But it was no more a chantry than the other colleges, all of which, like the monasteries and collegiate churches, were to pray for their founders' and other specified souls.
The village of Siloam has also increased in size, and the western slopes of Olivet are being covered with churches, monasteries and houses.
As an ecclesiastic Morton followed orthodox Lancastrian lines: in 1489 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to visit and reform the monasteries, and he proceeded with some vigour against the abuses in the abbey of St Albans.
of Radautz are situated the old monasteries of Putna and Suczawica, dating from the 15th century.
They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
An early form of the name is Patricsey or Peter's Island; the manor at the time of the Domesday survey, and until the suppression of the monasteries, belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster.
It excited also the animosity of the nobles jealous of their privileges, and of the monasteries, which were called upon to furnish the revenues for the new sees.
The whole land was full of violence, the very bishops storming rich monasteries at the head of armed retainers.
Of these, 126 monasteries and 90 convents were situated in the city, 51 monasteries and 22 convents in the suburbicariates.
The law of 1873 created a special charitable and religious fund of the city, while it left untouched 23 monasteries and 49 convents which had either the character of private institutions or were supported by foreign funds.
More questionable was Josephs policy in closing and confiscating the property of 213 of the richer monasteries of the land.
Eight monasteries were expropriated to make room for the chief state departments, pending the construction of more suitable edifices.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.
Passing from pride to humility he added "servant of the apostle," and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries.
Exempt jurisdictions began with the monasteries and were matter of vehement discussion in the later middle ages.
The tsar Michael, in the earlier 17th century, confirmed these immunities in the case of the clergy of the patriarch's own diocese, but provided that in country places belonging to his diocese, monasteries, churches and lands should be judged in secular matters by the Court of the Great Palace, theoretically held before the tsar himself (ib.
In the middle ages the nocturnal vigilia were, except in the monasteries, gradually discontinued, matins and vespers on the preceding day, with fasting, taking their place.
There are many other, though slighter, remains of the ancient churches and monasteries of Kampen; but the most remarkable building is the old town-hall, which is unsurpassed in Holland.
By the ancient canons all monasteries were to spend at least a tenth part of their income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were required to keep almoners.
Although he wrote poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern, with the stories of the composers and singers.
coming from the suppressed Argovian monasteries.
Several monasteries of less importance exist in the neighbourhood.
There were in 1907 3500 Greek churches in the island with 53 monasteries and 3 nunneries; S5 mosques, 4 Roman Catholic churches and 4 synagogues.
St Mary over the river), receiving its present name after the suppression of the monasteries.
Its chapel became the parish church on the suppression of the monasteries.
This combination of the contemplative life and the life of learning had already developed in the Egyptian monasteries.
His chief works are: - Hodoeporicon, an account of a journey taken by the pope's command, during which he visited the monasteries of Italy; a translation of Palladius' Life of Chrysostom; of Nineteen Sermons of Ephraem Syrus; of the Book of St Basil on Virginity.
Nisibis early became the seat of a Jacobite bishop and of a Nestorian metropolitan, and under the Arabs (when it continued to flourish and became the centre of the district of Diya`r Rebi`a) the population of the town and neighbourhood was still mostly Christian, and included numerous monasteries.
The bulk lead really excellent lives in monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
Armed with it he passed safely into heathen Germany and began a systematic crusade, baptizing, overturning idols, founding churches and monasteries, and calling from England a band of missionary helpers, monks and nuns, some of whom have become famous: St Lull, his successor in the see at Mainz; St Burchard, bishop of Wurzburg; St Gregory, abbot at Utrecht; Willibald, his biographer; St Lioba, St Walburge, St Thecla.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
and described it as containing 30 Buddhist monasteries, with about 3000 monks, and about l00 temples of Hindu gods.
Dmitri of Rostov, was welcomed with enthusiasm by the monks of the monasteries of St.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
On June 24, 200 Russian soldiers landed on Mount Athos, and a month later 600 of the monks were deported to Russia, where they were distributed as prisoners in various monasteries.
In 808 Charlemagne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers for the prince and the state were due.
A devoted son of the church, he founded five bishoprics and many monasteries.
It has several large churches, and formerly possessed five monasteries and three nunneries, which have been closed and their edifices devoted to educational and other public purposes.
The later middle ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepee and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac, on Owing to the scarcity of authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the events of the next three centuries.
The non-Mussulman population is divided into millets, or religious communities, which are allowed the free exercise of their religion and the control of their own monasteries, schools and hospitals.
As a Jesuit father, Courtois painted many works in churches and monasteries of the society.
Three monasteries in the Valcea department, those of Bistritza, Cozia and Horezu, are among the finest in Walachia.
8 Another, Nestorian who, a few years later, wrote ecclesiastical biographies and other theological works was Sabhrisho` Rustam, who lived at Mount Izla and other monasteries.
This work is a collection of lives of holy men who founded monasteries in the East, and is a valuable historical source.
His zeal in founding monasteries earned for him his surname "the Pious," and canonization by Pope Innocent VIII.
The chief homes of medical as of other learning in these disturbed times were the monasteries.
On the dissolution of the monasteries the manor was granted to the earl of Derby.
on the dissolution of the monasteries.
Certain of the schools were re-endowed after the dissolution of the monasteries.
This constant burning of large portions of the city is a marked feature of its early history, and we must remember that, although stone buildings were rising on all sides, these were churches, monasteries, and other public edifices; the ordinary houses remained as before, small wooden structures.
It was usual to plant these monasteries in solitary and uncultivated places, and no other house, even of their own order, was allowed to build within a certain distance of the original establishment.
(Matilda or Maud) was one of the chief founders of religious houses, and so great was the number of monasteries built in this king's reign that it was said almost all the labourers became bricklayers and carpenters and there was much discontent in consequence.
Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.
The monasteries and friaries are kept in memory by their names in various parts of London.
As the chief feature of Norman London was the foundation of monasteries, and that of Plantagenet London was the estab-?
The standard of instruction, however, is very low, consisting only of reading and writing, though this is gradually being improved in very many monasteries.
He was likewise a good churchman and an able administrator of his diocese; he encouraged the reformation of the clergy and the monasteries.
Other pictures are scattered about in the churches, monasteries and private palaces.
Of the monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince Corsini.
He made a pilgrimage to tile Holy Land, and visited various monasteries of his order; but he is famous as the author of some Annales.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
400; his successor Hsiian Tsang, about 650, states that it then contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.
Monasteries and nunneries are numerous, dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, but their influence is now less potent than in those days and the monastic population is not so large.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
With the object of providing for the transmission of divine and human knowledge to later ages, and of securing it against the tide of barbarism which threatened to sweep it away, he founded two monasteries - Vivarium and Castellum - in his ancestral domains at Squillace (others identify the two monasteries).
However fiercely conducted, it failed, though the Uniate Church with slighter powers of resistance was now completely forced into Orthodoxy, its ceremonial being definitely forbidden and its monasteries dissolved.
The liberality of William the Lion had bestowed upon the corporation an extensive grant of lands; while in addition to the well-endowed church of St John, it had two monasteries, each possessed of a fair revenue.
700, which contain forms almost identical with the received text, are connected with monasteries founded by Columban and his friends: Bobbio, Luxeuil, S.
From one of these monasteries the received text seems to have been taken to Rome.
When they returned to Palestine they all settled at Bethlehem, where Paula built four monasteries, three for nuns and one for monks.
He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.
A priory of friars of the Holy Trinity was founded at Hounslow in 1296, and existed till the dissolution of the monasteries.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
A story had gone about, even in the days of John of Gaunt, who, if we may trust the rhymer John Hardyng (Chronicle, pp. 290, 291), had got it inserted in chronicles deposited in various monasteries, that this Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, was really hump-backed, and that he was set aside in favour of his younger brother Edward on account of his deformity.
As is natural in a place long celebrated for its religious and educational pre-eminence, there is no lack of temples, monasteries and colleges, but few of these are of any architectural significance.
A " reformed " prince could seize the property of the monasteries, and appropriate such ecclesiastical foundations as he desired.
The schism extended down to the bishoprics, and even to the monasteries and parishes, where partisans of the rival popes struggled to obtain possession of sees and benefices.
Hundreds of castles and monasteries were destroyed by the frantic peasantry, and some of the nobles were murdered with shocking cruelty.
During the same years the monasteries, lesser and greater, were dissolved, and the chief shrines were despoiled, notably that of St Thomas of Canterbury.
He was also zealous for the reform of the church, and particularly for the reform of the monasteries; and it is greatly to his credit that he did not avail himself of the extremely favourable opportunities he possessed of becoming a pluralist.
At the time of the secularization of Church properties there were about 120 religious edifices in the city - churches, convents, monasteries, &c. - many of which were turned over to secular uses.
Subiaco in the Abruzzi was the cradle of the Benedictines, and in that neighbourhood St Benedict established twelve monasteries.
These fourteen are the only monasteries of which we have any knowledge as being founded before St Benedict's death; for the mission of St Placidus to Sicily must certainly be regarded as mere romance, nor does there seem to be any solid reason for viewing more favourably the mission of St Maurus to Gaul.
It is doubtful whether in Spain there were Benedictine monasteries, properly so called, until a later period.
As the result of their missionary enterprises the Benedictines penetrated into all these lands and established monasteries, so that by the 10th or 1 1th century Benedictine houses existed in great numbers throughout the whole of Latin Christendom except Ireland.
These monasteries became centres of civilizing influences by the method of presenting object-lessons in organized work, in agriculture, in farming, in the arts and trades, and also in.
The monasteries, however, played a great part in the educational side of the Carolingian revival; and certainly from that date schools for boys destined to live and work in the world were commonly attached to Benedictine monasteries.
In those times the monasteries were the only places of security and rest in western Europe, the only places where letters could in any measure be cultivated.
It was in the monasteries that the writings of Latin antiquity, both classical and ecclesiastical, were transcribed and preserved.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
For this purpose a synod of abbots was assembled at Aix-laChapelle in 817, and a series of 80 Capitula passed, regulating the life of the monasteries.
For the first four or five centuries of Benedictine history there was no organic bond between any of the monasteries; each house formed an independent autonomous family, managing its own affairs and subject to no external authority or control except that of the bishop of the diocese.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
In the course of the 12th century sporadic and limited unions of Black Monk monasteries arose in different parts.
It was decreed that the Benedictine houses of each ecclesiastical province should henceforth be federated for the purposes of mutual help and the maintenance of discipline, and that for these ends the abbots should every third year meet in a provincial chapter (or synod), in order to pass laws binding on all and to appoint visitors who, in addition to the bishops, should canonically visit the monasteries and report on their condition in spirituals and temporals to the ensuing chapter.
In the German lands, where the most typical congregation was the Bursfeld Union (1446), which finally embraced over loo monasteries throughout Germany, the system was kept on the lines of the Lateran decree and the bull Benedictina, and received only some further developments in the direction of greater organization; but in Italy the congregation of S.
Justina at Padua (1421), afterwards called the Cassinese, departed altogether from the old lines, setting up a highly centralized government, after the model of the Italian republics, whereby the autonomy of the monasteries was destroyed, and they were subjected to the authority of a central governing board.
and the Monasteries; J.
Three or four monasteries of the revived English Benedictines were established on the continent at the beginning of the 17th century, and remained there till driven back to England by the French Revolution.
In Italy, Spain, Portugal and Brazil only a few monasteries survive the various revolutions, and in a crippled state; but signs are not wanting of renewed life: St Benedict's own monasteries of Subiaco and Monte Cassino are relatively flourishing.
Thus the Benedictine polity may be described as a number of autonomous federations of autonomous monasteries.
There are several monasteries in the neighbourhood.
He revoked numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors upon idle courtiers, and, meeting the reproach of sacrilege made by the patriarch of Constantinople by a decree of exile, resumed a proportion of the revenues of the wealthy monasteries.
The monasteries raised an outcry when people were found eating flesh in Lent, and the bishop of Constance accused.
After this time he is mentioned as head of several monasteries: St Peter, Mount Blandin and St Bavon at Ghent, St Servais at Maastricht, St Cloud near Paris, and Fontenelle near Rouen, and he also had charge of the church of St John the Baptist at Pavia.
Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g.
There are over 60 Buddhist monasteries.
The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, De Reformatione monasteriorum, shows that in the 15th century grave relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
In England there were as many as 200 houses of Augustinian canons, and 60 of them were among the "greater monasteries" suppressed in 1538-1540 (for list see Tables in F.
He returned to his cave, but disciples flocked to him, and in time he formed twelve monasteries in the neighbourhood, placing twelve monks in each, and himself retaining a general control over all.
Driven from Subiaco by the jealousy and molestations of a neighbouring priest, but leaving behind him communities in his twelve monasteries, he himself, accompanied by a small band of disciples, journeyed south until he came to Cassino, a town halfway between Rome and Naples.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Franciscan and Trappist monasteries, a girls' school, belonging to the Sisterhood of the Sacred Blood of Nazareth, a real-school and a Turkish bazaar.
Towns were walled, where it was decreed markets and assemblies should be held, churches and monasteries were founded, civilization was extended and learning encouraged.
He sought to spread Christianity by introducing the Cistercians, founding bishoprics, and building churches and monasteries.
During his early years the Irish Church was reformed by Gildas and Finian of Clonard, and numerous monasteries were founded which made Ireland renowned as a centre of learning.
During his residence in Ireland he founded, in addition to a number of churches, two famous monasteries, one named Daire Calgaich (Derry) on the banks of Lough Foyle, the other Dair-magh (Durrow) in King's county.
The precise details, except in a few cases, are unknown, or obscured by exaggeration and fiction; but it is certain that the whole of northern Scotland was converted by the labours of Columba, and his disciples and the religious instruction of the people provided for by the erection of numerous monasteries.
The accounts given by some writers as to the profligacy and immorality in the monasteries are grossly exaggerated.
Some of the priests are learned in the Buddhist scriptures, and most of the Pali scholarship in Siam is to be found in monasteries, but there is no learning of a secular nature.
As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
He assisted the king in his studies, received from him the monasteries of Congresbury and Banwell, and sometime later "Exeter and its diocese in Saxonland and Cornwall."
Erasmus was eager to go to .a university, but the guardians, acting under a perhaps genuine enthusiasm for the religious life, sent the boys to another school at Hertogenbosch; and when they returned after two or three years, prevailed on them to enter monasteries.
Erasmus would have suppressed the monasteries, put an end to the domination.
In the 5th and 6th centuries Egypt and Palestine had been the classic lands of monks and monasteries.
The monasteries, too, learned to serve the Church by becoming nurseries of literary and theological culture.
The energy of a succession of distinguished abbots and the disciples whom they inspired succeeded in bringing about the victory of the reforming ideas in the French monasteries; once more the rule of St Benedict controlled the life of the monks.
A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
Everywhere the object was the same: the supreme obligation of the Rule, the renewal of discipline, and also the economic improvement of the monasteries.
Under the influence of these ideas, in part purely Christian and in part neo-platonic, piety gained in warmth and depth and became more personal; and though at first it flourished in the monasteries, and in those of the mendicant orders especially, it penetrated far beyond them and influenced the laity everywhere.
His contemporary, Cassiodorus (c. 480-c. 575), after spending thirty years in the service of the Ostrogothic dynasty at Ravenna, passed the last thirty-three years of his long life on the shores of the Bay of Squillace, where he founded two monasteries and diligently trained their inmates to become careful copyists.
More than ten years before Cassiodorus founded his monasteries in the south of Italy, Benedict of Nursia (480-543) had rendered a more permanent service to the cause of scholarship by building, amid the ruins of the temple of Apollo on the crest of Monte Cassino, the earliest of those homes of learning that have lent an undying distinction to the Benedictine order.
In some monasteries several priors were to be found and generally at least two.
As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also rendered his country inestimable services, building churches and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and enlightenment.
iipxwv, a ruler, and µav5pa, a fold or monastery), a title in the Greek Church applied to a superior abbot, who has the supervision of several abbots and monasteries, or to the abbot of some specially great and important monastery, the title for an ordinary abbot being hegumenos.
monasteries, amongst the lower clergy, amongst the humble and lowly and ignorant.
In 676 he ravaged Kent with fire and sword, destroying the monasteries and churches and taking Rochester.
These hours were adopted especially in the monasteries as a part of the canonical life, and spread thence to the cathedral and collegiate chapters.
Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
The real founder of coenobian (KOLvos, common, and (31os, life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 4th century.
Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 camel-drivers and 15 tanners.
This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing an area of between 3 and 4 acres.
Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the Levant.
His rule was diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and splendour.
The number of these monasteries founded between A.D.
We have no existing examples of the earlier monasteries of the Benedictine order.
The buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into groups.
On this side in later monasteries we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of which in this plan is somewhat surprising.
We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to determine with precision the disposition of the various buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist.
By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.
The same spirit manifested itself in the choice of the sites of their monasteries.
The Cistercian monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered valleys.
p. 335.) All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan.
The usually unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order.
In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church.
Other ecclesiastical buildings were the monasteries of Blackfriars (1230) and Greyfriars (1470) and the preceptory of Maisondieu (1240).
During the founder's lifetime the order spread rapidly, and eventually there were about 150 monasteries in Italy, and others in France, Bohemia and the Netherlands.
A large number of the Gregorian and Protestant Armenian clergy and people were massacred, and churches, monasteries and houses were looted.
There are several monasteries and convents, and British, French and German schools.
At the beginning the order had a great vogue, and at the time of Robert's death, 1117, there were several monasteries and 3000 nuns; afterwards the number of monasteries reached 57, all organized on the same plan.
in length, with a breadth varying from 4 to 7 m.; its whole area belongs to the various monasteries.
In the 14th century the peninsula became the chosen retreat of several of the emperors, and the monasteries were thrown into commotion by the famous dispute over the mystical Hesychasts.
The twenty monasteries, which all belong to the order of St Basil, are: Laura (I) Aaupa), founded in 963; Vatopedi (Bar07rE&ov), said to have been founded by the emperor Theodosius; Rossikon (`P wa rtKOv), the Russian monastery of St Panteleimon; Chiliandari (XcXcavrfiptov: supposed to be derived from xiXcoc tiv6pEs or?
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
Dependent on the several monasteries are twelve sketae (cnth rat) or monastic settlements, some of considerable size, in which a still more ascetic mode of life prevails: there are, in addition, several farms (Aeroxia), and many hundred sanctuaries with adjoining habitations (K€XXLa) and hermitages (fiQKrtri) pca).
The monasteries, with the exception of Rossikon (St Panteleimon) and the Serbo-Bulgarian Chiliandari and Zographu, are occupied exclusively by Greek monks.
The tasteless style of its modern buildings is out of harmony with the quaint beauty of the other monasteries.
The monasteries, which are all fortified, generally consist of large quadrangles enclosing churches; standing amid rich foliage, they present a wonderfully picturesque appearance, especially when viewed from the sea.
The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
Some of the monasteries were seriously damaged by an earthquake in 1905.
C. Curzon, Visits to Monasteries in the Levant (London, 1849); J.
There were formerly Dominican and Franciscan monasteries in the town.
Killala was formerly a bishopric. The monasteries were numerous, and many of them of considerable importance: the principal being those at Mayo, Ballyhaunis, Cong, Ballinrobe, Ballintober, Burrishoole, Cross or Holycross in the peninsula of Mullet, Moyne, Roserk or Rosserick and Templemore or Strade.
Throughout the island there are numerous monasteries and other buildings of Venetian erection, of which the best known are Paleocastrizza, San Salvador and Pelleka.
The papacy of this period continually intervened in the internal affairs of the monasteries.
His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.
For this purpose he resided like a monk for several years among the lamas at the monasteries of Zangla and Pukdal in Zanskar and latterly at Kanum in upper Bashahr, enjoying the assistance of learned lamas.
There is also a Tsong-du or National Assembly, divided into a greater assembly, including all government officials, and called together only to decide on matters of supreme importance, and a lesser assembly, consisting of certain high officials of Lhasa, noblemen, and delegates from the monasteries of Debung, Sera and Galdan, and fairly constantly in session.
When the power of the Sakya began to wane, that of the rival monasteries of Digung, Phagdub and Tshal increased largely, and their respective influence and authority overbalanced that of the successors of Phagspa.
When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.
The Armenians called them wanq, and out of them grew the monasteries.
He declared that the cenobitical life is superior to the eremitical; that fasting and austerities should not interfere with prayer or work; that work should form an integral part of the monastic life, not merely as an occupation, but for its own sake and in order to do good to others; and therefore that monasteries should be near towns.
x cix., 1704_ 1 757), which became the norm of the life at the Studium monastery, and gradually spread thence to the monasteries of the rest of the Greek empire.
The first monastery to be founded here was that of St Athanasius (c. 960), and in the course of the next three or four centuries monasteries in great numbers - Greek, Slavonic and one Latin - were established on Mount Athos, some twenty of which still survive.
Rufinus had translated St Basil's Rules into Latin (c. 400) and they became the rule of life in certain Italian monasteries.
In the 6th and 7th centuries there appear to have been Greek monasteries in Rome and south Italy and especially in Sicily.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
Professor Kirsopp Lake has (1903) written four valuable articles (Journal of Theological Studies, iv., v.) on "The Greek monasteries of South Italy"; he deals in detail with their scriptoria and the dispersal of their libraries, a matter of much interest, in that some of the chief collections of Greek MSS.
The monastic institute had a great development in Russia, and at the present day there are in the Russian empire some 400 monasteries of men and Ioo of women, many of which support hospitals, almshouses and schools.
In the other Slavonic lands there are a considerable number of monasteries, as also in Greece itself, while in the Turkish dominions there are no fewer than zoo Greek monasteries.
The monasteries are of three kinds: cenobia proper, wherein full monastic common life, with personal poverty, is observed; others called idiorrhythmic, wherein the monks are allowed the use of their private means and lead a generally mitigated and free kind of monastic life; and the lauras, wherein the life is semi-eremitical.
The visits of Western scholars in modern times to Greek monasteries in search of MSS.
(1837) of the Monasteries of the Levant; the most recent in English is Athelstan Riley's Athos (1887).
Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.
Since the suppression of the monasteries there has been no legal establishment for professed persons in.
9 But the devoted Anskar (801-865) went forth and sought out the Scandinavian Viking, and handed on the torch of self-denying zeal to others, who saw, after the lapse of many years, the close of the monotonous tale of burning churches and pillaged monasteries, and taught the fierce Northman to learn respect for civilized institutions.
He founded several monasteries, and a similar work was also performed by St Emmeran, bishop of Poitiers; with the result that before long the bulk of the people professed Christianity and relations were established between Bavaria and Rome.
Restored in 985, Henry proved himself a capable ruler by establishing internal order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the monasteries.
In 1472 he founded the university of Ingolstadt, attempted to reform the monasteries, and was successful in a struggle with Albert Achilles of Brandenburg.
Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries earned for him the surname of Pious, was almost elected king of Bohemia in 1440.
The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained from the pope extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries, and took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits, whom he invited into the duchy in 1541, made the university of Ingolstadt their headquarters for Germany.
Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria (1651-1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
He received the best education to be had at the time, and was noted for his proficiency in the arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic. Entering on a public career he held, about 573, the high office of prefect of the city of Rome; but about 574, feeling irresistibly attracted to the "religious" life, he resigned his post, founded six monasteries in Sicily and one in Rome, and in the last - the famous monastery of St Andrew - became himself a monk.
Gregory sought to protect the monks from episcopal oppression by issuing privilegia, or charters in restraint of abuses, in accordance with which the jurisdiction of the bishops over the monasteries was confined to spiritual matters, all illegal aggressions being strictly prohibited.
and of Thomas Cromwell, operations in the autumn, and, having been made a full general serving both king and minister in the business of suppressing on the 31st of August, during the winter he devoted his ex the monasteries, and he is said to have celebrated Henry's secret perience as an engineer to the fortification and general defence marriage with Anne Boleyn in January 1533.
His reign is also marked by the creation of numerous monasteries and by renewed missionary activity in Flanders and among the Basques.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
Of those who held no land a number received grants out of the confiscated estates of the nobility and monasteries.
In 1904 the village communities (peasantry) owned 43.8 °A of the total area; private owners, mostly nobles, 40.6%; the Crown and imperial family, 6%; and public bodies, such as towns and monasteries, 2.6%; while 3% was in the hands of the Jews.
It has to be emphasized at the outset that the monasteries in which the Benedictine rule was the basis of the life did not form a body or group apart within the great " monastic order," which embraced all monasteries of whatever rule; nor had Benedictine monks any special work or object beyond that common to all monks - viz.
central parts of Europe, and in the course of the 7th century the Irish rule of St Columban and the Roman rule of St Benedict met in the monasteries in central Europe that had been founded by Columban and his Irish monks.
In spite of the frequent pillage and destruction of monasteries by Northmen, Saracens, Arabs and other invaders; in spite of the existence of even widespread local abuses, St Benedict's institute went on progressing and consolidating; and on the whole it may be said that throughout the early middle ages the general run of Benedictine houses continued to perform with substantial fidelity the religious and social functions for which they were created.
As stated above, St Pachomius's monasteries formed an order - a curious anticipation of what six centuries later was to become the vogue in Western monasticism.
At Fontevrault (founded in 1095) the special feature was the system of " double monasteries " i.e.
neighbouring, but rigorously separated, monasteries of men and of women - the government being in the hands of the abbesses.
In other respects the life of canons regular in their monasteries, and the external policy and organization among their houses, differed little from what prevailed among the Black Benedictines; their superiors were usually provosts or priors, but sometimes abbots.
The Reformation and the religious wars that followed in its wake destroyed the monasteries and religious orders of all kinds in northern Europe and crippled them in central Europe.
Steele's Monasteries and Religious Houses of Great Britain and Ireland (1903).
notes 4 8, 49, 54, 59) Before his death in 346 Pachomius had established nine monasteries of men and one of women, and after his death other foundations continued to be made in all parts of Egypt, but especially in the south, and in Abyssinia.
The abbot of the head monastery was the superior-general of the whole institute; he nominated the superiors of the other monasteries; he was visitor and held periodical visitations at all of them; he exercised universal supervision, control and authority; and every year a general chapter was held at the head house.
Curzon's Monasteries of the Levant (1837), or in A.
Hardly half a dozen monasteries survive, inhabited by small and ever dwindling communities.
At the dissolution of monasteries in 1866 Monte Cassino was spared, owing mainly to a remonstrance by English well-wishers of United Italy.
He seems to have also reformed the method of conducting the divine services by the aid of his skilled chanters, lEdde and ZEona, and to have established or renewed the rule of St Benedict in the monasteries.
With the conversion of the Saxons the whole German race became nominally C~iristian; and their ruler was lavish in granting lands and privileges to prelates, and untiring in founding bishoprics, monasteries and schools.
By the end of this period Christianity had been firmly established among most of the German tribes; the monks were the trustees of the new learning, and we must look mainly, although not exclusively, to the monasteries for our authorities.
The work of the monks generally took the form of Annales or Chronica, and among the numerous German monasteries which are famous in this connection maybe mentioned Fulda, Reichenau, St Gall and Lorsch.
He extended his reforms to the collegiate churches (even to the fraternities of penitents and particularly that of St John the Baptist), and to the monasteries.
By the end of the 14th century there were upwards of a hundred monasteries, chiefly in Italy; and in the 18th there still were eighty, one of the most famous being San Miniato at Florence.
Still Christianity and the Greek tongue never died out; churches and monasteries received and held property; there still are saints and scholars.
After studying in various monasteries he became provost of St Benedict at Capua, and in 1055 obtained permission from Victor II.
Her mark, Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi," was found on the charter given by her brother, Thorold of Bucknall - sheriff of Lincolnshire - to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding in 1051; and she is commemorated as benefactress of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Wenlock, Worcester and Evesham.
It contains four monasteries, the remains of the famous anchorite settlement of Nitriae.
The ancient and celebrated Coptic monasteries El Abiad (the white) and El Ahmar (the red) are 3 to 4 m.
There are, besides the more ancient cities and monuments, a number of Coptic towns, monasteries and churches in almost every part of Egypt, dating from the early centuries of Christianity.
The monasteries, or ders, are generally fort-like buildings and are often built in the desert.
It is clear that the basis which they chose for the new literature was the simplest language of daily life in the monasteries, charged as it was with expressions taken from Greek, pre-eminently the language of patristic Christianity.
dialects, each of these having left abundant remains; the former spread over the Whole of Upper Egypt, and the latter since the 14th century has been the language of the sacred books of Christianity throughout the country, owing to the hierarchical importance of Alexandria and the influence of the ancient monasteries established in the north-western desert.
In particular the suppression of the monasteries benefited the crown in two ways.
That Alfred sent alms to Irish as well as to continental monasteries may be accepted on Asser's authority; the visit of the three pilgrim " Scots " (i.e.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
He spent immense sums on buildings of all sorts, on quays and harbours, on fortifications, repairing the walls of cities and erecting castles in Thrace to check the inroads of the barbarians, on aqueducts, on monasteries, above all, upon churches.
Besides many mosques and churches there are three monasteries (Syrian, Franciscan and Capuchin), and an important American Mission station, with church, schools and a medical officer.
Bulgarian, for nearly four centuries, ceased to be a written language except in a few monasteries; a literary revival, which began about the middle of the 18th century, was the first symptom of returning national consciousness.
There are no traces of the churches, monasteries or other principal buildings of the ancient town.
He had little difficulty in securing the Acts of Annates, Appeals and Supremacy which completed the separation from Rome, or the dissolution of the monasteries which, by transferring enormous wealth from the church to the crown, really, in Cecil's opinion, ensured the reformation.
The dissolution of the monasteries had meanwhile evoked a popular protest in the north, and it was only by skilful and unscrupulous diplomacy that Henry was enabled to suppress so easily the Pilgrimage of Grace.
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