an ecclesiastical college.
There are also an old town gate, and an ancient cemetery with slight monastic remains.
Second in interest to the cathedral is the church of St Paul, also in the Romanesque style, and dating from 1102-1116, with a choir of the early 13th century, cloisters and other monastic buildings.
Filipinos had for generations been ordained into priesthood although not received into monastic orders.
Hence man should deny the world for the sake of the other world, and the title " religious " belongs distinctly to the monastic and priestly life.
Other noteworthy buildings are the picturesque weigh-house (1595), the town hall (1715), the provincial courts (1850), and the great church of St Jacob, once the church of the Jacobins, and the largest monastic church in the Netherlands.
The correct perspective places between the summits of modern and ancient times, not a long level stretch of a thousand years, with mankind stationary, spell-bound under the authority of the Church, absorbed in war or monastic dreams, but a downward and then a long upward slope, on both of which the forces which make for civilization may be seen at work.
When one studies the history of Europe subject by subject, as indicated above, and not merely in a monastic chronicle of things in general, chosen according to the author's point of view, one sees the old-time framework passing away.
In the course of the 9th century we find mention of nine places in Ireland (including Armagh, Clonmacnoise, Clones, Devenish and Sligo) where communities of these Culdees were established as a kind of annexe to the regular monastic institutions.
Adjoining the abbey is Whitby Hall, built by Sir Francis Cholmley about 1580 from the materials of the monastic buildings, and enlarged and fortified by Sir Hugh Cholmley about 1635.
The popes, then, or at least the more politic of them, have been content to lay down as the condition of reunion no more than the acceptance of the distinctive dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the supremacy and infallibility of the pope; the ritus of the Uniat Oriental Churches - liturgies and liturgical languages, ecclesiastical law and discipline, marriage of priests, beards and costume, the monastic system of St Basil - they have been content for the most part to leave untouched.
It was enacted by the act of 1829 that " every Jesuit and every member of any other religious order, community or society of the Church of Rome bound by monastic or religious vows " was, within six months after the commencement of the act, to deliver to the clerk of the peace of the county in which he should reside a notice or statement in the form given to the schedule to the act, and that every Jesuit or member of such religious order coming into the realm after the commencement of the act should be guilty of a misdemeanour and should be banished from the United Kingdom for life (with an exception in favour of natural-born subjects duly registered).
Yet we must remember that this bold intuition of the abbot Joachim indicated a monastic reaction against the tyrannies and corruptions of the church, rather than a fertile philosophical conception.
He was appointed by Theodosius the Great, tutor of the young princes Arcadius and Honorius, but at the age of forty he retired to Egypt, where for forty years he lived in monastic seclusion at Scetis in the Thebais, under the spiritual guidance of St John the Dwarf.
In the East, however, this and other forms of asceticism have always flourished more freely; and the Buddhist monastic system is not only far older than that of Christendom, but also proportionately more extensive.
The history of monastic celibacy has not yet been fully treated anywhere; the most important evidence of the episcopal registers is either still in MS. or has been published only in comparatively recent years.
In his hatred of idleness, he ventured to suppress no less than seventeen fetes, and he had a project for lessening the number of those devoted to clerical and monastic life, by fixing the age for taking the vows some years later than was then customary.
The monastic church at Vadstena on Lake Vetter is a beautiful example of Gothic of the 14th and 15th centuries.
He distinguished himself in his monastic studies, and went to France about 1115.
Michael Sturdza also attempted the secularization of monastic establishments, which was carried out by Prince Cuza in 1864, and the utilization of their endowments for national purposes.
Each monastic community, also, had one of its own.
Monastic influence accounts for the practice of adding to the reading of a biblical passage some patristic commentary or exposition.
The foundations of the Edgar chapel, discovered in 1908, make the whole church the longest of cathedral or monastic churches in the country.
According to the legends which grew up under the care of the monks, the first church of Glastonbury was a little wattled building erected by Joseph of Arimathea as the leader of the twelve apostles sent over to Britain from Gaul by St Philip. About a hundred years later, according to the same authorities, the two missionaries, Phaganus and Deruvianus, who came to king Lucius from Pope Eleutherius, established a fraternity of anchorites on the spot, and after three hundred years more St Patrick introduced among them a regular monastic life.
He wrote a chronicle of the monastery and several biographies - the life of Gerhard Groot, of Florentius Radewyn, of a Flemish lady St Louise, of Groot's original disciples; a number of tracts on the monastic life - The Monk's Alphabet, The Discipline of Cloisters, A Dialogue of Novices, The Life of the Good Monk, The Monk's Epitaph, Sermons to Novices, Sermons to Monks, The Solitary Life, On Silence, On Poverty, Humility and Patience; two tracts for young people - A Manual of Doctrine for the Young, and A Manual for Children; and books for edification - On True Compunction, The Garden of Roses, The Valley of Lilies, The Consolation of the Poor and the Sick, The Faithful Dispenser, The Soul's Soliloquy, The Hospital of the Poor.
From childhood grave and studious, he was taken in charge by an elder brother who had adopted the monastic life, in a convent at the royal city of Loyang in Honan.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
The Christian story first appears in Greek among the works of John of Damascus, who flourished in the early part of the 8th century, and who, before he adopted the monastic life, had held high office at the court of the caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur, as his father Sergius is said to have done before him.
At this time Barlaam, an eremite of great sanctity and knowledge, dwelling in the wilderness of Sennaritis, divinely warned, travels to India in the disguise of a merchant, and gains access to Prince Josaphat, to whom he imparts the Christian doctrine and commends the monastic life.
This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France and Spain, and even to Rome itself.
His jurisdiction extends over the dominions of the Sultan in Turkey, together with Asia Minor and the Turkish islands of the Aegean; there are eighty-two metropolitans under him, and the " monastic republic " of Mount Athos.
Picrochole defeated and peace made, Gargantua establishes the abbey of Thelema in another of Rabelais's most elaborate literary passages, where all the points most obnoxious to him in monastic life are indicated by the assignment of their exact opposites to this model convent.
It is commonly employed in medieval seals, and especially those of bishops and monastic establishments.
He spent two years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in restoring the monastic system, and was abbot of Romsey.
The numerous class of ecclesiastical seals comprised episcopal seals of all kinds, official and personal; seals of cathedrals and chapters; of courts and officials, &c. The monastic series is one of the largest, and, from an artistic point of view, one of the most important.
Ladies' seals and some classes of ecclesiastical and monastic seals are of pointed oval form, which is Shapes.
Chapter seals may bear the patron saint, or a representation, more or less conventional, of the cathedral; monastic seals may have figures of the Virgin Mary, or other patron saint, or of the founder, or of abbot or abbess; or the conventual building.
But the most beautiful seal of this period, and in many respects the most beautiful medieval seal in existence, is the monastic seal of Merton Priory, in Surrey, of the year 1241.
It is to be remarked that the standing figure of the bishop in episcopal seals, of the abbot in monastic seals and of the lady in ladies' seals, which was so persistent from the 12th century onwards, proved to be the happy cause of the maintenance of the elegant oval shape in examples of these classes, wherein some of the best balanced designs are to be found.
In one mood he was fain to ape the antique patriot; in another he affected the monastic saint.
But there were few who could write like him, and Jerome's Chronicle itself, or rather portions of it, became, in the age which followed, a sort of universal preface for the monastic chronicler.
The commonest form of medieval historical writing was the chronicle, which reaches all t he way from monastic annals, mere notes on Easter tables, to the dignity of national monuments.
A notable feature in this has been the great development of monastic institutions, due in large measure to the settlement in England of the congregations expelled from France.
It is the only monastic church in the Abruzzi in which the nave is separated from the aisles by ancient columns.
Tausen's preaching was so revolutionary that he no longer felt safe among the Franciscans, so he boldly discarded his monastic habit and placed himself under the protection of the burgesses of Viborg.
He built the monastic church of St Peter at Gloucester, and rebuilt a large part of that of St John at Beverley.
Celestine attempted to rule in extreme monastic poverty and humility; not so Boniface, who ardently asserted the lordship of the papacy over all the kingdoms of the world.
The number of the idle clergy, and more particularly of the monastic orders, was reduced, and the Inquisition, though not abolished, was rendered torpid.
It has, like the Greek Church, two kinds of clergy - parochial and monastic. The former are supported by their parishes; the latter by the revenues of the monasteries, which own about one-sixth of the Lebanon lands.
There are some 1400 monks in about 120 monastic establishments (many of these being mere farms in charge of one or two monks).
On his return, after i108, he found William lecturing no longer at Notre-Dame, but in a monastic retreat outside the city, and there battle was again joined between them.
In 1864, however, the monastic estate was assigned to the Board of Civil Hospitals, by which a hospital and baths were opened and the mineral springs developed.
Near it are slight ruins of the monastic infirmary chapel of St Catherine.
The monastic remains in Bedfordshire include the fine fragment of the church of the Augustinian priory at Dunstable, serving as the parish church; the church (also imperfect) of Elstow near Bedford, which belonged to a Benedictine nunnery founded by Judith, niece of William the Conqueror; and portions of the Gilbertine Chicksands Priory and of a Cistercian foundation at Old Warden.
Lesser mendicant orders sprang up in all directions - Gasquet mentions half a dozen such that found their way into England (English Monastic Life, p. 241) - in such numbers that the Council of Lyons in 1274 found it necessary to suppress all except the orders already named.
The sequestration of the monastic estates, which in 1864 covered nearly one-third of Rumania, was due to flagrant abuses.
The dates assigned to this event vary from 1299, given by Urechia, to 1342, given by the monastic chronicle of Putna..
He introduced several internal reforms, codified the written and unwritten laws of the country, established a printing press, Greek monastic schools, and also a Latin school.
His very reforms alienated the goodwill of all classes; of the nobles, by the abolition of forced labour; of the clergy, by the confiscation of monastic estates; of the masses, by the introduction of a tobacco monopoly and the inevitable collapse of the inflated hopes to which his agrarian reforms had given rise.
There were also in 1905 about 750 members of 10 monastic and religious orders.
Between 1754 and 1764 he published a series of theological treatises, their main tendency being to modify the rigid scholastic system by an appeal to the Fathers, notably Augustine; from 1759 to 1762 he travelled in Germany, Italy and France, mainly with a view to examining the collections of documents in the various monastic libraries.
There are a few monastic remains, the chief being two gatehouses.
They sometimes even laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress.
In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas Castrensis.
In 1784 he was appointed professor of Oriental languages and hermeneutics in the university of Lemberg, when he took the degree of doctor of divinity; and shortly afterwards he was released from his monastic vows on the intervention of the emperor.
Having received a monastic education, he became archdeacon of Liege and papal legate of Innocent IV.
This great prelate was an ecclesiastical reformera leader in a movement for the general purification of morals, and especially for the repressing of simony and evil-living among the clergy a great builder of churches, and a stringent enforcer of the rules of the monastic life.
In especial the great monastic revival which had started from the abbey of Cluny and spread all over France, Italy and Germany had hardly touched this island.
Among the monastic orders, whose crowded common life seems to have been particularly favorable to the spread of the plague, there were cases where a whole community, from the abbot down to the novices, perished.
In nothing is the general stagnation of the church in the later 15th century shown better than by the gradual cessation of the monastic chronicles.
The only monastic chronicler who went on writing for a few years after the extinction of the house of York was the Croyland continuator.
Truculent pamphieteers like Simon Fish, who wrote Beggars Supplication, were already demanding that these sturdy boobies should be set abroad into the world, to get wives of their own, and earn their living by the sweat of their brows, according to the commandment of God; so might the king be better obeyed, matrimony be better kept, the gospel better preached, and none should rob the poor of his alms. It must be added that monastic scandals were not rare; though the majority of the houses were decently ordered, yet the unexceptionable testimony of archiepiscopal and episcopal visitations shows that in the years just before the Reformation there was a certain number of them where chastity of life and honesty of administration were equally unknown.
That they exaggerated the evils of monastic life hardly admits of doubt; but even a Henry VIII.
The line of monastic historians stretches out to the close of the middle ages.
In the i4th century there is a significant deterioration in the monastic chroniclers, and their place is taken by the works of secular clergy like Adam Murimuth, Geoffrey the Baker, Robert of Avesbury, Henry Knighton and the anonymous author of the Eulogium historictrum.
Monastic history is represented by Higdens voluminous Polychronicon, which succeeds the Flores historiarum.
Ecclesiastical records are represented by the episcopal registers (for the most part still unpublished), monastic cartularies, and other documents rendered comparatively scarce by the spoliation of the monasteries, and scattered proceedings of ecclesiastical courts.
But, in the utilization of the monks as the best of the Church's forces, the Western Church far surpasses the East, where meditation rather than practical activity is the monastic ideal.
There are many fine pagodas and monastic buildings in the town.
Monastic vows Mirabeau After the insurrection of October he sought to coin- and the court.
These latter notions show plainly, what indeed might be inferred from a study of the list as a whole, that it represents the moral experience of the monastic life, which for some centuries was more and more unquestioningly regarded as in a peculiar sense " religious."
We have, however, to distinguish in the case of the gospel between (1) absolute commands and (2) " counsels," which latter recommend, without positively ordering the monastic life of poverty, celibacy and obedience as the best method of effectively turning the will from earthly to heavenly things.
The Roman Catholics have diocesan schools, schools under religious orders, monastic and convent schools, and Christian Brothers' schools, which were attended, according to the census returns in 1901, by nearly 22,000 pupils, male and female.
The schools under the commissioners include national schools proper, model and workhouse schools and a number of monastic and convent schools.
In any case the ideal of the apostle from Britain was almost certainly very different from the monastic system in vogue in Ireland in the 6th and 7th centuries.
St Patrick himself in his Confession makes mention of monks in Ireland in connexion with his mission, but the few glimpses we get of the monastic life of the decades immediately following his death prove that the earliest type of coenobium differed considerably from that known at a later period.
Thus, St Mochta, abbot of Louth, and a reputed disciple of St Patrick, is stated to have had no less than ioo bishops in his monastic family.
All the bishops in a coenobium were subject to the abbot; but besides the bishop in the monastic families, every tuath or tribe had its own bishop. The church in Ireland having been evolved out of the monastic nuclei already described the tribe bishop was an episcopal development of a somewhat later period.
Bishops without dioceses and monastic bishops were not unknown outside Ireland in the Eastern and Western churches in very early times, but they had disappeared with rare exceptions in the 6th century when the Irish reintroduced the monastic bishops and the monastic church into Britain and the continent.
Twelve of Findian's disciples became known as the twelve apostles of Ireland, the monastic schools they founded becoming the greatest centres of learning and religious instruction not only in Ireland, but in the whole of the west of Europe.
The chief reform due to the influence of the British church 1 seems to have been the introduction of monastic life in the strict sense of the word, i.e.
Hitherto the Scandinavian section of the church in Ireland had been most decidedly inclined to receive the hierarchical and diocesan as distinguished from the monastic and quasi-tribal system.
Many Irish parishes grew out of primitive monasteries, but other early settlements remained monastic, and were compelled by the popes to adopt the rule of authorized orders, generally that of the Augustinian canons.
Jacob's main preoccupation was the reform of monastic life, the grave disorders of which he deplored, and to this end he wrote his Petitiones religiosorum pro reformatione sui status.
Probably these are relics, not of the necropolis of the ancient Zone, but of a monastic community of Dervishes, of the Dede sect, which was established here in the 15th century, shortly after the Turkish conquest, and gave to the place its name.
That system of thought, after passing through the minds of those who saw it in the hazy light of an orientalized Platonism, and finding many laborious but narrow-purposed cultivators in the monastic schools of heretical Syria, was then brought into contact with the ideas and mental habits of Islam.
He suffered much persecution from the Syrian clergy for his fearless censure of their irregular lives, and was expelled from the church, thereupon establishing an episcopal monastic community.
The number of monastic communities is about 3250, including some 600 convents for men and 2650 for women.
This revival of Church and monastic influence began during the reign of Alphonso XII., 1877-1885, and considerably increased afterwards under the regency of Queen Christina, during the long minority of Alphonse XIII., the godson of Pope Leo XIII.
To this age also taiy Orders, belongs the formation of the great monastic military orders of Calatrava, Santiago and Alcflntara.
The most honorable passage in its history is the part it took in forwarding the great, though temporary, reform of the monastic orders, which was a favorite object with Queen Isabella.
The members live in community, and each pays his own expenses, having the usufruct of his private means - a startling innovation on the monastic vow of poverty.
Odeler's respect for the monastic profession is attested by his own retirement, a few years later, into a religious house which Earl Roger had founded at his persuasion.
In 1842 he withdrew to Littlemore, and lived there under monastic conditions with a small band of followers, their life being one of great physical austerity as well as of anxiety and suspense.
On the "Contestation" on Monastic Studies, see Maitland, Dark Ages, § x.
Among public institutions are the university, which occupies part of the old Jesuit college, an astronomical observatory, and eleven large monastic institutions, six of which are for nuns.
Two journeys to Rome on monastic business afforded him the opportunity of travelling over most of Italy; and after his final return he saw much of France, while acting as secretary to various provincials of his order there.
This elevated, grassy ridge provides an excellent vantage point for viewing and understanding the monastic complex.
She invited him to join the monastic community as a lay brother and to continue writing sacred songs in the language of the people.
These monastic manuals and compendiums of knowledge came to dominate the intellectual life of monastic institutions and gained an almost canonical status.
The tradition sees absolute celibacy as essential to the monastic lifestyle.
He died a centenarian after eighty years of monastic life.
Early in 2001 a northern cloister was opened where once the monastic cloister stood.
We view the site of an underground prison, monastic foundations, a Jacobean Hall, a 16th gatehouse and an 18th century courthouse.
It can even be questioned whether monastic life is the best setting in which to seek enlightenment.
Monasteries could also build monastic granges and other farm buildings, dovecotes, mills, churches and chapels.
By the 14th century, large upland areas of the Yorkshire Dales were given over to monastic granges.
Ince Manor was a medieval monastic grange, at the center of an estate held by the Benedictine Abbey of St Werburgh, Chester.
He encouraged the laity to follow monastic practices such as fasting and meditation on the Gospels and lived himself in poverty.
They come from 20 different countries and have taken lifelong monastic vows, while at the same time retaining their own denominations.
As the name suggests Bolton Abbey was originally a large monastic Estate, based around the 12 th century priory.
Ours was an entirely masculine, almost monastic society.
An odd feature of the medieval Church in England was that a number of cathedrals were also monastic churches.
Or we fall into the category of trying to maintain too monastic a diet for too long.
The Western Buddhist milieu may also require a heuristic recovery of the Vinaya tradition of Buddhist monastic regulation.
Examine the sundial in the forecourt, believed to be of 8th century monastic origin.
It therefore becomes a perversion as in the case of monastic ecstasy before mentioned.
This site offered the monks greater scope for the laying out of a monastic precinct on a large scale.
After the Dissolution, the rectories and advowsons formerly held by monastic houses were sold, so that there were many lay rectors.
The repeated alterations may have taken their toll on the medieval buildings of the former monastic refectory.
Clugny became the reformer, not only of the order of St. Benedict, but of monastic life in general.
Styli from the monastic scriptorium testify to the writing that formed part of the daily work of the monks.
In monastic times here was the Cellarer's Checker where supplies would be stored in the 13th century undercroft.
On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
Other decrees denounced the abuse of indulgences, of festivals of saints, and of processions and suggested reforms; others again enjoined the closing of shops on Sunday during divine service, the issue of service-books with parallel translations in the vernacular, and recommended the abolition of all monastic orders except that of St Benedict, the rules of which were to be brought into harmony with modern ideas; nuns were to be forbidden to take the vows before the age of 40.
Before the Revolution the town possessed several monastic establishments, of which the most important were the abbey of Saint Allyre, founded, it is said, in the 3rd century by St Austremonius (St Stremoine), the apostle of Auvergne and first bishop of Clermont, and the abbey of St Andre, where the counts of Clermont were interred.
The De Institutione Coenobiorum (twelve books) describes the dress, the food, the devotional exercises, the discipline and the special spiritual dangers of monastic life in the East (gluttony, unchastity, avarice, anger, gloom, apathy, vanity and pride).
Gasquet, English Monastic Life, pp. 2 34249 (1904), where special information on all the English friars is coveniently brought together..
There existed, no doubt, special maps of European countries, but the only documents of that description are two maps of Great Britain, the one of the 12th century, the other by Matthew of Paris, the famous historiographer of the monastery of St Albans (1236-1259).1 Celestial globes were known in the time of Bede; they formed part of the educational apparatus of the monastic schools.
In the passage cited above, "monastic discipline, the daily charge of singing in the church, learning, teaching, writing," in other words devotion and study make up the even tenor of Bede's tranquil life.
The separation of church and state is provided for by the constitution, and both the nation and the states are forbidden to establish, subsidize or restrict the exercise of any religious worship. Foreigners are eligible to Brazilian citizenship, and the right of suffrage is conferred upon all male citizens over twenty-one years of age, except beggars, illiterates, the rank and file of the armed forces, members of monastic orders, &c., bound by private vows, and all unregistered citizens.
After his elevation he wrote an abridgment for his monks of IEthelwold's De consuetudine monachorum, 5 adapted to their rudimentary ideas of monastic life; a letter to Wulfgeat of Ylmandun 6; an introduction to the study of the Old and New Testaments (about io08, edited by William L'Isle in 1623); a Latin life of his master i z Ethelwold 7; a pastoral letter for Wulfstan, archbishop of York and bishop of Worcester, in Latin and English; and an English version of Bede's De Temporibus.8 The Colloquium, 9 a Latin dialogue designed to serve his scholars as a manual of Latin conversation, may date from his life at Cernel.
Du Cange discovered and quoted a deed of donation by him dated 1207, by which certain properties were devised to the churches of Notre Dame de Foissy and Notre Dame de Troyes, with the reservation of life interests to his daughters Alix and Damerones, and his sisters Emmeline and Haye, all of whom appear to have embraced a monastic life.
In 371-372 the people of Tours chose him for their bishop. He did much to extirpate idolatry from his diocese and from France, and to extend the monastic system.
The dissidence of dissent, however, filled him with uneasiness, and he abhorred Luther's denial of free will and his exaggerated notion of man's utter depravity; in short, he did nothing whatever to promote the Protestant revolt, except so far as his frank denunciation and his witty arraignment of clerical and monastic weaknesses and soulless ceremonial, especially in his Praise of Folly and Colloquies, contributed to bring the faults of the Church into strong relief, and in so far as his edition of the New Testament furnished a simple escape from innumerable theological complications.
The king had now clarified the ancient laws of the realm to his satisfaction, and could proceed to abolish superstitious rites, remedy abuses, and seize such portions of the Church's possessions, especially pious and monastic foundations, as he deemed superfluous for the maintenance of religion.
They ceased to appeal to the Virgin and saints, and to venerate images and relics, procure indulgences and go on pilgrimages, they deprecated the monastic life, and no longer nourished faith by the daily repetition of miracles, but in the witch persecutions their demonology cost the lives of thousands of innocent women.
The best example, however, of a full-blown priestly system with a monastic hierarchy grafted in this way on a religion originally not priestly is found in Tibetan Buddhism (see LAMAisM), and similar causes undoubtedly had their share in the development of sacerdotalism in the Christian Church.
The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MoNASTtersM) with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement.
In the registers of these popes, which are now being actively investigated and published, dispensations (licences to violate the laws of the Church); indulgences; imposts levied with increasing regularity on universal Christendom and, in particular, on the clerks; the settlement of questions relating to church debts; the granting of lucrative benefices to Roman functionaries; the divers processes by which the Curia acquired the immediate disposal of monastic, capitulary and episcopal revenues - in short, all financial matters are of the first importance.