At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
The Federalists were charged by the Republicans with being aristocrats and monarchists, and it is certain that their leaders 1 Even the Democratic party has generally been liberal; although less so in theory (hardly less so in practice) than its opponents.
The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
The Congress had meanwhile undone much of his work, and had divided into Federalists and Centralists, the latter largely Monarchists and Freemasons.
Believing,"he wrote," that (excepting the ardent monarchists) all our citizens agreed in ancient whig principles "- or, as he elsewhere expressed it, in" republican forms "-" I thought it advisable to define and declare them, and let them see the ground on which we can rally."This he did in his inaugural, which, though somewhat rhetorical, is a splendid and famous statement of democracy.'
The abdication of Amadeus led to the proclamation of the federal republic. The senate and congress, very largely composed of monarchists, permitted themselves to be dragged along into democracy by the republican minority headed by Salmeron, Figueras, Pi y Margall and Castelar.
The failure of the dictatorship and the inability of the monarchists to agree upon any common policy had discredited the existing regime, and at the general election of August 1910 the Republican candidates in Lisbon 1910.
In contrast to Cavaignac he was the candidate of the advanced parties, but also of the monarchists, who reckoned on doing what they liked with him, and of the Catholics, who gave him their votes on condition of his restoring the temporal power to Rome and handing over education to the Church.
This schism was reflected in the parties of the Assembly; the absolutists of the extreme Right; the moderate monarchists of the Right and Centre; the constitutionalists of the Left Centre and Left; and, finally, on the extreme Left the democratic revolutionists, among whom Robespierre sat as yet all but unnoticed.