Other pictures are scattered about in the churches, monasteries and private palaces.
Eight monasteries were expropriated to make room for the chief state departments, pending the construction of more suitable edifices.
They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
Of these, 126 monasteries and 90 convents were situated in the city, 51 monasteries and 22 convents in the suburbicariates.
But it was no more a chantry than the other colleges, all of which, like the monasteries and collegiate churches, were to pray for their founders' and other specified souls.
of Radautz are situated the old monasteries of Putna and Suczawica, dating from the 15th century.
It excited also the animosity of the nobles jealous of their privileges, and of the monasteries, which were called upon to furnish the revenues for the new sees.
More questionable was Josephs policy in closing and confiscating the property of 213 of the richer monasteries of the land.
Several monasteries of less importance exist in the neighbourhood.
The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.
Of the monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince Corsini.
The village of Siloam has also increased in size, and the western slopes of Olivet are being covered with churches, monasteries and houses.
As a Jesuit father, Courtois painted many works in churches and monasteries of the society.
The law of 1873 created a special charitable and religious fund of the city, while it left untouched 23 monasteries and 49 convents which had either the character of private institutions or were supported by foreign funds.
Dmitri of Rostov, was welcomed with enthusiasm by the monks of the monasteries of St.
By the ancient canons all monasteries were to spend at least a tenth part of their income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were required to keep almoners.
coming from the suppressed Argovian monasteries.
It has several large churches, and formerly possessed five monasteries and three nunneries, which have been closed and their edifices devoted to educational and other public purposes.
As an ecclesiastic Morton followed orthodox Lancastrian lines: in 1489 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to visit and reform the monasteries, and he proceeded with some vigour against the abuses in the abbey of St Albans.
An early form of the name is Patricsey or Peter's Island; the manor at the time of the Domesday survey, and until the suppression of the monasteries, belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster.
In the middle ages the nocturnal vigilia were, except in the monasteries, gradually discontinued, matins and vespers on the preceding day, with fasting, taking their place.
There were in 1907 3500 Greek churches in the island with 53 monasteries and 3 nunneries; S5 mosques, 4 Roman Catholic churches and 4 synagogues.
His chief works are: - Hodoeporicon, an account of a journey taken by the pope's command, during which he visited the monasteries of Italy; a translation of Palladius' Life of Chrysostom; of Nineteen Sermons of Ephraem Syrus; of the Book of St Basil on Virginity.
The bulk lead really excellent lives in monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
Armed with it he passed safely into heathen Germany and began a systematic crusade, baptizing, overturning idols, founding churches and monasteries, and calling from England a band of missionary helpers, monks and nuns, some of whom have become famous: St Lull, his successor in the see at Mainz; St Burchard, bishop of Wurzburg; St Gregory, abbot at Utrecht; Willibald, his biographer; St Lioba, St Walburge, St Thecla.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
This work is a collection of lives of holy men who founded monasteries in the East, and is a valuable historical source.
Monasteries and nunneries are numerous, dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, but their influence is now less potent than in those days and the monastic population is not so large.
Although he wrote poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern, with the stories of the composers and singers.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
With the object of providing for the transmission of divine and human knowledge to later ages, and of securing it against the tide of barbarism which threatened to sweep it away, he founded two monasteries - Vivarium and Castellum - in his ancestral domains at Squillace (others identify the two monasteries).
There are many other, though slighter, remains of the ancient churches and monasteries of Kampen; but the most remarkable building is the old town-hall, which is unsurpassed in Holland.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
Passing from pride to humility he added "servant of the apostle," and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries.
St Mary over the river), receiving its present name after the suppression of the monasteries.
Its chapel became the parish church on the suppression of the monasteries.
As the chief feature of Norman London was the foundation of monasteries, and that of Plantagenet London was the estab-?
The standard of instruction, however, is very low, consisting only of reading and writing, though this is gradually being improved in very many monasteries.
He was likewise a good churchman and an able administrator of his diocese; he encouraged the reformation of the clergy and the monasteries.
He made a pilgrimage to tile Holy Land, and visited various monasteries of his order; but he is famous as the author of some Annales.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
400; his successor Hsiian Tsang, about 650, states that it then contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
However fiercely conducted, it failed, though the Uniate Church with slighter powers of resistance was now completely forced into Orthodoxy, its ceremonial being definitely forbidden and its monasteries dissolved.
The liberality of William the Lion had bestowed upon the corporation an extensive grant of lands; while in addition to the well-endowed church of St John, it had two monasteries, each possessed of a fair revenue.
700, which contain forms almost identical with the received text, are connected with monasteries founded by Columban and his friends: Bobbio, Luxeuil, S.
From one of these monasteries the received text seems to have been taken to Rome.
When they returned to Palestine they all settled at Bethlehem, where Paula built four monasteries, three for nuns and one for monks.
He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.
A priory of friars of the Holy Trinity was founded at Hounslow in 1296, and existed till the dissolution of the monasteries.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
A story had gone about, even in the days of John of Gaunt, who, if we may trust the rhymer John Hardyng (Chronicle, pp. 290, 291), had got it inserted in chronicles deposited in various monasteries, that this Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, was really hump-backed, and that he was set aside in favour of his younger brother Edward on account of his deformity.
As is natural in a place long celebrated for its religious and educational pre-eminence, there is no lack of temples, monasteries and colleges, but few of these are of any architectural significance.
A " reformed " prince could seize the property of the monasteries, and appropriate such ecclesiastical foundations as he desired.
The schism extended down to the bishoprics, and even to the monasteries and parishes, where partisans of the rival popes struggled to obtain possession of sees and benefices.
Hundreds of castles and monasteries were destroyed by the frantic peasantry, and some of the nobles were murdered with shocking cruelty.
During the same years the monasteries, lesser and greater, were dissolved, and the chief shrines were despoiled, notably that of St Thomas of Canterbury.
At the time of the secularization of Church properties there were about 120 religious edifices in the city - churches, convents, monasteries, &c. - many of which were turned over to secular uses.
Subiaco in the Abruzzi was the cradle of the Benedictines, and in that neighbourhood St Benedict established twelve monasteries.
These fourteen are the only monasteries of which we have any knowledge as being founded before St Benedict's death; for the mission of St Placidus to Sicily must certainly be regarded as mere romance, nor does there seem to be any solid reason for viewing more favourably the mission of St Maurus to Gaul.
It is doubtful whether in Spain there were Benedictine monasteries, properly so called, until a later period.
As the result of their missionary enterprises the Benedictines penetrated into all these lands and established monasteries, so that by the 10th or 1 1th century Benedictine houses existed in great numbers throughout the whole of Latin Christendom except Ireland.
These monasteries became centres of civilizing influences by the method of presenting object-lessons in organized work, in agriculture, in farming, in the arts and trades, and also in.
The monasteries, however, played a great part in the educational side of the Carolingian revival; and certainly from that date schools for boys destined to live and work in the world were commonly attached to Benedictine monasteries.
In those times the monasteries were the only places of security and rest in western Europe, the only places where letters could in any measure be cultivated.
It was in the monasteries that the writings of Latin antiquity, both classical and ecclesiastical, were transcribed and preserved.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
For this purpose a synod of abbots was assembled at Aix-laChapelle in 817, and a series of 80 Capitula passed, regulating the life of the monasteries.
For the first four or five centuries of Benedictine history there was no organic bond between any of the monasteries; each house formed an independent autonomous family, managing its own affairs and subject to no external authority or control except that of the bishop of the diocese.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
In the course of the 12th century sporadic and limited unions of Black Monk monasteries arose in different parts.
It was decreed that the Benedictine houses of each ecclesiastical province should henceforth be federated for the purposes of mutual help and the maintenance of discipline, and that for these ends the abbots should every third year meet in a provincial chapter (or synod), in order to pass laws binding on all and to appoint visitors who, in addition to the bishops, should canonically visit the monasteries and report on their condition in spirituals and temporals to the ensuing chapter.
In the German lands, where the most typical congregation was the Bursfeld Union (1446), which finally embraced over loo monasteries throughout Germany, the system was kept on the lines of the Lateran decree and the bull Benedictina, and received only some further developments in the direction of greater organization; but in Italy the congregation of S.
Justina at Padua (1421), afterwards called the Cassinese, departed altogether from the old lines, setting up a highly centralized government, after the model of the Italian republics, whereby the autonomy of the monasteries was destroyed, and they were subjected to the authority of a central governing board.
and the Monasteries; J.
Three or four monasteries of the revived English Benedictines were established on the continent at the beginning of the 17th century, and remained there till driven back to England by the French Revolution.
In Italy, Spain, Portugal and Brazil only a few monasteries survive the various revolutions, and in a crippled state; but signs are not wanting of renewed life: St Benedict's own monasteries of Subiaco and Monte Cassino are relatively flourishing.
Thus the Benedictine polity may be described as a number of autonomous federations of autonomous monasteries.
There are several monasteries in the neighbourhood.
He revoked numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors upon idle courtiers, and, meeting the reproach of sacrilege made by the patriarch of Constantinople by a decree of exile, resumed a proportion of the revenues of the wealthy monasteries.
The monasteries raised an outcry when people were found eating flesh in Lent, and the bishop of Constance accused.
After this time he is mentioned as head of several monasteries: St Peter, Mount Blandin and St Bavon at Ghent, St Servais at Maastricht, St Cloud near Paris, and Fontenelle near Rouen, and he also had charge of the church of St John the Baptist at Pavia.
Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g.
There are over 60 Buddhist monasteries.
The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, De Reformatione monasteriorum, shows that in the 15th century grave relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
In England there were as many as 200 houses of Augustinian canons, and 60 of them were among the "greater monasteries" suppressed in 1538-1540 (for list see Tables in F.
He returned to his cave, but disciples flocked to him, and in time he formed twelve monasteries in the neighbourhood, placing twelve monks in each, and himself retaining a general control over all.
Driven from Subiaco by the jealousy and molestations of a neighbouring priest, but leaving behind him communities in his twelve monasteries, he himself, accompanied by a small band of disciples, journeyed south until he came to Cassino, a town halfway between Rome and Naples.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Franciscan and Trappist monasteries, a girls' school, belonging to the Sisterhood of the Sacred Blood of Nazareth, a real-school and a Turkish bazaar.
Towns were walled, where it was decreed markets and assemblies should be held, churches and monasteries were founded, civilization was extended and learning encouraged.
He sought to spread Christianity by introducing the Cistercians, founding bishoprics, and building churches and monasteries.
During his early years the Irish Church was reformed by Gildas and Finian of Clonard, and numerous monasteries were founded which made Ireland renowned as a centre of learning.
During his residence in Ireland he founded, in addition to a number of churches, two famous monasteries, one named Daire Calgaich (Derry) on the banks of Lough Foyle, the other Dair-magh (Durrow) in King's county.
The precise details, except in a few cases, are unknown, or obscured by exaggeration and fiction; but it is certain that the whole of northern Scotland was converted by the labours of Columba, and his disciples and the religious instruction of the people provided for by the erection of numerous monasteries.
The accounts given by some writers as to the profligacy and immorality in the monasteries are grossly exaggerated.
Some of the priests are learned in the Buddhist scriptures, and most of the Pali scholarship in Siam is to be found in monasteries, but there is no learning of a secular nature.
As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
He assisted the king in his studies, received from him the monasteries of Congresbury and Banwell, and sometime later "Exeter and its diocese in Saxonland and Cornwall."
Erasmus was eager to go to .a university, but the guardians, acting under a perhaps genuine enthusiasm for the religious life, sent the boys to another school at Hertogenbosch; and when they returned after two or three years, prevailed on them to enter monasteries.
Erasmus would have suppressed the monasteries, put an end to the domination.
In the 5th and 6th centuries Egypt and Palestine had been the classic lands of monks and monasteries.
The monasteries, too, learned to serve the Church by becoming nurseries of literary and theological culture.
The energy of a succession of distinguished abbots and the disciples whom they inspired succeeded in bringing about the victory of the reforming ideas in the French monasteries; once more the rule of St Benedict controlled the life of the monks.
A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
Everywhere the object was the same: the supreme obligation of the Rule, the renewal of discipline, and also the economic improvement of the monasteries.
Under the influence of these ideas, in part purely Christian and in part neo-platonic, piety gained in warmth and depth and became more personal; and though at first it flourished in the monasteries, and in those of the mendicant orders especially, it penetrated far beyond them and influenced the laity everywhere.
His contemporary, Cassiodorus (c. 480-c. 575), after spending thirty years in the service of the Ostrogothic dynasty at Ravenna, passed the last thirty-three years of his long life on the shores of the Bay of Squillace, where he founded two monasteries and diligently trained their inmates to become careful copyists.
More than ten years before Cassiodorus founded his monasteries in the south of Italy, Benedict of Nursia (480-543) had rendered a more permanent service to the cause of scholarship by building, amid the ruins of the temple of Apollo on the crest of Monte Cassino, the earliest of those homes of learning that have lent an undying distinction to the Benedictine order.
In some monasteries several priors were to be found and generally at least two.
As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also rendered his country inestimable services, building churches and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and enlightenment.
iipxwv, a ruler, and µav5pa, a fold or monastery), a title in the Greek Church applied to a superior abbot, who has the supervision of several abbots and monasteries, or to the abbot of some specially great and important monastery, the title for an ordinary abbot being hegumenos.
monasteries, amongst the lower clergy, amongst the humble and lowly and ignorant.
In 676 he ravaged Kent with fire and sword, destroying the monasteries and churches and taking Rochester.
These hours were adopted especially in the monasteries as a part of the canonical life, and spread thence to the cathedral and collegiate chapters.
Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
The real founder of coenobian (KOLvos, common, and (31os, life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 4th century.
Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 camel-drivers and 15 tanners.
This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing an area of between 3 and 4 acres.
Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the Levant.
His rule was diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and splendour.
The number of these monasteries founded between A.D.
We have no existing examples of the earlier monasteries of the Benedictine order.
The buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into groups.
On this side in later monasteries we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of which in this plan is somewhat surprising.
We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to determine with precision the disposition of the various buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist.
By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.
The same spirit manifested itself in the choice of the sites of their monasteries.
The Cistercian monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered valleys.
p. 335.) All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan.
The usually unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order.
In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church.
Other ecclesiastical buildings were the monasteries of Blackfriars (1230) and Greyfriars (1470) and the preceptory of Maisondieu (1240).
During the founder's lifetime the order spread rapidly, and eventually there were about 150 monasteries in Italy, and others in France, Bohemia and the Netherlands.
A large number of the Gregorian and Protestant Armenian clergy and people were massacred, and churches, monasteries and houses were looted.
There are several monasteries and convents, and British, French and German schools.
At the beginning the order had a great vogue, and at the time of Robert's death, 1117, there were several monasteries and 3000 nuns; afterwards the number of monasteries reached 57, all organized on the same plan.
in length, with a breadth varying from 4 to 7 m.; its whole area belongs to the various monasteries.
In the 14th century the peninsula became the chosen retreat of several of the emperors, and the monasteries were thrown into commotion by the famous dispute over the mystical Hesychasts.
The twenty monasteries, which all belong to the order of St Basil, are: Laura (I) Aaupa), founded in 963; Vatopedi (Bar07rE&ov), said to have been founded by the emperor Theodosius; Rossikon (`P wa rtKOv), the Russian monastery of St Panteleimon; Chiliandari (XcXcavrfiptov: supposed to be derived from xiXcoc tiv6pEs or?
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
Dependent on the several monasteries are twelve sketae (cnth rat) or monastic settlements, some of considerable size, in which a still more ascetic mode of life prevails: there are, in addition, several farms (Aeroxia), and many hundred sanctuaries with adjoining habitations (K€XXLa) and hermitages (fiQKrtri) pca).
The monasteries, with the exception of Rossikon (St Panteleimon) and the Serbo-Bulgarian Chiliandari and Zographu, are occupied exclusively by Greek monks.
The tasteless style of its modern buildings is out of harmony with the quaint beauty of the other monasteries.
The monasteries, which are all fortified, generally consist of large quadrangles enclosing churches; standing amid rich foliage, they present a wonderfully picturesque appearance, especially when viewed from the sea.
The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
Some of the monasteries were seriously damaged by an earthquake in 1905.
C. Curzon, Visits to Monasteries in the Levant (London, 1849); J.
There were formerly Dominican and Franciscan monasteries in the town.
Killala was formerly a bishopric. The monasteries were numerous, and many of them of considerable importance: the principal being those at Mayo, Ballyhaunis, Cong, Ballinrobe, Ballintober, Burrishoole, Cross or Holycross in the peninsula of Mullet, Moyne, Roserk or Rosserick and Templemore or Strade.
Throughout the island there are numerous monasteries and other buildings of Venetian erection, of which the best known are Paleocastrizza, San Salvador and Pelleka.
The papacy of this period continually intervened in the internal affairs of the monasteries.
His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.
For this purpose he resided like a monk for several years among the lamas at the monasteries of Zangla and Pukdal in Zanskar and latterly at Kanum in upper Bashahr, enjoying the assistance of learned lamas.
There is also a Tsong-du or National Assembly, divided into a greater assembly, including all government officials, and called together only to decide on matters of supreme importance, and a lesser assembly, consisting of certain high officials of Lhasa, noblemen, and delegates from the monasteries of Debung, Sera and Galdan, and fairly constantly in session.
When the power of the Sakya began to wane, that of the rival monasteries of Digung, Phagdub and Tshal increased largely, and their respective influence and authority overbalanced that of the successors of Phagspa.
When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.
The Armenians called them wanq, and out of them grew the monasteries.
He declared that the cenobitical life is superior to the eremitical; that fasting and austerities should not interfere with prayer or work; that work should form an integral part of the monastic life, not merely as an occupation, but for its own sake and in order to do good to others; and therefore that monasteries should be near towns.
x cix., 1704_ 1 757), which became the norm of the life at the Studium monastery, and gradually spread thence to the monasteries of the rest of the Greek empire.
The first monastery to be founded here was that of St Athanasius (c. 960), and in the course of the next three or four centuries monasteries in great numbers - Greek, Slavonic and one Latin - were established on Mount Athos, some twenty of which still survive.
Rufinus had translated St Basil's Rules into Latin (c. 400) and they became the rule of life in certain Italian monasteries.
In the 6th and 7th centuries there appear to have been Greek monasteries in Rome and south Italy and especially in Sicily.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
Professor Kirsopp Lake has (1903) written four valuable articles (Journal of Theological Studies, iv., v.) on "The Greek monasteries of South Italy"; he deals in detail with their scriptoria and the dispersal of their libraries, a matter of much interest, in that some of the chief collections of Greek MSS.
The monastic institute had a great development in Russia, and at the present day there are in the Russian empire some 400 monasteries of men and Ioo of women, many of which support hospitals, almshouses and schools.
In the other Slavonic lands there are a considerable number of monasteries, as also in Greece itself, while in the Turkish dominions there are no fewer than zoo Greek monasteries.
The monasteries are of three kinds: cenobia proper, wherein full monastic common life, with personal poverty, is observed; others called idiorrhythmic, wherein the monks are allowed the use of their private means and lead a generally mitigated and free kind of monastic life; and the lauras, wherein the life is semi-eremitical.
The visits of Western scholars in modern times to Greek monasteries in search of MSS.
(1837) of the Monasteries of the Levant; the most recent in English is Athelstan Riley's Athos (1887).
Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.
Since the suppression of the monasteries there has been no legal establishment for professed persons in.
9 But the devoted Anskar (801-865) went forth and sought out the Scandinavian Viking, and handed on the torch of self-denying zeal to others, who saw, after the lapse of many years, the close of the monotonous tale of burning churches and pillaged monasteries, and taught the fierce Northman to learn respect for civilized institutions.
He founded several monasteries, and a similar work was also performed by St Emmeran, bishop of Poitiers; with the result that before long the bulk of the people professed Christianity and relations were established between Bavaria and Rome.
Restored in 985, Henry proved himself a capable ruler by establishing internal order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the monasteries.
In 1472 he founded the university of Ingolstadt, attempted to reform the monasteries, and was successful in a struggle with Albert Achilles of Brandenburg.
Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries earned for him the surname of Pious, was almost elected king of Bohemia in 1440.
The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained from the pope extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries, and took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits, whom he invited into the duchy in 1541, made the university of Ingolstadt their headquarters for Germany.
Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria (1651-1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
He received the best education to be had at the time, and was noted for his proficiency in the arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic. Entering on a public career he held, about 573, the high office of prefect of the city of Rome; but about 574, feeling irresistibly attracted to the "religious" life, he resigned his post, founded six monasteries in Sicily and one in Rome, and in the last - the famous monastery of St Andrew - became himself a monk.
Gregory sought to protect the monks from episcopal oppression by issuing privilegia, or charters in restraint of abuses, in accordance with which the jurisdiction of the bishops over the monasteries was confined to spiritual matters, all illegal aggressions being strictly prohibited.
and of Thomas Cromwell, operations in the autumn, and, having been made a full general serving both king and minister in the business of suppressing on the 31st of August, during the winter he devoted his ex the monasteries, and he is said to have celebrated Henry's secret perience as an engineer to the fortification and general defence marriage with Anne Boleyn in January 1533.
His reign is also marked by the creation of numerous monasteries and by renewed missionary activity in Flanders and among the Basques.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
Of those who held no land a number received grants out of the confiscated estates of the nobility and monasteries.
In 1904 the village communities (peasantry) owned 43.8 °A of the total area; private owners, mostly nobles, 40.6%; the Crown and imperial family, 6%; and public bodies, such as towns and monasteries, 2.6%; while 3% was in the hands of the Jews.
It has to be emphasized at the outset that the monasteries in which the Benedictine rule was the basis of the life did not form a body or group apart within the great " monastic order," which embraced all monasteries of whatever rule; nor had Benedictine monks any special work or object beyond that common to all monks - viz.
central parts of Europe, and in the course of the 7th century the Irish rule of St Columban and the Roman rule of St Benedict met in the monasteries in central Europe that had been founded by Columban and his Irish monks.
In spite of the frequent pillage and destruction of monasteries by Northmen, Saracens, Arabs and other invaders; in spite of the existence of even widespread local abuses, St Benedict's institute went on progressing and consolidating; and on the whole it may be said that throughout the early middle ages the general run of Benedictine houses continued to perform with substantial fidelity the religious and social functions for which they were created.
As stated above, St Pachomius's monasteries formed an order - a curious anticipation of what six centuries later was to become the vogue in Western monasticism.
At Fontevrault (founded in 1095) the special feature was the system of " double monasteries " i.e.
neighbouring, but rigorously separated, monasteries of men and of women - the government being in the hands of the abbesses.
In other respects the life of canons regular in their monasteries, and the external policy and organization among their houses, differed little from what prevailed among the Black Benedictines; their superiors were usually provosts or priors, but sometimes abbots.
The Reformation and the religious wars that followed in its wake destroyed the monasteries and religious orders of all kinds in northern Europe and crippled them in central Europe.
Steele's Monasteries and Religious Houses of Great Britain and Ireland (1903).
notes 4 8, 49, 54, 59) Before his death in 346 Pachomius had established nine monasteries of men and one of women, and after his death other foundations continued to be made in all parts of Egypt, but especially in the south, and in Abyssinia.
The abbot of the head monastery was the superior-general of the whole institute; he nominated the superiors of the other monasteries; he was visitor and held periodical visitations at all of them; he exercised universal supervision, control and authority; and every year a general chapter was held at the head house.
Curzon's Monasteries of the Levant (1837), or in A.
Hardly half a dozen monasteries survive, inhabited by small and ever dwindling communities.
At the dissolution of monasteries in 1866 Monte Cassino was spared, owing mainly to a remonstrance by English well-wishers of United Italy.
He seems to have also reformed the method of conducting the divine services by the aid of his skilled chanters, lEdde and ZEona, and to have established or renewed the rule of St Benedict in the monasteries.
With the conversion of the Saxons the whole German race became nominally C~iristian; and their ruler was lavish in granting lands and privileges to prelates, and untiring in founding bishoprics, monasteries and schools.
By the end of this period Christianity had been firmly established among most of the German tribes; the monks were the trustees of the new learning, and we must look mainly, although not exclusively, to the monasteries for our authorities.
The work of the monks generally took the form of Annales or Chronica, and among the numerous German monasteries which are famous in this connection maybe mentioned Fulda, Reichenau, St Gall and Lorsch.
He extended his reforms to the collegiate churches (even to the fraternities of penitents and particularly that of St John the Baptist), and to the monasteries.
By the end of the 14th century there were upwards of a hundred monasteries, chiefly in Italy; and in the 18th there still were eighty, one of the most famous being San Miniato at Florence.
Still Christianity and the Greek tongue never died out; churches and monasteries received and held property; there still are saints and scholars.
After studying in various monasteries he became provost of St Benedict at Capua, and in 1055 obtained permission from Victor II.
Her mark, Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi," was found on the charter given by her brother, Thorold of Bucknall - sheriff of Lincolnshire - to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding in 1051; and she is commemorated as benefactress of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Wenlock, Worcester and Evesham.
It contains four monasteries, the remains of the famous anchorite settlement of Nitriae.
The ancient and celebrated Coptic monasteries El Abiad (the white) and El Ahmar (the red) are 3 to 4 m.
There are, besides the more ancient cities and monuments, a number of Coptic towns, monasteries and churches in almost every part of Egypt, dating from the early centuries of Christianity.
The monasteries, or ders, are generally fort-like buildings and are often built in the desert.
It is clear that the basis which they chose for the new literature was the simplest language of daily life in the monasteries, charged as it was with expressions taken from Greek, pre-eminently the language of patristic Christianity.
dialects, each of these having left abundant remains; the former spread over the Whole of Upper Egypt, and the latter since the 14th century has been the language of the sacred books of Christianity throughout the country, owing to the hierarchical importance of Alexandria and the influence of the ancient monasteries established in the north-western desert.
In particular the suppression of the monasteries benefited the crown in two ways.
That Alfred sent alms to Irish as well as to continental monasteries may be accepted on Asser's authority; the visit of the three pilgrim " Scots " (i.e.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
He spent immense sums on buildings of all sorts, on quays and harbours, on fortifications, repairing the walls of cities and erecting castles in Thrace to check the inroads of the barbarians, on aqueducts, on monasteries, above all, upon churches.
Besides many mosques and churches there are three monasteries (Syrian, Franciscan and Capuchin), and an important American Mission station, with church, schools and a medical officer.
Bulgarian, for nearly four centuries, ceased to be a written language except in a few monasteries; a literary revival, which began about the middle of the 18th century, was the first symptom of returning national consciousness.
There are no traces of the churches, monasteries or other principal buildings of the ancient town.
He had little difficulty in securing the Acts of Annates, Appeals and Supremacy which completed the separation from Rome, or the dissolution of the monasteries which, by transferring enormous wealth from the church to the crown, really, in Cecil's opinion, ensured the reformation.
The dissolution of the monasteries had meanwhile evoked a popular protest in the north, and it was only by skilful and unscrupulous diplomacy that Henry was enabled to suppress so easily the Pilgrimage of Grace.
and the Monasteries by strong religious feeling.
She took it upon herself, however, to supervise the bishoprics and monasteries, and came into conflict with Columban (Columbanus), abbot of Luxeuil.
The Irish church has paid more reverence to St Patricius than to Palladius (373-463), and the church of St Patricius, himself a figure as important as obscure, certainly abounded in bishops; according to Angus the Culdee there were 1071, but these cannot have been bishops with territorial sees, and the heads of monasteries were more potent personages.
In the matter of education, the monasteries had their schools, as had the parish churches, and there were high schools in the burghs, and " song-schools."
But the people were still so averse to England that Beaton's was the more popular party: they carried Mary to Stirling: the treaty with Henry was ratified, indeed, but a quarrel was picked over the arrest by England of six Scottish ships; and Arran, who had just given orders for the sack of monasteries in Edinburgh, suddenly (3rd of September) fled to Beaton and was reconciled to the church, just after he had (28th of August) proclaimed Beaton an outlaw.
On the 10th of May the brethren wrecked the monasteries of Perth, after a sermon by Knox,and the revolution was launched, the six or seven preachers already threatening the backward members of their party with excommunication.
METEORA, a group of monasteries in Thessaly, in the northern side of the Peneius valley, not quite 20 m.
The monasteries stand on the summit of these pinnacles; they are accessible only by aid of rope and net worked by a windlass from the top, or by a series of almost perpendicular ladders climbing the cliff.
A number of the manuscripts from these monasteries have now been brought to the National Library at Athens.
630-644, found Termez, Khulm, Balkh, and above all Bamian, amply provided with monasteries, stupas and colossal images, which are the striking characteristics of prevalent Buddhism; even the Pamir highlands had their monasteries.
Of these alps about 45% are owned by the communes (exclusively or jointly) and 54% by individuals, the remaining% being the property of the state or a few great monasteries.
842 one-half-'of Ireland (called Lethcuinn, or Con's Half) seems to have submitted to him; and we have the curious picture of Turgesius establishing his wife Ota as a sort of viilva, or priestess, in what bad been one of Ireland's most famous and most literary monasteries, Clonmacnoise.
Civil marriage and divorce were introduced, and in 1904 all religions were placed on a position of equality in the eye of the law, and the foundation of new monasteries and convents was forbidden.
This industry had its origin in the large gardens attached to the monasteries.
He also built Jesuit colleges and schools at Pressburg, and Franciscan monasteries at Ersekiajvar and Kdrmoczbanya.
In the early middle ages the term was applied to representatives of a count administering justice for him in the country or small towns and dealing with unimportant cases, levying taxes, &c. Monasteries and religious houses often employed a vicar to answer to their feudal lords for those of their lands which did not pass into mortmain.
A special vicar was appointed by the pope to superintend the spiritual affairs of Rome and its suburbs, to visit its churches, monasteries, &c., and to correct abuses.
Formerly, and especially in England, many churches were appropriated to monasteries or colleges of canons, whose custom it was to appoint one of their own body to perform divine service in such churches, but in the 13th century such corporations were obliged to appoint permanent paid vicars who were called perpetual vicars.
Hence in England the distinction between rectors, who draw both the greater and lesser tithes, and vicars, who are attached to parishes of which the great tithes, formerly held by monasteries, are now drawn by lay rectors.
Monasteries and churches were burnt and sacked, and Jerusalem was taken; the Holy Sepulchre church was destroyed and its treasures carried off; the other churches were likewise razed to the ground; the patriarch was taken prisoner.
Bribery, fraud, even violence, have in turn been employed to serve the end in view: and churches, chapels and monasteries, most of them in the worst architectural taste, have sprung up like mushrooms over the surface of the country, and are perpetuating the memory of pseudo-sanctuaries which from every point of view were best relegated to oblivion.
The monasteries of the Roman communion and their residents were under French protection until the disturbance between Greek and Franciscan monks in the Holy Sepulchre church (Nov.
Monasteries and nunneries were very numerous until the suppression of the religious orders in 1842, when many became simple churches.
He is said to have supported 64,000 Buddhist priests; he founded many religious houses, and his kingdom is called the Land of the Monasteries (Vihara or Behar) to this day.
In Kashmir king and people were devout Buddhists, under the teaching of five hundred monasteries and five thousand monks.
Its shrines and monasteries stretched in a continuous line from the Caspian to the Pacific, and still extend from the confines of the Russian empire to the equatorial archipelago.
Sabas was made exarch or superior of all the monasteries in Palestine, and composed a Typicon or Rule for their guidance.
At the age of twenty he took the vows of the Benedictine order at the abbey of Ste Melaine, Rennes, and afterwards taught rhetoric and philosophy in several monasteries.
During the 17th century the country around Nizhniy became the seat of a vigorous religious agitation, and in its forests the Raskolniks established hundreds of their monasteries and communities, those of the Kerzhenets playing an important part in the history of Russian Nonconformity even to the present time.
Already scholarship had found a home in monasteries planted in the heart of the German forests.
The small islands of Lim and Gdutz have also monasteries and churches.
766), was brought by Irish monks to their native land from the monasteries of north-eastern Gaul, and that Irish anchorites originally unfettered by the rules of the cloister bound themselves by it.
1199, was less intolerant of the Linga cult than Ramanuja, but seems rather to have aimed at a reconciliation of the Saiva and Vaishnava forms of worship. The Madhvas or Madhvacharis favour Krishna and his consort as their special objects of adoration, whilst images of Siva, Parvati, and their son Ganesa are, however, likewise admitted and worshipped in some of their temples, the most important of which is at Udipi in South Kanara, with eight monasteries connected with it.
But as the Premonstratensians were not monks but canons regular, their work was preaching and the exercise of the pastoral office, and they served a large number of parishes incorporated in their monasteries.
The order was founded in 1120; in 1126, when it received papal approbation, there were nine houses; and others were established in quick succession throughout western Europe, so that at the middle of the 14th century there are said to have been over 1300 monasteries of men and 400 of women.
There are now some 20 monasteries and 'coo canons, who serve numerous parishes; and there are two or three small houses in England.
It contains monasteries belonging to the Piarist and Franciscan orders, a Catholic (founded in 1714.), a Calvinistic and a Lutheran school.
In the Catholic church, however, common sense prevailed, and those who desired to follow the Encratite ideal repaired to the monasteries.
It was during these disastrous Mercian wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel.
2 "In the 14th century, the city of Ilchi, in Chinese Tartary, possessed 14 monasteries, averaging 3000 devotees in each; while in Tibet, at the present time, there are in the vicinity of Lhassa 12 great monasteries, containing a population of 18,500 lamas.
He may have been one of those hermits who at that time swarmed in the forests of western Europe, and particularly in France, always surrounded by popular veneration, and sometimes the founders of monasteries or religious orders, such as those of Premontre or Fontevrault.
high, and a remarkable series of monumental tombs of the Lumley family, collected here from Durham cathedral and various ruined monasteries, and in some cases remade.
The title of Exarch was also formerly given in the Eastern Church to a general or superior over several monasteries, and to certain ecclesiastics deputed by the patriarch of Constantinople to collect the tribute payable by the Church to the Turkish government.
At Perth and at St Andrews his sermons were followed by the destruction of the monasteries, institutions disliked in that age in Scotland alike by the devout and the profane.
It was already an epis copal see, and, in the 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism.
and the English Monasteries (1906), and The Last Abbot of Glastonbury (1895 and 1908); William of Malmesbury, "De antiq.
Roman Catholicism was the state religion until 1910, but other creeds were tolerated, and the Church lost its temporal authority in 1834, when the monasteries were suppressed and their property confiscated for the first time.
humanists, such as Damiao de Goes, and scientists, such as the astronomer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), played conspicuous parts in the great intellectual movements of the time; a distinctive school of painters arose, chief among them being the so-called " Grao Vasco " (Vasco Fernandes of Vizeu); in architecture the name of King Emanuel was given to a new and composite style (the Manoeline or Manoellian), in which decorative forms from India and Africa were harmonized with Gothic and Renaissance designs; palaces, fortresses, cathedrals, monasteries, were built on a scale never before attempted in Portugal; and even in the minor arts and handicrafts - in goldsmith's work, for example, or in pottery - the influence of the East made itself felt.
Though regiments were disbanded, fleets put out of commission and fortresses dismantled to save the cost of their upkeep, the Crown paid nearly 10o,000 yearly for the maintenance of this new hierarchy, and squandered untold wealth on the erection of churches and monasteries.
Converted to Christianity, the new-comers founded' monasteries which helped to clear the land, the greater part of which was barren and wild.
and the English Monasteries (1888-9); A Short History of the Catholic Church in England (1903); Parish Life in Mediaeval England (1906) and The Bosworth Psalter (1908).
Ramsey, however, was not completely insulated, like some of the monasteries of the Fen district.
They are related to have brought with them sacred relics, books and pictures, for whose better preservation two large monasteries were erected.
He very early entered the order, and studied at Sakya, Brigung and other monasteries.
teacher and reformer in Lhasa, and before his death in 1419 there were three huge monasteries there containing 30,000 of his disciples, besides others in other parts of the country.
These two leaders were then known as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively.
Since that time the abbots of these monasteries have continued to exercise the sovereignty over Tibet.
Under these high officials of the Tibetan hierarchy there come the Chubil Khans, who fill the post of abbot to the lesser monasteries, and are also incarnations.
Their number is very large; there are few monasteries in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to possess one of these living Buddhas.
They soon became Catholics; and then in all the usages of religion, in church building, in founding monasteries, in their veneration for relics, they vied with Italians.
By the popes, who represented Italian interests, they were always looked upon with dislike and jealousy, even when they had become zealous Catholics, the founders of churches and monasteries; with the Greek empire there was chronic war.
A few monasteries (Mt Sinai and some on Lebanon) follow the rule of St Anthony.
The monasteries now have taken over the name lauras.
The most famous monasteries are those on Mount Athos; in 1902 there were twenty lauras with many dependent houses and 7522 monks there, mainly.
The monks are, for the most part, ignorant and unlettered, though in the dark days of Mahommedan persecution it was in the monasteries that Greek learning and the Greek nationality were largely preserved.
Amongst them, actually or potentially, are the grand steward (0yas oircovo,uos), who serves him as deacon in the liturgy and presents candidates for orders; the grand visitor (µryas oaKEAAaptos), who superintends the monasteries; the sacristan (o - KEvocAuAa); the chancellor (X apr041,Xa), who superintends ecclesiastical causes; the deputyvisitor (o rou caKEAAiov), who visits the nunneries; the protonotary (7rpwrovorapcos); the logothete (Aoy06Erns), a most important lay officer, who represents the patriarch at the Porte and elsewhere outside; the censer-bearer, who seems to be also a kind of captain of the guard (Kavarpio-cos or Kavvrp11vQLos); the referendary (pEckpevSapcos); the secretary (i)7rown L uoyp x4wv); the chief syndic (7rpwrEK&Kos), 1 The numbers have varied from time to time.
There are 481 monasteries for men and 249 convents of nuns.
His progressive sympathies, illustrated by his proposals to reform the monasteries and the calendar, to modify the four long fasts and to treat for union (especially with the Old Catholics), were not very well received, and in 1905 an attempt was made to depose him.
In ecclesiastical seals generally, in the seals of religious foundations, cathedrals, monasteries, colleges and the like, sacred subjects naturally find a place among other designs.
Contradictions are often copied down without the writer noticing them; and since the middle ages forged and falsified so many documents, - monasteries, towns and corporations gaining privileges or titles of possession by the bold use of them, - the narrative of medieval writers cannot be relied upon unless we can verify it by collateral evidence.
distant is Cilcain village, of which the church has a carved oak roof, stolen from Basingwerk Abbey at the dissolution of the monasteries.
Steamers ply regularly in two directions from St Petersburg - to the monasteries of Konnevitz and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and various small wares from the northern shore to Schlusselburg, and thence to St Petersburg.
The monasteries of Valamo, founded in 992, on the island of the same name, and Konnevskiy, on Konnevitz island, founded in 1393, are visited every year by many thousands of pilgrims. (P. A.
In and around Bilbao there are more than thirty convents and monasteries, and at Olaveaga, about a mile off, is the Jesuit university, attended by 850 students.
Aldred did much for the restoration of discipline in the monasteries and churches under his authority, and was liberal in his gifts for ecclesiastical purposes.
out of the spoils of the dissolved monasteries - were elected by the chapter on a conge d'elire from the crown, but now all deans are installed by letters-patent from the crown.
He was, however, disappointed in his main object, and in 1300 he sailed to Cyprus to seek support for his plan of teaching Oriental languages in universities and monasteries.
It has, like the Greek Church, two kinds of clergy - parochial and monastic. The former are supported by their parishes; the latter by the revenues of the monasteries, which own about one-sixth of the Lebanon lands.
Its gateway, erected in 1504, and remaining in St John's Square, served various purposes after the suppression of the monasteries, being, for example, the birthplace of the Gentleman's Magazine in 1731, and the scene of Dr Johnson's work in connexion with that journal.
Silkworm-rearing is taught in the monasteries and agricultural schools, especially in the College of Agriculture and Sylviculture, at Ferestriu, near Bucharest.
The Rumanian system of land tenure dates from 1864, when most of the land was held in large estates, owned privately, or by the state or by monasteries.
Neagoe was a great builder of monasteries; he founded the cathedrals of Curtea de Argesh (q.v.) and Tirgovishtea, and adorned Mount Athos with his pious works.
The earliest historical works are short annals, written originally in Slavonic by monks in the monasteries of Moldavia and Walachia.
He proclaimed and promised rather than effected a certain number of reforms: the abandonment of the rights of "spoils" and "procurations," the re-establishment of the system of canonical election in the cathedral churches and principal monasteries, &c. But death came upon him almost without warning at Bologna, in the night of the 3rd-4th May 1410.
The solitudes of Upper Egypt, where numerous monasteries and hermitages had been planted, seem at this time to have been his chief shelter.
With Anthony the hermit and Pachomius the founder of monasteries, he had maintained personal relations, and the former he had commemorated in his Life of Anthony.
After the dissolution of the monasteries the manor was sold in 1542 to Henry Clifford, 2nd earl of Cumberland, whose descendants, the dukes of Devonshire, now hold it.
In the 11th century, with the growth of feudalism, all feudatories holding in chief of the Crown ranked as " princes," from dukes to simple counts, together with archbishops, bishops and the abbots of monasteries held directly of the emperor.
the town had twenty churches and eight monasteries.
The title had its origin in the monasteries of Syria, whence it spread through the East, and soon became accepted generally in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery.
John, patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, beneficiarii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.
In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction, and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations.
In 1784, while at the monastery of MOdling, near Vienna, he wrote to the emperor Joseph II., making suggestions for the better education of the clergy and drawing his attention to the irregularities of the monasteries.
In 1280 the abbess obtained the royal manor at an annual fee-farm rent of I 2 and remained the sole mistress of the borough until it passed at the dissolution of the monasteries to Sir Thomas Arundel, after whose execution it was granted about 1552 to William Herbert, earl of Pembroke.
Pachomius spent his life in organizing and directing the great order he had created, which at his death included nine monasteries with some three thousand monks and a nunnery.
He was a founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated clerical celibacy and was a strict disciplinarian.
Moreover, he retained in practice, if not in theory, his power to nominate to the vacant offices; chapters and monasteries seldom dared to resist the pressure which the sovereign could bring to bear upon them in.
The question of election to bishoprics and abbacies went back to the stage which it had reached in the time of Henry I.; the choice was made in canonical form, by the chapters or the monasteries, but the kings recommendation was a primary factor in that choice.
The monasteries, with their vast possessions, had become corporations of landlords, instead of associations for prayer and good works.
Lancaster hoped to use Wycliffe as his mouthpiece against his enemies; Wycliffe hoped to see Lancaster disendowing bishops and monasteries and defying the pope.
The learning which had died out in monasteries began to flourish again in the corrupt soil of the court.
The monasteries had ceased to be even the nurseries of literature; their chronicles had run dry, and secular priests or laymen had taken up the pens that the monks had dropped.
It is significant that his great college at Oxford Cardinals College as he designed to call it, Christ Church as it is named to-daywas endowed with the revenues of some score of small monasteries which he had suppressed on the ground that they were useless or ill-conducted.
Many of the friars observant of Greenwich and monks of the Charterhousc were involved in a similar fate, but there was no general resistance, and Henry, now inspired or helped by Thomas Cromwell, was able to proceed with the next step in the Reformation, the dissolution of the monasteries.
Such a reason could hardly be avowed, Dissoluand justification had to be sought in the condition of fionoithe the monasteries themselves.
and a Thomas Cromwell would not have dared to attack, or succeeded in destroying, the monasteries had they retained their original purity and influence.
1536 in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire were provoked partly by the dissolution of the monasteries, partly by the collection of a subsidy and fears of fresh taxation on births, marriages and burials, and partly by the protestantizing Ten Articles of 1536 and Cromwells Injunctions.
Aske and other leaders were tried and executed, and summary vengeance was wreaked on the northern counties, especially on the monasteries.
The monasteries did not benefit and in T Si 1538-1539 the greater were involved in the fate which Articles.
Numerous other classes of legal and administrative records gradually develop, the Patent and Close Rolls (first calendared by the Record Commission, and subsequently treated more adequately under the direction of the deputy keeper of the Records), Charters (which were first grants to individuals, then to collective groups, monasteries or boroughs, then to classes, add finally expanded as in Magna Cartainto grants to the whole nation), Escheats, Feet of Fines, Inquisitiones post mortem, Inquisitiones ad quod damnum, Placita de Quo Warranto, and others for which the reader is referred to S.
Ecclesiastical records are represented by the episcopal registers (for the most part still unpublished), monastic cartularies, and other documents rendered comparatively scarce by the spoliation of the monasteries, and scattered proceedings of ecclesiastical courts.
Buddhism penetrated into the country at an early date, and possessed famous monasteries there in the 5th and 7th centuries.
By this time Buddhism had reached its culminating point: in Khotan there were ioo monasteries and 5000 monks, and the Indian sacred literature was widely diffused.
Here in 1898 the explorer discovered the ruins of ancient monasteries, dating from the beginning of the Christian era down to the 13th and 16th centuries.
It was full of churches and monasteries, enriched with the reputed relics of saints, prophets and martyrs, which consecrated it a holy city and attracted pilgrims from every quarter to its shrines.
He was famous not only for his interest in schemes for the alleviation of poverty in Moscow, but also as the founder of new churches and monasteries.
Other monasteries were gifted 1 The view that the Lapps at one time occupied the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula, and have during the course of centuries been driven back by the Swedes and Norwegians is disproved by the recent investigations of Yngvar Nielsen, K.
In 1910 there were 54 monasteries, but only 110 monks, all belonging to the order of St Basil.
Studenitsa, near Kralyevo, and Manasia and Ravanitsa, near Chupriya, are the most interesting monasteries.
The antiquities of Galilee include dolmens and rude stone monuments, rock-cut tombs, and wine-presses, with numerous remains of Byzantine monasteries and fine churches of the time of the crusades.
Long after Buddhism had spread to Chitral, Gilgit, Dir and Swat; whilst Ningrahar was still full of monasteries and temples, and the Peshawar valley was recognized as the seat of Buddhist learning, the Kafirs or Nysaeans held their own in Bajour and in the lower Kunar valley, where Buddhism apparently never prevailed.
Sixteen convents and fourteen monasteries were founded by her efforts; she wrote a history of her foundations, which forms a supplement to her autobiography.
There are also numerous monasteries and convents, a large number of which are devoted to educational purposes.
The exalted position occupied by the learned class in ancient Ireland perhaps affords the key to the wonderful outbursts of scholarly activity in Irish monasteries from the 6th to the 9th centuries.
The connexion between Ireland and Wales was strong in the 6th century, and it was from south Wales that the great reform movement in the Irish monasteries emanated.
To escape from the continuous attacks on the monasteries, Irish monks and scholars fled in large numbers to the continent carrying with them their precious books.
Many Irish Separa- monasteries admitted no Englishmen, and at least one tion of attempt was made, in 1250, to apply the same rule to cathedrals.
Many Irish parishes grew out of primitive monasteries, but other early settlements remained monastic, and were compelled by the popes to adopt the rule of authorized orders, generally that of the Augustinian canons.
Where his hand reached Henry had little difficulty in suppressing the monasteries or taking their lands, which Irish chiefs swallowed as greedily as men of English blood.
From the time of St John of Beverley until the dissolution of the monasteries, the manor and town of Beverley belonged to the archbishopric of York, and is said to have been held under a charter of liberties supposed to have been granted by King lEthelstan in 925.
He became their king, their new David, as the Christian emperors had formerly been; he built churches, endowed monasteries, protected St Vaast (Vedastus, d.
showed a preference for western France, justified by the easy access afforded by river estuaries with rich monasteries on their shores.
With his passion for the uniform and the useful on a grand scale, he hoped by means of the Code Michaud to put an end to the sale of offices, to lighten imposts, to suppress brigandage, to reduce the monasteries, &c. To do this it would have been necessary to make peace, for it was soon evident that war was incompatible with these reforms. He chose war, as did his Spanish rival and contemporary OIivares~ War is expensive sport; but Richelieu maintained a lofty attitude towards finance, disdained figures, and abandoned all petty details to subordinate officials like DEffiat or Bullion.
The church of the Nestorians, and that of the Monophysites, in their several schools and monasteries, carried on from the 5th to the 8th century the study of the earlier part of the Organon, with almost the same means, purposes and results as were found among the Latin schoolmen of the earlier centuries.
Their school at Resaina is known from the name of Sergius, one of the first of these translators, in the days of Justinian; and from their monasteries at Kinnesrin (Chalcis) issued numerous versions of the introductory treatises of the Aristotelian logic. To the Isagoge of Porphyry, the Categories and the Hernieneutica of Aristotle, the labours of these Syrian schoolmen were confined.
The revival of monasticism after the Conquest resulted in the erection of ten Benedictine monasteries, and a Benedictine nunnery at Stainfield.
At the time of the suppression of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII.
The Breton bishops were for the most part abbots of monasteries, who had but little consideration for the territorial limits of the civitates; and many of the religious usages of the Bretons differed profoundly from those of the Franks.
The Regula monachorum of Isidore was adopted by many of the monasteries in Spain during the 7th and 8th centuries.
at the dissolution of the monasteries was £1084.
Everywhere landowners made the bargain, and the monasteries and the cities followed their example.
Her purse was always open to assist convents, monasteries, and religious works and societies of all kinds, as long as they were under the management of the Church.
They selected Spain as an excellent field of enterprise; and it must be said that all the governments of the regency showed so much indulgence towards the Catholic revival thus started, that in less than a decade the kingdom, was studded with more convents, monasteries, Jesuit colleges, Catholic schools, and foundations than had existed in the palmy days of the houses of Austria and Bourbon in the 17th and 18th centuries.
by the river) are numerous ruins of monasteries, churches and fortresses of the Christian era in Nubia - notably at Jebel Deka and Magal.
Xanthi is built in the form of an amphitheatre and possesses several mosques, churches and monasteries, a theatre with a public garden, and a municipal garden.
He was assisted by a council of bishops and clergy, and was represented in each province by a bishop. This imperium in imperio secured to the Armenians a recognized position before the law, the free enjoyment of their religion, the possession of their churches and monasteries, and the right to educate their children and manage their municipal affairs.
Churches, monasteries, schools and houses were plundered and destroyed.
The community at Malmesbury increased, and Aldhelm was able to found two other monasteries to be centres of learning at Frome and at Bradford on Avon.
On the suppression of the monasteries the "great tithes" were often bestowed by the crown on laymen, who, as owning the rectorial tithes, were and are known as "lay rectors."
The surrounding country is one of uplands and woods, among which rise the monasteries of Cetatuia, Frumoasa, and Galata with its mineral springs, the water-cure establishment of Rapide and the great seminary of Socola.
He retrenched the court largesses and curtailed the immunities of the clergy, and although himself of an ascetic disposition forbade the foundation of new monasteries.
The Buddhist monasteries, in particular, occupy wide spaces in very central portions of the town and cantonments.
Under his rule Christianity and civilization were extended, bishoprics were restored and monasteries founded.
Many monasteries and towns were founded, among them Berlin; the work of Albert the Bear was continued, and the prosperity of Brandenburg formed a marked contrast to the disorder which prevailed elsewhere in Germany.
Many of the monasteries were suppressed, a consistory was set up to take over the functions of the bishops and to act as the highest ecclesiastical court of the country.
The only buildings of note are the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, Franciscan and Capuchin monasteries, synagogue, gymnasium, modern school, hospital, chamber of commerce, and law-courts.
There are several monasteries dating from the I ith century and onwards; also an archiepiscopal school at Nicosia, founded in 1812 and raised to the status of a "gymnasion" in 1893; and a high school for girls.
The government surveyed rural monasteries and schools, and reconstituted the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
A great ascetic, St Nil was the founder of several monasteries.
David founded many new bishoprics and abbeys including Melrose, Kelso and Jedburgh and endowed many of the monasteries.
Cistercian monasteries in Europe, a tenth of them in England.
dissolution of the monasteries with Simons still the master.
dissolved with the larger monasteries in February 1539.
The Australian eparchy and the Canado-American Eparchy comprise 44 churches and 2 monasteries.
evangelized much of northern England founding numerous churches and monasteries.
Out with him on a tour of some of the branch monasteries I was nearly frantic to get my stinking robes washed.
Monasteries could also build monastic granges and other farm buildings, dovecotes, mills, churches and chapels.
The chief lamas in the monasteries are often truly venerable men.
monasteryect the southern coast Henry immediately set about building a series of forts using the proceeds from the dissolved monasteries.
monastery the action happens in abandoned monasteries, churches and catacombs, but there are also some urban maps.
monasterye of the four ranges around the cloister survived the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII.
monastery it was among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England.
Prayer flags fluttering on the tallest mountain passes, innumerable monasteries and temples with frequent processions of devout pilgrims.
Areas of study include regionalism; East Anglian History and Landscape; Parks and Gardens; Churches and Monasteries; Medieval and Post-Medieval Archeology.
sequestration of the monasteries estates was primarily motivated by the need to improve governmental finances.
suppression of the monasteries is a pious legend.
Medieval monasteries grew wealthy through sheep farming on our limestone uplands.
Visit golden wats and monasteries and soak up the atmosphere of faded colonial French architecture.
The writers of the time speak with enthusiasm of its lofty towers, of the churches and monasteries in the suburbs, and especially of the.
Of these, two passed to the priories of Lewes and Michelham respectively, and after the dissolution of the monasteries were subject to frequent sale and division.
Monasteries abounded in this neighbourhood from a very early date; Shenout (Sinuthius), the fiery apostle and prophet of the Coptic national church, was a monk of Atrepe (now Suhag), and led the populace to the destruction of the pagan edifices.
This act resulted in the suppression of 274 monasteries with 3733 friars, of 61 nunneries with 1756 nuns and of 2722 chapters and benefices.
In 1860 and 1861 the royal commissioners (even before the constitution of the new kingdom of Italy had been formally declared) issued decrees by which there were abolished(f) in Umbria, 197 monasteries and 102 convents with 1809 male and 2393 female associates, and 836 chapters or benefices; (2) in the Marches, 292 monasteries and 127 convents with 2950 male and 2728 female associates; (3) in the Neapolitan provinces, 747 monasteries and 275 convents with 8787 male and 7493 female associates.
instituted much wider reforms. Feudal privileges were done away with, clerical influence diminished and many monasteries and convents suppressed, the criminal law rendered more humane and torture abolished largely as a result of G.
Nevertheless the harshness with which the emperor treated the Roman clergy and suppressed the monasteries caused deep resentment to the orthodox.
An alleged decree of a council of Autun in 670 is part of a code of discipline for monasteries (see authorities cited by Hefele, Councils, sect.
This tsar limited the " peculiar " monasteries to three, and gave the patriarch jurisdiction over them (ib.).
He also built a large monastery at Tralles on the hills skirting the valley of the Meander, and more than 90 other monasteries.
Even churchmen had been alienated by his suppression of monasteries and by his monopoly of ecclesiastical power; and his only support was the king, who had now developed a determination to rule himself.
His foundations at Oxford and Ipswich were, nevertheless, not made out of his superabundant revenues, but out of the proceeds of the dissolution of monasteries, not all of which were devoted to those laudable objects.
Besides the celebrated school of the Palace, where Alcuin had among his hearers the members of the imperial family and the dignitaries of the empire as well as talented youths of humbler origin, we hear of the episcopal schools of Lyons, Orleans and St Denis, the cloister schools of St Martin of Tours, of Fulda, Corbie, Fontenelle and many others, besides the older monasteries of St Gall and Reichenau.
But four years afterwards the chronicler tells us " the holy monastery of St Paul, the episcopal see of London, was burnt, and many other monasteries, and the greatest and fairest part of the whole 1 A valuable article on " The Conqueror's Footprints in Domesday " was published in the English Historical Review in 1898 (vol.
What has here to be traced is the history of the great body of Benedictine monasteries that held aloof from these separatist movements.
690) founded a school for the study of Greek, and with the help of an African monk named Hadrian made many of the English monasteries schools of Greek and Latin learning, so that, in the time of Bede (d.
The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly arranged after one lan modified where Y g P necessary (as at Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries, stand close to the steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local circumstances.
It was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and health, a stream of water running through it from end to end.
The " coenobian " rule to which many of the monasteries still adhere was established by St Athanasius, the founder of the great monastery of Laura, in 969.
In the " idiorrhythmic " monasteries (i&coppv9µa), which are governed by two or three annually elected wardens (E7rirpoirot), a less stringent rule prevails, and the monks are allowed to supplement the fare of the monastery from their private incomes.
On leaving Athens Basil visited the monasteries of Egypt and Palestine; in the latter country and in Syria the monastic life tended to become more and more eremitical and to run to great extravagances in the matter of bodily austerities (see Monasticism).
In 1904 the village communities (peasantry) owned 43.8 Ã‚°A of the total area; private owners, mostly nobles, 40.6%; the Crown and imperial family, 6%; and public bodies, such as towns and monasteries, 2.6%; while 3% was in the hands of the Jews.
The great wealth of the old monastic orders exposed them, especially in France and Italy, to the vicious system of commendation, whereby a bishop, an ecclesiastic, or even a layman was appointed " commendatory abbot " of a monastery, merely for the purpose of drawing the revenues (see Abbot); the monasteries were often deprived even of necessary maintenance, the communities dwindled, and regular observance became impossible.
These bales are carried on the backs of coolies for great distances across very high passes into Tibet, and the trade is estimated at an average of 19,000,000 lb per annum, of which 8,000,000 is a subsidy from the emperor of China to the Tibetan monasteries.
Daumet, Mission archeologique de Macedoine (Paris, 1876), where there is a map of the monasteries and their surroundings; Guide-Joanne; Grece, vol.
To this period succeeding the fall of the Roman power is also ascribed the foundation of the many great Celtic monasteries, of which Bangor-Iscoed on the Dee, Bardsey Island, Llancarvan and Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan, Caerleon-on-Usk.
The Chutuktus, or abbots of the great monasteries, then assemble, and after a week of prayer, the lots are drawn in their presence and in presence of the surviving Great Lama and of the Chinese political resident.
Most of the great monasteries had their official annalists, who produced such works as the Annals of Tewkesbury, Gloucester, Burton, Waverley, Dunstable, Bermondsey, Oseney, Winchester (see Annales Monastici, 5 vols., ed.
In the neighbourhood of the last-named place, where the Cambunian chain of mountains descends in steep precipices to the plain, are the Meteora ("midair") monasteries (see Meteora).
"But a large number of monasteries and churches is always a sign of the backwardness of a people," said Napoleon, turning to Caulaincourt for appreciation of this remark.
"I beg your Majesty's pardon," returned Balashev, "besides Russia there is Spain, where there are also many churches and monasteries."