Monarchy Sentence Examples
We are replacing monarchy with self-rule.
In a monarchy, despotic or constitutional, there cannot in strictness be an aristocracy, because the whole political power cannot be vested in the noble Venice class.
Monarchy is not inherently bad, and there have been fine kings and queens in history.
In a monarchy, where the king can ennoble, this ideal cannot be kept.
All this came to an end with the monarchy.Advertisement
The northern kingdom cherished the institution of a monarchy, and in this, as in all great political events, the prophets took part.
The history of the Dual Monarchy during his reign is told under the heading of AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, and here it is only necessary to deal with its personal aspects.
There were no hereditary or formally elected chiefs, nor was there any vestige of monarchy.
The system led inevitably to bankruptcy and ruin; the war of 1859, by bringing it to an end, saved the monarchy.
Yet again, the approach of the divided monarchy is foreshadowed.Advertisement
Nevertheless, these places of cult remained some 300 years until almost the close of the monarchy, when their destruction is attributed to Josiah (§ 16).
From the flourishing days of the later monarchy and onwards, different writers handled the early history of their land from different standpoints.
When, in 1643, the disasters falling on the monarchy on all sides led to the dismissal of Olivares, Philip had lost the power to devote himself to hard work.
Though a passionate lover of liberty, he hoped to secure the freedom of France and her monarchy at the same time.
He soon gave to the policy of the monarchy a resolution which had long been wanting.Advertisement
The charge that he laboured to introduce monarchy by intrigue is an under-estimate of his good sense.
It has seemed as if any form of nobility was inconsistent with a republican form of government, while nobility, in some shape or other, has come to be looked on as a natural, if not a necessary, appendage to a monarchy.
It is precisely in Saul's time that the account of the Judaean monarchy, or perhaps of the monarchy from the Judaean standpoint, now begins.
History saw in David the head of a lengthy line of kings, the founder of the Judaean monarchy, the psalmist and the priest-king who inaugurated religious institutions now recognized to be of a distinctly later character.
Queen Mary, unshaken in her attachment to the ancient faith and the papal monarchy, was able with the sanction of a subservient parlia ment to turn back the wheels of ecclesiastical legis lation, to restore the old religion, and to reunite the 1558.Advertisement
English Church with the papal monarchy; the pope's legate, Cardinal Pole, was primate of all England.
The alliance of England and the Scottish Protestants against the French, and the common secession from the papal monarchy, was in a sense the foundation and beginning of Great Britain.
The French monarchy, as we have seen, had usually succeeded in holding its own against the centralizing tendencies of the pope.
After the battle of Valmy, Dumouriez was the greatest man in France; he could almost have restored the monarchy; yet Marat did not fear to denounce him in placards as a traitor.
Although, among other obstacles, the popes of the 12th century had experienced some difficulty in subduing the inhabitants of the city, which was the seat and centre of the of the Christian world, their monarchy did not cease to gain in authority, solidity and prestige, and the work of centralization, which was gradually making them masters of the whole ecclesiastical organism, was accomplished steadily and without serious interruption.Advertisement
But with the growth of the idea of German unity, Germanism had established a new ideal, of which the centre lay beyond the boundaries of the Austrian monarchy, and which was bound to be antagonistic to the aspirations of other races.
The monarchy had been undermined.
The death of Charles 11., the heirless king of the huge Spanish monarchy, had long been expected.
When the emperor of Austria summoned a meeting of the German princes at Frank Christian monarchy against the revolution as the chief duty of the Prussian government.
His early fall was predicted, and it was feared that he might bring down the monarchy with him.
Prussia was bound by the treaty of London of 1852, which guaranteed the integrity of the Danish monarchy; to have disregarded this would have been to bring about a coalition against Germany similar to that of 1851.
His opponents have accused him of unscrupulousness and party spirit, but not one of them can deny that he reshaped Hungary and made her the leading partner of the dual monarchy.
From the Franciscan's letters it appears that the earl had studied a political tract by Grosseteste on the difference between a monarchy and a tyranny; and that he embraced with enthusiasm the bishop's projects of ecclesiastical reform.
These became subject to the Persian monarchy with the other Greek cities of Asia.
Other and more profound differences relating to the rise of the monarchy (§ 2), the career of Saul (§ 3) and David's conquest of Jerusalem (§ 4) represent irreconcilable historical background.
Hamilton's ideal was an elective monarchy, and his guiding principle a proper balance of authority.
But it should be borne in mind that, in the days of Gustavus, Vienna was by no means so essential to the existence of the Habsburg monarchy as it was in the days of Napoleon; and even Gustavus could not allow so dangerous an opponent as Tilly time to recover himself.
Thomas Andrews, newly appointed Lord Mayor of London, proclaims the abolition of the Monarchy.
The project also hosted a major international colloquium on Hellenistic Monarchy at Somerville College, Oxford, in March 2003.
David led a confederacy of the twelve tribes and founded a hereditary monarchy with Jerusalem as its capital.
This time honored ritual emphasizes the continuity and majesty of the British monarchy.
Three counties - Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorca, to the east - are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy.
The starting-point of the modern census, however, in either part of the dual monarchy, was not until 1857.
As a rule the prophets directly connect the final restoration with the removal of the sins of their own age; to Isaiah the last troubles are those of Assyrian invasion, to Jeremiah the restoration follows on the exile to Babylon, to Daniel on the overthrow of the Greek monarchy.
The fate of the Habsburg empire depended upon the issue of the campaign in Italy, which would have been lost by the withdrawal of the Magyar and Croatian regiments; and the Hungarian government chose this critical moment to tamper with the relations of the army to the monarchy.
The time had, indeed, not yet come to attempt any conspicuous breach with the constitutional principle; but the new ministry was such as the imperial sentiment would approve, inimical to the German ideals of Frankfort, devoted to the traditions of the Habsburg monarchy.
The Hungarian retreat after the bloody battle of Kapolna (February 26-27, 1849) was followed by the dissolution of the Kremsier assembly, and a proclamation in which the emperor announced his intention of granting a constitution to the whole monarchy " one and indivisible."
The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.
Deak and the majority agreed, however, that there should be certain institutions common to Hungary and the rest of the monarchy; these were - (1) foreign affairs, including the diplomatic and consular service; (2) the army and navy; (3) the control of the expenses required for these branches of the public service.
Even the determination of the proportion which each half of the monarchy was to contribute was not left to the Delegations.
In addition to these " common affairs " the Hungarians, indeed, recognized that there were certain other matters which it was desirable should be managed or identical principles in the two halves of the monarchy - namely, customs and excise currency; the army and common railways.
His shorter style is " His Majesty the Emperor and King," and " His Imperial and Apostolic Royal Majesty "; the lands over which he rules are called " The Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy " or " The Austrian-Hungarian Realm."
In the year 1879 the European position of the monarchy was 2 Josef, Freiherr Philippovic von Philippsberg (1818-1889), belonged to an old Christian noble family of Bosnia.
Besides this joint army placed under the joint ministry of war, there was in each part of the monarchy a separate militia and a separate minister for national defence.
This, which is now the principal remnant of the old ascendancy of German, and the one point of unity for the whole monarchy, is a matter on which the government and the monarch allow no concession, but in the Hungarian parliament protests against it have been raised, and in 1899 and 1900 it was necessary to punish recruits from Bohemia, who answered the roll call in the Czechish zde instead of the German hier.
This institution had, in 1867, belonged entirely to Austria; it had branches in Hungary, and its notes were current throughout the monarchy, but the direction was entirely Austrian.
It is indeed remarkable that notwithstanding the complicated machinery of the dual monarchy, and the numerous obstacles which have to be overcome before a reform affecting both countries can be carried out, the financial, the commercial, and the foreign policy has been conducted since 1870 with success.
At the close of the 19th century both states of the Dual Monarchy were visited by political crises of some severity.
Its conclusion was prematurely greeted as the end of a period of economic strife between the two halves of the monarchy and as a pledge of a decade of peaceful development.
Ten years of economic unity remained during which the Dual Monarchy might grow together or grow asunder, increasing accordingly in strength or in weakness.
In October 1906, however, he retired, and it was soon clear that his successor, Baron von Aerenthal,' was determined to take advantage of the changed European situation to take up once more the traditional policy of the Habsburg monarchy in the Balkan Peninsula.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
Without consulting the co-signatory powers of the treaty of Berlin, and in deliberate violation of its provisions, the king-emperor issued, on the 13th of October, a decree annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg Monarchy, and at the same time announcing the withdrawal of the AustroHungarian troops from the sanjak of Novibazar.
In this conflict the tactical advantage lay with the monarchy; for the Magyars were in a minority in Hungary, their ascendancy was based on a narrow and artificial franchise, and it was open to the king-emperor to hold in terrorem over them an appeal to the disfranchised majority.
On the other hand, the Wekerle ministry was pledged to a measure of franchise reform, a pledge which they showed no eagerness to redeem, though the granting of universal suffrage in the Austrian half of the Monarchy had made such a change inevitable.
A great party, led by Palacky and Rieger, demanded the restoration of the Bohemian monarchy in its fullest extent, including Moravia and Silesia, and insisted that the emperor should be crowned as king of Bohemia at Prague as his predecessors had been, and that Bohemia should have a position in the monarchy similar to that obtained by Hungary.
Their real interests were outside the monarchy, and they did not cease to look forward to a restoration of the Polish kingdom.
They maintained, moreover, that the ascendancy of the Germans was the only means of preserving the unity of the monarchy; German was the only language in which the different races could communicate with one another; it must be the language of the army, the civil service and the parliament.
In a country like Austria, in which a mistaken foreign policy or a serious quarrel with Hungary might bring about the disruption of the monarchy, parliamentary government was impossible unless the party which the government helped in internal matters were prepared to support it in foreign affairs and in the commercial policy bound up with the settlement with Hungary.
All laws were published in German; German was the sole language used in the central public offices in Vienna, and the language of the court and of the army; moreover, in almost every part of the monarchy it had become the language of what is called the internal service in the public offices and law courts; all books and correspondence were kept in German, not only in the German districts, but also in countries such as Bohemia and Galicia.
In Syria the independent action of the cities greatly increased during the last weakness of the Seleucid monarchy.
The spirit of the Sassanian monarchy was more jealously national than that of the Arsacid, and alienrafts could hardly have flourished g y under it.
He appears to have aspired to found an independent monarchy, and to that end endeavoured to disband all forces except those which were exclusively under his own control.
Denmark is a limited monarchy, according to the law of 1849, revised in 1866.
Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.
The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the royal Raad, or council.
The enormous increase of the royal revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the monarchy.
There seemed to be no reason why Denmark also should not become a powerful state under the guidance of a powerful monarchy, especially as the sister state of Sweden was developing into a great power under apparently identical conditions.
The Danish monarchy since the days of Margaret had continued to be purely elective; and a purely elective monarchy at that stage of the political development of Europe was a mischievous anomaly.
Moreover, an elective monarchy implied that, at every fresh succession, the king was liable to be bound by a new Haandfaestning, or charter.
In a word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far advanced in decadence.
On the 13th of October it signed a declaration to the effect that it associated itself still with the Lower Estates in the making over of the kingdom, as a hereditary monarchy, to his majesty and his heirs male and female.
Thus the ancient constitution was transformed; and Denmark became a monarchy hereditary in Frederick III.
We can follow pretty plainly the stages of the progress from a limited to an absolute monarchy.
The monarchy is declared to owe its origin to the surrender of the supreme authority by the Estates to the king.
The Enevaelde, or absolute monarchy, also distinctly benefited the whole Danish state by materially increasing its reserve of native talent.
Moreover, until two years after Bernstorff's death in 1797, the Danish press enjoyed a larger freedom of speech than the press of any other absolute monarchy in Europe, so much so that at last Denmark became suspected of favouring Jacobin views.
This division of national sentiment within the monarchy, complicated by the approaching extinction of the Oldenburg line of the house of Denmark, by which, in the normal course under the Salic law, the succession to Holstein would have passed away from the Danish crown, opened up the whole complicated SchleswigHolstein Question with all its momentous consequences.
Under this arrangement each part of the monarchy was to have local autonomy, with a common constitution for common affairs.
Holstein was now restored to Denmark, and Prussia and Austria consented to take part in the conference of London, by which the integrity of Denmark was upheld, and the succession to the whole monarchy settled on Prince Christian, youngest son of Duke William of SchleswigHolstein-Sonderburg-Gliicksburg, and husband of Louise of Hesse, the niece of King Christian VIII.
In 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to the Dual Monarchy, and Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia) was proclaimed an independent kingdom.
It was necessary for the future development of England that its governmental system should be centralized and unified, that the authority of the monarchy should be more firmly extended over Wales and the western and northern borders, and that the still existing feudal franchises should be crushed; and these objects were worth the price paid in the methods of the Star Chamber and of the Councils of the North and of Wales.
So long as he remained in office there was no hope of arriving at a settlement of a matter which threatened the disruption of the Dual monarchy, and on the II th of October 1906 he was forced to resign.
There are in some places vestiges of this primitive state of society still remaining; the transition to a limited or to a despotic monarchy may be traced by means of the ancient legends in some islands, and in others it is a matter of recent history.
In some of the islands this transition process has hardly yet developed into an absolute monarchy.
In another case the nominal king over a district, or over an entire island, can, be elected only from among the members of a certain clan, the monarchy being elective within that alone; but this king has little authority.
In other cases a more despotic monarchy has grown up - the prowess of one man leading to the subjugation of other clans.
In the most remote ages to which written history carries us, the regions on both sides of the Oxus were subject to the Persian monarchy.
About 250 B.C. Diodotus, the "governor of the thousand cities of Bactria," declared himself king, simultaneously with the revolt of Arsaces which laid the foundation of the Parthian monarchy.
In commerce and industry Budapest is by far the most important town in Hungary, and in the former, if not also in the latter, it is second to Vienna alone in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
This position was probably tolerable during the monarchy, when the king served to hold the power of the patrician families in check.
The lictors and the fasces were so inseparably connected that they came to be used as synonymous terms. The fasces originally represented the power over life and limb possessed by the kings, and after the abolition of the monarchy, the consuls, like the kings, were preceded by twelve fasces.
It is rather due to an overpowering sense of the value of organization - a sense that liberty can never be dissevered from order, that a vital interconnexion between all the parts of the body politic is the source of all good, so that while he can find nothing but brute weight in an organized public, he can compare the royal person in his ideal form of constitutional monarchy to the dot upon the letter i.
A conspicuous feature is the difficulty of maintaining this single monarchy, which, however it originated, speedily became two rival states (Judah and Israel).
With the establishment of an independent monarchy Palestine did not enter into a new world.
In the latter part of the 6th century we find some restoration, some revival of the old monarchy in the person of Zerubbabel (520 B.C.); but again the course of events is problematical (JEws, § 20).
Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.
For example, the ephod, an object of divination, is still retained, but it is now restricted to the high-priest; and his position as head of a theocratic state, and his ceremonial dress with its heathenish associations presuppose a past monarchy.
There was no place for tribal exclusiveness, and the upkeep of a monarchy (including the Temple) and the occasional payment of tribute would require duly appointed officials and a central body.
The biblical history is a " canonical " history which looks back to the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the law-giving and the covenant with Yahweh at Sinai, the conquest of Palestine by the Israelite tribes, the monarchy, the rival kingdoms, the fall and exile of the northern tribes, and, later, of the southern (Judah), and the reconstructions of Judah in the times of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes.
The political history is relatively slight and uneven, and the framework is rehandled in Chronicles upon more developed lines and from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, which suggests that many traditions of the monarchy were extant in a late dress.
This book of the Old Testament, which, as we now read it, constitutes a sequel to the book of Joshua, covering the period of history between the death of this conqueror and the birth of Samuel, is so called because it contains the history of the Israelites before the establishment of the monarchy, when the government was in the hands of certain leaders who appear to have formed a continuous succession, although the office was not hereditary.
Historical Value.-The book of Judges consists of a number of narratives collected by Deuteronomic editors; to the same circles are due accounts of the invasions of Palestine and settlement in Joshua, and of the foundation of the monarchy in I Samuel.
On the other hand, the belief that the monarchy had been preceded by national "judges" may have led to the formation of the collection.
The workers, who control the polity of the hive (the "queen" being exceedingly "limited" in her monarchy), arrange if possible that young queens shall develop only when the population of the hive has become so congested that it is desirable to send off a swarm.
A more important result of Athenian intervention was the substitution of the democratic government for the oligarchy which had succeeded the early monarchy; at any rate forty years later we find that Argos possessed complete democratic institutions.
Ahmad Shah, the founder of the monarchy, likewise wrote poetry.
The government of Afghanistan is an absolute monarchy under the amir, and succession to the throne is hereditary.
His empire in India indeed - ruled by his freedmen who after his death became independent - may be regarded as the origin of that great Mahommedan monarchy which endured nominally till 1857.
He believed in constitutional monarchy, as offering the best guarantees both for sovereign and people, and he was bitterly opposed to all forms of state socialism.
While, therefore, Seleucus was winning his way to the Syrian monarchy during the eleven years which followed Alexander's death, Chandragupta was building up an empire in northern India.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution the king and queen were not at first hostile to the new movement; but after the fall of the French monarchy they became violently opposed to it, and in 1793 joined the first coalition against France, instituting severe persecutions against all who were remotely suspected of French sympathies.
The result was, however, that the powers authorized Austria to march an army into Naples to restore the autocratic monarchy.
But as yet the idea of unity made but little headway, for southern Italy was too widely separated by geographical conditions, history, tradition and custom from the rest of the peninsula, and the majority of the Liberals - themselves a minority of the population - merely aspired to a constitutional Neapolitan monarchy, possibly forming part of a confederation of Italian states.
After the union of Italy he was frequently asked to stand for parliament, but always refused because he could not conscientiously take the oath of allegiance to the monarchy.
The local monarchy of the manorial lords was fast giving way to a central power which maintained its laws, the circuits of its judges, the fiscal claims of its exchequer, the police interference of its civil officers all through the country, and, by prevailing over the franchises of manorial lords, gave shape to a vast dominion of legal equality and legal protection, in which the forces of commercial exchange, of contract, of social intercourse, found a ready and welcome sphere of action.
Philip had reduced to a mere remnant the formidable continental empire of the Angevins, which had threatened the existence of the Capetian monarchy.
Nothing shows the progress of the Capetian monarchy more than the enthusiasm and joy of the people of France, as described by William the Breton, over this crowning victory.
The army which safeguarded this active monarchy consisted chiefly of mercenaries.
Philip's policy of building up a strong monarchy was pursued with a steadiness of aim which excluded both enthusiasm and scruple.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach is a limited hereditary monarchy, and was the first state in Germany to receive a liberal constitution.
At first he had lauded a constitutional monarchy; but the flight of Louis XVI.
This policy in foreign affairs, which he pursued through the winter and spring of 1791-92, he combined with another - that of fanning the suspicions of the people against the monarchy, which he identified with the counter-revolution, and of forcing on a change of ministry.
It was this, his first administration, which introduced the constitution of the 5th of June 1849, and he also presided over the third constitutional ministry which was formed in July 1851; but he resigned on the 27th of January 1852, because he could not approve of the decree which aimed at transforming Denmark into a composite, indivisible, monarchy.
Palmerston, indeed, who did not believe that under the Bourgeois Monarchy France would translate her brave words into action, was in favour of settling the Turco-Egyptian question once for all by depriving Mehemet Ali of Egypt as well.
Then, however, by the publication of L'Almanach du Pere Gerard, a little book setting forth, in homely style, the advantages of a constitutional monarchy, he suddenly acquired great popularity.
The strength of the Whigs at this time and the necessities of the war caused the retirement of Harley, but he remained Anne's secret adviser and supporter against the faction, urging upon her "the dangers to the crown as well as to the church and monarchy itself from their counsels and actions," 3 while the duchess never regained her former influence.
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on laws of 1854 and 1870.
Stephen hastened against the rebels, bearing before him the banner of St Martin of Tours, whom he now chose to be his patron saint, and routed the rebels at Veszprem (998), a victory from which the foundation of the Hungarian monarchy must be dated, for Stephen assumed the royal title immediately afterwards.
It does not include those two institutions which more than any others stand in popular imagination as genuinely medieval - the papal monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire.
Papal monarchy and Holy Roman Empire were not the only political phenomena of their age, and it is possible that their vast pretensions have somewhat blinded historians as to their real importance.
It is at least evident that the political middle ages were already disintegrating during the period of papal monarchy and Holy Roman Empire.
In religious history - to be distinguished from that of the political organization referred to above as the papal monarchy - the official recognition of the Christian Church by Galerius in 311 serves as a convenient starting-point for what we know as universal Christendom, though the slow disappearance of paganism, as distinct from Christianity, stretches over at least a century more.
The latter half of the 11th century witnessed the most remarkable political creation in Europe since the days of Caesar, the papal monarchy of Hildebrand.
To Protestants the age of the papal monarchy was like the reign of Anti-Christ.
During the Revolution period he advocated constitutional monarchy, and was returned as deputy by the Third Estate of the bailliage of Nemours to the states-general, and then to the Constituent Assembly, of which he was elected president on the 16th of October 1790.
The ideas of universal monarchy and of indivisible Christendom, incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Church, had so far lost their hold that scope was offered for the introduction of new theories both of state and church which would have seemed visionary or impious to the medieval mind.
Nothing remained to check those centrifugal forces in state and church which substituted a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions for the previous Catholic unity.
Forged letters, purporting to show his desire to abandon the revolutionary struggle, were published; he was accused of drawing more than his salary; his manners were ridiculed as "aping monarchy"; hints of the propriety of a guillotine for his benefit began to appear; he was spoken of as the "stepfather of his country."
One of the most characteristic works of Cormenin is the Livre des orateurs, a series of brilliant studies of the principal parliamentary orators of the restoration and the monarchy of July, the first edition of which appeared in 1838, and the eighteenth in 1860.
Dues of various kinds were gradually added to the land revenue, until, as in the later Egyptian monarchy, the forms of revenue reached a bewildering complexity.
The later German empire of Otto and the Frederics; the French Capetian monarchy and, in a somewhat different sphere, the medieval Italian and German cities show the same movement.
Florence affords an instructive specimen; but the passage from feudalism to the national state under the authority of monarchy made the cities and country districts parts of a larger whole.
Throughout the reign of Louis Philippe he remained a supporter of the government; and after the fall of the monarchy, in February 1848, he withdrew from political affairs and retired to his country seat in Auvergne.
But Mr Lang's answer on that point is that this humble supernumerary in Roux de Marsilly's conspiracy simply became one more wretched victim of the "red tape" of the old French absolute monarchy.
Not only is Edom as a nation recognized as older than Israel, but a list of eight kings, who reigned before the Israelite monarchy, is preserved in Gen.
But war with this monarchy shortly afterwards broke out, and a brother of the first discoverer, happening to be appointed to the command of a division of gunboats employed in some part of the operations, followed up the pursuit of the subject, and obtained several hundred plants and a considerable quantity of seed.
The marquis d'Argenson writes that at the council table Louis "opened his mouth, said little and thought not at all," and again that "under the appearance of personal monarchy it was really anarchy that reigned."
The article on the history of France (q.v.) shows how there arose during the last years of Louis XV.'s reign a strong reaction against the monarchy and its methods.
In the parlements, provincial and Parisian; in religion and in literature, a note of opposition is struck which was never to die until the monarchy was overthrown.
If the reign of his predecessor shows us almost the ideal of personal monarchy we may see in that of Louis XV.
Sweden is a limited monarchy, the constitution resting primarily on a law (regerings-formen) of the 6th of June 1809.
The navian famous expeditions of Rurik and Askold which Settlements resulted in the origin of the Russian monarchy in Russia.
Still more offensive was the attitude of Sweden's eastern neighbour Muscovy, with whom the Swedish king was nervously anxious to stand on good terms. Gustavus attributed to Ivan IV., whose resources he unduly magnified, the design of establishing a universal monarchy round the Baltic.
A more questionable benefit was her rapid elevation to the rank of an imperial power, an elevation which imposed the duty of remaining a military monarchy, armed cap-d-pie for every possible emergency.
Thus Sweden, as well as Denmark, had become an absolute monarchy, but with this important difference, that the right of the Swedish people, in parliament assembled, to be consulted on all important matters was recognized and acted upon.
The new constitution of the 10th of August 1772, which Gustavus imposed upon the terrified estates at the bayonet's point, converted a weak and disunited republic into a strong but limited monarchy, in which the balance of power inclined,.
Although its territory lies open on the west and east, its physical features unite it to Judah, and what is known of its mixed population 1 makes it difficult to determine how far the youngest of the tribes of Israel enjoyed any independent position previous to the monarchy.
Constitution and Government.Up to the year 1906 the government of Persia was an absolute monarchy, and resembled in its principal features that of the Ottoman Empire, with the exception, however, that the monarch was not the religious head of the community.
The position of the Persian monarchy as a world-empire is characteristically emphasized in the buildings of Darius and Xerxes in Persepolis and Susa.
Henceforward it becomes the form of every absolute monarchy in a civilized land, being formally mitigated only in Christian states by the assumption that the king is not God, but king by the grace of God.
In 1783, when the strength of the Persian monarchy was concentrated upon Isfahan and Shiraz, the Georgian tsar Heraclius entered into an agreement with the empress Catherine by which all connection with the shah was disavowed, and a quasi-vassalage to Russia substitutedthe said empire extending her aegis of protection over her new ally.
He sought to form the most intimate relations with the German Empire, but insisted on the independence of the Habsburg Monarchy, and energetically repulsed all efforts on the part of the German chancellery to set limits to that independence.
In the solution of questions of internal policy Aehrenthal, as Foreign Minister, only took part in so far as they seemed to him to affect the interests of the monarchy as a whole.
As against the Magyars, he upheld the view that the unity of the monarchy must not be shaken, and he therefore offered a determined resistance to the attempts of the party of independence to intrench on the rights of the Crown in military matters.
After the disastrous result of the World War, bringing with it the downfall of the Habsburg Monarchy, it is still more difficult to answer the question whether the path pursued by Aehrenthal in foreign affairs was the right one.
Russia was till lately the most police-ridden country in the world; not even in France in the worst days of the monarchy were the people so much in the hands of the police.
As long as Cromwell lived there appeared little hope of the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles and Hyde had been aware of the plots for his assassination, which had aroused no disapproval.
By the protector's death on the 3rd of September 1658 the scene was wholly changed, and amidst the consequent confusion of factions the cry for the restoration of the monarchy grew daily in strength.
With them, as with their master, public office was only desirable as a means of procuring enjoyment, for which an absolute monarchy provided the most favourable conditions.
Meanwhile the plot of Vennerandof the Fifth Monarchy men had been suppressed in January 1661, and the king was crowned on the 23rd of April.
A great popular reaction ensued in favour of the monarchy, and a large number of loyal addresses were sent in, most of them condemning the Exclusion Bill.
During the whole of the July monarchy he was thus one of the chief dispensers of literary patronage in France, but in his later years his reputation declined.
He thus gave much trouble to men like Serrano, Topete and Prim, who had never harboured the idea of drifting into advanced democracy, and who had each his own scheme for re-establishing the monarchy with certain constitutional restrictions.
On the outbreak of the Revolution Couthon, who was now a member of the municipality of Clermont-Ferrand, published his L'Aristocrate converti, in which he revealed himself as a liberal and a champion of constitutional monarchy.
Up to October 1910 the government was an hereditary and constitutional monarchy, based on the constitutional charter which was granted by King Pedro IV.
The revolution of the 5th of October 1910 brought the monarchy to an end and substituted republican government for it.
Under the monarchy, the army was maintained at its normal strength partly by voluntary enlistment and conscription, the chief law regulating it being that of 1887, as variously modified in subsequent years.
His attempts to strengthen the monarchy and fill the treasury at the expense of the Church resulted in his excommunication by Pope Honorius III., and Portugal remained under interdict until Alphonso II.
The monarchy owed its triumph to its championship of national interests, to the support of the municipalities and military orders, and to the prestige gained by the royal armies in the Moorish and Castilian wars.
They had supported the monarchy because it was a national institution, hostile to the tyranny of nobles and clergy.
No event in the early constitutional history of Portugal is more important than this election, which definitely affirmed the national character of the monarchy.
The old initiative and self-reliance of the nation, already shaken by years of disaster, were now completely undermined, and the people submitted without show of resistance to a theocracy disguised as absolute monarchy.
The Oriental magnificence of these embassies, notably that of 1514, and the fact that a king of Portugal dared openly to criticize the morals of the Vatican, temporarily enhanced the prestige of the monarchy.
The decadence of the monarchy as a national institution was reflected in the decadence of the cortes, which was rarely summoned between 1521 and 1580.
Luiza, who had foreseen the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, and had in 1650 welcomed the exiled princes Rupert and Maurice at the court of John IV.
Throughout that period the monarchy had occupied a precarious position, dependent until' 1668 for its very existence, and after 1668 for its stability, on foreign support.
Pombal liberated the monarchy from clerical domination, and thus unwittingly opened the door to those " French principles," or democratic ideas, which spread rapidly after his downfall in 1 777 .
The destruction of an obsolete political system, begun by Pombal, was completed by the Peninsular War; while French invaders and British governors together quickened among the Portuguese a new consciousness of their nationality, and a new desire for political rights, which rendered inevitable the change to constitutional monarchy.
His policy was to strengthen the monarchy and to use it for the furtherance of a comprehensive scheme of reform.
At the beginning of the 10th century the question whether the monarchy should be replaced by a republic had become a living political issue, which was decided by the revolution of October 5, 1910.
Bohemia has the form of an irregular rhomb, of which the northernmost place, Buchberg, just above Hainspach, is at the same time the farthest north in the whole AustroHungarian monarchy.
Notwithstanding its rich natural resources and its great industrial development, Bohemia sends out a steady flow of emigrants, who either settle in the other provinces of the monarchy, in Germany and in Russia, or cross the Atlantic to America.
The Bohemian throne was now again vacant, for, when electing Ladislas the estates had reaffirmed the elective character of the monarchy.
The reaction that now ensued was felt more severely than in any other part of the monarchy; for not only were all attempts to obtain self-government and liberty ruthlessly suppressed, but a determined attempt was made to exterminate the national language.
He cannot be justly blamed for having been born to rule a despotic monarchy, without even the capacity which would have qualified him to manage a small estate.
It is not a despotic monarchy governed from one centre and by a monarch in whom plenitude of power resides.
Of monarchy he speaks with a genuine Ronan hatred, and we know that in the last days of the republic his sympathies were wholly with those who strove in vain to save it.
Among the West Goths written laws had already been put forth by Euric. The second Alaric (484-507) put forth a Breviarium of Roman law for his Roman subjects; but the great collection of West Gothic laws dates from the later days of the monarchy, being put forth by King Recceswinth about 654.
But after the assassination of Chilperic in 584, and the dangers occasioned to the Frankish monarchy by the expedition of Gundobald in 585, Childebert threw himself unreservedly into the arms of Gontran.
He had a resolution adopted, tending to give Napoleon Bonaparte the consulship for life; and in 1804 supported the proposal to establish a hereditary monarchy.
Under his direction the Addressers and the Resolutioners coalesced, and he was entrusted with the difficult and delicate negotiations with the crown, which aimed at effecting a compromise between the Pragmatic Sanction of 1719, which established the indivisibility of the Habsburg monarchy, and the March decrees of 1848.
This Ahmad established a new monarchy, which lasted till its overthrow by Shah Jahan in 1636.
After securing, the election of her husband to the throne by wholesale bribery she virtually took the government into her hands and restored the waning influence of the monarchy over the nobles.
During the years 1852-1854 the burning question of the day was the connexion between the various parts of the monarchy.
The Free State, under King Leopold of Belgium, was organized as an absolute monarchy.
It is now the general opinion of most modern scholars who study the Old Testament from a critical point of view that this work cannot possibly have originated, according to the traditional theory, at any time during the Babylonian monarchy, when the events recorded are supposed to have taken place.
Rumania was little affected by the political changes in the Balkan Peninsula (1908-10) coincident with the Turkish revolution, the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Dual Monarchy, the proclamation of Bulgarian independence and the erection of Montenegro into a kingdom.
He returned to Naples as minister of public instruction in 1860, and filled the same post under the Italian monarchy in 1861, 1878 and 1879, having in 1861 become a deputy in the Italian chamber.
But when the French monarchy was abolished and the royal pair beheaded, Ferdinand and Carolina were seized with a feeling of fear and horror and joined the first coalition against France in 1793.
Worsted, mainly through the genius of Marlborough, in his efforts to secure the whole of the great Spanish monarchy for his grandson, Philip, duke of Anjou, Louis XIV.
France and England came to terms, and the preliminaries of peace were signed in London in October 1711, their basis being a tacit acquiescence in the partition of the Spanish monarchy.
During 1848,, when the extreme party was in the ascendant, Mommsen supported the monarchy against the Republicans.
During the period allotted to his preliminary studies, he read over and over again all the yearbooks, reports, and law treatises in print, and at the Tower of London and other antiquarian repositories examined and carefully studied the records from the foundation of the English monarchy down to his own time.
His sympathies were apparently with the monarchy, under certain constitutional safeguards.
Speaking in 1853 of the political issues of the spiritual philosophy which he had taught during his lifetime, he says, - "It conducts human societies to the true republic, that dream of all generous souls, which in our time can be realized in Europe only by constitutional monarchy."
In politics we have in correspondence also with the idea, monarchy, democracy, constitutionalism.
With the new monarchy there had come into England the anarchic spirit of continental feudalism.
Nothing proves more conclusively the strength of the Angevin monarchy, and the decreasing power of feudalism, than that an unpopular king like John.
This was the greatest victory of the French medieval monarchy.
Every time that Henry confirmed the Great Charter, the fact that England was already a limited monarchy became more evident.
The limited monarchy established by the Provisions of Oxford lasted only three years.
He understood the problem that was before him, the construction of a working constitution from the old ancestral customs of the English monarchy plus the newer ideas that had been embodied in the Great Charter, the Provisions of Oxford, and the-scanty legislation of Simon de Montfort.
He planned to gather the Lollards of London and the Home Counties under arms, and to seize the person of the kinga scheme as wild as the design of Guy Fawkes or the Fifth Monarchy Rising Men in later generations, for the sectaries were not u0,der1 strong enough to coerce the whole nation.
But except on rare occasions he allowed his power to be disguised under the old machinery of the medieval monarchy, and made no parade of his autocracy.
It is with little justification that he has been called the founder of the new monarchy, and the spiritual ancestor of the Tudor despotism.
Then came rapidly a succession of blows at the supports by which the Tudor monarchy had been upheld.
Monarchy under Louis Philippe; a revolution that was to exert a strong influence on the movement for reform in England.
All Europe, whether Liberal or reactionary, was watching the constitutional struggle with strained attention; the principles of monarchy and of constitutional liberty were alike at stake.
To foreign observers it seemed impossible that the British monarchy could survive.
The monarchy itself was popular, the country was prosperous and in good relations with the world, except for the increasing naval rivalry with Germany, and the consciousness of imperial solidarity had made extraordinary progress among all the dominions.
In the third place, the development of the new monarchy involved an enormous extension of the activity of the central government, and therefore a corresponding expansion in the records of its energy.
It was thus to be the supreme executive and judicial organ, discharging all business except that of finance and the drafting of documents; and it was intended to serve Maximilian as a point d'appui for the monarchy against the system of oligarchical committees, instituted by Berthold, archbishop of Mainz.
The same vehement passion for freedom, justice, humanity and order was roused in him at a very early stage of the third great revolution in his history - the revolution which overthrew the old monarchy in France.
The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon the possessions of a part.
If the king or queen could either have had the political genius of Frederick the Great, or could have had the good fortune to find a minister with that genius, and the good sense and good faith to trust and stand by him against mobs of aristocrats and mobs of democrats; if the army had been sound and the states-general had been convoked at Bourges or Tours instead of at Paris, then the type of French monarchy and French society might have been modernized without convulsion.
Thus were the foundations of a theocracy laid in Jerusalem; and when Godfrey died (July 110o) he left the question to be decided, whether a theocracy or a monarchy should be the government of the Holy Land.
Under Diocletian the senate became a political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute monarchy approaching to despotism.
He wore the royal diadem, assumed the title of lord, and introduced a complicated system of ceremonial and etiquette, borrowed from the East, in order to surround the monarchy and its representative with mysterious sanctity.
His Treatises on Government were meant to vindicate the Convention parliament and the English revolution, as well as to refute the ideas of absolute monarchy held by Hobbes and Filmer.
Wurttemberg is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the German empire, with four votes in the federal council (Bundesrat), and seventeen in the imperial diet.
The capture of the Bastille was hailed throughout Europe as' symbolizing the fall of absolute monarchy, and the victory of the insurgents had momentous consequences.
The Left or Constitutionals, known afterwards as the Feuillants, among whom Barnave and Charles and Alexander Lameth were conspicuous, also wished to preserve monarchy but disdained English precedent.
Monarchy was retained, but the monarch was regarded as a possible traitor and every precaution was taken to render him harmless even at the cost of having no effective national government.
On the other hand, he understood the weakness of the Habsburg monarchy.
The Girondins desired war in the hope that it would enable them to abolish monarchy altogether.
The Girondins made a last advance to Louis, offering to save the monarchy if he would accept them as ministers.
His refusal united all the Jacobins in the project of overturning the monarchy by force.
The king and queen spent long hours in a reporter's box while the Assembly discussed their fate and the fate of the French monarchy.
The success of the Jacobins in overthrowing the monarchy had ended their union.
It decreed Abolition the abolition of monarchy on the 21st of September.
Although Royalists formed but a petty fraction of the majority, they raised the alarm that Mth i t w as seeking to restore monarchy and undo the work of the /8th g y of the Revolution.
After the Revolution Bonaparte established a monarchy even more absolute than the monarchy of Louis XIV.
An autograph letter of the emperor Francis (May 29) assured him that no peace would be concluded by which Tirol would again be separated from the Austrian monarchy, and Hofer, believing his work accomplished, returned to his home.
The aubain was a stranger not naturalized; and the right of aubaine was the right in virtue of which the sovereign, from the earliest monarchy, claimed the goods of such a stranger who had died in his territory.'
By this instrument the government of Servia is an independent constitutional monarchy, hereditary in the male line, and in the order of primogeniture.
This convention, which tended to neutralize the dependence of Servia upon Austria-Hungary by facilitating the export of Servian goods through the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, brought about a war of tariffs between Servia and the Dual Monarchy.
By this declaration Servia abandoned all its demands as against Austria-Hungary, while the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister made simultaneously a public declaration that the Dual Monarchy harboured no unfriendly designs against Servia.
Louis Philippe's government was far from satisfying his desires for reform, and he persistently urged the "broadening of the bases of the monarchy," while he protested his loyalty to the dynasty.
The peculiar characteristic of the Milesian conquest is the establishment of a central monarchy at Tara.
In 1889 the financial agreement with Hungary was revised and the contribution of Croatia-Slavonia to the expenses shared with Hungary or common to the whole of the Dual Monarchy was raised by i %.
It was opposed by Austria as tending to create a new and formidable Slavonic nation within the Dual Monarchy, and by Hungary as a menace to Magyar predominance in Transleithania.
There he became a convert from republicanism to monarchism, being convinced that only under the auspices of King Victor Emmanuel could Italy be freed, and together with Giorgio Pallavicini and Giuseppe La Farina he founded the Societd Nazionale Italiana with the object of propagating the idea of unity under the Piedmontese monarchy.
But points of resemblance between Joshua the invader and Saul the founder of the (north) Israelite monarchy gain in weight when the traditions of both recognize the inclusion or possession of Judah, and thus stand upon quite another plane as compared with those of David the founder of the Judaean dynasty.
On internal grounds it appears that the Pentateuch and Joshua, as they now read, virtually come in between an older history by "Deuteronomic" compilers (easily recognizable in Judges and Kings), and the later treatment of the monarchy in Chronicles, where tie influence of the circle which produced P and the present Mosaic legislation is quite discernible.
Israelite monarchy does not necessarily point to the priority of the traditions in Genesis or their later date.
It is not the Judah of the monarchy or of the post-exilic Babylonian-Israelite community.
The Merovingian monarchy thus attained the utmost limits of its territorial expansion, bounded as it was by the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine; it exercised influence over the whole of Germany, which it threw open to the Christian missionaries, and its conquests formed the first beginnings of German history.
Since the Frankish monarchy was now in their power some of, them tried to reestablish the unity of that monarchy in all its integrity, together with the superiority of the State over the Church; others, faithless to the idea of unity, saw in the disintegration of the state and the supremacy of the nobles a warrant for their own independence.
But for barbarous nations old-age comes early, and after Dagoberts death (639), the monarchy went swiftly to its doom.
Hence the sixty years of terror and confusion which came between Charlemagne and the death of Charles the Bald suppressed the direct authority of the king in favor of the nobles, and prepared the way for a second destruction of the monarchy at the hands of a stronger power (see FEUDALISM).
Any deprivation or supersession of the count might impoverish, dispossess or ruin the vassals of the entire county; so that all, vassals or officials, small and great, feeling their danger, united their efforts, and lent each other mutual assistance against the permanent menace of an overweening monarchy.
The degeneration of the monarchy was clearly apparent on the death of Charles the Bald, when his son, Louis the Stammerer, was only assured of the throne, which had passed by Louis the right of birth under the Merovingians and been Stan,hereditary under the earlier Carolingians, through his election by nobles and bishops under the direction (877-879).
No longer firmly rooted in the soil, the monarchy was helpless before local powers which confronted it, seized upon the land, and cut off connection between throne and people.
Feudalism claimed its new rights in the capitulary of Quierzy-surOise in 857; the rights of the monarchy began to dwindle in 877.
The old basilica which contains the history of the monarchy sums up the whole of Gothic art to this day, and it was Suger who in the domain of art and politics brought forward once more the conception of unity.
By the beginning of the 13th century the Capet monarchy was so strong that the crisis occasioned by the sudden death of Louis VIII.
Once more the French monarchy was pulled up short by the indignation of all Italy (1518).
Alter hundred and fifty years of foreign war and civil discord, at period when order and unity were ardently desired, an absolutt monarchy had appeared the only power capable of realizint such aspirations.
The victims of this process were the urban proletariat, whose treatment by their employers in trade became less and less protective and beneficent, and the nobility, straitened in their financial resources, uprooted from their ancient strongholds, and gradually despoiled of their power by a monarchy based On popular support.
Revering the monarchy and established institutions, they endured forty years of persecution before they took up arlns, It was only during the second half of Henry II.s reign that Protestantism, having achieved its religious evolution, became a political party.
Thenceforward Protestantism adopted a new attitude, and refused obedience to the orders of a persecuting monarchy when contrary to its faith and its interests.
Hence those wars of religion which were to hold the monarchy in check for forty years and even force it to come to terms.
He was a good and honest man, moderate, conciliatory and temporizing, anxious to lift the monarchy above the strife of parties and to reconcile them; but he was so little practical that he could believe in a reformation of the laws in the midst of all the violent passions which were now to be let loose.
Why had the monarchy been forced to purchase the obedience of the upper classes and the provinces with immunities which enfeebled it without limiting it?
And this time, moderation on the part of the monarchy no longer made for success.
Power quickly intoxicated him, and his monarchy was therefore anything but parliamentary.
The peace of Sainte Menehould, four years after the death of Henry IV., was a virtual abdication of the monarchy (May 1614); it was time for a move in the other direction.
Thenceforward all the forces of the Habsburg monarchy would be united, provided that communication could be maintained in the north with the Netherlands and in the south with the duchy of Milan, so that there should be no flaw in the iron vice which locked France in on either side.
Thus disappeared the two principles which justified the Empires existence; the universal sovereignty to which it laid claim was limited simply to a German monarchy much crippled in its powers; and the enfranchisement of the Lutherans and Calvinists from papal jurisdiction cut the last tie which bound the Empire to Rome.
The parlement still kept up the same extra-judicial pretensions; but beyond its judicial functions it acted merely as a kind of towncrier to the monarchy, charged with making known the kings edicts.
Yet through its right of remonstrance it was the only body that could legally and publicly intervene in politics; a large and independent body, moreover, which had its own demandv to make upon the monarchy and its ministers.
It was the fiscal question that arrayed against Mazarin a coalition of all petty interests and frustrated ambitions; this was always the Achilles heel of the French monarchy, Financial which in 1648 was at the last extremity for money.
The development of events had gradually enlarged the royal prerogative, and it now came to its full flower in the administrative monarchy of the 17th century.
In a monarchy so essentially personal the preparation of the heir to the throne for his position should have been the chief task.
But, in the 18th aentury, the monarchy, hypnotized by the classical battle-fields of Flanders and Italy, madly squandered the fruits of Colberts work as so much material for barter and exchange.
The Spanish monarchy was disarmed.
His sole arm of support amidst all his allies was not the English monarchy, sold to Louis XIV., but Protestant England, jealous of France and uneasy about her independence.
The American war had finally exhausted the exchequer, and, in order to replenish it, he would have needed to inspire confidence in the minds of capitalists; but the resumption in 2778 of the plan of provincial assemblies charged with remodelling the various imposts, and his corn pterendu in which he exhibited the monarchy paying its pensioners for their inactivity as it had never paid its agents for their zeal, aroused a fresh outburst of anger.
Having fought the oligarchy of privilege, the monarchy next tried to rally it to its side, and all the springs of the old rgime were strained to the breaking-point.
The monarchy, standing apart, held the balance, but needed a decisive policy.
All vitality had been sapped from the old order of nobles, reduced in prestige by the savonnette a vilains (office purchased to ennoble the holder), enervated by court life, and so robbed of its roots in the soil, from which it had once drawn its strength, that it could no longer live save as a ruinous parasite on the central monarchy.
Neither the family nor property was violently attacked; the church and the monarchy still appeafed to most people two respectable and respected institutions.
The refusal of the soldiers to coerce the Assembly showed that the monarchy could no longer rely on the army; and a few days later, when the lesser nobility and the lower ranks of the clergy had united with the third estate whose cause was their own, the king yielded, and on the 27th of June commanded both orders to join in the National Assembly, which was thereby recognized and the political revolution sanctioned.
His political ideal for France was that of the monarchy, rescued from all association with the abuses of the old rgime and broad-based upon the peoples will; his practical counsel was that the king should frankly proclaim this ideal to the people as his own, should compete with the Assembly for popular favor, while at the same time using every means to win over those by whom his authority was flouted.
In one respect, indeed, the system of the old monarchy remained intact; the tradition of centralization established by Louis XIV.
The new Assembly which had met on the 1st of October 179 had a majority favorable to the constitutional monarchy and to the bourgeois franchise.
The meute of the 20th of June, a burlesque which, but for the persistent good-humour of Louis XVI., might have become a tragedy, alarmed but did not overthrow the monarchy.
The vain attempts of the Gironde to reconcile the king and the Revolution, the ill-advised decree of the Assembly on the 8th of August, freeing La Fayette from his guilt in forsaking his army; his refusal to vote for the deposition of the king, and the suspected treachery of the court, led to the success of the republican forces when, on the 10th of August, the mob of Paris organized by the revolutionary Commune rose against the monarchy.
Their monarchy was elective.
The was particularly true in France where memories of the recently deposed monarchy were still strong and the political situation was volatile.
Never show disrespect to the monarchy, the king or the royal family.
Two centuries of French political regimes Absolute monarchy under the bourbon dynasty until the Revolution of 1789.
Instead at a stroke we abolish the second chamber, the monarchy and all other such encumbrances.
These small terracotta female figurines are distinctive to late monarchy Judah.
They would, he allowed, create a monarchy, but its task would be to execute the will of an elected legislature.
Such people are not unduly concerned whether a Protestant or Roman Catholic should be monarch - they want to abolish the monarchy altogether.
In 1660, Charles II passed through Rochester on his way to London to restore the monarchy.