How to use Moldavia in a sentence
During his reign Poland suffered much humiliation from the attempts of her subject principalities, Prussia and Moldavia, to throw off her yoke.
Tecuci has a large transit trade in grain, timber, cattle and horses, on their way from northern and eastern Moldavia to the Danubian ports.
They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
Upon Russia declaring war against Turkey in 1853, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the troops which occupied Moldavia and Wallachia.
Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.Advertisement
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
Suczawa is a very old town and was until 1565 the capital of the principality of Moldavia.
The town rises from a marshy plain, east of the Carpathians, and west of the cornlands of southern Moldavia.
Their opportunity came in 1820, when the Porte was striving to repress the insurrections in Moldavia, Albania and Greece.
In 1496 the temporary armistice between the Poles and Turks, renewed in 1493, came to an end, and John Albert, king of Poland, seized the occasion to invade Moldavia.Advertisement
The capture of Veszprem and of Raab (1594) and the failure of the archduke Matthias to take Gran seemed to promise another rapid victory of the Ottoman arms; but Sinan was ill-supported from Constantinople, the situation was complicated by the revolt of Walachia and Moldavia, and the war was destined to last, with varying fortunes, for fourteen years.
The main provisions of these were, that Turkey retained the Banat, while Austria kept Transylvania; Poland restored the places captured in Moldavia, but retained Kamenets, Podolia and the Ukraine; Venice restored her conquests north of Corinth, but kept those in the Morea and Dalmatia.
During the campaign Peter had entered into alliance with the hospodars of Moldavia and Walachia, respectively Demetrius Cantemir and Constantine Brancovano, from whom he had received material assistance.
The Turks drove back the Austrians from Mehadia and overran the Banat (1789); but in Moldavia Romanzov was successful and captured Jassy and Khotin.
In pursuance of this agreement Constantine Ypsilanti was appointed to Walachia and Alexander Muruzi to Moldavia - both devoted to Russian interests.Advertisement
Moldavia, again, ever since the 11th century, had been claimed by the Magyars as forming, along with Bessarabia and the Bukowina, a portion of the semi-mythical Etelkdz, the original seat of the Magyars before they occupied modern Hungary.
At the diet of Buda, early in 1444, supplies were voted for the enterprise, and Wladislaus was on the point of quitting his camp at Szeged for the seat of war, when envoys from Sultan Murad arrived with the offer of a ten years' truce on such favourable conditions (they included the relinquishment of Servia, Walachia and Moldavia, and the payment of an indemnity) that Hunyadi persuaded the king to conclude (in July) a peace which gave him more than could reasonably be anticipated from the most successful campaign.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
It was a confused four-cornered struggle between the emperor and the Turks, the Turks and Transylvania, Michael of Moldavia and Y ?
The separatist movement was strongest in the south, where the Rumans were in touch with their kinsmen in Walachia and Moldavia, the Serbs with their brethren in Servia, and the Croats intent on reasserting the independence of the" Tri-une Kingdom."Advertisement
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
His wars were of the nature of raids, on the Dalmatian coast and into Croatia, Hungary, Moldavia and Poland.
Meanwhile the empire seemed in danger of breaking up. Not till 1812 was the war with Russia closed by the treaty of Bucharest, which restored Moldavia and the greater part of Wallachia to the Ottoman government.
Neamtzu is one of the most densely forested regions in Moldavia.
Owing to its situation on the highway from Moldavia to the Ukraine, at the passage across the Dnieper, it developed rapidly.Advertisement
At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.
He encouraged the Teutonic Order to rebel against Poland; he entertained at his court antiPolish embassies from Moscow; he encouraged the Tatars to ravage Lithuania; he thwarted Casimir's policy in Moldavia.
The Jagiellos, as a rule, prudently avoided committing themselves to any political system which might irritate the still distant but much-dreaded Turk, but when their dominions extended so far southwards as to embrace Moldavia, the observance of a strict neutrality became exceedingly difficult.
Poland had established a sort of suzerainty over Moldavia as early as the end of the 14th century; but at best it was a loose and vague overlordship which the Hospodars repudiated whenever they were strong enough to do so.
In 1485, after driving the Turks out of Moldavia, the Polish king, at the head of 20,000 men, proceeded to Kolomea on the Pruth, where Bayezid II., then embarrassed by the Egyptian war, offered peace, but as no agreement concerning the captured fortresses could be arrived at, hostilities were suspended by a truce.
In foreign affairs a policy of drift prevailed which encouraged all the enemies of the Republic to raise their heads, while the dependent states of Prussia in the north and Moldavia in the south made strenuous efforts to break away from Poland.
It was owing to Laski's intrigues that the new hospodar of Moldavia, Petrylo, after doing homage to the Porte, intervened in the struggle as the foe of both Ferdinand and Sigismund, and besieged the Grand Hetman of the Crown, Jan Tarnowski, in Obertyn, where, however, the Moldavians (August 22, 1531) sustained a crushing defeat, and Petrylo was slain.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia led to the outbreak of a third war between suzerain and subject in February 1651.
By this pactur subjectionis, as the Polish patriots called it, Russia got all the eastern provinces of Poland, extending from Livonia to Moldavia, comprising a quarter of a million of square miles, while Prussia got Dobrzyn, Kujavia and the greater part of Great Poland, with Thorn and Danzig.
At the conference of Leutschau in 1494 the details of the expedition were arranged between the kings of Poland and Hungary and the elector Frederick of Brandenburg, with the co-operation of Stephen, hospodar of Moldavia, who had appealed to John Albert for assistance.
In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.
Be that as it may, the Poles entered Moldavia not as friends, but as foes, and, after the abortive siege of Suczawa, were compelled to retreat through the Bukowina to Sniatyn, harassed all the way by the forces of the hospodar.
In this reign the system of appointing Phanariote Greeks to the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was instituted.
But, on the withdrawal of the Russian forces from the Principalities, these were occupied by Austrian troops, and on the 2nd of December 1854, a treaty of alliance was signed at Vienna, between Great Britain, Austria and France, by which Austria undertook to occupy Moldavia and Walachia during the continuance of the war and " to defend the frontier of the said principalities against any return of the Russian forces."
For the next few years he defended the Ukraine against the Tatars and Cossacks, and in 1617 was involved in a war with the Porte owing to the unauthorized interference of the Polish nobles in the affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia.
It is best known as the title of the princes of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Bukovina was originally a part of the principality of Moldavia, whose ancient capital Suczawa was situated in this province.
In 1777 the Porte, under whose suzerainty Moldavia was, ceded this province to Austria.
At the head of an independent command in Moldavia and Walachia, he prevented a large Turkish army from crossing the Pruth (1770); distinguished himself at the actions of Larga and Kagula; and captured Izmail and Kilia.
Moldavia, Wallachia and Bessarabia were widely affected; the disease broke out also in Odessa and the Crimea, and isolated cases occurred in Transylvania.
These tidings profoundly impressed Sultan Murad, and when the victorious Wladislaus appeared at Lemberg, the usual starting-point for Turkish expeditions, the Porte offered terms which were accepted in October, each power engaging to keep their borderers, the Cossacks and Tatars, in order, and divide between them the suzerainty of Moldavia and Walachia, the sultan binding himself always to place philo-Polish hospodars on those slippery thrones.
The Sturdza family has been long and intimately associated with the government first of Moldavia and afterwards of Rumania.
To the first division belongs Michael [Michail] Sturdza (1795-1884), who was prince of Moldavia from 1834 to 1849.
Under his rule the internal development of Moldavia made immense progress; roads were built, industry developed, and Michael is still gratefully remembered by the people.
John [Ioan] Sturdza, prince of Moldavia (1822-1828), was the most famous descendant of Alexander Sturdza.
Immediately after the Greek revolution, Prince John Sturdza took an active part in subduing the roving bands of Greek Hetairists in Moldavia; he transformed the Greek elementary schools into Rumanian schools and laid the foundation for that scientific national development which Prince Michael Sturdza continued after 1834.
He followed this up by Epitomised Historical Information concerning Moldavia.
The fall of the church of Okhrida in 1767 had made Moldavia and Wallachia ecclesiastically subject to Constantinople.
In 1367 Bessarabia was subdued and annexed by the ruling prince of Moldavia.
The cathedral was built in 1491 by Stephen the Great of Moldavia.
The rulers of Walachia and Moldavia were styled hospodars from the 15th century to 1866.
Rumania begins on the seaward side with a band of territory called the Dobrudja; and broadens westward into the form of a blunted crescent, its northern horn being called Moldavia, its southern Walachia.
The eastern boundary is formed by the river Pruth (Prutu), between Moldavia and Russia; farther south by the Kilia mouth of the Danube (Dunarea), between the Dobrudja and Russia, and by the Black Sea.
The Milcovu was the former boundary between Walachia and Moldavia.
The Pruth rises on the northern limit of Moldavia, forms the eastern frontier for 330 m., and falls into the Danube io m.
Moldavia and the Baragan Steppe resemble the Russian prairies in their variety of molluscs and the lower kinds of mammals.
Deposits of rock-salt, a valuable government monopoly, stretch from the department of Suceava in northern Moldavia to that of Gorjiu in Walachia, and are mined in the departments of Bacau, Prahova and Ramnicti Sarat.
The red wines of Moldavia, especially the brand known as Piscul Cerbului, resemble Bordeaux.
Nevertheless, in 1910 there were 2,760,000 acres under forests, chiefly in the mountains of north-western Moldavia.
There was also a small class of peasant proprietors, called mocheneni in Walachia, resechi in Moldavia, living and working in family communities; but the great mass of the peasantry cultivated the lands of the large proprietors, giving a certain number of days' work to their manorial lord, in addition to a tithe of the raw produce.
In the first distribution, which took place almost immediately after the law was passed 280,000 families in Walachia and about 127,000 in Moldavia became freeholders, holding nearly 4 million acres or one-third of the cultivated area of the country.
This centres in one main line, carried southwards from Suczawa in Bukovina through the whole length of Moldavia, and turning westwards through Walachia to meet the Hungarian frontier at Verciorova.
They usually congregate in the larger towns, though in northern Moldavia there are a few purely Jewish villages, recalling those of Poland.
In many towns in northern Moldavia the Jews are in a majority, and their total numbers in Rumania are about 300,000, i.e.
In central Moldavia there is a large population of Magyar descent, and the Servian and Bulgarian elements are strong near the Danube.
The first change was introduced by Matthew Bassaraba, prince of Walachia (1633-54), and by Basil the Wolf, prince of Moldavia (1634-53).
The metropolitan archbishop of Bucharest, officially styled metropolitan primate of Rumania, presides over the Holy Synod; the other members being the metropolitan of Jassy (primate of Moldavia), the six bishops of Ramnicu Valcea, Roman, Hushi, Buzeu, Curtea de Argesh and the Lower Danube (Galatz); together with eight bishops in partibus, their coadjutors.
Towards the close of the 13th century, Walachia and Moldavia were occupied by a mixed population, composed partly of Vlachs, but mainly of Sla y s and Tatars; in Great Walachia,1 also called Muntenia, the Petchenegs and Cumanians The predominated.
The researches of HaSdeu, Xenopol and other historians tend to show the existence of a highly organized Vlach society in Transylvania, Oltland and certain districts of Hungary and Moldavia; of a settled commonalty, agricultural rather than pastoral; and of a hereditary feudal nobility, bound to pay tribute and render military service to the Hungarian crown, but enjoying many privileges, which were defined by a distinct customary law (jus valahicum) .
The two principalities of Walachia of and Moldavia developed separately, and each has its separate annals.
Sturdza gives - a genealogical table, showing that Radu belonged to the great native dynasty of Bassarab or Bassaraba, which continued, though not in unbroken succession, to rule in Walachia until 1658, and in Moldavia until 1669.
As prince of Transylvania he summoned diets in 1599 and 1600, and, having expelled the voivode of Moldavia, united under his sceptre three principalities.
Matthias repulsed his powerful rival, Basil the Wolf, the voivode of Moldavia and his Tatar and Cossack allies.
The liberties of the country were guaranteed, taxation reformed and in 1772 the negotiations at Fokshani between Russia and the Porte broke down because the empress's representatives insisted on the sultan's recognition of the independence of Walachia and Moldavia under a European guarantee.
Turkish rule was, however, definitely restored by the treaty of Kutchuk Kainardji, in 1774; and as from this period onwards Walachian history is closely connected with that of Moldavia, it may be convenient before continuing this review to turn to the earlier history of the sister principality.
The Moldavian lowlands were still held by a variety of Tatar tribes, who were only expelled after 135c, by the united efforts of Andrew Laszkovich, voivode of Transylvania, and Bogdan Voda, the first independent prince of Moldavia.
Coins bearing the name of Bogdan are still extant; and there is an inscription over his tomb at the monastery of Radautzi, in Bukovina, placed there by Stephen the Great of Moldavia (1457-1504).
During the first half of the 15th century Polish influence was preponderant, and it was customary for the voivodes of Moldavia to do homage to the king of Poland at his cities of Kameniec or Snyatin.
On his deposition, however, in 1457 by Stephen, known as " the Great," Moldavia became a power formidable alike to Turk, Pole and Hungarian.
In the .autumn of 1474 the sultan Mahomet entered Moldavia at the head of an army estimated by the Polish historian Dlugosz at 120,000 men.
In 1476 Mahomet again invaded Moldavia, but, though successful in the open field, the Turks were sorely harassed by Stephen's guerilla onslaughts, and, being thinned by pestilence, were again constrained to retire.
Three years later a Polish invasion of Moldavia under John Albert with 80,000 men ended in disaster, and shortly afterwards the voivode Stephen, aided by a Turkish and Tatar contingent, laid waste the Polish territories to the upper waters of the Vistula, and succeeded in annexing for a time the Polish province of Pokutia, between the Carpathians and the Dniester.
Verantius of Sebenico, an eye-witness of the state of Moldavia at the beginning of the 16th century, mentions three towns of the interior provided with stone walls - Suciava, Chotim (Khotin) and Ncamtzu; the people were barbarous, but more warlike than the Walachians and more tenacious of their national costume, punishing with death any who adopted the Turkish.
In 1513 he agreed to pay an annual tribute to the sultan Selim in return for the sultan's guarantee to preserve the national constitution and religion of Moldavia, to which country the Turks now gave the name of Kara Bogdan, from their first vassal.
In Moldavia he appeared as a moral reformer, endeavouring to put down the prevalent vices of bigamy and divorce.
As in Walachia at a somewhat later date, the Phanariote regime seemed now thoroughly established in Moldavia, and it became the rule that every three years the voivode should procure his confirmation by a large baksheesh, and every year by a smaller one.
During the wars between Sobieski, king of Poland (167496), and the Turks, Moldavia found itself between hammer and anvil, and suffered terribly from Tatar devastations.
After Sobieski's death in 1696, the hopes of Moldavia turned to the advancing Muscovite power.
In 1711 the voivode Demetrius Cantemir, rendered desperate by the Turkish exactions, concluded an agreement with the tsar Peter the Great by which Moldavia was to become a protected and vassal state of Russia, with the enjoyment of its traditional liberties, the voivodeship to be hereditary in the family of Cantemir.
In his Russian exile Cantemir composed in a fair Latin style his Descriptio Moldaviae, the counterpart, so far as Moldavia Can is concerned, to Del Chiaro's contemporary descrip tion of Walachia.
Moldavia proper was divided into the upper country or T'erra de sus, and the lower country, or T'erra de josu.
These were the Great Logothete (Marele Logofetu) or chancellor; the governor of Lower Moldavia - Vorniculu de t'erra de josu; the governor of Upper Moldavia - Vorniculu de t'erra de sus; the Hatman or commander - in - chief; the high chamberlain - Marele Postelnicu; the great Spathar, or sword-bearer; the great cupbearer - Marele Paharnicu; and the treasurer, or Vistiernicu, who together formed the prince's council and were known as Boiari de Svatu.
Their best points were their hospitality and, in Lower Moldavia, their valour.
From this period onwards the character of the Ottoman domination in Moldavia is in every respect analogous to that of Walachia.
Although from the very conditions of their creation they regarded the country as a field for exploitations, they were themselves often men of education and ability, and unquestionably made some praiseworthy attempts to promote the general culture and well-being of their subjects, In this respect, even the Phanariote regime was preferable tc mere pasha rule, while it had the further consequence of preserving intact the national form of administration and the historic offices of Moldavia.
The people of the principalities were to enjoy all the privileges that they had possessed under Mahomet IV.; they were to be freed from tribute for two years, as some compensation for the ruinous effects of the last war; they were to pay a moderate tribute; the agents of Walachia and Moldavia at Constantinople were to enjoy the rights of national representatives, and the Russian minister at the Porte should on occasion watch over the interests of the principalities.
In 1777 Constantine Murusi was made voivode of Moldavia in the same high-handed fashion.
The Divan seemed intent on restoring the old system of government in its entirety, but in 1783 the Russian representative extracted from the sultan a decree (hattisherif) defining more precisely the liberties of the principalities and fixing the amount of the annual tribute - for Walachia 619 purses exclusive of various "presents" amounting to 130,000 piasters, and for Moldavia 1 3 5 purses and further gifts to the extent of 115,000 piasters.
On the accession of Constantine Ypsilanti (1802-6) in Walachia, and of Alexander Murusi (1802-6) in Moldavia, the Porte was constrained to issue a new hattisherif by which every prince was to hold his office for at least seven years, unless the protec- Porte satisfied the Russian minister that there were good and sufficient grounds for his deposition.
Vladimirescu was slain by a Greek revolutionary agent, but Ypsilanti rashly continuing his enterprise after he had been repudiated by the Russian emperor, his forces were finally crushed by the Turks at Dragashani, in Walachia, and at Skuleni, in Moldavia; and the result of his revolt was a Turkish occupation of the principalities.
The newly elected hospodars, Alexander Ghica (1834-42) and George Bibescu (1842-48) in Walachia, and Michael Sturdza (1834-49) in Moldavia, ruled in accordance with the Organic Law.
By the Balta-Liman convention of 1849 the two governments agreed to the appointment of Barbii Stirbeiti (Stirbey) as prince of Walachia, and Gregory Ghica for Moldavia.
A strip of southern Bessarabia was restored to Moldavia, so as to push back he Russian frontier from the Danube mouth.
Walachia and Moldavia were to have separate assemblies, but a central commission was to be established at Fokshani for the preparation of laws of common interest, which were afterwards to be submitted to the respective assemblies.
In accordance with this convention the deputies of Moldavia and Walachia met in separate assemblies at Bucharest and Jassy, but the choice of both fell unanimously on Prince Alexander John Cuza (January 1859).
Among other less judicious measures, a decree was passed ostensibly directed against all vagabond foreigners, but really aimed at the Jews, large numbers of whom, including many respected landowners and men of business, were imprisoned, or expelled, from Jassy, Bacau and other parts of Moldavia.
The motive assigned was that this territory had not been ceded to Rumania, but to Moldavia, and had been separated from Russia by.
One year later appeared the first book printed in Moldavia, the collection of homilies Carte romdneasca de invdteiturci (Jassy, 1643).
The earliest historical works are short annals, written originally in Slavonic by monks in the monasteries of Moldavia and Walachia.
In Moldavia, where the influence of Poland had been great and Western writings were accessible, we find the best chroniclers.
The writers are often actors in the dramas which they describe, and often also the victims. A history of Moldavia from the earliest times to 1594 is ascribed to Nestor or to his son, Gregorie Ureche, or to Simion Dascalul.
The most important author whose writings rank as classical is Miron Costin, who either took up the thread where it was left by Simion and Ureche and wrote the history of Moldavia from 1 5941662, or continued the history from where (probably) Evstratie had left it (c. 1630-62).
Such are the Ceasoslov, revised by Bishop Kliment of Ramnicu Valcea (1745), the Evhologion (1764), the Katavasiar (1753), The monumental publication of the Mineiu, in 12 folio volumes, by Bishops Kesarie and Filaret of Ramnicu Valcea (1776-80), is equal in im portance if it be not superior to the no less monumental publication of the Lives of Saints, also in 12 huge folio volumes, published under the direction and with the assistance of the metropolitan Veniamin of Moldavia.
He wrote a history of Moldavia.
Alexander Beldiman describes in a rhymed epic, Eteria (1821), the first battles, between the Greeks and the Turks in Moldavia.
Whilst a political and national revival was taking place in Moldavia and Walachia, towards the beginning of the 19th century, the Latin movement went on in Transylvania.
These books had no immediate influence in Walachia and Moldavia, where fiction and the drama had developed under the influence, first, of Greek and then to an increasing extent of French, Italian and German models.
Asaki and Alexander Beldiman in Moldavia developed a similar activity.
Nowhere has the theatre played a more important role in the history of civilization than in Walachia and Moldavia, more in the former than in the latter.
In Moldavia a similar development took place, translations leading up to independent production.
In Moldavia where the knowledge of the old chroniclers had not entirely died out and disturbing philological influences were not so acutely felt, we find the vigorous writings of Mihail Cogalniceanu - one of the leading spirits of the 19th century, the greatest mind and the real founder of Rumania.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia, which Poland regarded as her vassal, led to the outbreak in 1651 of a third war between subject and suzerain, which speedily assumed the dignity and the dimensions of a crusade.
Although of modern growth, Bacau is one of the chief commercial centres in Moldavia, possessing many large timber yards.
A little later she is called "a regular termagant" and in 1607 "not very beautiful."' In December k 1609 she planned an escape with Sir George Douglas to Scotland, apparently with a view of arranging a marriage with Stephen Bogdan, pretender to Moldavia, and on the scheme being discovered she was arrested.
As early as 1509 Tarnowski brilliantly distinguished himself in Moldavia, and took a leading part in the great victories of Wisniowiec (1512) and Orsza (1514), where he commanded the flower of the Polish chivalry.
In 1595 Zamoyski, in his capacity of commanderin-chief, at the head of S000 veterans dethroned the anti-Polish hospodar of Moldavia and installed in his stead a Catholic convert, George Mohila.
Five years later (October 20, 1600) he won his greatest victory at Tergoviste, when with a small well-disciplined army he routed Michael the Brave, hospodar of Walachia and Moldavia.
When pressed by the papal legate and the Austrian envoys to co-operate at the head of all the forces of the league, he first demanded that in case of success Moldavia, Walachia and Bessarabia should fall to Poland, and that she should in the meantime hold Olmutz and Breslau as guarantees.
In 1600, however, at the head of an army of Poles and Cossacks, he attempted to recover his throne, but was routed by Michael, voivode of Moldavia, at Suceava.
In 1442, not far from Hermannstadt, on which he had been forced to retire, he annihilated an immense Turkish host, and recovered for Hungary the suzerainty of Wallachia and Moldavia; and in July he vanquished a third Turkish army near the Iron Gates.
Jassy is the seat of the metropolitan of Moldavia, and of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Synagogues and churches abound.
The St Spiridion Foundation (due to the liberality of Prince Gregory Ghika in 1727, and available for the sick of all countries and creeds) has an annual income of over £80,000, and maintains hospitals and churches in several towns of Moldavia, besides the baths at Slanic in Walachia.
In 1643 the first printed book published in Moldavia was issued from a press established by Basil the Wolf.
Only the death of Stephen, the great hospodar of Moldavia, enabled Poland still to hold her own on the Danube; while the liberality of Pope Julius II., who issued no fewer than 29 bulls in favour of Poland and granted Alexander Peter's Pence and other financial help, enabled the Polish king to restrain somewhat the arrogance of the Teutonic Order.
But the aggressive policy of Russia in the direction of the Caspian and Black Seas became more and more evident; complaints reached the Porte of a violation of the neutrality of Kabardia, of a seditious propaganda in Moldavia by Russian monks, and of Russian aid given to the malcontents in Servia and Montenegro.
In 1859 the Danubian principalities, deliberately left separate by the Congress of Paris, carried out their long-cherished design of union by electing Prince Cuza both in Moldavia and in Walachia, a contingency which the powers had not taken into account, and to which in the end they gave a grudging assent (see Rumania).
Turkey was left in the lurch; and Austrian troops even occupied portions of Moldavia, in order to secure the communication between the new Polish provinces and Transylvania.
After the Crimean War, however, Russia ceded to Moldavia not only this later addition, but also certain districts in the south of the existing government, amounting altogether to an area of 4250 sq.
In 1821 Alexander Ypsilanti, a son of the voivode, and an aide-de-camp of the tsar Alexander I., entered Moldavia at the head of the Hetaerists, and, representing that he had the support of the tsar, prevailed on the hospodar Michael Sutzu to aid him in invading the Ottoman dominions.
Yes, I know you have made peace with the Turks without obtaining Moldavia and Wallachia; I would have given your sovereign those provinces as I gave him Finland.
Anatole Kuragin promptly obtained an appointment from the Minister of War and went to join the army in Moldavia.
Since 1998 swine fever outbreaks have been reported in Germany, France, Italy, Moldavia, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.
In 1985, Blake's daughter Amanda Carrington was set to marry Prince Michael of Moldavia.